St. Clair County
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Port Huron Area
Index to Local Newspapers


Suzette Bromley's Research Paper
History 301: Capstone Seminar
University of Michigan - Flint
December 2005


 

Port Huron, Michigan

"A Port City Built by the Railroad"

 

To many Michiganders, the name Port Huron evokes images of majestic yachts and sailboat races. Nestled on the St. Clair River, just a stone's throw from the mouth of Lake Huron, it is ideally located to host sailors from distant ports. The location of the city and its destination for sailors has not changed over the years. For some, it may be difficult to imagine this city in the early 1800s, on the dawn of its development. Port Huron became officially recognized as a city in 1857, just twenty years after Michigan became a state. As a port on the Great Lakes, one may easily infer that it must have been the maritime trade that lured people to settle this area. The soldiers at Fort Gratiot came and went. The farmers came seeking fertile soil and the lumbermen felled the timber that built cities. Ships drifted by and sailors disembarked. These things are true, yet it was the whistle, faint in the distant wind, that brought its tracks to this fair shore and threw the door open to prosperity and progress for the City of Port Huron.

Hallmarks of Progress

In this paper, I submit that the development of Port Huron is marked by the growth of many factors: population increase, status of wealth, influence on infrastructure, and political prominence; and I argue that this growth is more attributed to the railroad than to maritime trade. Port Huron's population increase is most telling in comparisons with other prominent local municipalities, such as the City of St. Clair, and when factoring in the economic interests of agriculture, lumber, navigation, and the railroad. The wealth of Port Huron's residents, when linked to these interests, speaks to their relative levels of importance, as does the residents' pattern of investing in the community. The manner in which Port Huron's infrastructure grew, facilitating its access and support, also reveals the significance of these particular interests. It is in combining all these elements, and factoring in potential continued growth, that Port Huron's political prominence was recognized and rewarded with the county seat in 1870. The progress experienced by Port Huron during the nineteenth century owed more to the tracks that stretched in every direction from this port than to the water that lapped its shores.

Before the Railroad

The missing element for early progress was adequate transportation. With the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, Michigan's waterways gained access to the populated markets of New York and the people of the east gained access to the riches of Michigan's landscape [1]. The federal census records of 1810 and 1820 show the Territory of Michigan's population doubled in a decade [2]. In the years between 1820 and 1830, dates before and after the introduction of the Erie Canal, the census records show an increase of 22,591 people, the population more than tripling [3]. Over the next ten years, the population rose by 600% [4].

It is not difficult to credit the Erie Canal as the principal reason for this significant rise in settlement. Previous political advancements concerning the Territory of Michigan appear ineffectual in encouraging mass migration and widespread settlement. The Land Ordinance of 1787 claimed the lands northwest of the Ohio River for the new American republic, but there was no new rush to settle the area as the forts remained in British hands until 1796 [5]. In 1805, the Territory of Michigan was established, but in the first five years the numbers of settlers increased by only fifteen hundred or so and remained clustered around the military fort of Detroit [6]. Michigan's land lay open, however the people were slow to claim it for their own.

Published travel logs and emigrant guides, published before 1820, hawked the soil and timber inherent of this region in an effort to encourage others to partakpartake of this bounty, but travel to Michigan was challenging in these early days [7]. Turnpike roads, when available, were often rutted by the elements or, worse yet, reduced to mud [8]. The same difficulties faced in traveling to Michigan hampered any of its export trade. Cognizant of this, when Michigan became a state in 1837, strong sentiment called for widespread improvements. Plans were drawn to build canals and railroads [9]. It stood to reason that if New York could so greatly benefit from the Erie Canal, a substantial increase in maritime trade through their ability to offer freight shipping for a tenth the price of overland shipping and the ability to concentrate commerce at the seaport of New York City, so too could Michigan benefit [10]. As Michigan plotted its course, it bore witness to New York, who through its efforts to shape the path of commerce, supplanted itself as the premier port of trade over Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New Orleans within fifteen years of launching the Erie Canal [11].

