The Kings of the Isle of Man

compiled by Stewart Baldwin

This material is a combination of several of my postings to the newsgroup soc.genealogy.medieval, with some new material added, and significant revisions on the old material.  It is an attempt to give the genealogy of the Norse rulers of the Isle of Man, as completely as the limited sources will allow.  While I have attempted to use primary sources (or translations thereof) as much as possible, there are still a few cases (clearly marked, and generally using good secondary sources like The Complete Peerage) where I have not tracked statements back to the primary sources.  Hopefully, this will change in future revisions as I get access to the appropriate material. Table 1 sets the background by showing the relationships of several kings of Dublin who were (or might have been) related to the kings of Man.  Tables 2 through 5 then give the main genealogical relationships, with a section discussing the possible parentage of Godred Crovan, and an appendix discussing the problems of identification involving several men named Ragnall.  Because of the uncertainties involved, the kings of Man are difficult to number, and the kings given here have been assigned lowercase Romas numerals for purposes of identification.  This numbering is done for the purposes of this article, and has no official status whatsoever, a fact which will hopefully be emphasized by the use of lowercase.  The first three tables are based mostly on the Irish annals, and the last two mostly on the Chronicle of the Kings of Man.  Bibliographic abbreviations are given at the end. I would like to thank Suzanne Doig, Todd Farmerie, and Peter Murray for comments which they posted to the newsgroup soc.genealogy.medieval on my earlier versions of this material.

Note:  The tables given here were designed to work with a fixed-width font and a line length of seventy or more characters.  They may be distorted, depending on the default settings of your browser.  If the tables are not correctly displayed, select each table to go to a separate page with .gif images of tables, which should be correctly represented with any browser settings.

Table 1:  The Kings of Dublin

The kingdom of Dublin was established by the Norse invaders of Ireland in the ninth century.  By the early tenth century, it had become a hereditary kingdom ruled by the descendants of the ninth century ruler Ivar (d. 873).  The kings of Dublin were also often kings of York during the early period, and cadet branches of this dynasty appear to have also ruled in Limerick, Waterford, the Isles, and Man, although it is not always possible to determine the exact relationship to the "main line" ruling in Dublin.  The principle Dublin branch descends from Sitric (d. 927), who is consistently referred to in the Irish annals as a grandson of Ivar, the intervening generation being uncertain.  No attempt is made here to give a complete table for the Dublin kings, and the only individuals shown are the principle kings of Dublin and the individuals relevant to the possible connections with the rulers of Man discussed below.

                               Sitric, d. 927 [AU],
                               grandson of Ivar
                               king of Dublin and York
            ______________________|.............? [see Note]
           |                                    |
       Olaf Cuaran, d. 981                   Harald, d. 940 [AI, CS]
       king of Dublin and York               king of Limerick
       abdicated 980 [CS]                    [see Table 2]
  |                       |            |                 |
Ragnall, d. 980 [AU] Glun Iarainn    Sitric Silkbeard  Harald
[see discussion      d. 989 [AU]     d. 1042 [AT]      d. 999 [AU]
below of identity    king of Dublin  king of Dublin      |
of men of this name]                 deposed 1036      Ivar,
                                                       d. 1054 [AU]
                                                       king of
                                                later kings of Man?
                                               see discussion below

(.gif version of Table 1)

Note:  Harald ("Aralt") is referred to as the grandson of Ivar in AI.  CS calls him a son of the grandson of Ivar, i.e., of Sitric ("Aralt mac .h. Imair .i. mac Sitric, Rí gall Luimnigh, do marbad la Connachtoíbh").  If the account of CS is literally true, and the "grandson" of AI just means descendant in general, then Harald would probably be a brother of Olaf Cuaran, as shown in the table.  However, Ivar also had a son named Sitric (d. 896), so if the "mac .h." is a mistake for just ".h." (a common abbreviation for the word "ua" ["grandson'] and its various declensions), then Harald may have been son of this earlier Sitric.

Table 2:  Kings of "the Isles" (including the Isle of Man?)
During the late tenth and early eleventh centuries, a dynasty briefly appears whose kings were called kings of the Isles (i.e., principally the Hebrides), and at least one of these kings (Godred, who is called king of Man in Njal's Saga, an Icelandic source) appears to have ruled in Man (See also, HBC, ESSH, and CGG).  The use of the rare name "Lagman" among the later kings of Man also suggests that they regarded themselves as the successors of these kings of "the Isles".

