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Chippewa & Ottawa Treaty of 1820

Articles of a treaty, made and concluded at L’Arbre Croche and Michilimackinac, in the territory of Michigan, between the United States of America, by their Commissioner Lewis Cass, and the Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Indians.

ART. 1.

The Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Indians cede to the United States the Saint Martin Islands in Lake Huron, containing plaster of Paris, and to be located under the direction of the United States.

ART. 2.

The Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Indians acknowledge to have this day received a quantity of goods in full satisfaction of the above cession.

ART. 3.

This treaty shall be obligatory on the contracting parties after the same shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof.
In testimony whereof, the said Lewis Cass, commissioner as aforesaid, and the chiefs and warriors of the Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Indians, have hereunto set their hands, at Michilimackinac and L’Arbre Croche, in the territory of Michigan, this 6th day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty.

Lewis Cass.
Skahjenini, his x mark,
Pahquesegun, or Smoking Weed, his x mark,
Chemogueman, or Big Knife, his x mark,
Misesonguay, his x mark,
Papametaby, his x mark,
Ceitawa, his x mark,


Shawanoe, his x mark,
Oninjuega, or Wing, Ottawa chief, his x mark,
Cuddimalmese, or Black Hawk, Ottawa chief, his mark,
Dionesau, his x mark,
Kojenoikoose, or Long, his x mark,
Ottawa chiefs.
Kenojekum, or Pike, his x mark,
Cachetokee, his x mark,
Gimoewon, or Rain, his x mark,
Chiboisquisegun, or Big Gun, his x mark,
Skubinesse, or Red Bird, his x mark,
Weashe, his x mark,
Nebaguam, his x mark,
Ainse, his x mark,
Shaganash, or Englishman, his x mark,
Chippewa chiefs.

Witnesses present:

Jed. Morse, D. D.
Gilbert Knapp,
Richard C. Morse,
H. G. Gravenant, sworn interpreter,
George Boyd, Indian agent.

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MiGen Graphic In March and April, 1996, a group of genealogists organized the Michigan Comprehensive Genealogy Database. The idea was to provide a single entry point for all counties in Michigan, where collected databases would be stored. In addition, the databases would be indexed and cross-linked, so that even if an individual were found in more than one county, they could be located in the index.

At the same time, volunteers were found who were willing to coordinate the collection of databases and generally oversee the contents of the web page. My name is Rose Edwards and I'm responsible for Native Genealogy in Michigan. Please contact me if you would like to contribute to this database. If you would like to host a Michigan county, please contact Joan Brausch.

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Thank-you for your understanding and cooperation, Rose

1997-2004 by Rose Edwards (

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