Private Journal Of The Indian Agency During The Superintendancy Of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft
The following information has been excerpted from Schoolcraft's private journal. Portions of the journal described animals and vegetation and has been edited out in favor of information about people in and around the Agency. The transcript is verbatim, the spellings are Schoolcraft's and have not been edited.
Private Journal of Indian Affairs. Kept at the Office of Indian Agency at Sault Ste. Marie and Michilimackinac during a period of fourteen years from 1822 to 1836 [Only a couple of months of activity have been copied and transcribed herein. Additional pages of the journal have not been copied from the records, to date.]
1822. July 6th. I left the steamboat, Superior, at the foot of the Nibish rapids, in the morning and came up to St. Mary's in the boat's yawl. Before night all the troops under the command of Col. Brady, destined to occupy the place arrived from the same point, in Mackinac boats, and encamped on an open field east of Mr. Johnston's residence. Here, I past my first night in the place.
7th. Hired a room as an office, in connexion with Capt. Brant, the quartermaster.
8th. Engaged a Chippewa interpreter, as a medium of communication with the Indians.
9th. Held a formal Council with the Indians, in from of Col. Brady's tent, in the field. The men were drawn up in military order, and the Indians arranged in front. I stated to them the object of the government in sending a garrison to the place, and its benevolent views with respect to them. The Indians replied in a friendly tone. The chief who spoke said that they had stipulation in the treaty that their ancient encamping ground should not be occupied by the military. To this Col. Brady replied that he had selected the high ground east of it for the cantonment (?).
Having been commissioned by the President, to exercise a jurisdiction over a new and extensive field, respecting the geographical and statistical features of which, but little was accurately known. I determined to address myself, from the outset, to the acquisition of data on these subjects. The district related to my care, is described in the instructions, to embrace all that part of our frontier extending from the mouth of the St. Mary's river, through lake Superior, to the Mississippi, and all the country upon that river, and its upper tributary, streams to the Scioux boundary. The various objects, it is added, statistical and political, connected with the establishment of your agency, need few observations from me. Your jurisdiction will extend over a very ample and a very important frontier where the Indians are exposed to an undue share of force or influence, and where the indications of hostile factions to the United States have not been unequivocal. To withdraw them from their accustomed intercourse and associations, mildly but firmly to support the rights and enforce the laws of the United States; to render them every service compatible with your own interest, and with that just economy, which is necessary; carefully license the traders and to scrutinize their conduct, and punish any infractions of the laws; and to act as a vigilant sentinel at an advance post, are among your most important and obvious duties.
12th. Communicated to the department the result of the council of the 9th, and my incipient proceedings, in opening an intercourse with the Chippewas.
13th. Commenced a vocabulary of the Chippewa language. This languages appears to be actually Algonquin.
15th. A number of Indians have visited the office, within a few days. Among those who have been introduced to day, is a Chief called Mudkadapenais or Blackbird and a party of men from the upper parts of lake Superior. He professes attachment to the American government. He claims authority over 20 men, two of whom are his brothers. They reside on the head of the river Brule, or on the upper St. Croix, which are connected by a short portage.
16th. This tribe appears to be scattered over an immense area of country. They are distinguished by local names, Chippewa of the Sault, Chippewa of Folle Avoine, etc.
17th. Visited by Chingwalk, or the Little Pine, a chief from the Canadian side of the river, with twelve followers. This man under the name of Augustin Bart, was one of the signers of the treaty of cession at the falls in 1820. He was also one of the actors in the attempt to intimidate Gov. Cass and his exploring party, from entering lake Superior. It appears from inquiring that at the moment of the Indians hoisting the British flag and sending off their women and children, Chaguscodawaqua, (Mrs. John Johnston) on being informed of it, sent for some of the most influential chiefs, including this individual and Shingabawassin, to whom in the absence of her husband in England, she presented tobacco. She then said to them: My relatives: It is too late for you to assert your rights. The country has been given up by treaty, and if you contend for it, the English government will not sustain you. It is better that you should receive the Americans, with friendship. This advice ultimately prevailed, although it was resisted to the lastly and one particularly by the chief called Sassaba, or the Count, who proposed to fall upon the Party at night.