Fort Gratiot

The military outpost of Fort Gratiot, established in 1814 at the base of Lake Huron, did little to attract pioneers as the area selected was already inhabited, a fact General Alexander Macomb tried to supersede in 1828 with his petition for a large military reservation [12]. The permanence of the fort and its inhabitants was questionable as it was abandoned in 1822, lent as a mission to Christianize and educate Native Americans in 1823, in ruins by 1826, rebuilt in 1829, only then to be abandoned once again in 1837 [13]. This military installation may not have brought prosperity, but it did assist in developing Port Huron. The fort was the reason a military road was built between Fort Gratiot and Detroit. The United States Congress authorized the building of this military road on March 2, 1827 [14]. Construction began three months later and was completed in 1833 [15]. This road, Gratiot Turnpike, is still in use today though not referred to as a turnpike. Eventually, a settlement did develop outside the military fort that was organized as the Village of Fort Gratiot in 1838 [16].

Early Port Huron

Fig. 1. Original Four Villages & White's Plat [18]

Amidst the early endeavors for state improvements, the future home of the City of Port Huron grew. In 1837, there were five villages that would eventually be claimed by the city. The villages of Desmond and Peru were established in 1835 [17]. The northern boundary for both was the Black River and to the south, Griswold Street. Peru lay between the St. Clair River and 3rd Street; Desmond extended from 3rd Street and west to 7th Street. To the north of Black River were the villages of Huron and Gratiot, both established in 1837 [19].  Gratiot was set as east of Fort Street to the St. Clair River and north to today's McMorran Boulevard. Huron, also known as the Butler Plat, was located west of Fort Street to just west of 10th Street and north to Glenwood Avenue. The other locality delineated in 1837 was the Town of Huron [20]. Borded by the Black and St. Clair rivers, the town covered the area south of Holland Avenue to a line extending west from State Street. This parcel was reduced in 1838, to that between Lake Huron and Stone Street, and renamed the Village of Fort Gratiot [21]. In the 1840 census, the information for residents of these villages can be found under the name of Port Huron, as well as additional areas not otherwise included in Lexington, the only division given north of Port Huron in Michigan's Thumb [22]. One must accept the ambiguity in using these population figures in trying to focus on a specific area. However, this data is still useful in that it offers some basis to compare employment in the fields of agriculture, navigation, commerce and manufacturing.

In this census, the total population for Port Huronwas 1,114 [23]. Of these persons, there were 696 of relative working age, referred to here as whites, aged fifteen years old or older, and free-colored, aged ten years or older. Of this figure, 691 were white (463 males, 228 females), and five were free-colored (3 males, 2 females). Of the county residents, 325 people were employed. If one considers only those people of relative working age as indicated above, 46.7% of the concerned population were employed. The largest group of workers were involved in agriculture (45.5%), followed closely by that of manufacturing (39.7%). The last three groups of employment were commerce (9.2%), navigation of lakes and rivers (4.3%), and the learned professions and engineers (1.2%). It is no surprise that in the infancy of Michigan's statehood, more people were involved in agriculture than any other field. These figures cause one to ponder two points. Not only might one be surprised at the level of development indicated by the comparable numbers of manufacturing to agriculture, but also the very small percentage involved in navigation.

Agriculture

In 1840, the State of Michigan ranked tenth in the wheat states of the United States [24]. In 1849, the average yield of wheat per acre was ten bushels [25].By 1877, that average had increased to eighteen [26]. By 1883, the lower peninsula of Michigan had outpaced all of the wheat states, area for area, except for Indiana [27]. However, as Port Huron's Circuit Judge William T. Mitchell explained in his address to the Pioneer Society of St. Clair County on November 16, 1875, St. Clair County did not contribute overly much to Michigan's early agricultural production:

A perusal of St. Clair County history reveals the men of early Port Huron to have been heavily engaged in manufacture and commerce. John Miller came in 1832, and worked as a bookkeeper and clerk for the Black River Steam Mill [31]. A number of men worked in the mercantile business, their year of entry into Port Huron here noted: Jonathan Burtch, at or near the First National Bank site (1828); Mr. Flugal, also a baker (1837); John Wells (circa 1838); James William Sanborn and Alva Sweetzer (1847); Allen Fish (1848); and John Hibbard (1850) [32]. As to public lodging, Elijah Burch built and kept the Central Hotel starting in 1834 [33]. In this distance from Detroit, Port Huron appears to have been a commercial outpost from an early date.

