Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ancestor table

compiled by Stewart Baldwin


The ancestor table given here is an attempt to give the known ancestry of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, prince of North Wales, in all lines, back to the earliest recorded generations which can be accepted with reasonable confidence, using documentation from primary sources.  The format is that of the standard Ancestor Table numbering system.  Those who are unfamiliar with this system can find a description in the soc.genealogy.medieval FAQ.  Sources are given in brackets following each entry, using abbreviations which are explained in the bibliography at the end.  Given the ambitious nature of such a project, it is clear that some discussion is required regarding the criterion for inclusion or exclusion of particular individuals in this table.

If this table had included all ancestors of Llywelyn which are claimed in some source, then it would have probably turned out at least twice as long as the current table.  However, it has been the policy here to try and avoid the "maybe's" and "possibly's" which would come from using the more questionable sources.  At the opposite extreme, if we were to include only those individuals who are documented by surviving contemporary documents, the table would be quite short.  Documents were copied over and over by hand in the days before printing presses, and the pragmatic course is to accept the current scholarly consensus regarding the original date of composition for such sources, with due allowance for copying errors and deliberate alteration.

Let us start with the Irish material.  Now, as it happens, all but a handful of Llywelyn's known Irish ancestors were also ancestors of Aífe (commonly called "Eve of Leinster") Mac Murchada (MacMurrough), wife of Richard "Strongbow", earl of Pembroke, and therefore much of the material discussed in "The Ancestry of Eve of Leinster" [EL, cited below], by Professor David H. Kelley is also relevant to the ancestry of Llywelyn.  Someone comparing this table with EL will note significant differences between the two, and that those differences invariably involve a more skeptical position on my part compared to that of Professor Kelley.  For example, in the first paragraph of EL, Professor Kelley makes the comment (without supporting evidence) that "Pedigrees are written records, based on good contemporary documents, and not on verbal tradition, at any period later than the fifth century."  That view may have been a fairly common opinion among scholars in the nineteenth or the early twentieth century, but does not represent the consensus of modern scholars, which is much more skeptical about the early Irish genealogies.  See PNIG, IKHK, and IBV, and other sources cited in those works.

The exact time that the large collections of Irish genealogies began to be written down is unclear.  After that, they would be brought up to date from time to time, and this is what we have in the earliest surviving genealogical collections of the twelfth century, R and LL.  When the collections were brought up to date, there would be side branches which did not survive (or whose descendants were no longer politically important enough to record), and the various layers in the transmission of these pedigrees can be detected by looking at the uneven distribution of these obscure side branches.  This type of analysis shows that the composition of many of the pedigrees goes back at least to the seventh or eighth centuries.  Unfortunately, it also shows that at some time, probably starting in the eighth century, a very artificial scheme was created in which all of the major Irish dynasties were allegedly the direct male line descendants of the same line (the "Milesians").  Numerous artificial relationships were created between various families, with eighth century politics being the most important factor.  [See PNIG for a discussion of this.]  Nevertheless, comparison of the genealogies with the annals (of which the basic framework is thought to be contemporary from ca. 550, with the understanding that some individual entries are later interpolations, which may or may not be detectable), and with early king lists (for example, in LL.39a ff.), indicate that many of the genealogies are valid back to the sixth century, and some even to the fifth century.  However, the modern scholarly literature with which I am familiar (which I think is representative of the whole) would not regard as historical such allegedly fourth century figures as Cathaír Már or Dáire Barrach, as Professor Kelley would suggest (EL, pp. 6, 18).

For the Welsh lines given here, the priciples are much the same, except that the volume of material is much less, and generally later.  While the well evidenced major lines from Gwynedd and Dyfed can be traced to times rivalling (if not quite equalling) the Irish lines, it is difficult to accept the genealogies of the various lines which emerged in the eleventh century, usually through long strings of names having no identifiable historical identity.

This brings up  a common problem that appears in trying to assess these traditional genealogies.  A genealogy proceeds gradually from an obviously fictional individual to a well evidenced historical line, and we would like to know the exact point at which the genealogy becomes "correct" (whatever that word means in a context in which undetected adulteries are added to the obvious historical problems).  Of course, that is often impossible to do with any degree of certainty, and some might argue that I am foolish to try, but I think that the exercise is worth the attempt.  I have tried to be consistent, but the shades of gray are often difficult to judge.  In this table, "Unknown" does not necessarily mean that there is no source which claims to give the data, but that, in my opinion, the information falls short of reasonable proof.  I have explained my reasons in each case, but it must be acknowledged that there may be cases where a handful of earlier generations are correct in the sources.  For the Irish individuals, I have generally given the name of the sept or tribe to which they belonged in parentheses.  For Irish names, I have tried to adhere to a Middle Irish standard, and Welsh names will generally be given in Modern Welsh.  However, since my knowledge of both of those languages is very limited, I suspect that errors will be inevitable, and I would appreciate being informed of any such mistakes (such as missed accents or incorrectly declined genitives in the Irish names).

Generation 1

1. Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, prince of North Wales, d. 1240 [AC.b 1240: "Obiit magnus Achilles secundus, dominus scilicet Lewelinus filius Gervaisi filii Owini Guynet, tunc princeps Walliae, ..."]. [ByT; MG.1; JC.28-29]

Generation 2

2. Iorwerth Drwyndwn ab Owain Gwynedd [MG.1; JC.28]

3. Margred ferch Madog [JC.29] [Note:  It has been suggested, on the basis of a statement in Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum (6:497), in which Llywelyn refers to a certain Walter Corbet as "frater Willielmi Corbet avunculi mei", that Llywelyn's mother was a Corbet.  (See, for example, Meisel's Barons of the Welsh Frontier, which, however, does not even mention the Welsh version of Llywelyn's maternity in JC.)  However, as the source of JC.29 appears to have been written during Llywelyn's lifetime, and there are others ways in which an uncle-nephew relationship between William Corbet (an obscure individual) and Llywelyn could be explained, there seems to be no good reason to reject the statement of JC.29 regarding the identity of Llywelyn's mother.]

Generation 3

4. Owain Gwynedd, d. 1169, king of Gwynedd, 1137-69.  [MG.1; JC.28]

5. Gwladus ferch Llywarch [ABT.2a]

6. Madog ap Maredudd, prince of Powys Fadog, d. 1160 [AC.b 1161: "Madoc Powysorum princeps obiit."] [MG.3; JC.29]

7. Unknown.  [Note:  Possibly Susanna ferch Gruffudd ap Cynan (sister of #4), who was wife of Madog ap Maredudd, but Madog is known to have had children by other women also, and Bartrum does not list a mother for Margred in his charts in BWG, indicating that the early sources do not identify Margred's mother.  PF, vol. 1, pp. 119-124 states that Margred (Margaret) was daughter of Madog by Susanna, but this source also gives Madog a chronologically impossible second wife Maude who md. 2nd,  John Fitz Alan, d. 1268, earl of Arundel, who lived a hundred years later, and PF cannot be considered reliable on this matter.]

Generation 4

8. Gruffydd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd, d. 1137 [AC.b 1137: "Grifinus filius Conani obiit."]. [GaC; MG.1; JC.28]

9. Angharad ferch Owain [ABT.5]

10. Llywarch ap Trahaern, active 1109-1124 [ByT; ABT.2a]

11. Unknown  [Note:  Bartrum p. 354 gives Dyddgu ferch Iorwerth ap Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrudd in this position, but his only source is the late visitation LD.ii.24, which names Dyddgu as the mother of another child of Llywarch, but not of Gwladus (#5).  In addition, the sources given by Bartrum for Dyddgu's alleged father Iorwerth ap Cadwgan are all late 16th century or later, so Iorwerth's existence is also uncertain.  In my opinion, this link should be regarded as dubious.]

12. Maredudd ap Bleddyn, d. 1132 [AC.b 1132:  "Maredut filius Bledint dux Powisorum obiit."] [MG.3; JC.27]

13. Hunydd ferch Einudd [ABT.1c,8f]

14-15. Unknown

Generation 5

16. Cynan ab Iago [JC.25; GaC]

17. Radnaillt of Dublin [GaC] [Note:  The name of the wife of Cynan ap Iago, her parentage, and her mother's parentage are known only from GaC (and sources dependant on GaC). Although reservations have sometimes been expressed regarding this information, enough of the data from the pedigrees of Radnaillt are verified in Irish sources that I am inclined to regard the information as genuine.  For a recent discussion of this, see Seán Duffy, "Ostmen, Irish, and Welsh in the Eleventh Century", Peritia 9 (1995), 378-96.]

18. Owain ab Edwin, d. 1104 [AC.b 1104: "Owinus filius Edwinus obiit."], Welsh chieftan in Tegeingl. [ABT.2b,e,5a]

19. Unknown [ABT.2b gives the name of the mother of Owain's son Goronwy as "Morwyl verch Ydnywain bendew ap Neiniad ap Gwaithuoed ap Gwrydr", but there seems to be no good evidence that Morwyl was also the mother of Angharad.]