18th. Wrote the department on the progress made in notifying the Indians of the wishes of the government, respecting their periodical visits to the British posts, and the probable bearing and effects of the measure. Visited by a chief from Grand Island, called Nokiwa. According to him, the number of hunters on that island is reduced to ten. The estimated populations given by Dr. Morse is 75. They take beaver and some otter and martin. Occasionally a few black bears in winter they hunt on the adjacent shores, extending west to Laughing fish river.
20th. Granted a passport to Joseph Neveaux under bond. Many Indians are in the place, from various points in the exterior; they seem, however, to venture into the office cautiously. The numbers of troops and the amount of military preparations, where they observe, is probably coupled in their minds with the unfriendly attitude assumed by them at this point, in past times, and leads to a natural mistrust. I was informed, in the morning, that a person not a citizen of the United States, had taken a quantity of provisions and goods to the head of the portage, for the purpose of introducing them, without license, into the Indian country. On proceeding to that spot, I found the articles indicated, and made a seizure of them, together with the canoes of the individual (J. Gauthier) who had meditated this violation.
25th. Heretofore, Indians visiting to the office, have been received with the customary civility of tobacco. Today, I commenced the occasional issue of food to those visiting the office on business, by requisitions on the assistant commissary of the post. (Lt. W. Ricker) Received visits from Kichiminabos of Mauvais River, who professed himself friendly. And from Katiwabida or the Broken Tooth, a chief from Sandy lake on the upper Mississippi. This chief, called De Breche by the French is venerable for his age and standing among his people. In a speech which he made to me, he announced that he had always pursued a pacified policy. He evinced an acquaintance with historical facts for the last half century, and appealed to them, to prove that he had uniformly been the friend of peace. He said that he had been a small boy at the taking of the old Mackinac in 1763. His father resided between Montreal river and Fond du Lac, and was honored as a chief under French rule. The French wished him to take up the tomahawk against the English, but he refused. Afterwards, the English thanked him for this, and requested him to act in the war against the Americans, which he refused. The Americans, in process of time, thanked him for this. But did not ask him to go to war. They advised the Indians to peace, and they have continued it up to this time. He said it was difficult to the Indians to procure peace among themselves. The Chippewas were often attacked by the Scioux. It is but recently, that they killed three persons of this tribe from the Upper Mississippi, including the principal chief of Leech Lake. He hoped our influence would be used to put a stop to this war. He pronounced himself the friend of peace.
Sand lake band is represented to number one hundred men, which is doubtful. Traders recently stated the entire population given to Dr. Morse to be 263, of whom we may suppose not more than 60 were men.
26th. This morning I was informed an Indian had been murdered last night, at the head of the portage. On coming to the spot, I found the murdered individual, Songagezhig or the Strong Sky, lying on his back, on the grass, quite dead. Several wounds had been inflicted with a knife in his thighs and body. It appeared that the deed had been done, in a drinking affray, by another Indian, who immediately made his escape. A halfbreed named Kogans (brother of J. Gaulthier) was also implicated. To these facts, Connasawga of Grand Island, was a witness. I directed a coffin to be made and caused the man to be buried in the ancient burial ground of the Indians on the hill. Many persons collected to see the internment. The corpse was dressed in the best clothes of the deceased, with his warrior's cape and feathers and wrapped round with a new blanket. Before the lid of the coffin was put down, Ka Ka Ke his brother, raised the cape and pulled from the head a lock of hair, which he carefully wrapped in a piece of birch bark. After the coffin was let down, two poles were laid over the grave transversely, across which the surviving brother led the widow. He then led her back, over the same poles. We were told that this ceremony signified protection.
27th. On examining the law respecting seizures of goods attempted to be illegally introduced into the Indian country, it is apparent that the provisions of the act, contemplates the removal of the property beyond the actual Indian boundary, before the seizure can be made. Under this construction, I delivered to J. Gaulthier the goods heretofore seized.
Paquonageezhig or the Hole in the Sky, a principal man from Sandy Lake, made a speech expressive of his friendship for the government, and at the conclusion presented a pipe with a long stem, ornamented after the Chippewa custom. This was delivered as a memento of his sincerity.
Permits were granted to several foreigners to enter the country as boatmen and interpreters in the service of American citizens.