Lumber

Lumber was the first industry to have a major impact on Port Huron. St. Clair County had a wealth of pine: white, juniper, hemlock, blue spruce, white and red cedars, tamarack, and Norway; along with maple, oak, ash, beech, walnut, poplar, elm, birch, and hickory [34]. Port Huron was strategically situated to particularly benefit from the felling of these trees located as it is at the mouth of the Black River. The Black River flows south from just west of Palms, in Sanilac County, to Port Huron, a span of fifty-six miles [35]. The importance of this relationship lies in the use of the river by the lumbermen to float the cut logs downriver to the sawmills where they were then processed. The amount of lumber from the north, termed "Black River gold" by the Sunday Commercial newspaper of May 29, 1852, reached 64 million feet in 1869 [36].

Fig. 2. Black River [37]

A detailed explanation of the lumbering experience was given by Dorothy M. Mitts, a local historian, in her newspaper series, "St. Clair County From Pioneer Days" [38]. The lumber season did not start with the river log drive. It began with the lumberjack, equipped with an ax before the 1870s when saws came into general use. Roused about four o'clock in the morning by a chore boy, after a hearty breakfast the men would start in the woods by daybreak. Tree selection hinged on proximity to the outgoing path. The lumberjack notched the tree deep enough that the sawyer could then take over with his saw.

Once felled, thetree was stripped of its branches by the "swampers." Cut into measured lengths, the teamsters and skidders chained the logs and dragged them to the sleds that carried them to skidways, strategically placed piles of lumber. The scaler measured the logs' diameters in order to compute the amount of board feet and then branded the log with a sledge hammer, its face engraved with a distinguishing mark. The log was then removed to the banking grounds, such as the area above a river, to await the spring and the thawing of the river. Once spring arrived, witnesses along the river watched riverjacks, or "river-hogs," riding the logs upon the river, alert to thwart any jamming along the way. Once the timber reached the intended collection area, it was then sorted into its owner's boom.

As the Northwest Territory grew, the demand for St. Clair County's lumber increased. After the Detroit fire of 1805, St. Clair County was the closest producer of pine available to deliver on the order from Acting Governor Stanley Griswold to supply material to rebuild the city [39]. Another distant city to benefit from county lumber was Milwaukee when, in the 1830s, the Beard Mill in Clyde Township shipped a sizeable amount of lumber for its construction [40]. In 1854, the counties of St. Clair and Sanilac produced 145 million feet of lumber with a market value of $1,450,000 [41]. St. Clair County produced three billion feet of white pine, as well as a sizeable amount of hardwood, for the period between 1870 and 1890 [42].

On the Michigan frontier, wood products were used as forms of currency. Shingles, easily shaped by hand, and cordwood, chopped wood in four-foot lengths, could be exchanged for merchandise at the local general store and even in Detroit [43]. In 1836, the price given for shingles at the Alfred and Joseph Comstock store was $1.50 per thousand [44]. A cord of wood would usually bring the customer a credit of $1.00 to $1.50 [45]. Riverside general stores would then either exchange the wood in return for supplies brought by steamers or sell it for cash to passing vessels [46]. In 1877, cordwood prices garnered in Detroit were: hickory ($4.00), beech ($3.50), and inferior pieces ($2.25) [47].

The lumbermen of this area undoubtedly used their wealth and prominence in the community to contribute to Port Huron's progress. Of those involved in the mercantile business listed previously, Sanborn, Sweetzer, Fish, and Hibbard also dealt with timber [48]. In addition were the lumbermen: Bartlett Luce (1836), Newell Avery (1851), James and John Beard (1853), and John Stillson (after 1853) [49]. Of these men, John Hibbard became the mayor of Port Huron in 1869 and his administration saw to the building of the Black River bridges [50]. John Beard assisted in getting Stone Street built as well as the road to Brockway [51]. Another lumberman, though not of Port Huron, George Fletcher built a wooden track to connect his Kimball pinery to the St. Clair River; this path later became Port Huron's southern city limits and was named Ravenswood [52]. David Ward, a former Port Huron teacher and resident, became known as the "Pine King" of Michigan for his ability to discover and acquire great tracts of timber, becoming Michigan's largest individual owner of such lands [53]. His contribution to Port Huron was to lay out the White Plat of 1849 [54]. With the addition of the plat to the four original villages of downtown, the new Port Huron reached west to 10th Street [55]. As with Desmond and Peru, White Plat's northern border was the Black River [56]. Its southernmost point was halfway between Court and Union Streets, from which a roughly 45 degree northeast angle took it to 4th Street across Desmond's northern side [57].