20 Trahaern ap Caradog, of Arwystli, d. 1081 [AC], king of Gwynedd [ByT; ABT.2a,13,14]

21. Unknown.  [According to BWG, she was Nest, daughter of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn (d. 1063), the first (and only) native king of all of Wales.  Gruffudd did have a daughter named Nest, wife of Osbern Fitz Richard, but there is no evidence that she was also married to Trahaern ap Caradog, and no early source for a second daughter named Nest.  The sources given by Bartrum for this link are all very late, the earliest being Lewys Dwnn's visitation of Wales which started in 1586 (LD.ii.107), and the other two cited sources being early 17th century manuscripts.  LD.ii.107 has Nest marrying 1st Trahaern, and 2nd, the mythical Fleance son of Banquo (alleged ancestor of the Stewarts), which gives even more cause for doubt, and I am inclined to regard the supposed marriage of Trahaern ap Caradog  to a daughter of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn as a very late invention.]

22-23. Unknown

24. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, king of Gwynedd and Powys, d. 1075 [AC] [MG.3, JC.27]

25. Haer ferch Cillin [ABT.1d,8b]

26. Einudd of Dyffrin Clwyd [ABT.1c,8f] [Note:  See BWG for supposed earlier generations.  I am inclined to regard the generations prior to Einudd as dubious, because of the late sources and the lack of identifiably historical individuals among the alleged ancestors.]

27-31. Unknown

Generation 6

32. Iago ab Idwal, d. 1039 [AC, AU, CS], king of Gwynedd, 1023-1039. [AC.c: "Iacob rex Venedo[d?]i[ae] occiditur."; AU 1039: "Iaco ri Bretan a suis, ... [several others listed] ..., omnes occisi sunt."; CS 1037=1039: "Iaco Ri Bretan a suis occisus est."] [JC.25; see also DNB.10.408]

33. Unknown.  [Note:  ABT.6i gives her as "Afandreg ferch Wair ap Pyll ..." etc., a supposed descendant of the legendary Llywarch Hen through a string of unidentifiable names.  I consider this data doubtful.]

34. Amlaíb mac Sitric (Old Norse Óláfr), royal heir of Dublin, d. 1034 [AU] [GaC] [Note:  The names from the dynasty of the Norse kings of Dublin and York will be given here in their Irish forms, which is how they appear in most of the contemporary or near contemporary sources which mention them.  Corresponding Old Norse forms will be given in parentheses (based on twelfth and thirteenth century Icelandic sources).]

35. Máelcorcre ingen Dúnlaing [GaC] [See note under #17]

36. Edwin of Tegeingl  [Note:  PP.36 gives several contradictory accounts of Edwin's parentage, all from late manuscripts, so his parentage should be regarded as unknown.  The attempt of David H. Kelley (in "Edwin of Tegeingl", The American Genealogist 46 (1970), 75- 80) to identify him with Edwin of Mercia is unconvincing.]

37. Iwerydd ferch Cynfyn [ByT, p. 101]

38-39. Unknown.

40. Caradog.  [Note:  As father of Trahaern ap Caradog, his first name is certain from his son's patronymic.  As far as I have been able to determine, none of Caradog's alleged ancestors (e.g., in ABT.2a,13,14) is a verifiably historical individual.]

41. Unknown.  [Note:  The Welsh annals (AC and ByT) refer to Trahaern ap Caradog as a cousin of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (#24), which has led to speculation that Trahaern's mother was perhaps a sister of Cynfyn ap Gwerystan (#48).  However, although we can be reasonably certain that Trahaern and Bleddyn were cousins, this information is not enough to nail down the precise relationship.]

42-47. Unknown

48. Cynfyn ap Gwerystan [ByT, pp. 55, 87, 101; MG.3; JC.27] (also #74)

49. Angharad ferch Maredudd [BYT, pp. 55, 87; JC.27; ABT.1e,7k]

50. Cillin y Blaidd Rhudd [ABT.1d,8b, of which 8b calls him "ap y Blaidd Rrudd", the "ap" being an apparent mistake.]

51-63. Unknown

Generation 7

64. Idwal ap Meuric, d. ca. 997 [AC], king of Gwynedd. [JC.25; see also DNB 10, 412]

65-67. Unknown.

68. Sitric mac Amlaíb (Old Norse Sigtryggr Silkiskeggi), king of Dublin, deposed 1036, d. 1042 [AU].

69. Slani ingen Briain [GaC] [See note under #17.  The fact that Sitric was married to a daughter of Brian is also confirmed by the early twelfth century source Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh ("War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill"), ed. J. H. Todd (Rolls Series 48, London, 1867), pp. 193, 257.]

70. Dúnlaing mac Tuathail (of the Uí Muiredaig branch of Uí Dúnlaing), king of Laigin d. 1014 [AU] [GaC]

71. Unknown.

72. Unknown [See note under #36]

73. Unknown.

74. Cynfyn ap Gwerstan (same as #48)

75. Unknown  [Note:  ByT, p. 101 explicitly states that Iwerydd ferch Cynfyn (#37) was Cynfyn's daughter by a mother (unnamed) different from Angharad.  ABT.2f,7k states that Angharad was Iweydd's mother.  Since it is a common mistake to assume that all of a man's children are by his known wife, it is more likely that ByT is correct here.  For Angharad and her ancestors, see #49, #98, etc.]

76-95. Unknown

96. Gwerystan [EWGT] [Note:  Since his name appears in ByT, p. 101 as a patronymic for Cynfyn, I am inclined to view the name as correct, but the earlier generations of his pedigree show wide variation, and are probably a late invention.]

97. Unknown [Note:  Late sources make her Nest, daughter of Cadell ap Brochwel, king of Powys, which is chronologically impossible.]

98. Maredudd ap Owain, d. 999 [AC] [ABT.1e,7j,k]

99-127. Unknown

Generation 8

128. Meuric ab Idwal Voel, d. 986 [AC].  [JC.25; see also DNB 10, 412]

129-135. Unknown.

136. Amlaíb Cuaran (Old Norse Óláfr Kváran), king of Dublin & York, d. 981 [AU] [GaC]

137. Gormlaith ingen Murchada (of Uí Dúnlainge), d. 1030 [AT]. In addition to being the wife of Amlaib Cuaran, she was also married to Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, king of Mide (Meath) and king of Ireland (d. 1022), and to Brian Boruma (#138) [BS 189, 227; R.117c=LL.334c (Rw.14, CGH.13); LL334d (CGH.423)]

138. Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (of Dál Cais), king of Mumu (Munster) and Ireland, killed 23 Apr 1014 after his forces had been victorious at the Battle of Clontarf [AU] [GaC; R.152b=LL.322f (Rw.1278, CGH.237); R.154a=LL.336d=Lec.225Rb (Rw.1359, CGH.250)]

139. Unknown.  [Brian had four known wives, and no known source states which wife was Slani's mother.]

140. Tuathal mac Augaire (of the Uí Muiredaig branch of Uí Dúnlainge, ancestor of the family of Ua Tuathail, i.e., O'Toole), king of Laigin, d. 958 [AU] [R.117c=LL.337d=BB.138a (Rw.11, CGH.12)]

141-195. Unknown or duplicated.

196. Owain ap Hywel Dda, king of South Wales, d. 988 [AC] [HG.1,2, where he appears as "[O]uen map [H]iguel" in the former (which gives his ancestry through his father), and "[O]uein map Elen" in the latter (which gives his ancestry through his mother).  The letters in brackets are accidental omissions.  Since the early forms of the names in HG are so much different from the modern Welsh forms, they will be given for each of Owain's ancestors as they appear in HG for sake of comparison.]

197. Unknown.  [The claim that she was Angharad ferch Llywelyn ap Merfyn ap Rhodri (see #1024) appears only in late manuscripts, and should be regarded as dubious.  See EWGT, p. 141.]

198-255. Unknown.

Generation 9

256. Idwal Voel ab Anarawd, d. 943 [AC], king of Gwynedd. [JC.25; see also DNB.10.412]

257. Unknown. [Note:  Lewys Dwnn's visitation (LD.ii.100) gives Idwal's wife as Mereddon ferch Cadwr, but this late source cannot be trusted for such an early marriage.]

258-271. Unknown

272. Sitric ua Ímair (Old Norse Sigtryggr), king of Dublin and York, d. 927 [AU].

273. Unknown. [Note:  Sitric married a sister of Æthelstan of England in 926, but it is not chronologically feasible for her to be the mother of Amlaib Cuaran.]

274. Murchad mac Finn (of the Uí Fáeláin branch of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin, d. 972 [AU] [R.117c=LL334c (Rw.13, CGH.13); R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL337f (CGH.423)]

275. Unknown.

276. Cennétig mac Lorcain (of Dál Cais), king of Thomond, d. 951 [AU] [R.152b=LL.322f (Rw.1277-8, CGH.237); R.154a=LL.336d=Lec.225Rb (Rw.1359, CGH.250)]

277. Be Bind ingen Aurchada (of Uí Briúin Seóla). [BS.188, 227, 314, 338]

278-279. Unknown.

280. Augaire mac Ailella (of the Uí Muiredaig branch of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin, d. 917, having been killed in the Battle of Cennfuait by Sitric ua Imair (#272) [AU] [R.117c=LL.337d=BB.138a (Rw.11, CGH.12)]

281-391. Unknown or duplicated.

392. Hywel Dda ap Cadell, king of South Wales, d. 950 [AC]. [HG.1: "[H]iguel map Catell"]

393. Elen ferch Llywarch, d. 929 [AC.b: "Helena obiit"] [HG.2: "Elen merc Ioumarc" (a mistake for "Loumarc")]

394-511. Unknown.