28th. Mssrs. Mooris and Aitkin reported for my notice the case of the murder of one of their men, named Hipolite Relle, by an Indian of the Leech lake band called The Nut. The murder took place, on the Upper Mississippi, about 18 months ago, and is stated to have been unprovoked. The laws of congress extend criminal jurisdiction over the Indian country, for the purpose of protecting the lives of citizens. As Relle was a licensed boatman, although a foreigner, protection was fully due to him, under our laws and his murder seems to be already cognizable. But it may be questionable, how far a demand made at this time, for his surrender by the tribe may be efficacious, but there can be no question of my duty. Finding a respectable Indian of the Leech Lake band on the ground, called Seckitonigam, I requested his attendance at the office, and made a formal demand, through him, for the delivery of the murderer at the Agency, the following season on the pain of the government's violated rights.
29th. Indians now began to visit the office, with more freedom and in greater numbers. Katiwabida repeated his visit. Aptugeezhig and Meawigabo, two men from L'Ance, made friendly addresses, and each one, closed his speech by presenting a strand of wampum. Kotaquak or La Joie, whose sentiments are known to be adverse to the government, made a visit and ceremony.
Granted a license to Youngs L. Morgan to trade at Vermillion Lake west of the boundary of Rainy Lake.
30th. Acted on an application for a license to S. Gournon. De Breche and his aged wife called preparatory to their departure for the lake. Presented him a small cowrie, which he observed in my collection and appeared to set a high value on. It appears the Indians generally attach a value to this species, which they exhibit in the ceremonies of their medicine dance and wabeno societies. The name they apply to all the species of this shell is Equa megis, female wampum.
August 1st. Several small parties of Chippewas visited the office yesterday and today. The men are generally tall and well formed, with rather pleasant features. All without exception, possess very bright hazel eyes, and jet black coarse hair. These Indians appear to wear more hair than the tribes more southerly in position, and it is common for chiefs and men of distinction to bind a fillet of skin or cloth around the forehead. The head bands are generally ornamented. But whether present or absent the head usually displays two, three or more feathers of the falcon species. The colour of these Indians is a shade of red, often darkened by grease and paints. I think it is more apt to assume an olive hue in the mixed race, particularly in the first degree of the remove from the red to the white race. Their dress is simple and picturesque. The moccasin and leggon covers the feet and legs. The leggon is held up by a band of colored worsted. Above this, the body is free, with the exception of the azian or loin-cloth, over which there is usually a calico mantle, made shirt-fashion, that is with sleeves. Over all, is a simple broad fold of blue, or bright coloured cloth, disposed very much as paintings represent the ancient toga and certainly more graceful to the eye, than any modern coat.
2nd. Received an ornamented pipe from Guelle Plat or Askibugacocsh, the principal chief of Leech Lake on the upper Mississippi. Their chief is spoken in high terms and represented to exercise more than the usual authority proposed by chiefs. The people over whom he rules are called Pillagers. They are stated to number 1600 souls, of whom about 200 are fighting men. The pipe received from him is the appropriate emblem of peace and friendship among these people, and is therefore accepted as a pledge of his adhesion to the government. Transmitted by the bearer of the pipe, a complimentary message of acceptance, with a verbal invitation to the chief to visit the office, the ensuing season.
7th. Upwards of thirty Indians have visited the office, within the last five days, most of whom are men of minor note. There have been several applications for food for Indians taken sick at the post, which have been complied with, although it is evident that the illness in most cases, has been produced by the use of ardent spirits. The evils resulting from this habit, seem to be overwhelming and almost irremediable, while the Indians are in the settlement where the national laws do not operate to restrain the sale.
8th. Most of the principal traders from the north have been here, within the last ten or twelve days, and have imparted much local information respecting the Indians and the trade Inquiries made of them render it probable that the Indian population on the upper Mississippi, has increased since the last ravages of the small pox, in that region, about forty years ago. If they could be shielded from the effects of their wars, and wholly kept from the influence of ardent spirits, they would doubtless increase rapidly. Much of the soil is good and climate favourable to gardening and agriculture. Corn succeeds on the sources of Mississippi although it does not on the exposed shores of Lake Superior. But industry and sobriety would find the agricultural capacities of the country, every where, greater than they are supposed to be. When Gov. Cass visited the sources of the Mississippi in 1820, he entrusted several medals to a temporary agent for the distribution at Sandy Lake. On enquiry, they are found to have been awarded as follows. 1. To an Indian called Le Gross Francais, headman of the band inhabiting about the falls of Puckaiguma. 2. To Tireur au Blanc, called also Kaugidiagua and Pashigwqunaib, of Sandy Lake. 3. To Maigre of Sandy Lake. A medal given to one of his guides of the name of Dufault, the latter presented to Neezhapenas or Twin Birds, a principal man, at Cassina Lake. As these medals may be presented by the individuals as evidences of their Chieftainship, it is important that their distribution, should be properly understood.