The end of the lumber era was brought about by several factors. A witness to lumbering in the 1880s vouched for the longevity of the white pine when he claimed that the rings inside these trees indicated an age of not quite three hundred years [58]. These ancient trees were the prime reason Michigan led the United States in lumber production from 1860 to 1910 [59]. Unfortunately, with no concept of conservation and the lack of spontaneous reproduction by the white pine, the number of trees dwindled. Aside from man's threat to the forest, Mother Nature was also unkind. In 1871, the summer was plagued by drought. The lack of rainfall and the discarded debris from previous logging combined to leave the area ripe for wildfires. Many will remember hearing of the Great Chicago Fire. It was during this same season that lower Michigan suffered the loss of two hundred people and the destruction of 1,200,000 acres [60]. Of these figures, the area between Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron lost over fifty people and saw the devastation of forty square miles of timberland [61].

Ten years later, disaster revisited this area of lower Michigan. A recounting in Charles Moore's, History of Michigan, of the flames that swept the Thumb area is vivid enough to be disturbing to the reader [62].  In August of 1881, settlers of this area used fire to facilitate the clearing of land for agriculture. They ignored reports of fires that had burned earlier that month in Ogemaw County, located on the west side of Saginaw Bay. On August 13th, the signal service at Port Huron warned of forest fire smoke to the west and southwest. On August 31st, a fire blazed from the north of Lapeer County to Sandusky, and on to Deckerville. On September 5th, Bad Axe faced the raging fire. Strong winds from the northwest and southwest converged on the town, sending hot ashes and burning cinders into the sky, sparking flames that engulfed the town in twenty minutes.

Other towns caught in the inferno were Huron City, Grindstone City, Port Hope, and Parisville, which was hit by a wall of flame estimated at fifty to one hundred feet high. The bodies of water offered little relief as the intense heat caused fish to die in the streams and the raining ashes turned the lake waters caustic. People attempted to escape the horror by climbing into wells, or in desperation, to hide their faces in holes clawed from the ground to avoid suffocation, only to suffer the fire and heat on their backs.

Fig. 3. Burnt District of Thumb Fire of 1881 [63]
The Black River runs south from Minden Township.

The full extent of the damage from the Thumb Fire of 1881 is unknown. The American Red Cross, primarily due to the appeals from the Port Huron Relief Committee, undertook this as their first disaster relief mission, sending $3,000, and reported the death toll as one hundred and twenty-five [64]. Port Huron's Relief Committee included in its representatives: William Bancroft, Port Huron's Mayor Ezra Carleton, and United States Senator Omar D. Conger [65]. Nearly a half a million dollars in contributions sailed into Port Huron and was unloaded by its townspeople [66]. The State of Michigan's Department of Natural Resources offers the figures of 282 deaths and the loss of over one million acres [67].

The respiratory diseases that befell the survivors foreshadowed the last gasps of the Thumb's lumber heyday. The consequences for Port Huron from the destruction wrought in 1871, combined with the effects of the financial panic of 1873 and the subsequent depression in marine and shipbuilding interests, marked the years between 1873 and 1879 as a time of no actual growth for the city [68]. In the dawn of the city's recovery from the financial strain of the 1870s, the Fire of 1881 was ill-timed at best as the consequences of lost resources and revenue would have had a widespread effect on a city that so benefited from the timber of the north.