                    Harald (Aralt), d. 940 [AI, CS],
                    king of Limerick
                    [see Table 1]
                       |[see Note 1]
                    Godred (Goffraid) i, d. 989 [AU]
                    king of the Isles
           ____________|________________ [see Note 2]
          |                             |
      Reginald (Ragnall) i            Lagmann i, ruling 1014
      king of the Isles, d. 1004/5    king of the Isles
                                      Olaf (Amlaib), d. 23 Apr 1014
                                      killed at Clontarf [AU]

(.gif version of Table 2)

Note 1:  The Harald who was father of Godred is not identified in the primary sources, but the king of Limerick of that name seems like the most likely individual.  In the list of the kings of Man, NHI (vol. 9, p. 466) suggests that the Harald who was father of Godred might have been Harald of Denmark (son of Gorm the Old), but this seems unlikely.  Some would include a certain "Magnus", also a son of Harald, as another king during this period, but it is likely that this is a mistake.  The existence of a "Magnus" son of Harald is given only in late sources, and seems to be a error for "mac Arailt" in the earlier sources, in which "mac" became "Maccus" and then "Magnus" in successive corruptions of the records.  In further support of this, observe that the personal name "Magnus" is based on the Latin word magnus ("great"), and,  if we are to give any credence to the account of Heimskringla, the name derives more directly from Charlemagne ("Carolus Magnus" in Latin), with king Magnus "the Good" of Norway being the first individual of that name.  This would seem to exclude the possibility that a Viking bore that name as early as the tenth century.  While it is possible that "Maccus" is a corruption of some other Scandinavian name, it seems much more likley that the "mac Arailt" who appears in the annals was the son of Harald about whom we already know, i.e., Goffraid mac Arailt.

Note 2:  AU, in listing those who fell at the famous Battle of Clontarf on 23 April 1014, names a certain Olaf son of Lagman ("Amlaim m. Laghmaind") as one of the Norse leaders who fell.  CGG, written in the early twelfth century, also mentions the same individual, where the different manuscripts call him Amlaf Lagman son of Goffraidh, Amlaf son of Lagmann son of Gofraidh, or Amhlaibh son of Laghman.  Given the testimony of the other witnesses (and AU in particular), it would seem that the first of these manuscripts accidently left out a "son of", and that the Amlaib who was killed at Clontarf was son of Lagman, son of Goffraid. William of Jumiéges, in describing the events just after the death of king Svein Forkbeard of Denmark (1014), states that his son Cnut sought support from two kings, Lacman of the Swedes and Olaf of the Norsemen (i.e., of Norway) ["... Lacman equidem Suauorum et Olauum Noricorum" - See GND, vol. 2, pp. 19-27].  Since no king named Lacman was ruling in Sweden at the time, the reasonable suggestion has been made that "Suauorum" was a scribal slip for "Sudrorum", and that Lacman was king of the Hebrides (i.e., "the Isles"), and this seems like a safe emendation, given the evidence of AU and CGH

Table 3:  Echmarcach of Dublin and Man, and his descendants

King Echmarcach of Dublin and Man was the son of a certain Ragnall, and there are different opinions as to which of the known individuals that name was his father.  See the appendix for more on this.  Echmarcach was apparently the same person as the king "Iehmarc" who submitted to Cnut in 1031, according to the "E" manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle [see Hudson (1992)].  Echmarcach has also sometimes been incorrectly identified with the king Margaðr of Dublin who appears in Heimskringla and other Norse sources.  However, as has been pointed out, the name "Margaðr" is the Norse form of the Irish name Murchad, and the Margaðr in question was actually the Leinster prince Murchad mac Diarmata (d. 1070, ancestor of the MacMurroughs), who ruled Dublin under his father Diarmait mac Máel na mBo, king of Leinster (d. 1072) [see Hudson (1991)].  Although no sons of Echmarcach are known, the Ban Shenchus [BS] shows that he had a daughter Mor who married Tadg Ua Briain, king of Munster (and great-grandson of the famous Brian Boruma), and had several children, one of whom appears to have ruled as king of Man for a short time.  Using BS, Echmarcach's descendants can be traced for a few additional generations, and all such descendants who are currently known to me are given in this chart (BS being the source unless otherwise given).