Generation 10

512. Anarawd ap Rhodri Mawr, d. 916 [AU, AC], king of Gwynedd.  [JC.25; see also DNB.10.412]

513-543. Unknown.

544. NN mac Ímair (first name unknown, father of Sitric ua Ímair)  [Note:  Sitric is called a grandson of Ímar (ua Ímair) in the Irish annals, but no satisfactory evidence has been advanced regarding the name of the intervening generation. The Irish annals (AU and others) show two sons of Ímar, Sichfrith (d. 888), and Sitric (d. 896), both of whom appear to have been kings of Dublin (although the annals do not explicitly give them that title).  Another Dublin king in the annals, Barid or Barith (d. 881), is of unstated parentage in most of the annals, but is referred to as another son of Ímar in CS.  Of these sons (and possible son), Sitric can almost certainly be ruled out as the possible father of Sitric ua Ímair, because Vikings were very rarely named after their fathers.  However, we cannot rule out the possibility that Sitric ua Ímair was the son of another, unknown, son of Ímar.]

545-547. Unknown.

548. Finn mac Máel Mórda (of the Uí Fáeláin branch of Uí Dúnlainge), rígdamna of Laigin, d. 923 [AU] [R.117c=LL334c (Rw.13, CGH.13); R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL337f (CGH.423)] [Note: There is some disagreement about the exact meaning of the term rígdamna.  "Prince" or "royal heir" are two possible translations which have been suggested.]

549-551. Unknown.

552. Lorcan mac Lachtnai  (of Dál Cais, a sept formerly known as In Déis Tuaiscirt, the change in name perhaps occurring about this time, as the name of "Dál Cais" is not documented before the tenth century) [R.152b=LL.322f (Rw.1276-7, CGH.237); R.154a=LL.336d=Lec.225Rb (Rw.1359, CGH.250)]

553. Unknown.

554. Aurchad mac Murchada (of Uí Briúin Seóla), d. 945, king of Uí Briúin [AI] (i.e., probably Uí Briúin Seóla), of Iarthar (West) Connacht, [AU] [BS.188,227,314,338; BB.90b]

555. Uncertain. [Royal Irish Academy MS B.IV.2. fo. 52a has a poem which appears to give two generations of female ancestry of Be Bind ingen Aurchada, so more progress on this line is possible in the future.  See the discussions on this poem which have taken place in soc.genealogy.medieval for more.]

556-559. Unknown.

560. Ailill mac Dúnlaing, king of Laigin (of the Uí Muiredaig branch of Uí Dúnlainge), d. 871 [AU] [R.117c=LL.337d=BB.138a (Rw.11, CGH.12)]

561-783. Unknown or duplicated.

784. Cadell ap Rhodri, king of South Wales, d. 910 [AC] [HG.1: "Catell map Rotri"]

785. Unknown.

786. Llywarch ap Hyfaidd, d. 904 [AC] [HG.2: "[L]oumarc map Himeyt" (see comment under #393)]

787-1023. Unknown.

Generation 11

1024. Rhodri Mawr, king of Gwynedd, d. 878 [AC, AU]. [JC.25] [HG.1: "Rotri map Mermin"] (also #1568)

1025. Unknown. [Note:  JC.20-1 (a fourteenth century manuscript) gives Angharad ferch Meurig as the wife of Rhodri Mawr, and is the earliest known source to mention Angharad.  Patrick Sims-Williams has argued persuasively (in SW) that Angharad is a late invention, and I find his arguments convincing. (The main problem is that JC, the earliest source for this and other marriages, shows a disturbing tendancy to have suspiciously convenient sisters marrying just the right people, suggesting invention.)   The same arguments apply to Rhodri's alleged mother Nest of Powys (below, #2049).  Since Angharad probably never existed, the supposed line of descent from the kings of Ceredigion which has been traced through her is probably not valid.]

1026-1087. Unknown.

1088. Ímar (Old Norse Ivarr), king of Dublin (& York?), d. 873 [AU] [He was the historical prototype of the Ivar the Boneless of the Icelandic sagas, which, however, cannot be trusted to give any historical information about him.  The only certain information about him is given in the Irish annals during the period 856-873, and his possible role as king of York, though reasonably likely, is disputed by some.]

1089-1095. Unknown.

1096. Máel Mórda mac Muirecáin (of the Uí Fáeláin branch of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Airthir Liphi, d. 917 (killed in the Battle of Cennfuait by Sitric ua Imair, #272) [AU] [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL337f (CGH.423)]

1097-1103. Unknown.

1104. Lachtnae mac Cuircc (of In Déis Tuaiscirt [Dál Cais]) [R.152b=LL.322f (Rw.1275-6, CGH.237); R.154a=LL.336d=Lec.225Rb (Rw.1359, CGH.250)]

1105-1107. Unknown.

1108. Murchad mac Máenaig (of Uí Briúin Seóla), king of Iarthar (West) Connacht, d. 896 [AI] [BB.90b] [Note:  Murchad's pedigree is not in R or LL, the two earliest texts, but there is no good reason to doubt the accuracy of the pedigree at least back to Cenn Fáelad mac Colgan, king of Connacht in the seventh century (#70912 below).  See also the genealogical tables in IKHK, p. 299, and J. V. Kelleher, "Uí Maine in the Annals and Genealogies to 1225", Celtica 9 (1971), 61-111 (Plate IV at p. 111)]

1109-1119. Unknown.

1120. Dúnlaing mac Muiredaig (of the Uí Muiredaig branch of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin, d. 869 [CS] [R.117c=LL.337d=BB.138a (Rw.11, CGH.12)]

1121-1567. Unknown or duplicated.

1568. Rhodri Mawr, king of Gwynedd (same as #1024)

1569. Unknown. [See note under #1025]

1572. Hyfaidd ap Bleiddig, king of Dyfed, d. 893 [AC] [HG.2: "Himeyt"]

1573-2047. Unknown.

Generation 12

2048. Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad, king of Gwynedd, d. 844 [AU, AC] [HG.1: "Mermin"]

2049. Unknown.  [JC.18 gives her as Nest, daughter of king Cadell of Powys.  She, like Angharad (#1025), appears to be a late invention, for reasons which are the same as for Angharad.  See SW and the note under #1025.  Since Nest probably never existed, the supposed line of descent through her from the kings of Powys is probably not valid.]

2050-2175. Unknown.

2176. Unknown.  [Note:  Some would place the legendary Ragnarr Loðbrók (a figure of the Icelandic sagas and of the Danish pseudohistorian Saxo) in this position.  However, Ragnarr Loðbrók is a figure of legend, not history, and the historically documented genealogy ends with Ivarr (#1088).]

2177-2191. Unknown.

2192. Muirecán mac Diarmata (of the Uí Fáeláin branch of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin, d. 863 [AU] [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL337f (CGH.423)]

2193-2207. Unknown.

2208. Corcc mac Anluain (of In Déis Tuaiscirt [Dál Cais]) [R.152b=LL.322f (Rw.1274-5, CGH.237); R.154a=LL.336d=Lec.225Rb (Rw.1359, CGH.250)]

2209-2215. Unknown.

2216. Máenach mac Flaithnia (of Uí Briúin Seóla) [BB.90b]

2217-2239. Unknown.

2240. Muiredach mac Brain (of the Uí Muiredaig branch of Uí Dúnlainge), half-king ("leth-ri") of Laigin, d. 818 [AU] [R.117c=LL.337d=BB.138a (Rw.11, CGH.13)]

2241. Etromma ingen Indellaig  [WUD]

2242-3143. Unknown or duplicated.

3144. Bleiddig (or Bledri) [TYP no. 68, ByT] [Note:  His son is listed in the Welsh triads as one of three kings who were sprung from villeins. No patronym is known for him.]

3145. Tangwystyl ferch Owain [HG.2: "Tancoystl merc Ouein"]

3146-4095. Unknown or duplicated.

Generation 13

4096. Gwriad, probably from the Isle of Man, and possibly the person named on an inscription ("CRUX GURIAT") on a cross in the Isle of Man which has been dated to the eighth or ninth century.  [Note:  The genealogy which purports to make Gwriad a direct male-line descendant of Llywarch Hen is almost certainly a late fabrication.  It is more likely that his paternal ancestors were among those who are named in HG.4, but the exact line of descent (if any) is uncertain, and Gwriad's parentage must be regarded as unknown.  See SW for a discussion of these issues.  See also GH.]

4097. Esyllt ferch Cynan Dindaethwy [HG.1: "Etthil merch Cinnan"] [Note:  The best and earliest sources give her as the mother of Merfyn Frych.  Later sources erroneously assign her as Merfyn's wife.  For a discussion of this error, see SW.]

4098-4383. Unknown.

4384. Diarmait mac Ruadrach (of the Uí Fáeláin branch of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Airthir Liphi, d. 832 [AU] [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL337f (CGH.423)]

4385-4415. Unknown.

4416. Anluan mac Mathgamna (of In Déis Tuaiscirt [Dál Cais]) [R.152b=LL.322f (Rw.1273-4, CGH.237); R.154a=LL.336d=Lec.225Rb (Rw.1359, CGH.250)]

4417-4431. Unknown.

4432. Flaithnia mac Fiangalaig (of Uí Briúin Seóla) [BB.90b]

4433-4479. Unknown.