Navigation

There is no denying the importance of the surrounding waterways to the growth of Port Huron. It was the easiest means to reach these shores as the countryside was dense with trees and undergrowth. The year of 1819 brought the first steamboat past Port Huron. The Walk-in-the- Water, built the previous year, had left Detroit and was on its way to Mackinac and Green Bay [69]. Built in 1827, the Argo out of Detroit, was the first steamboat to serve the ports along Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair River [70]. This vessel was replaced by the steamer, General Gratiot. Francis P. Browning, who had ordered its construction, was also responsible for not only building the first schoolhouse within the future city limits of Port Huron, but also the first steam sawmill in the Northwest Territory, afterwards known as the Black River Steam Mill [71]. This sawmill was the first in Michigan to use sawdust as fuel, with the leftover sawdust being used to build up the Black River's north bank near the streets of Quay, River, and Huron Avenue [72]. Between the Erie and Browning's General Gratiot, regular water traffic was established between Port Huron and Detroit in 1837 [73].

This promising start to Port Huron's navigation of the St. Clair River was interrupted by the Wards from Marine City, who commenced building what would become a strongly defended monopoly. Samuel Ward and his nephew, Eber Brock Ward, became the largest shipowners on the Great Lakes after 1843 [74]. It was upon one of the Wards' boats, the steamer Ruby, that the Edison family reached Port Huron in 1854:

Records reveal rate wars, free dinners to passengers, and outright strong-arm tactics, all in the effort to maintain the Wards' maritime supremacy. An account of Wesley Truesdail, a St. Clair banker who dared to charter a boat to service St. Clair River traffic, and Samuel Ward's maneuvers to undermine confidence in Truesdail's bank by withdrawing large amounts of specie, warned anyone against similar aspirations [76].

Although the presence of water in the Great Lakes region is constant, waterway traffic is not. The early steamboats were fueled by wood and wood docks lined the shores of the St. Clair River [77]. By clearing the timber from their property, farmers along the shores not only opened their fields for cultivation but also profited from supplying the vessels with fuel. Steamer consumption was estimated at 150,000 cords for the year of 1836, with a value of $250,000 [78]. Hardwoods, such as oak, were preferred over the softer woods, including pine, as the softer woods burned rapidly, necessitating frequent tending and restocking [79]. Journeying from Buffalo to Chicago in 1847, the Empire stopped to refuel along the St. Clair River, a task that took three and a half hours [80]. Coal offered vessels a hotter fuel source and took up less cargo space [81]. Though coal was shipped as a commodity prior to 1850, its use by steamers as a fuel was not widely adopted until after the Civil War [82].

Another issue that causes interruption in travel is the commencement of winter and the buildup of ice. The Great Lakes' season of navigation is largely influenced by the status of the Straits of Mackinac and the canal systems. Historically, the season began when the straits opened, generally around the third week of April, and ended when the canals closed in early December, such as those at St. Mary's Falls which link Lake Superior to Lake Huron [83]. The earliest steamboats suffered slow voyages, frequent refueling stops, and a limited season of navigation, all of which conspired against vessel owners in their bids for profit. The improvement of using coal quickened maritime travel and increased available cargo space for trade. However, the season of navigation continued to be decided by Mother Nature and the ice levels on the Great Lakes.

Port Huron maritime interests involved more than just the passing traffic. Steamers connected Port Huron to Detroit but ferries bridged the gaps between the villages along Black River and between Port Huron and Canada. As early as 1824, Jean B. Desnoyer held a county court license for his ferry service across the Black River [84]. The first ferry connecting Port Huron to Canada over the St. Clair River started about 1833 by William Eveland of Canada, though the first to be licensed was by Norman Nash and Nicholas Ayrault, established in March 1837 [85].

Fig. 4. Huron Avenue Ferry [86]

James Moffat, ferry service owner and a tug and ferry builder, made quite a name for himself on the local waters. Along with Daniel D. Runnels, he operated the Port Huron and Sarnia Ferry Line that docked at the foot of Butler Street, today's Grand River Avenue, and at Huron Avenue [87]. Moffat was also known not only for building the first tug especially built for towing large rafts of timber down the St. Clair River with the Kate Moffat in 1864, but also for his wrecking company, believed to be the most powerful at that time on the Great Lakes [88]. Wrecking, or more accurately salvaging, is the rescuing of crew, ship, and cargo, in return for a portion of the cargo's proceeds [89]. These men undoubtedly contributed to Port Huron's progress as Moffat served as a City Alderman and Runnels was elected twice as mayor and later served as City Treasurer [90].