The principal man, now in authority at Sandy Lake is Babisikindiba (this man descended the Mississippi with Gov. Cass party in 1820), or Curly Head, usually called Friser by the traders. He is said to exercise more influence than De Breche, who is now feeble and superannuated. Above that point on the Mississippi , Guelle Platt, appears to be the leading man. The chief called Le Sucre, mentioned by Pike is dead. As is also the chief called Broule. The latter died in a drinking frolic, on the should shore of lake Superior in 1816 or 1817, on his return from the Sault Ste. Marie, to his residence at Lac Cedre Rouge.
Sappa or Shingoob, is the most influential man at the post of Fond du Lac, and has an American medal. He is regarded as a good man and a prudent counselor, but is not distinguished as a warrior. Estimated population 390.
At La Point, or Chegoimigon, the hereditary chief is Chi Waishki, or Pezhicki. He is a man of a strong sound mind, and a good speaker. The present number of his band is state to be 26 heads of families, 26 married women, 8 young men, 15 young women, 8 widows and 43 children. Total 126.
9th. I have granted a number of written permits, within a few days, to residents of the place, to cut wild hay on the Indian lands a power which appears to have been heretofore exercised by Indian Agents.
10th I issued a license to G. Johnston for the post of Lac du Flambeau, or Torch Lake. This lake called Waswagun by the Indians, is a central point of trade for several villages embracing the sources of the Chippewa and Wisconsin rivers. The principal villages on the water of the Chippewa river are at Lac du Flambeau, at Lac des Flambeau, at Turtletown and at Trout lake. From a return of the population made to me by one of the traders, they embrace 96 men who can bear arms, 108 women, and 118 children. The other villages who trade a this post, are La Sac river the Wisconsin, and Vieux Desert or the old Garden. They comprise 50 men capable of bearing arms, 42 women, and 70 children, making a total for the post of 584. Former estimates have exceeded this. That of Dr. Morse does not greatly exceed it, and indicates that his sources of information were, in that respect, credible.
In making inquiries respecting the history of these Indians, it is replied, that they came originally from La Point on Lake Superior. They drove the Outagamies from this quarter. The latter, it is said, tried to strengthen themselves by a league with the Scioux. After several vicissitudes of the war, they were at length defeated by the Chippewas of the Lake Superior coast, who were led on by a succession of active warlike chiefs. The last of these persons, of whom much mention is made, was a chief called Wabojig or the White Fisher. Tradition adds that the Chippewas migrated into Lake Superior from the east and that they drove back the Scioux from the western and northwestern borders of this lake.
14th. The interior Indians have been rapidly going off, to their villages for several days. Most of the parties time it so, are to follow the traders, upon whom they intently rely, in cases of great need. Those who yet linger behind, are either waiting for struggling parties not yet return from their visits to the post of Drummond Island, or, they appear to loath to quit a scene, where the means of intoxication are so abundant. Although they have no more furs to offer for sale, many of them, have parted with the presents received at the British post during the season, and received whiskey in exchange for them. They are therefore not a whit bettered by these presents, but rather made worse. The Indians, on this strait, have the right of navigating the Canadian shores, and use the military arms of the government raised to enforce the interdiction, it would bring the country in contact with a foreign power.
16th. Received an answer from Superintendent of the department on a question submitted, viz, whether Indian agents have the power to grant licenses to any persons to hunt within the Indian territories. (No information of genealogical importance)
17th. Application for food has been made from day to day by the Indians detained by sickness. Yesterday a man called Sainebau or the Ribbon who had been , some time by the department supported died in his lodge. I requested the post surgeon to attend him during his illness, but no effectual relief could be given. The man seemed to lie in a torpid, lifeless state, from which neither mind nor body could be aroused. His widow came today with the usual request, Showainimishin, i. e show me pity. Issued a requisition on the commissary for ten rations. Indian diseases require to be studied, in connection with their habits. They eat and drink very irregularly. They are apt to be either in a state of fasting or repletion, which must induce violent transitions of health. When in a drinking routine, little of no food is taken. And whatever be the disease, or the medicine given to allay it, the physician must not expect an ordinary attention to regimen, unless he can have his assistant remain. In consequence of this fast, the medical treatment of Indians, living in these lodges, is attended with difficulty and uncertainty.