4480. Bran Ardchenn mac Muiredaig (of the Uí Muiredaig branch of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin, d. 795 [AU] [R.117c=LL.337d=BB.138a (Rw.11, CGH.13)]

4481. Unknown.  [Note:  Bran was married to Ethne, who also d. 795 (AU), daughter of Domnall, king of Mide (Meath), but it is unknown if she was Muiredach's mother.]

4482. Indellach mac Meic [F]orb[b]a (of Uí Telláin Roirend) [WUD] [Note:  His name is given as "Findellbach" in the BB version of WUD.]

4483. Fidcossa [WUD]

4484-6289. Unknown or duplicated.

6290. Owain ap Maredudd, d. 811 [AC] [HG.2: "Ouein map Margetiud"]

6289-8191. Unknown or duplicated.

Generation 14

8192. Unknown. (see note under #4096)

8193. Unknown.

8194. Cynan Dindaethwy ap Rhodri Molwynog, king of Gwynedd, d. 816 [AC] [HG.1: "Cinnan map Rotri"]

8195-8768. Unknown.

8768. Ruaidri mac Fáeláin (of the Uí Fáeláin branch of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin, d. 785 [AU] [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL337f (CGH.423)]

8769-8831. Unknown.

8832. Mathgamain mac Toirrdelbaig (of In Déis Tuaiscirt [Dál Cais]) [R.152b=LL.322f (Rw.1272-3, CGH.237); R.154a=LL.336d=Lec.225Rb (Rw.1359, CGH.250)]

8833-8863. Unknown.

8864. Fiangalach mac Flainn Rodba (of Uí Briúin Seóla) [BB.90b]

8865-8959. Unknown.

8960. Muiredach mac Murchada (ancestor of the Uí Muiredaig branch of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin, d. 760 [AU] [R.117c=LL.337d=BB.138a (Rw.11, CGH.13); WUD]

8961-8963. Unknown.

8964. Mac [F]orb[b]a, of Uí Telláin Roirend) [WUD] [Note:  His name is given variously as Mac Orbba or Mac Forba.]

8965-12579. Unknown or duplicated.

12580. Maredudd ap Tewdws, king of Dyfed, d. 796 [AC] [HG.2: "Margetiut map Teudos"] [Note:  His obituary is generally regarded as the earliest contemporary entry in the Annales Cambriae, the earlier entries having been inserted in the annals at a later date, based on sources whose exact nature is a matter of debate.]

12581-16383. Unknown or duplicated.

Generation 15

16384-16387. Unknown

16388. Rhodri Molwynog ab Idwal Iwrch, d. ca. 754 [AC] [HG.1: "Rotri map Iutguaul"]

16389-17535. Unknown.

17536. Fáelán mac Murchada, king of Laigin (ancestor of the Uí Fáeláin branch of Uí Dúnlainge), d. 738 [AU] [R.117c=BB.138a (Rw.13, CGH.13); R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL337f (CGH.423)]

17537-17663. Unknown.

17664. Toirrdelbach, ancestor of Uí Toirrdelbaig, a branch of the sept of In Déis Tuaiscirt (known as Dál Cais from the tenth century on) [R.152b=LL.322e {Rw.1259, CGH.236); R.152b=LL.322f (Rw.1272, CGH.237); R.154a=LL.336d=Lec.225Rb (Rw.1359, CGH.250)] [Note: The ancestry of the main branch of the Dál Cais can be accepted without much hesitation back to this individual, after whom the branch was named.  Prior to that, the primary sources given in CGH disagree about the name of Toirrdelbach's father (Aithirne in R.152b and LL.322e, Caidléne in R.154a and LL336d, Cathal in Lec.225Rb), and the problems have apparently not been adequately studied.  Ó Corráin (in DCCD) and Kelley (in EL) give different pedigrees for Toirrdelbach, and neither supplies a reason for choosing the version that they give. The issue is further complicated by the fact that the early part of the Dál Cais pedigree is known to have been fabricated after the previously insiginificant Dál Cais (formerly In Déis Tuaiscirt) attined importance in the tenth century, and they were falsely made into relatives of the Eoganachta.  It may well be that reasonable proof could be obtained for a handful of earlier generations, but that would require studies which I have neither seen nor done.]

17665-17727. Unknown.

17728. Flann Rodba mac Amalgada (of Uí Briúin Seóla) [BB.90b]

17729-17919. Unknown.

17920. Murchad mac Brain Muit (of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin, d. 727 [AU] [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL.337f (CGH.433), WUD] (also #35072)

17921. Conchenn ingen Cellaig Cualain (of Uí Máil), d. 743 [AU] [WUD]

17922-25159. Unknown or duplicated.

25160. Tewdos ap Rhain [HG.2: "Teudos map Regin"]

25161-32767. Unknown or duplicated.

Generation 16


32776. Idwal Iwrch ap Cadwaladr Fendigaid [HG.1: "Iutguaul map Catgualart"]

32777-35071. Unknown.

35072. Murchad mac Brain Muit (of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin (same as #17920)

35073. Unknown  [It is unknown whether or not she was the same person as #17921.]

35074-35455. Unknown.

35456. Amalgaid mac Cind Fáelad (of Uí Briúin Seóla) [BB.90b]

35457-35839. Unknown.

35840. Bran Mut mac Conaill (of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin, d. 693 [AU] [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL.337f (CGH.423); WUD]

35841. Almaith ingen Blathmaic (of the Cenél Loairn branch of the Dál Riata) [WUD]

35842. Cellach Cualann mac Gerthide (of Uí Máil), king of Laigin, d. 715 [AU] [R.125a=Lec.95Rc (Rw.355, CGH.76); WUD]

35843. Mugain ingen Faílbe (of Uí Bairrche) [WUD]

35844-50319. Unknown or duplicated.

50320. Rhain ap Cadwgon Trydelig [HG.2: "Regin map Catgocaun"; ED]

50321-65535. Unknown or duplicated.

Generation 17

65536-65551. Unknown.

65552. Cadwaladr Fendigaid ap Cadwallon, king of Gwynedd, d. 664 or 682? (sources differ, but the latter date, from AC, seems more likely) [HG.1: "Catgualart map Catgollaun"]

65553-70911. Unknown or duplicated.

70912. Cenn Fáelad mac Colgan (of Uí Briúin Seóla), king of Connacht, d. 682 [AU] [BB.90b]

70913-71679. Unknown.

71680. Conall mac Fáeláin (of Uí Dúnlainge) [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); LL.337f (CGH.423); WUD]

71681. Condadil ingen Crundmáel (of Uí Dúnlainge) [WUD]

71682. Blathmac mac Eogain (of the Cenél Loairn branch of Dál Riata) [WUD]

71683. Etain ingen Mongáin [WUD]

71684. Gerthide mac Dícolla Dánae (of Uí Máil) [R.125a=Lec.95Rc (Rw.355, CGH.76)]

71685. Unknown.

71686. Failbe mac Domnaill (of Uí Bairrche) [R.121a=LL.313b=Lec.87b=BB.126aa (Rw.180, CGH.46); R.122ba=LL.314a=Lec.88Va=BB.127a (Rw.236, CGH.54); WUD]

71687. Ethne ingen Crundmáel (of Uí Chennselaig) [WUD]

71688-100639. Unknown or duplicated.

100640. Cadwgon Trydelig ap Cathen [HG.2: "Catgocaun map Cathen"; ED]

100641-131071. Unknown or duplicated.

Generation 18

131072-131103. Unknown.

131104. Cadwallon ap Cadfan, king of Gwynedd, d. 634 [AC] [HG.1: "Catgollaun map Catman"]

131105. Unknown. [Note:  Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his HRB.XII.14, states that Cadwallon married a sister of Penda, king of Mercia.  However, Geoffrey is far too unreliable to be accepted as an authority on this matter.]

131106-141823. Unknown or duplicated.

141824. Colgú, of Uí Briúin Seóla [BB.90b] [Note:  As the patronym of king Cenn Fáelad of Connacht, his name may be regarded as known, but the early Connacht genealogies are too confused for us to have much confidence in the earlier generations, which, for the record, make Colgú the son of Áed, son of Senach, son of Dauí Tenga Uma (who is then called either the great-great-grandson of, or the same person as, Dauí Galach, son of Brión, eponym of Uí Briúin, depending on which version you listen to).]

141825-143359. Unknown.

143360. Fáelán mac Colmáin (of Uí Dúnlainge),  king of Laigin, d. 666 [CS] [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); R.124b=LL.315c=Lec.91Ra=BB.132a (Rw.340, CGH.74); LL.337f (CGH.423); WUD]

143361. Sárnat ingen Echach (of Fotharta Fea) [WUD]

143362. Crundmáel mac Fínáin (of Uí Dúnlainge) [WUD]

143363. Unknown.

143364. Eogan mac Colmáin (of the Cenél Loairn branch of Dál Riata) [WUD] [Note:  His brother Fergus was the grandfather of Ferchar Fota mac Feradaig, king of Dál Riata, who died in 697.  See GA.]

143365. Unknown.

143366. Mongán (of Dál Riata) [Note:  His ancestry is unknown.  Different manuscripts give his father's name as either Murchon or Bran.  See WUD.]

143367. Unknown.

143368. Dícuill Dánae mac Rónáin Craich (of Uí Máil) [R.125a=Lec.95Rc (Rw.355, CGH.76)]

143369-143371. Unknown.