 

Fig. 5. Boats along the Black River [92]

The same ideal location of Port Huron that brought such benefit from the lumber industry also put it in good stead as a shipbuilding center with its dependency on timber. The first ship reportedly built in Port Huron was the sloop Temperance in 1838 [91]. The Jenks Shipbuilding Company, located at the foot of Kearney Street where the Grand Trunk Railroad bridge crossed over the Black River at Water Street, built the first four-deck, all-steel passenger steamer on the Great Lakes in 1903 [93]. By 1907, Jenks Shipbuilding had built fourteen steel ships and Port Huron ranked second only to Marine City in shipbuilding [94]. Though Jenks Shipbuilding made the transition to steel, as wooden ships passed out of favor, so too did the shipbuilders of Port Huron [95].

As a maritime trade port, Port Huron provided support in the manner of dry docks and storage elevators. The dry dock of Dunford and Alverson offered repair service, the need for which must have been great as they were able to employ 150-200 men during the winters of 1880 to 1883 [96]. This firm also engaged in shipbuilding as attested to by records for the schooner Fred J. Dunford, launched on May 15, 1873 [97]. The company's dock, built in 1891, measured 412' and was credited as the largest on the Great Lakes [98]. Other local dry docks and shipbuilders included Fitzgerald & Leighton; Muir, Livingstone & Company; and Wolverine Dry Dock [99].

A common cargo for the ships that passed up and down these waters was grain. Storage was provided at Port Huronbby a number of elevator companies. Joseph M. Ward  and his son, Charles A., were the first to build such storage facilities in the city when they built the Grand Trunk Elevator circa 1877 [100]. The Botsford Elevator was built by John E. and William  F. Botsford and completed on June 1, 1880 [101]. Having lost this elevator to fire, it was rebuilt in 1882; its location at the foot of Thomas Street would have placed it in front of today's Thomas Edison Condominiums [102]. The second elevator had the capacity to hold 125,000 bushels [103]. Later names associated with the city's grain elevators were Peter B. Sanborn and Henry McMorran, names still recognizable within Port Huron [104].

Fig. 6. Customs House [108]

A United States Congressional Act created the Customs District of Port Huron on April 13, 1866 [105]. The jurisdiction of the new district, the name shortened to the District of Huron in 1868, covered the coastline from the Straits of Mackinac to Lake St. Clair [106]. Approval granted in June of 1872, construction of a building to house the offices of the customs house and post office began in 1873 [107]. Customs were collected on: ships entering or leaving the district; ships with cargo from within the district, traveling to other districts, or from foreign ports; and on registering ships, cargoes, and passengers [109]. Though the City of Port Huron gained a stately edifice, the numerous customs collected therein were forwarded out of the city to the United States Treasury Department [110].

Another maritime interest related to Port Huron involved the fish of the Black River, the St. Clair River, and Lake Huron. Before the Black River was blocked by dams, the sturgeon, pike, and mullet were able to lay their eggs a far distance up the river [111]. The St. Clair River, near the mouth of Lake Huron, provided enough fish, including herring, pickerel, and whitefish, that the surplus was preserved in salt and shipped to eastern markets [112]. Its 1836 fish export was 3,100 barrels, increasing to 4,000 barrels in 1837, with the value of each season between $18,600 and $32,000 [113]. This activity attracted the Huron Land Company to buy property in 1837 along the shores of Lake Huron, who then proceeded to divide it into lots approximately one mile in length and termed "fisheries" [114].

Fig. 7. Swing Ferry [118]

The Coming of the Railroad

The year of 1859 was an important year for Port Huronand its environs. East of the St. Clair River, the Grand Trunk Railroad completed its 800-mile route from Portland, Maine to Sarnia, Ontario [115]. Under the name of the Chicago, Detroit, and Canada Grand Trunk Junction Railway, a fifty-seven-mile track was completed that connected Port Huron to Detroit [116]. A car ferry was introduced that eliminated the need to unload and reload cargo as the new ferry could transport the railway cars themselves across the river [117]. This ferry, known as the "Swing Ferry," extended from a cable anchored at Fort Gratiot and used the strong water current to propel it across the river [119]. The vessel, the first of its kind, and the only one in the world for twenty years, was used constantly until 1867 when its cable was severed in a collision with an up-bound steamer [120]. Subsequent train ferries could transport up to twenty-two loaded cars at one time (1872), and in 1888, there were 332,000 cars carried across the St. Clair River [121].