                 Ragnall (see the Appendix for the
                 possibilities regarding his identity)
                 Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, d. 1065
                 king of Dublin, 1036-8, 1046-52,
                 also king of Man and Galloway
                 Mor md.
                 Tadg Ua Briain, d. 1086 [AU]
                 king of Munster
   |               |                        |             |
Donnchad    Domnall mac Taidg, d. 1115   Amlaib        Be Bind, md.
mac Taidg   [AU, AI, see also AI 1111]   mac Taidg     Donnchad mac
            king of Man [see Note 1]     d. 1096       Murchada
                                                       [see Note 2]
   |             |
Amlaib mac    Dubchoblaig ingen Donnchada [see Note 3]
Donnchada     md. 1st       md 2nd              md. 3rd
              Ua Nuallain   Muirchertach        Dalbach
                 |          Ua Máel Sechlainn   Ua Domnaill
    _____________|___      _____|_____           ___|_______
   |     |   |       |    |           |         |           |
Dúnlaing | Máel      | Caillech  Máel Ruanaig  Dúnlaing  Crimthann
         | Sechlainn |
         |           |
   Muiredach       Sadb

(.gif version of Table 3)

Note 1:  Although the status of Domnall as king of Man for a short period seems secure, the exact chronology of his reign is difficult, as CRM seems to place his reign earlier than the Irish annals.

Note 2:  His exact identity is uncertain.  Donnchad mac Murchada, king of Leinster (d. 1115), and Donnchad mac Murchada, king of Meath (d. 1106), would both make chronologically likely candidates.

Note 3:  The first name of Dubchoblaig's first husband is not given by BS.  The personal names suggest that her second husband was of the Uí Néill.  Crimthann is called the son of the son of Dalbach, which is an apprent slip by the copyist.  Sadb and Caillech were daughters, and the other children were sons.  The children of Dubchoblaig were apparently contemporaries of the writer of BS.  It is possible that a close comparison of the material in BS with the other Irish genealogical material would turn up modern descendants of one or more of these individuals.

Table 4:  The kings of Chronicon Regum Manniae prior to Godred Crovan

The Chronicle of the Kings of Man (Chronicon Regum Manniae, abbreviated "CRM") is the principle native source for the history of the kings of Man. It gives two kings of Man before Godred Crovan, Godred [called "ii" here] and his son Fingal.  It names an otherwise unknown Sitric as the father of Godred ii, but if that name is wrong, it is possible that he was the same person as Goffraidh son of Amlaibh (Olaf) son of Ragnall, the king of Dublin who died in 1075 (see the appendix below).  AU records the death at Man of a certain Sitric son of Amlaib in the year 1073, but he seems too late to identify with the father of Godred.

                 Godred ii, d. ca 1070/5
                 king of Man
                 Fingal, king of Man
                 dethroned by Godred Crovan

(.gif version of Table 4)

The Ancestry of Godred Crovan
The ancestry of Godred Crovan (d. 1095), king of Dublin and Man, is not well documented, and there are differing opinions regarding his parentage and immediate ancestors.  Rather than try to give a definitive solution to the problem, the basic evidence will be outlined, and several possible alternatives will be given, along with their strengths and weaknesses.  Since the basic raw data is itself somewhat contradictory, none of the suggested alternatives will fit all of the primary evidence.

The basic raw data is as follows.  First, the Annals of Tigernach [AT] for the year 1091 refer to him as the son of the son of Harald ["Goffraidh mac Maic Arailt, rí Atha Cliath."].  Then, there is the Chronicle of the Kings of Man [CRM], which states that Godred was the son of Harald the Black of "Ysland" (Iceland), without further identifying this Harald.  Finally, there is the Welsh collection of  Norse pedigrees in "Achau Brenhinoedd a Thywysogion Cymru" [ABT, in EWGT, pp. 95-110], which includes a genealogy of the kings of Man, as follows:

ABT.6c:  Rhanallt m. Gwythryg m. Afloyd m. Gwrthryt mearch m. Harallt ddu m. Ifor gamle m. Afloyd m. Swtrig.