143372. Domnall mac Cormaic (of Uí Bairrche) [CGH.117a=LL337f (Rw.6, CGH.6); R.121a=LL.313b=Lec.87b=BB.126aa (Rw.180, CGH.46); R.122ba=LL.314a=Lec.88Va=BB.127a (Rw.235-6, CGH.54); WUD]

143373. Unknown.

143374. Crundmáel Erbuilc mac Rónáin (of Uí Chennselaig), king of Laigin, d. 656 [AU] [WUD; R.117e=Lec.93Ra (Rw.21, CGH.15); LL.317a=Lec.93Va=BB.136a (CGH.347); LL.337a=Lec.92Vb (CGH.429); LL.337b (CGH.431)] [Note:  He has sometimes been confused with his kinsman Crundmáel Bolg Luatha, king of Uí Chennselaig (son of Áed, son of Eogan, son of Nath Í, etc.), who died in 628.  See AU and Lec.94Rc (CGH.349).]

143375. Failend ingen Suibne (of the Déisi) [WUD]

143376-201279. Unknown or duplicated.

201280. Cathen ap Gwlyddien [HG.2: "Cathen map Cloten"; ED]

201279-262143. Unknown or duplicated.

Generation 19

262144-262207. Unknown.

262208. Catamanus (Cadfan ap Iago), king of Gwynedd, early seventh century, whose tombstone survives at Llangadwaladr ("Catamanus rex sapientisimus opinatisimus omnium regum" [CIIC.970; ECMW.13])  [HG.1: "Catman map Iacob"]

262209. Uncertain.  [Said in late genealogy (ByA.28b) to be Tadreg Ddu, daughter of Cynan Garwyn of the Powys dynasty.  If true, it would make her a sister of Selyf (Selim, apparently an Old Welsh form of the Biblical name Solomon), who was killed in the Battle of Chester (probably fought in 616, but recorded in AU 613: "Bellum Caire Legion ubi sancti occisi sunt & cecidit Solon m. Conaen, rex Britanorum."), and would also make Selim the maternal uncle of Cadwallon (d. 634), which is chronologically possible.  However, it is difficult to trust this late genealogy, in a manuscript containing much clearly mythical material, and the information should be regarded as unproven.]

262210-286719. Unknown or duplicated.

286720. Colmán mac Cairpri (of Uí Dúnlainge) [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); R.124b=LL.315c=Lec.91Ra=BB.132a (Rw.338-40, CGH.74); LL.337f (CGH.423); WUD] [Note:  He appears as king of Laigin (Leinster) in the official king lists, but his actual status as king is doubtful, and it is quite likely that he, his father, and his grandfather were retroactively added to the king lists by later Uí Dúnlainge propogandists.]

286721. Fedelm ingen Óengusa (of Uí Teig) [WUD]

286722. Eochu mac Báeth (of Fotharta Fea) [WUD; R.126a=Lec.96Va,97Ra (Rw.387,402, CGH.82,85)]

286723. Unknown.

286724. Fínán mac Maine (of Uí Dúnlainge) [R.124b=LL.316a=Lec.91Va=BB.132b (Rw.343, CGH.74), WUD]

286725. Lassar of Airgialla [WUD] [Note:  Her exact parentage is unknown, as she is shown as either a sister [LL.316b] or
daughter [Lec.91Rb] of Ailill mac Daimíni, who was son of Daimíne, son of Cairpre Dam Argait, king of Airgialla, whose
supposed death in 514 is given in a noncontemporary entry in AU.]

286726-286727. Unknown.

286728. Colmán mac Báetáin (of the Cenél Loairn branch of Dál Riata) [WUD; GA; R.162e=LL.336b (Rw.1697, CGH.329)] [Note:  The famous Macbeth (Mac Bethad), king of Scotland, claimed descent from this Colmán in the direct male line, through his son Nechtan, but the claimed genealogy is several generations too short to be regarded as accurate.  See CGH.329, which is a genealogy of Macbeth's cousin and stepson Lulach.]

286729-286735. Unknown.

286736. Rónán Crach mac Áeda (of Uí Máil) [R.125a=Lec.95Rc (Rw.351, 354-5, CGH.76)] [Note:  His brother, Crimthann mac Áeda, who died in 633 (AU), was king of Laigin (Leinster).]

286737-286743. Unknown.

286744. Cormac mac Diarmata (of Uí Bairrche) [CGH.117a=LL337f (Rw.6, CGH.6); R.121a=LL.313b=Lec.87b=BB.126aa (Rw.180, CGH.46); R.122ba=LL.314a=Lec.88Va=BB.127a (Rw.235-6, CGH.54); WUD]  [Note:  EL states that he died a monk at Bangor in 567, giving AU as the alleged source, but I can find no such entry in AU (including Hennessy's edition of AU, the edition used by Kelley in his citation in EL), so this date should be considered suspect.]

286745-286747. Unknown.

286748. Rónán mac Coluim, king of Uí Chennselaig, probably in the early seventh century.  [R.117e=Lec.93Ra (Rw.21, CGH.15); LL.317a=Lec.93Va=BB.136a (CGH.347); LL.337a=Lec.92Vb (CGH.429); LL.337b (CGH.431)] [Note:  He appears in the Uí Chennselaig king list in LL.40a, but the reign lengths given in the early part of that list do not seem to be trustworthy, making it impossible to accurately date him.  He has sometimes been identified with Rónán mac Colmáin, king of Laigin, who died in 624 [AU], but there is not wide agreement as to whether the king of Laigin named Rónán mac Colmáin whose obituary appears in the annals is to be identified with this Rónán or with Rónán, son of Colmán mac Cairpri of the Uí Dúnlainge (number 286720 in this ancestor table).  Byrne, in his tables in IKHK and NHI, is noncommital on the subject, Ó Corráin, in IRS, identifies the king of Laigin with the king of Uí Chennselaig, and Mac Niocaill, in IBV, identifies the king of Laigin with the Uí Dúnlainge man of that name (correctly, in my opinion).  In the genealogies, Rónán's father appears sometimes as Colmán, sometimes as Columb (genitive Coluim).  The combined testimony of the Uí Chennselaig king list in LL (which calls him Rónán mac Coluim) and an entry in AU under the year 658 (which gives an obituary for Blathmac son of Rónán son of Columb) appears to weigh in favor of Rónán's father being named Columb, and therefore against the identification with king Rónán mac Colmáin of Laigin.  (However, this cannot be regarded as conclusive, as Colmán appears to have been a dimnutive of the name Coluim.)  Just to add to the confusion, it is interesting to note that the nearby dynasty of Osraige had a Crundmáel mac Rónáin meic Colmáin (ancestor of the later "main" line of the kings of Osraige) who was a contemporary of Rónáin mac Coluim (Colmáin) and his son Crundmáel.  Finally, it should be pointed out that the above problem is only relevant with respect to whether or not this Rónán was king of Laigin (Leinster), and does not affect the genealogy itself.]

286749. Unknown.

286750. Suibne mac Commáin (of the Déisi) [WUD; LL.328c (CGH.400)]

286751-402559. Unknown or duplicated.

402560. Gwlyddien ap Nowy [HG.2:  "Cloten map Nougoy"; ED]

402561. Unknown. [Note:  JC.8 gives her as Ceindrech ferch Rhiwallon, with several generations of additional ancestry, going back to Brychan.  However, as already discussed in the notes for #1025 and #2049 above, JC shows a tendancy toward suspicious marriges at this early period.  Even though this marriage seems less suspicious than the ones at #1024 and #2049 (because the pattern doesn't seem quite the same), skepticism is still called for here, in my opinion.]

402562-524287. Unknown.

Generation 20

524288-524415. Unknown.

524416. Iago, king of Gwynedd, d. ca. 616 [AC, which should only be considered approximate].  [Note:  Since Iago apparently died only 18 years (or thereabouts) before his grandson Cadwallon, he was evidently elderly at the time.  Thus, as has been pointed out on numerous occasions, there are chronological difficulties with accepting his traditional pedigree [HG.1: "... Iacob map Beli map Rhun map Mailcun ..."], which would make him the great-grandson of the famous Maelgwn Gwynedd, king of Gwynedd, and contemporary of Gildas, who is frequently dated to the middle of the sixth century (perhaps not correctly).  Despite these doubts, the traditional genealogy of Iago is not absolutely impossible, even if Maelgwn died in the middle of the sixth century.  Furthermore, since the AC obituary of Maelgwn has been convincingly shown to be a tenth century fabrication (see "Gildas and Maelgwn:  Problems of Dating", by David N. Dumville, in Gildas: New Approaches (ed. Lapidge & Dumville, The Boydell Press), 51-9), it is not impossible that both Gildas and Maelgwn should be dated earlier in the sixth century, which would ease the chronological problems caused by the above genealogy.  Thus, if a consensus should arise that the work of Gildas should be dated a generation or so earlier than it normally has been, the skeptical position on these earlier generations might have to be reevaluated.]

524417-573441. Unknown or duplicated.

573440. Cairpre mac Cormaic (of Uí Dúnlainge) [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); R.124b=LL.315c=Lec.91Ra=BB.132a (Rw.338-9, CGH.74); LL.337f (CGH.423); WUD] [Note:  He appears as king of Laigin (Leinster) in the official king lists, but his actual status as king is doubtful.  See #286720.]