Having acquired various Peninsular railroad companies, the Grand Trunk Railway reached Chicago in 1879 [122]. An 1891 map of this route can be found in Appendix A. The company built car and locomotive shops and a roundhouse in Fort Gratiot Village's Block I in 1882 [124]. The new machine and locomotive shops witnessed the first electric lights in the city within their first year [125]. Vestibuled passenger cars were built in these shops from 1890 to 1899 [126]. The large amount of railroad industry undertaken in the Village of Fort Gratiot likely contributed to the City of Port Huron's annexation of the location in 1893 [127]. In 1891, Grand Trunk opened the world's first international submarine railway tunnel under the St. Clair River, which was also credited as the world's longest train tunnel at that time [128]. The tunnel switched to electric locomotives in May of 1908, a measure that removed the dangerous gas fumes responsible for a number of deaths [129].

Fig. 8. Grand Trunk Depot [123]

The prosperity brought to Port Huron by Grand Trunk was interrupted by the November 1913 disasters that assaulted the Block I car shops [130]. On November 9th, the shops suffered extensive damage from the storm that ravaged the Great Lakes [131]. November 26th saw to the final destruction as fire swept through the ten acres of buildings [132]. Anxious over the loss of such a large employer, 500 directly employed with another 500 affected, overtures were made to the company to ascertain the necessary measures to entice the company to rebuild [133]. After lengthy negotiations, a community drive began to raise funds to purchase a replacement site and $112,000 was pledged within the drive's first ten days [135]. The new car shops, which opened in 1918, were relocated to thirty-five acres in the vicinity of the Port Huron approach to the St. Clair International Tunnel [136].

The community's effort was repaid by substantial employment: ten yard crews, three yardmasters, twenty clerks, fifteen station staff, nine telegraph operators, four section foremen overseeing twenty men each, four plumbers, and about eight carpenters, bridge and building men [137]. Additional freight sheds were built between 1924 and 1925 at 24th Street and Bancroft [138]. By 1938, Grand Trunk employment reached approximately 1,200, with an annual payroll of about $2,000,000 [139]. Not only were the Port Huron employees paid with outside money from divisional headquarters, but the city also received $600,000 in annual taxes [140].

Fig. 9. Block I Shops Destroyed by Fire [134]

There were a number of facilities built to support the industry of Grand Trunk. An apprentice school trained young men aged eighteen to twenty-four to become mechanics [141]. A plant hospital was built to care for the railway terminal's workers [142]. Beginning in 1899, an auxiliary branch of the Young Men's Christian Association was maintained to house out-of-town railroad workers during their layovers [143]. The Grand Trunk Y.M.C.A. on 32nd Streetoffered twenty-six bedrooms, a meeting room, a lounge and a restaurant, and employed a staff of eleven [144]. In 1905, this Y.M.C.A. saw a daily average of sixty-eight railroad men [145]. The freight office and sheds at 24th Street utilized a two-way loud speaker to facilitate communication [146]. To supply its refrigerator cars, an ice manufacturing and storage plant produced 142 tons each day, 20,000 tons a year, and could store up to 7,000 pounds [147].

The second railroad from Port Huron was the Port Huron and Lake Michigan Railroad that reached Flint on December 12, 1871 [148]. Its tentative beginnings can be traced back to the Michigan Northern Railroad, one of the three railroads proposed in the state's early charter of 1837. This northern route was originally surveyed from the town of St. Clair to Lake Michigan at Grand Haven, though the actual clearing work of 1838-1839 brought the eastern terminus to Port Huron [149]. Though having spent $70,000 in surveying these lands, the railroad project was abandoned [150]. In 1847, the railroad issue was revived by the incorporation of the Port Huron and Lake Michigan Railroad, though the company failed to gain sufficient stock subscriptions [151]. As the Chicago and Northeastern Railroad, established in 1874, and under the direction of Port Huron's William L. Bancroft, the connection between Flint and Lansing was opened on January 1, 1877 [152]. This section later played an important part of the Grand Trunk trade with Valparaiso, Indiana, and Chicago [153].