Changing the names from these Welsh forms to the more familiar English forms gives:

Reginald [king of Man, d. 14 Feb 1229], son of
Godred [king of Man, d. 10 Nov 1187], son of
Olaf [king of Man, d. 29 June 1153], son of
Godred [Crovan, king of Dublin and Man, d. 1095], son of
Harald ddu [i.e., the Black], son of
Ivar gamle [i.e., the Old], son of
Olaf [presumably Olaf Cuaran, king of Dublin and York], son of
Sitric [d. 927]

It may be that the above genealogy was composed during the reign of Reginald (d. 1229), since he is the latest person mentioned in the genealogy.  There is no way of knowing whether copying mistakes were made between that time of composition and the surviving manuscripts.

We now list several possibilities regarding the ancestry of Godred Crovan, along with the strengths and weaknesses of each possibility (some of which are valid for more than one case, and are therefore repeated).  While there are other scenarios which could be listed, they would seem less likely than the ones given below.

Possibility 1:  The genealogy of ABT is to be accepted as it is.
  Strengths:  It requires no emendation of the genealogy in ABT.  It agrees with the Chronicle of the kings of Man in making Godred the son of Harald "the Black".
  Weaknesses:  No son of Olaf Cuaran named Ivar is known from the Irish records.  The generations are a bit long (but not drastically so).  It disagrees with the Annals of Tigernach, which make Godred the grandson of a certain Harald.

Possibility 2:  In the process of copying the pedigree, a "Harald" was accidently omitted between Ivar and Olaf Cuaran, so that the pedigree should read Godred son of Harald the Black son of Ivar son of Harald son of Olaf [Cuaran].
  Strengths:  Olaf Cuaran had a son named Harald, who in turn had a son named Ivar, both known from the Irish annals, so the agreement with the Irish annals would be excellent.  It agrees with the Chronicle of the kings of Man in making Godred the son of Harald "the Black".  The chronology fits better than Possibilities 1 and 3.
  Weaknesses:  It requires an emendation of the pedigree in ABT.  It disagrees with the Annals of Tigernach, which make Godred the grandson of a certain Harald.

Possibility 3:  In the process of copying the pedigree, Harald and Ivar were accidently switched, so that the pedigree should read Godred son of Ivar son of Harald son of Olaf [Cuaran].
  Strengths:  Olaf Cuaran had a son named Harald, who in turn had a son named Ivar, both known from the Irish annals, so the agreement with the Irish annals would be excellent.  It agrees with the Annals of Tigernach, which call Godred the grandson of a certain Harald.
  Weaknesses:  It requires an emendation of the pedigree in ABT.  The generations are a bit long (but not drastically so).  It disagrees the the Chronicle of the kings of Man, which make Godred the son of Harald the Black.

Possibility 4:  The pedigree in ABT is wrong, and Godred was not a descendant of Olaf Cuaran, but was instead descended somehow from the kings of the Isles who ruled in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries.
  Strengths:  It would explain Godred's claim to the kingship of Man.  The known names used by the early dynasty of the kings of the Isles were Guthfrith (i.e., Godred), Harald, Lagman, Olaf, and Rognvald, which were exactly the names which were common in the family of Godred Crovan (including the rare name Lagman), so this possiblity has some onomastic support.
  Weakness:  It requires abandoning the manuscript genealogy of ABT, so there is no direct supporting evidence.  The onomastic argument is mitigated somewhat by the fact that the names Guthfrith, Harald, Olaf, and Rognvald were all common among the Hiberno-Norse in general, so that only the rare name Lagman carries significant weight in the onomastic argument.

Before I was aware of the genealogy in ABT, I favored possibility 4.  Now that I know about the ABT genealogy, I think Possibility 2 is the most likely one.  However, I think that none of the four possibilities can be ruled out, given the currently known evidence.

Discussions of this material can also be found in Broderick (1980), Duffy (1992), and Thornton (1996).  I have not yet seen a copy of the Broderick article.

Table 5:  The Kings of Man of the dynasty of Godred Crovan

Unless othewise stated, all genealogical statements in this table come from CRM, as translated in ESSH, with chronological data taken from NHI and HBC.