573441. Unknown.

573442. Óengus (of Uí Teig) [WUD] [Note:  Different version of WUD disagree as to whether his father's name was Daui or Dubthach son of Daui, so his parentage is listed here as unknown.  To my knowledge, neither Óengus, nor his wife Lassi, nor any of their ancestors, appear in any source other than WUD.]

573443. Lassi ingen Fergna (of Uí Máil) [WUD]

573444. Báeth, of Fotharta Fea [WUD; R.126a=Lec.96Va,97Ra (Rw.387,402, CGH.82,85)] [Note:  Báeth, who would probably have lived in the late sixth or early seventh century, can reasonably regarded as historical, as he is only a century (or a bit more) earlier than the probable composition date of WUD, and it is likely that Sárnat's father's name would have at least been correctly remembered along with his patronym when her pedigree was being collected by the author of WUD.  According to his official pedigree, Báeth was the son of Nannid, son of Fiacc, son of Iar (or Mac Ieir), son of Cathbad (the earliest name in WUD), son of Adnach, son of Artt Cerp, of whom the last can reasonably be regarded as pseudohistorical.  Because the immediate ancestors of Báeth apparently do not appear in other sources, and because the Fotharta Fea pedigrees show no cadet lines from Báeth or his immediate ancestors, the accuracy of this pedigree is exceptionally difficult to judge.  Stopping the ancestor table at this point (rather than including three or four more generations) is perhaps overcautious, but seems reasonable, given the lack of support from other sources.]

573445-573447. Unknown.

573448. Maine mac Nad Fraích (of Uí Dúnlainge) [R.124b=LL.316a=Lec.91Va=BB.132b (Rw.343, CGH.74), WUD]

573449. Unknown.

573450. Unknown. [See remarks under #286725]

573456. Báetán mac Echdach (of the Cenél Loairn branch of Dál Riata) [WUD; GA; R.162e=LL.336b (Rw.1697, CGH.329)]

573457-573471. Unknown.

573472. Áed Díbchíne mac Senaig (of Uí Máil) (king of Laigin?) [R.125a=Lec.95Rc (Rw.348, 350, 355, CGH.76)] [Note:  IKHK and NHI both refer to him as king of Laigin (Leinster).  The Leinster king list in LL.39b could be interpreted as supporting this, but this part of the list is confused, and Áed's status as king does not seem certain.]

573473-573487. Unknown.

573488. Diarmait (mac Ech[d]ach Guinig) (of Uí Bairrche) [CGH.117a=LL337f (Rw.6, CGH.6); R.121a=LL.313b=Lec.87b=BB.126aa (Rw.180, CGH.46); R.122ba=LL.314a=Lec.88Va=BB.127a (Rw.235-6, CGH.54); WUD]

573489-573495. Unknown.

573496. Columb (Colmán?) mac Cormaic (of Uí Chennselaig).   [R.117e=Lec.93Ra (Rw.21, CGH.15); LL.316c=Lec.92Vb=BB.135b (CGH.345); LL.317a=Lec.93Va=BB.136a (CGH.347); LL.337a=Lec.92Vb (CGH.429); LL.337b (CGH.431)]] [See the discussion under #286724.]

573497-573499. Unknown.

573500. Colmán (Commán?) mac Cobthaig (of the Déisi) [WUD] [Note:  Since the Déisi pedigree in LL.328c=Lec.101Rb=BB.150ab (CGH.400) has a Suibne son of Commán son of Cobthach, compared to the Suibne son of Colmán son of Cobthach of WUD, it is possible that these were the same individuals.  However, since the pedigree of  LL.328c is defective (having apparently allowed several members of the unrelated Dál nAraidi to intrude into the pedigree by an evident copying mistake), it is difficult to accept the pedigree prior to Cobthach, the earliest generation in WUD.]

573501-805119. Unknown or duplicated.

805120. Nowy ap Arthur [HG.2:  "Nougoy map Arthur"; ED]

805121-1048575. Unknown.

Generation 21

1048576-1048831. Unknown.

1048832. Unknown. [Note:  As remarked above under #524416, the traditional pedigree of the kings of Gwynedd faces chronological problems at this point.]

1048833-1146879. Unknown or duplicated.

1146880. Cormac mac Ailella (of Uí Dúnlainge) [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); R.124b=LL.315c=Lec.91Ra=BB.132a (Rw.338, CGH.74); LL.337f (CGH.423); WUD] [Note:  He appears as king of Laigin (Leinster) in the official king lists, but his actual status as king is doubtful.  See #286720.]

1146881-1146885. Unknown.

1146886. Fergnae mac Fergusa (of Uí Máil) [WUD]

1146887-1146895. Unknown.

1146896. Nad Fraích mac Echdach (of Uí Dúnlainge) [R.124b=LL.316a=Lec.91Va=BB.132b (Rw.343, CGH.74), WUD]

1146897-1146911. Unknown.

1146912. Eochaid mac Muiredaig (of the Cenél Loairn branch of Dál Riata) [SFA; GA; R.162e=LL.336b (Rw.1697, CGH.329)]

1146913-1146943. Unknown.

1146944. Senach Díbech (of Uí Máil) [R.125a=Lec.95Rc (Rw.348, 350, 355, CGH.76)] [Note:  According to the official Uí Máil pedigree (Rw.355, as cited above), Senach was son of Cáirthenn Muach, son of Etarscél, son of Óengus Ailche, son of Fergus Forcraid, son of Tuathal Tigech, son of Maine Mál (eponym of Uí Máil), who was in turn the supposed brother of the mythical Cathair Már (see note to #4587520).  An alternate version (R.121a=Rw.176) makes Tuathal Tigech the son of Mac Locc son of Cathair Már.  Senach is mentioned in AU (633) as the grandfather of king Crimthann mac Áeda of Leinster, and the genealogies in R give the names of younger sons for both Senach and his son Áed, both good indications that Senach was historical.  On the other hand, Senach's predecessors in the genealogy are nothing but a string of names back to the point where the genealogy becomes clearly mythical.  Thus, even though we cannot rule out the possibility that a couple of generations before Senach are correct, Senach is the point at which the genealogy becomes clearly hisorical.]

1146945-1146975. Unknown.

1146976. Eochu (or Eochaid) Guinech, king of Uí Bairrche, said [AI, CS] to have killed Crimthann mac Énnai Chennselaig, king of Laigin (see #4587968)  [CGH.117a=LL337f (Rw.6, CGH.6); R.121a=LL.313b=Lec.87b=BB.126aa (Rw.180, CGH.46)] [Note:  The names Eochu and Eochaid have been frequently confused, even in the early sources, and it is not clear which one is correct.  The official genealogy then proceeds to make Eochu a son of Óengus, son of Mac Ercca, son of Breccán, son of Fiacc, son of Dáire Barrach (eponym of the Uí Bairrche), son of Cathair Már, of whom the last two can be regarded as certainly mythological.  (See, for example, EIHM pp. 36-8).  An Eochu Guinech also appears as a son of Dáire Barrach in the Uí Bairrche genealogies [R.121a (Rw.181, CGH.46)], suggesting confusion, and it is difficult to accept the genealogy prior to Eochu.  The Leinster king list [LL.39b] states that Eochu was the maternal grandson of Crimthann (the king of Leinster whom he killed).  However, since CS, under the year 487, names Eochaid Guinech as one of the victors in a battle in which Óengus mac Nad Froích (king of Munster) and his wife Eithne (daughter of Crimthann mac Énnai) fell, it is possible that confusion between Óengus of Uí Bairrche (father of Eochu in the official genealogy) and Óengus of Munster has led to confusion here.  While possible, more evidence is desirable before the claimed relationship between Eochu and Crimthann can be accepted.]

1146977-1146991. Unknown.

1146992. Cormac mac Nath Í (of Uí Chennselaig).  [R.117e=Lec.93Ra (Rw.21, CGH.15); LL.317a=Lec.93Va=BB.136a (CGH.347); LL.337a=Lec.92Vb (CGH.429); LL.337b (CGH.431)]

1146993-1146999. Unknown.

1147000. Cobthach, of the Déisi [WUD; LL.328c (CGH.400)] [Note:  See the comments under #573500.]

1147001-1610239. Unknown or duplicated.

1610240. Arthur ap Pedr [HG.2:  "Arthur map Petr"; ED] [Note: Arthur ap Pedr, of the dynasty of the kings of Dyfed, probably lived in the seventh century, and should not be confused with the King Arthur of legend (whose historical existence is, at best, debatable).]

1610241-2097151. Unknown.

Generation 22

2097152-2293759. Unknown or duplicated.

2293760. Ailill mac Dúnlainge (of Uí Dúnlainge), king of Laigin (Leinster) [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); R.124b=LL.315c=Lec.91Ra=BB.132a (Rw.335, 338, CGH.74); LL.337f (CGH.423)]

2293761-2293771. Unknown.

2293772. Fergus (of Uí Máil) [WUD]

2293773-2293791. Unknown.

2293792. Eochaid mac Dúnlainge (of Uí Dúnlainge) [R.124b=LL.315c=Lec.91Ra=BB.132a (Rw.335, 338, CGH.74); R.124b=LL.316a=Lec.91Va=BB.132b (Rw.343, CGH.74)]

2293793-2293823. Unknown.

2293824. Muiredaig mac Loairn (of the Cenél Loairn branch of Dál Riata) [SFA; GA; R.162e=LL.336b (Rw.1697, CGH.329)]

2293825-2293983. Unknown.