24th. Addressed to the department on the subject of creating an Agency house the ensuing season. Which in convenience is now experienced for the want of sufficient room for the reception of the Indians. The subject is one, which has a bearing on the prospective influence of the Agency. Aside from personal consideration, the business of the office demands something more respectable, than I can now offer, as the representative of my government. My present accommodations consist of a small apartment, about ten feet by fourteen, constructed of logs, mudded and whitewashed, with a fireplace and two small windows.
26th. Issued provisions to Mawiniga and family. Indian names are a topic of curiosity, and throw some light on the mental character of the people. The present name, for instance, which is perhaps more correctly written, Mawgwinjiga, signifies a morsel pressed between the teeth. It is evidently a soubriquet and not the real name. It is difficult to obtain the right name of an Indian, and it can never, I believe, be got by direct application. Some other person may state it. This reluctance, is manifestly the effect of a superstitious fear.
30th. I sent my interpreter down to lake Huron to process some wild rice, a friend having written to me to process some of the grain, to be sent abroad as seed. The difficulty in procuring it from the Indians, consists in the grain being smoked and dried, so as to destroy the relegating principals. Very little of this is found in the waters in this vicinity. There are some traces of it, in the shallow bay about six or seven miles below. The north shore of lake Huron affords small quantities.
Sept 1st. Prepared for transmission to Washington, my first quarter's accounts. Wrote to the department respecting the employment of a blacksmith, and the opening of a shop for the use of the Indians visiting the Agency. Many articles purchased from the traders, are rendered useless for the want of a slight repair. The breaking of a screw in a gunlock, or of a spring in a trap, is the cause of the article being thrown away. And it may be doubted whether there is any thing better calculated to aid them in their exertions, or to acquire and influence over them, than the gratuitous use of a blacksmith and armorer's shop.
6th. Granted relief to Captain Louis, and Iroquois of St. Regis, proceeding on his way as a hunter to the north. He had with him a son, and was detained at St. Mary's by temporary sickness. It is stated that the Canadian companies, hold out inducements to these people to hunt within the territories assigned to them, as they are more expert and persevering than some of the natives in that quarter. It is however, a species of my justice to the lands whose hunting grounds are there intruded on.
9th. Issued a license for Grand Island, and authorized the individual licensed to demand an exhibition of the license of any person whom he might find engaged in the trade at the post.
11th. Addressed a communication to the department on the subject of fishing at White Fish Point, in lake Superior, suggesting the adoption of general rules to regulate the practice and the shield the Indians from the introduction of whiskey at that place. By the applicant's executing a bond, with sureties, ardent spirits, might be excluded. And if a small sum were demanded by the government for the license as and equivalent to the Indians, a fund might be gradually accumulated to be applied towards the support of an Indian School at St. Mary's. I threw those views into the shape of an official letter.
19th. Licensed Lewis Bailey for the post of Keweena on lake Superior. This post in the next principal point of occupancy by Indians west of Grand island. The number of its population is not known, with certainty. About 45 souls live around Huron bay, which is one of the dependencies and probably about 135 around the shores of the larger bay of Kewiwinon. The principal chief is Iaba, a man renowned for his strength and muscular powers. It is stated on credible authority, the he once carried the entire flesh of a large moose cut up and wrapped in the wet skin. This was swung over his back, and carried on snow shoes, at a time in the early part of spring when the snow was soft, so that he sank deep at every step. This man was formerly the terror of the traders, when under the influence of liquor. An American flag was given to him by Col. Bissel about 20 years ago at the time that this office, then a subaltern, went in search of the Copper region on lake Superior. So says local tradition.
21st. Among the visitors from the lake whose picturesque costume has attended notice, I observed and Indian, having a frontlet made in the form of an ancient eastern crown, with acute points round the head. The material may have been a kind of parchment, thick paper or bark. Some of the Indians have appeared with a fillet of grass. Custom seems to have great latitude in this respect. Paints are usually applied in parallel lines between the ear and eye, or the prominent part of the cheek bone. Also on the cheek and forehead. And in longitudinal strips on the chin. These appear to be some definite general rule in this respect, although in minutia, as in the shape of the frontlet fancy may govern.