                   Godred iii Crovan, d. 1095
                    k. Man and Dublin
   |                 |                    |
Lagmann ii, k. Man  Harald  Aufrica md. Olaf i, k. Man  ~ various
d. 1096/7?           |      dau. of  |  d. 29 June 1153 | concubines
  ___________________|      Fergus,  |  md. Ingibjorg,  |
 |       |           |      lord of  |  dau. of Hakon,  |
son   Reginald ii   son     Galloway |  jarl of Orkney  |
      k. Man 1153        ____________|  [see Note 1]    |
                        |      _________________________|____
                        |     |             |       |        |
                        |  Reginald iii  Lagmann  Harald    dau. md.
                        |  k. Man 1164                      Somerled
                        |                                   d. 1164
             NN md. Godred iv, k. Man md. Findguala
                 |  d. 10 Nov 1187     |  of Ireland
    _____________|      |____________  |_______________
   |                    |     |      |                 |
Reginald iv, k. Man    Ivar  dau.   Aufrica md.    Olaf ii, k. Man
d. 14 Feb 1229        ________|   John de Courcy   d. 21 May 1237
md. sister of        |              (no issue?)    md. 1. Lavon
Lavon (see right)  Reginald, bishop                md. 2. Christina,
   |               of the Islands                  dau. of Ferchar,
   |                                               earl of Ross
   |________     ______________________________________|____
   |        |   |           |                 |             |
Godred Dond | Godred    Harald i, k. Man   Reginald v   Magnus, k. Man
d. ca. 1231 | d. 1238   d. Oct/Nov 1248    k. Man, d.   d. 24 Nov 1265
   |        |           md. Cecilia, dau.  30 May 1249  md. Mary, dau.
   |        |           of Hakon, king        |         Ewen of Argyle
Harald ii   |           of Norway             |         [see Note 4]
d. 1250/2   |________________________         |            _|___
k. Man      |          |?            |?       |           ?     |
        daughter,   Rhanullt,     others?  Mary, heiress  ?   Godred
        md. Thomas  md. Gruffudd  [see     of Man, md.    ?   d. 1275
        son of      ap Llywelyn   Note 3]  John Waldboef  ?   claimant
        Alan of     prince of              [see Note 6]   ?   [see
        Galloway    North Wales                           ?   Note 5]
                    [see note 2]    ???????????????????????
                               Aufrica de Connaught, heiress of Man,
                               quitclaimed rights to Simon de Montagu
                               [see Note 6]

(.gif version of Table 5)

Note 1:  According to the Icelandic sagas [see ESSH, vol. 2, p. 191], Olaf md. Ingibjorg, daughter of Hakon, jarl of Orkney, by whom he was father of Godred.  In contradiction to this, CRM states that Godred was the son of Aufrica, daughter of Fergus of Galloway.  Although there seems to be no good reason to doubt that Olaf was also married to Ingibjorg, the native source of CRM is to be preferred regarding the identity of Godred's mother.

Note 2:  According to BWG, Rhanullt appears in several Welsh manuscript genealogies, of which the earliest one is Peniarth MS. 131, by Gutun Owain, ca. 1480.  The marriage is plausible enough, but better documentation would be desirable.

Note 3:  BWG mentions two other children.  For one, a son Hywel, the only source cited is Lewys Dwnn's visitation of Wales (late sixteenth century).  For the other, an unnamed daughter who married Rhodri ap Owain Gwynedd, the only source cited is a secondary one, Lloyd's History of Wales, pp. 588, 617 (to which I do not have access to see if it cites a primary source).

Note 4:  According to The Complete Peerage (under Strathearn), Malise, earl of Strathearn (d. 1271) md. 4th, Mary, widow of Magnus, king of Man, dau. of Ewen of Argyll.

Note 5:  Godred's brief attempt to claim the throne in 1275 is mentioned in the Chronicle of Lanercost. See ESSH, vol. 2, pp. 672-3.