2293984. Nath Í mac Crimthaind (of Uí Chennselaig) [R.117e=Lec.93Ra (Rw.21, CGH.15); LL.317a=Lec.93Va=BB.136a (CGH.347); LL.337a=Lec.92Vb (CGH.429); LL.337b (CGH.431)]

2293985-3220479. Unknown or duplicated.

3220480. Pedr (Peter) ap Cyngar [HG.2:  "Petr map Cincar"; ED]

3220481-4194303. Unknown.

Generation 23

4194304-4587519. Unknown or duplicated.

4587520. Dúnlaing (also #4587584), ancestor of the sept of Uí Dúnlainge, which monopolized the kingship of Laigin (Leinster) from the seventh through the early eleventh centuries. [Note:  As the ancestor from whom the Uí Dúnlainge got their name, his existence can be regarded as reasonably certain, and he probably lived in the mid-fifth century.  The official genealogies call him the son of Énnae Niad, son of Bressal Bélach, son of Fiachu Ba hAiccid, son of Cathair Már, at which point we are clearly in the mythical part of the genealogy.  Although the existence of Énnae and Bressal as father and grandfather of Dúnlainge cannot be ruled out, neither can it be accepted as probable.  The official genealogy, which makes Dúnlaing a first cousin of Énnae Cennselach (#9175936 below), ancestor of the Uí Chennselaig (the other main powerful sect in Leinster during the historical period), thus causing the two main Leinster septs to branch off from each other just prior to the historical period, looks suspicious, and is just as likely to be the invention of the later pseudohistorians as genuine tradition.] [R.117d=BB.138a (Rw.18, CGH.14); R.124b=LL.315c=Lec.91Ra=BB.132a (Rw.335, CGH.74); LL.337f (CGH.423)]

4587521. Unknown [Note:  She was said by WUD to be Cuach ingen Chóelbaid, but this appears to have been added to WUD at a later date from the original composition.]

4587522-4587583. Unknown.

4587584. Dúnlaing, ancestor of the sept of Uí Dúnlainge (see #4587520).

4587585-4587647. Unknown.

4587648. Loarn, ancestor of the Cenél Loairn branch of Dál Riata. [SFA; GA; R.162e=LL.336b (Rw.1697, CGH.329)] [Note:  Although the later genealogies make Loarn a son of Erc, and brother of Fergus, ancestor of the later kings of Scotland, there is no good reason to believe that the supposed sibling relationship is historical, as discussed in detail by Bannerman in SHD.  Loarn is given in some king lists as king of Dál Riata before Fergus (see, for example, "The Poem A Eolcha Alban Uile", edited by Kenneth Jackson in Celtica 3 (!956), 149-67), but it is unclear whether or not this is to be regarded as historical fact, or as a late invention of the Cenél Loairn.]

4587649-4587967. Unknown.

4587968. Crimthann mac Énnai Chennselaig (of Uí Chennselaig), king of Laigin (Leinster), said to have d. 483 [AU], but this date is well before contemporary annalistic recording in Ireland, and is to be taken with a grain of salt. [R.117e=Lec.93Ra (Rw.21, CGH.15); LL.317a=Lec.93Va=BB.136a (CGH.347); LL.337a=Lec.92Vb (CGH.429); LL.337b (CGH.431)]

4587969-6440959. Unknown or duplicated.

6440960. Cyngar ap Gwerthefyr [HG.2:  "Cincar map Guortepir"; ED]

6440961-8388607. Unknown.

Generation 24

8388608-9175935. Unknown or duplicated.

9175936. Énnae Cennselach, ancestor of the sept of Uí Chennselaig, one of the principle dynasties of Leinster in the historical period.  As the ancestor from whom the Uí Chennselaig got their name, his existence can be regarded as reasonably certain, and he probably lived in the mid-fifth century.  The official genealogies call him the son of Labraid Laidech, son of Bressal Bélach, which would make him a first cousin of Dúnlainge (#4587520 above).  For the same reasons already discussed above under #4587520, these prior generations have not been accepted in this table. [See LL.316c6=Lec.92Rb=BB.134a (CGH.344), plus the sources cited under #4587968 above.]

9175937-12881919. Unknown or duplicated.

12881920. Uortiporius (Voteporix, Votecorigas, Modern Welsh Gwerthefyr ap Aergul), king of Demetia (Dyfed), was apparently old at the time Gildas was writing (perhaps between 500 and 550)  [Gildas, De Excidio Britanniae, 31; CIIC.358=ECMW.138, a memorial stone with Irish ogam inscription "VOTECORIGAS" and Latin inscription "MEMORIA VOTEPORIGIS PROTICTORIS; HG.2:  "Guortepir map Aircol"; ED]  [Note:  As the recipient of a severe denunciation by his contemporary Gildas, and the subject of a memorial stone, he is the best documented individual in the earlier generations of this ancestor table.  His uncertain chronological position depends on the still debated chronology of his contemporary Gildas.  (See the notes under #524416 above.)]

12881921-16777215. Unknown.

Generation 25

16777216-25763839. Unknown.

25763840. Agricola (Aergul Lawhir), king of Demetia (Dyfed) (a good king, according to Gildas) [HG.2:  "Aircol map Triphun"; ED] [Note:  His reign as king of Dyfed is confirmed by the contemporary testimony of Gildas, who, although he does not provide his name, calls his son Uortiporius the bad son of a good king.  His name comes from the later sources, of which HG is the earliest.  His chronology is very uncertain, due to the uncertain timeframe of Gildas, but the late fifth century would be a reasonable estimate.  Agricola was of Irish descent, a member of the tribe known as the Déisi, a segment of which moved from Ireland to Wales at an uncertain date, and eventually became rulers of Dyfed.  His claimed father Tryffin (Triphun), if accurately remembered, is nothing more than a name, and there are significant disagreements in the genealogy prior to Tryffin.  If it can be accepted that they hide a grain of truth, it is at least arguable that Agricola's grandfather was a man who was nicknamed "Briscus" (Irish "Brosc", Welsh "Vreisc").  See DGD and DD for detailed discussions.  It should be noted that the larger generation number for Agricola and his immediate descendants is due to the fact that the dynasty of Dyfed appears to have had a somewhat smaller average number of years per generation that the other lines followed (but not enough smaller to cause suspicion), and that Agricola was probably a rough contemporary of the Irish men who appear in generations 22 or 23.]

25763841-33554431. Unknown.

End of known ancestry.

Sources and Abbreviations:

Note:  In general, citations from original manuscripts (Rawl. B.502, LL, etc.) are given from the critical editions of those manuscripts in CGH and elsewhere, and I did not consult the manuscripts themselves.  The only exception to this in the above ancestor table is the Uí Briúin Seóla genealogy from BB.90b, which I checked against a microfilm of the original manuscript of BB, in order to verify the undocumented published versions of that genealogy mentioned above.

ABT = Achau Brenhinoedd a Thywysogion Cymru (late medieval), in EWGT, pp. 95-110.

AC = Annales Cambriae
AC.a = "A" MS. of AC (Harleian MS. 3859, fo. 190r-193r)
AC.b = "B" MS. of AC (BL MS. Cotton Domitian A.1)
AC.c = "C" MS. of AC (PRO MS. E. 164/1)
For a discussion of the compilation of these annals, see Kathleen Hughes, Celtic Britain in the Early Middle Ages (Boydell Press, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1980), pp. 67-100.  The main body of these annals is contemporary from the year 796 on.  The chronology of AC has not yet been adequately studied, and dates from AC could easily be off by a few years.  MS. "A" was edited by E. Phillimore in "The Annales Cambriae and Old Welsh Genealogies from Harleian MS. 3859", in Y Cymmrodor 11 (1890/1) 133-75.  All three manuscripts were edited by John William (ab Ithel) in Annales Cambriae (London, 1860, Rolls Series), but this edition is considered innacurate.  (Adequate published editions of the B and C manuscripts apparently still do not exist.)

AI = The Annals of Inisfallen (MS. Rawlinson B.503), edited by Seán Mac Airt (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies,
1951, reprinted 1977).

AT = "The Annals of Tigernach", edited by Whitley Stokes in Revue Celtique, vols. 16-18, also available (without English translation) at the CELT (Corpus of Electronic Texts) website (

AU = The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131, edited by S. Mac Airt and G. Mac Niocaill (Dublin, 1984), also available (without English translation) at the CELT (Corpus of Electronic Texts) website (

BB = The Book of Ballymote.  To my knowledge, a critical edition of the Book of Ballymote has not yet been published, but CGH does give variant readings from BB for all genealogies which appear either in R or LL.  The numbers cited are the page and column, as cited in CGH, which is my source for most of the readings from BB given here. The only case for which I consulted [a microfilm of] BB directly was the Uí Briúin Seóla pedigree in BB.90b.  BB is available on film number 101014 at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City.  (This microfilm copy of the original manuscript of BB is a poor one, having been overexposed by the person doing the filming, but the Uí Briúin Seóla genealogy in BB.90b is readable.)

