Thirty-First Regiment Infantry
This Regiment was organized at Augusta, Me., in March and April, 1864, to serve three years, and left April 18th for Washington, D. C.
Upon their arrival at Alexandria, Va., they were assigned to the 2d Brigade, 2d Division, 9th Army Corps, and immediately marched to Bristow Station, Va., where they remained a few days.
On the morning of May 4th, broke camp, and on the 6th, participated in the battle of the Wilderness, in which they lost heavily in killed and wounded.
On the 12th they were engaged with the enemy at Spottsylvania Court House, losing in the engagement, 12 killed, 75 wounded and 108 missing.
On the 24th they crossed the North Anna river under a heavy fire from the enemy.
During the night of the 26th they recrossed the North Anna river, and in two days reached the Pamunkey river, where they skirmished with the enemy on the 29th and 30th.
On the 31st of May and 1st of June they were engaged with the enemy at Tolopotomoy Creek; and on the 3d, participated in the engagement at Bethesda Church, losing 15 killed and 39 wounded.
On the 4th they marched to Cold Harbor, and remained under fire and in frequent skirmishes until the 12th, suffering greatly from the shelling and sharpshooters of the enemy.
On the 12th they commenced a long, weary march across the Chickahominy and the James rivers, and on the 16th skirmished with the enemy in front of Petersburg.
On the 17th they participated in the assault and capture of the enemy's works, and from that date until the great battle of July 30th they remained constantly under fire, losing largely in officers and men.
In the battle of July 30th, celebrated by the explosion of the rebel fort, they were assigned to an important position, and were the first to enter the rebel works. They lost on that day, 10 killed, 31 wounded and 47 prisoners. From this time until the battle of the Weldon Railroad, Aug. 18th, they remained under fire before Petersburg, doing picket duty.
On August 18th they went to the support of the 5th Corps in taking the Weldon Railroad, remaining in the front lines until Sept. 14th, when relieved and allowed a few days of comparative rest.
On Sept. 30th, in the battle of Poplar Spring Church, they rendered most effective service, and lost on that day, 5 killed, 15 wounded and 16 taken prisoners.
From the 1st until the 27th of October they were engaged mainly in drilling and on picket duty.
At the grand onward movement of the 27th of October, they were ordered to Fort Fisher, which they occupied and garrisoned until the 29th of November, being meanwhile strengthened by the addition of the 4th and 6th Companies of Unassigned Infantry, organized at Augusta, Me., on the 4th and 18th of October, 1864, to serve one year, and which were assigned as Companies L and M respectively.
On the 29th of Novedmber the 9th Corps was ordered to relieve the 2d Corps, and the regiment was assigned to garrison Fort Davis, on the Jerusalem Plank Road, in front of Petersburg.
During the month of December the regiment received an accession of 15 officers and 470 enlisted men by the consolidation with it of the 32d Maine Volunteers.
They remained at Fort Davis until Feb. 11th, 1865, when they were ordered to the left and encamped near Parke Station on the Armu Line and City Point Railroad, where they remained until the 2d of April, on which day they were engaged in the assault upon the enemy's works and suffered severely.
On the 3d of April they marched through Petersburg up the South Side Railroad in pursuit of the enemy, arriving at Nottoway Court House on the 6th.
On the 8th they proceeded with a detachment of prisoners to Ford's Station, where they arrived on the 11th, delivered up their charge, and at once returned to Burksville Junction.
On the 29th of April they proceeded to City Point and there embarked for Alexandria, Va., arriving at that city on the 27th.
On the 15th oif July the regiment was mustered out of the U. S. service near Alexandria, Va., by Lieut. E. Rose, A. C. M., and arrived on the 19th at Bangor, Me., where the men were paid and finally discharged on the 27th.
Annual Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Maine
for the year ending December 31, 1866, pp. 164-166.