Note 6:  In 1266, the kingdom of Man was transferred to Alexander III, king of Scotland, and the line of native rulers of Man ended (except for the brief attempt mentioned above in note 5).  According to English Genealogy by Anthony Wagner (2nd ed., Oxford, 1972), p. 79, two heiresses attempted to get their rights recognized in 1293.  They were Aufrica de Connoght, kinswoman and heiress of king Magnus of Man, who made over her rights to Simon Montagu/Montacute (see the Complete Peerage under Montagu), and Mary, daughter of Reginald, who married John Waldboef.  I was able to verify Mary's status from the Roll of Parliament for 33 Edward III (Rolls Series 98), p. 131, but I do not know what primary source gives Aufrica's status as heiress of Magnus, nor do I know the source of the statement of the Dictionary of National Biography (under Simon Montacute) that Aufrica was the daughter of a certain Fergus and "sister of Orray, king of Man" (whoever that was).  According to The Complete Peerage, there is no evidence to support the statement of DNB that Aufrica married Simon.


"Too Many Ragnalls"

One of the common problems in genealogy and history is that there may be two or more sources, each of which mentions an individual of the same name, and one must then decide whether or not these sources pertain to the same individual.  This appendix is a minor revision of a posting which originally appeared under the same title as a separate posting to soc.genealogy.medieval.  As can be easily guessed from the title of the appendix, this appendix involves several individuals named Ragnall.  We start off with four men of the name who are fairly easy to distinguish in the records.  The problems come with the later generations, when we have individuals who are referred to as children or grandchildren of Ragnall, without explicitly stating which one.  The purpose of this appendix will be to set out the basic evidence, and no attempt will be made here to definatively sort out which Ragnall was the father (or grandfather) of which child.  It should be noted that there were also other earlier and later Vikings named Ragnall who are not listed, as we are only concerned with listing those Ragnalls who might make chronologically possible parents (or grandparents) of the individuals having unknown ancestry.

The Ragnalls in question are (numbered in order of their first appearance in the records):

(1)  Ragnall, son of Amlaib Cuaran (see Table 1).  This Ragnall was apparently the recognized heir of Amlaib (d. 981) to the kingship of Dublin, but was killed in the Battle of Tara in 980 [AU, AT, AI, CS].  While he seems a bit early to be the father of most of the candidates below, such a relationship is not impossible.

(2)  Ragnall, a prince of the dynasty of Waterford who was killed by Leinstermen in either 994 [AU] or 995 [AI and AT].  According to AU, Ragnall was the son of Imar (d. 1000) king of Waterford, whereas AI states that Ragnall was the grandson of Imar, and AT does not give Ragnall's parentage.  AU is probably correct on this point.  [King Imar of Waterford, whose parentage is apparently unknown, also temporarily ruled Dublin in the 990's, in a back-and-forth contest with Sitric "Silkbeard", son of Amlaib Cuaran.]

(3)  Ragnall, king of the Isles [i.e., the Hebrides], d. 1005 [AU], son of Goffraid mac Arailt (d. 989), king of the Isles (see Table 2).

(4)  Ragnall, king of Waterford, d. 1035 [AU], grandson of Imar of Waterford.  AU has a duplicate entry placing his death in 1031, and AT apparently also places his death in 1031 [the years in AT are not labelled], but that is clearly an error, since the following entry of ATin the same year is the death of the famous Cnut, who certainly died in 1035.  Probably some entries from 1035 were accidently placed in 1031 in one of the intermediate stages of compilation.  AU calls Ragnall the grandson of Imar, and AT calls him the son of "Radnall", son of Imar.  Todd, in his edition of "Coghad Gaedhel re Gallaibh", states that AT[1031] calls Ragnall the son of Radnall, "daughter" of Imar (and Radnall is a known feminine name).  Thus, either Whitley Stokes's edition of AT is in error, or Todd has misquoted AT here (Todd wrote earlier than the Stokes edition of AT.)  I leave it open whether Imar was Ragnall's paternal or maternal grandfather.

The known individuals who were children (or grandchildren) of men named Ragnall (not counting the possible #4 above) were:

(a) NN, unnamed son of Ragnall, son of Imar, who was killed in 1015 [CS].  He was evidently the son of Ragnall #2.

(b) Cacht, daughter of Ragnall, d. 1052 [AT] or 1054 [CS], wife of Donnchad (son of Brian Boru), whom she married in 1032 [AI].  It is apparently unknown whether or not she was the mother of any of Donnchad's children.