BS = Margaret Dobbs, ed., "The Ban-Shenchus", Revue Celtique 47 (1930), 283-339; 48 (1931), 163-234; 49 (1932), 437-489, of which the last part is an every name index to the first two parts.  In citations from BS, only the page number is given, the volume then being clear from context. BS is a twelfth century work, existing in both verse and prose versions, which names a large number of Irish women, along with their parents, husbands, and children, and is an important primary source for the identities of the mothers of pre-Norman Irish leaders.  For a detailed description of BS, see Muireann Ní Bhrolcháin, "The Manuscript Tradition of the Banshenshas", Eriu 33 (1982), 109-135.  A new edition of BS by Muireann Ní Bhrolcháin is forthcoming, but I was informed by the publisher that it will not be out until the year 2000.

BWG = Bartrum, P. C., Welsh Genealogies, A.D. 300-1400 (8 vols., Cardiff, 1974, supplement vol., 1980).

ByA = Bonedd yr Arwyr, in EWGT, pp. 85-94.  Exists only in late copies of a lost manuscript which was believed to have
been composed ca. 1400 (with a potentially large margin of error).

ByT = Brut y Tywysogion, a set of annals which are Welsh translations of Latin annals closely related to the AC manuscripts.  My citations come from the Red Book of Hergest version of ByT (the only version to which I have access), edited by Thomas Jones (Univ. of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1955).

CGH = Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae, edited by M. A. O'Brien (Dublin, 1962). This book is a critical edition of the genealogies from R, with variant readings from LL, Lec., and BB, followed by all of the genealogies of LL which are not in R, with variant readings from Lec. and BB.  Citations from CGH are generally given by showing the citations from the original manuscript(s) first (taken from the citations in CGH), followed by the page from CGH in parentheses (in the form CGH.#, plus the section number from Rw, if the genealogy is from R).  For two reviews of CGH, which also comment on the early Irish genealogical manuscripts in general, see PNIG, and the review by Francis John Byrne in Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 29 (1962-4), 381-5.

CIIC = R. A. S. Macalister, Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum, (2 vols., Dublin, 1945). (As I did not have access to this source, all citations to CIIC given here are indirect, taken from citations in other sources.)

CS = Chronicon Scotorum, edited by W. Hennessy (London, Rolls Series 46, 1866)

DCCD = D. Ó Corráin, "Dál Cais - Church and Dynasty", Eriu 24 (1973), 52-63.

DD = Tomás Ó Cathasaigh, "The Déisi and Dyfed", Éigse 20 (1984), 1-33.

DGD = M. Miller, "Date Guessing and Dyfed", Studia Celtica 12/13 (1977/8), 33-61.

DGP = M. Miller, "Date Guessing and Pedigrees", Studia Celtica 10/11 (1975), 96-109.

DNB = Dictionary of National Biography.

ECMW = V. E. Nash-Williams, Early Christian Monuments of Wales (Cardiff, 1950).  (As I did not have access to this source, all citations to ECMW given here are indirect, taken from citations in other sources.)

ED = The Expulsion of the Déisi, in EWGT, p. 4.  This Irish story, generally dated to the middle of the eighth century, includes a pedigree of the kings of Dyfed in Wales, the earliest version of which agrees with the Dyfed genealogy in HG.2 for the generations covered in this ancestor table.

EIHM = Thomas F. O'Rahilly, Early Irish History and Mythology (Dublin, 1946).

EL = David H. Kelley, "The Ancestry of Eve of Leinster", The Genealogist 1 (1980), 4-27.

EWGT = Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts, edited by P. C. Bartrum (University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1966).

GA = Genelaig Albanensium (edited in SHD, pp. 65-6).  This includes five pedigrees of the Dál Riata probably written during the early eighth century (including the one used here), with additional material added later (as discussed in SHD).  The pedigree used here is that of Ainfcellach, king of Dál Riata, who died in 719 [AU], probably written during his lifetime.

GaC = Genealogies from the work generally known as "Hanes Gruffudd ap Cynan" (actually titled "Historia hen Gruffud vab Kenan vab Iago"), of which the earliest manuscript is Peniarth MS. 17 (mid-13th century), in EWGT, pp. 35-37.

GH = Bedwyr L. Jones, "Gwriad's Heritage:  Links between Wales and the Isle of Man in the Early Middle Ages", Transaction of the Honourable Society of the Cymmrodorion (1990), 29-44.

HG = Genealogies from Harleian MS. 3859, fo. 193r-195r, edited in EWGT, pp. 9-13 (a copy made ca. 1100 of genealogies compiled probably between 954 and 988)

IBV = Gearóid mac Niocaill, Ireland before the Vikings (Dublin, 1972).  Contains many genealogical tables of the early Irish ruling families.

IKHK = Francis John Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings (St. Martin's Press, New York, 1973).  Appendix II (pp. 280-301) contains genealogical tables of the major early medieval Irish ruling dynasties.

IRS = Donnchadh Ó Corráin, "Irish Regnal Succession - A Reappraisal", Studia Hibernica 11 (1971), 7-39.  This includes a detailed discussion of the kings of Uí Chennselaig.

JC =  Jesus College (Oxford) MS. 20, in EWGT, pp. 41-50. The manuscript itself is from the fourteenth century, but since the latest individuals mentioned in the manuscript are Llywelyn ap Iorwerth and some of his contemporaries, its source appears to date from the early thirteenth century (or perhaps a bit earlier - see the sources cited in EWGT, p. 41).

LD = Lewys Dwnn, Heraldic Visitations of Wales and Part of the Marches, 1586-1613, edited with notes, by Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick (Llandovery, Wales, 1846, 2 vols.)

Lec. = The Book of Lecan, published in facsimile by the Irish Manuscripts Commission, with introduction and indexes by Kathleen Mulchrone (Dublin, 1937).  To my knowledge, a critical edition of the Book of Lecan has not yet been published, but CGH does give variant reading from Lec. for all genealogies which appear either in R or LL.  The numbers cited are the folio (R=front, V=back) and column as numbered in the facsimile edition, as cited in CGH (which is my source for all of the readings from Lec., as I did not consult Lec. directly for the genealogies given here).

LL = The Book of Leinster (6 vols., Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1954-83), of which the king lists appear in vol. 1 (ed. Best, Bergin, and O'Brien, Dublin, 1954) and the genealogies are in vol. 6 (ed. Anne O'Sullivan, Dublin, 1983).  The Genealogies from LL also appeared in CGH, as variant reading from R in those cases where the genealogy also appeared in R.  The numbers cited are the page and column from the original MS, as edited by O'Brien in CGH, along with the page number from CGH.  (I did not give page numbers from O'Sullivan's version, as I do not have easy access to that book, but as the MS page and column are clearly identified in that version, the references should be easy to locate for anyone using that source.)

MG = Mostyn MS. 117 (last quarter of 13th century), in EWGT, pp. 38-39.

NHI = A New History of Ireland (10 volumes, not yet all published), especially volume 9: "Maps, Genealogies, Lists", which contains genealogical tables of the Irish ruling dynasties (many of which were prepared by Francis John Byrne and are therefore not much different than the ones in IKHK, although sometimes more detailed, sometimes less).  (Volume 1, which will cover pre-Norman Ireland, the time period relevant to this ancestor table, has not yet been published, to my knowledge.)

PF = The History of the Princes ... of Powys Fadog by J. Y. W. Lloyd (6 vols., London, 1881-7)

PNIG = John V. Kelleher, "The Pre-Norman Irish Genealogies", Irish Historical Studies 16 (1969), 138-153.

PP = "Pedigrees of the Welsh Tribal Patriarchs" by P. C. Bartrum, in Nationary Library of Wales Journal, vol. 13, pp. 93-146 and vol. 15, pp. 157-166.  There is a numbered section for each patriarch, and citations are given by these sections.

R = Genealogies from Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson B 502, the earliest surviving manuscript collection of Irish genealogies, now generally identified as The Book of Glendalough, dated ca. 1130 (but based in part on genealogies compiled much earlier), the genealogies of which were edited in CGH (q.v. for more comments).

Rw = The World Wide Web version of R, available at the CELT (Corpus of Electronic Texts) website (  Based on O'Brien's critical edition in CGH, it gives only the readings from R (without variants from LL, Lec., BB, as in CGH), but adds convenient section numbers (not a part of the original MS), and these section numbers have been used for citations from Rw.  The introduction to Rw on that website also contains an excellent bibliography of early Irish genealogical works in general.

SFA = Senchus Fer nAlban, edited in SHD, which dates SFA as a tenth century revision of a seventh century original.

SHD = John Bannerman, Studies in the History of Dalriada (Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh and London, 1974).

SW = Patrick Sims-Williams, "Historical Need and Literary Narrative: a Caveat from Ninth Century Wales", The Welsh History Review 17 (1994), 1-40.

TYP = Trioedd Ynys Prydein (The Welsh Triads), edited by Rachel Bromwich (University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1978).

WUD = Margaret E. Dobbs, "Women of the Uí Dunlainge of Leinster", The Irish Genealogist 1 (1940), 196-206.  This article gives the text and translation of an Irish genealogical tract which was probably originally written in the first half of the eighth century (with later additions), giving the ancestry of the wives of several kings of Leinster (Laigin).  The original manuscript sources were LL.316a, Lec.91Rb, BB.133a, and D.2.1 (Royal Irish Academy), 17v and 96, of which the first three are also edited (in Irish only) in CGH pp. 340-1, and D.2.1 is contained in BS 220-1.  For convenience, I have cited only WUD in cases where this tract is used, unless variations in the different manuscripts are important, but it should be kept in mind that the corresponding pages of CGH and BS are also relevant in all cases where WUD is cited.