22nd. There are but a few animals which the Indians reject as food. On this subject they literally obey the injunction of the apostle that every creature of God is good, and nothing be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving. Whatever be the spirit with which they eat, the appear to be under little restraint from fastidiousness. We recently observed horseflesh where the animal is accidentally killed in a healthy state, is eaten.
24th. Information was brought to me that the Chief called Sassaba or the Count, had fallen a victim to intoxication. On inquiring it appears that he had been engaged in drinking for several days, at Point aux pins on the Canada shore. He embarked in a state of inebriation, in a canoe with his wife and child, to come down to St. Mary's. After they had been out from the shore sometime, the Indians looked, but saw no more of the canoe, where it had recently been seen. It was manifest that the canoe had been upset. Examination confirmed the conjecture. All on board had been thrown into the [? water] at the point above the rapids, where the current is strong, and all but the man Odabit perished, and was carried over the falls. Odabit reached shore in a partial state of intoxication and with a confused recollection of what happened. It appeared that the wind rising fair, The Count got up to assist in hoisting sail, but in the effort capsized the canoe.
This person was one of four brothers of the ruling chiefs at Sault Ste. Marie. Passion and vanity were strongly developed in his character. He was tall and well formed man and much addicted to dress. He professed a strong aversion to our government, from witnessing the fate of a brother who fell in conflict with the American troops at the battle at Moravian town, where their leader Tecumseh also fell. After his return to St. Mary's he was [?] by the officers of the post at Drummond's Island. He caused the breaking up of the council held by Gov. Cass with the Chippewas of this post. He appeared on the day of my first council with the Indians, when the troops were drawn up in order, dressed in a full suit of scarlet uniform, with two epaulets and a sword. A few days afterward he came to my office, very meanly clad, and under the influence of liquor. He indulged in drink during the summer, he procured a large wolf skin, and drew it on this body without a particle of other clothing but his loin cloth. He appeared mortified at the establishment of the post, and displeased that his brothers would not be engaged by his opinions.
Many presents, had been given to him and he knew how to conduct himself with propriety in company. He was passionately fond of lace on his clothes, from which he had taken his Indian name. He possessed a cloth tent. And when visited, would exhibit a tea tray, silver tea and table spoons, cups and saucers, knives and forks. He owned several ruffled shirts, which with gloves and an umbrella he wore on his dress days.
27th. Shigabawassin (Image-stone), an elder brother of The Count, visited the office this day, attended by a numerous retinue. This man is the ruling chief of the band. He has been absent from the place, nearly the whole time since the council in July, at which he acted as speaker. He has probably been deliberating upon the course of policy proper for him to pursue. And appears to have come in prepared to take the Americans firmly by the hand. He expressed himself to this effect. And I now feel a confidence that the Agency may rely upon him and perhaps the majority of his band. Time will only serve to convince them that our object is wholly pacific, and that we do not appear in the country as their enemy but their friends.
Shingabawassin is a man considerably above the ordinary stature, erect and well proportioned, of a dignified carriage and deportment and an open commanding countenance. The removal of the hair from his forehead and temples according to Indian custom give the idea of greater cerebral expansion then would ordinarily appear. He has an aquiline nose and lips expressively parted. These traits, with a dark and rather deep set of eyes and prominent cheek bones, serve to make his face more than usually impressive, so that he is easily remembered by his features. His mode of oratory is less gesticulatory and violent than is usual with the Indians. He has a method of repetition in forming his sentences which it is difficult to determine whether it proceeds from habit or a peculiar kind of impediment.
This man is one of about twenty children of Maidosagi, the hereditary chief of the band who had four wives, three of whom were sisters. The totem, or family mark of this band is the crane. Shingabawassin may now be in point of age bordering on sixty. He has had twelve children by one wife, eight of whom are living. His early history is unknown to me. While a young man he joined in war excursions against the Scioux. In 1813 he went to York for the purpose of joining Tecumseh. I do not know whether he was present with his brother The Count, when the younger brother was killed in battle on the Thames.
[Journal ends here.]