(c)  Echmarcach, king of Dublin (1036-1038 and 1046-1052), son of Ragnall.  He was expelled from the kingship of Dublin in 1052, and went "over the sea".  The contemporary Marianus Scotus records his death in 1065, as "rex innarenn", generally interpreted that he was king of the Rhinns in Galloway.  See Table 3 above.

(d)  NN, unnamed son of Ragnall, apparently king of the Isle of Man in the year 1061, when Murchad, son of Diarmait mac Mael na mBo invaded Man, took tribute, and defeated Ragnall's son [AT].  Often regarded as the same person as Echmarcach.

(e)  NN, unnamed son of Ragnall, king of the Foreigners, d. 1064 [AI].  Probably the same as Echmarcach, as the discrepancy is only one year.

(f)  Gofraid, king of Dublin, d. 1075 [AU, AT, AI].  AI calls him grandson of Ragnall, and AU apparently calls him son of an unidentified Amlaib [but there is confusion at this point in the different manuscripts of AU].  Thus, he would appear to be son of Amlaib, son of Ragnall.  The Sitric son of Amlaib who was killed on the Isle of Man in 1073 [AU] is a possible brother.

(g)  Two or more grandsons of Ragnall, who led a fleet to the Isle of Man in 1087, and were killed there [AU].

For a recent discussion of some of these individuals, see Duffy (1992), which assigns some of these children to the Waterford branch, but without discussing the other possible candidates.  With regard to the parentage of Echmarcach, Hudson (1992) is more cautious, also mentioning the king of the Isles who died in 1005 as a possibility.

Source Abbreviations

AI = The Annals of Inisfallen (MS. Rawlinson B.503), edited by Seán Mac Airt (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies,
1951, reprinted 1977).

AT = "The Annals of Tigernach", edited by Whitley Stokes in Revue Celtique, vols. 16-18, passim, also available (without English translation) at the CELT (Corpus of Electronic Texts) website (

AU = The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131, edited by S. Mac Airt and G. Mac Niocaill (Dublin, 1984), also available (without English translation) at the CELT (Corpus of Electronic Texts) website (

Broderick (1980) = George Broderick, "Irish and Welsh strands in the genealogy of Godred Crovan", in The Journal of the Manx Museum 8 (1980), 32-38.

BS = Margaret Dobbs, ed., "The Ban-Shenchus", Revue Celtique 47 (1930), 283-339; 48 (1931), 163-234; 49 (1932), 437-489, of which the last part is an every name index to the first two parts.  In citations from BS, only the page number is given, the volume then being clear from context.

BWG = Bartrum, P. C., Welsh Genealogies, A.D. 300-1400 (8 vols., Cardiff, 1974, supplement vol., 1980).

CGG = Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh (The War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill), edited and translated by James Henthorn Todd, Rolls Series 48 (London 1867).

CRM = Chronicon Regum Manniae, as translated in ESSH, passim.

CS = Chronicon Scotorum, edited by W. Hennessy (London, Rolls Series 46, 1866)

Duffy (1992) = Séan Duffy, "Irishmen and Islemen in the Kingdoms of Dublin and Man, 1052-1171", Ériu 43 (1992), 93-133.

ESSH = Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1922).

EWGT = Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts, edited by P. C. Bartrum (University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1966).

GND = The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumiéges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, edited and translated by Elizabeth M. C. van Houts (2 vols., Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995).

HBC = The Handbook of British Chronology, edited by Powicke and Fryde (2nd edition, London, 1961).

Hudson (1991) = Benjamin Hudson, "The Viking and the Irishman", Medium Ævum 60 (1991), 257-67.

Hudson (1992) = Benjamin Hudson, "Cnut and the Scottish Kings", English Historical Review (1992), 350-60.

NHI = Moody, Martin, Byrne, eds., A New History of Ireland, volume IX, Maps. Genealogies, Lists (Oxford, 1984).
Thornton (1996) = David E. Thornton, "The Genealogy of Gruffudd ap Cynan", in Gruffudd ap Cynan: a collaborative biography, edited by K. L. Maund (Studies in Celtic History, vol. 16; Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, 1996), 79-108.