Fig. 10. Port Huron & Northwestern Depot [158]

The Port Huron and Northwestern Railway Company was formed in 1878 and built by local investors [154]. This railway, known as the Narrow Gauge railroad, was eventually consolidated with the Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad in 1889 [155]. Its construction reached: Croswell (1879); Carsonville, Deckerville, Minden City, and Harbor Beach(1880); Marlette, Mayville, and Vassar (1881); and Ubly, Bad Axe, Kinde, Port Austin, Almont, and Saginaw(1882); opening Michigan's Thumb to railway traffic [156]. These tracks put the Port Huron and Northwestern Railroad in a position to help the victims of the Thumb Fire of 1881 by transporting passengers and relief supplies, all of which it did at no charge [157]. Contributions brought by this railroad to the City of Port Huron included: a railroad bridge at the mouth of the Black River(1881), and improvements to the wetlands between Pine Street and Griswold Street at the St. Clair River in order to build an impressive passenger depot, a freight depot, a machine shop, and an eleven-locomotive roundhouse [159].

Connecting with both the Grand Trunk and Pere Marquette railroads at the Tappan junction, located on Michigan Road at Griswold, the Port Huron Southern Railroad was responsible for transporting goods from the Port Huron Salt Company (1900) [160]. The Port Huron Salt Company became the Morton Salt Company and in 1920, the Port Huron Southern, stretching to Marine City, became part of the Port Huron and Detroit Railway Company [161]. The Handy Brothers, who had bought the Port Huron Southern in 1917, used the rails for their sugar factory [162]. The Handy Brothers also owned the Detroit, Bay City and Western Railroad that ran between Port Huron and Bay City [163]. In 1945, the Port Huron and Detroit Railway became Michigan's first railroad to be completely converted to diesel engines [164].

Aside from these railroads, there were a couple of smaller entities related to rail traffic. William Pitt Edison, as owner and proprietor, along with fellow stockholder, his brother Thomas Edison, offered a horse-car shuttle between the depots of the Grand Trunk and the Port Huron and Northwestern [165]. Approved by the Port Huron City Council on November 21, 1865, the Port Huron and Gratiot Railway was organized in 1866 after attaining Congressional consent for use of land on the military reservation [166]. A competing company, the City Railway, was established in 1873 [167].

Fig. 11. Port Huron & Gratiot Railway [168]

The territorial conflict between the two was rectified in 1877 by the formation of a new company, the Port Huron Railway [169]. This service was electrified, the first car put in service on October 15, 1886, and the business became known as the Port Huron Electric Street Railway, or simply the City Electric Street Railway [170]. This venture has the privilege of claiming to be the first in the world to illuminate its cars using electric lights, the first to traverse a moveable bridge, and to have the foresight to request permission in its franchise to use electric power at a time when there was no commercial electric railway in the world (1883) [171]. The City Electric Railway was connected in 1900 to the Rapid Railway that ran between Detroit and Mount Clemens by the Port Huron, St. Clair and Marine City Railway Company [172]. The name of this line changed to the Detroit and Port Huron Shoreline Railway (1899) before it was taken over by the Detroit United Railway (1901) [173]. As a side note and to satisfy some of the Edison mystique, the mother of "Pitt" and Thomas made curtains, cushions, and floor coverings for the new cars. However the Edison patriarch, contrary to Thomas' forward thinking, complained that the electric car went "too fast" and he reportedly never rode streetcars again [174].

Port Huron After Railroad Introduction

As stated previously, the growth of Port Huron was influenced by a number of industries. Comparisons, based on census records, show the rise and fall of relative occupational involvement and wealth. The census records between 1870 and 1900 are of particular interest as they scale the introductions of the various railroad interests: Grand Trunk (1859), Port Huron and Gratiot (1866), Port Huron and Lake Michigan (1871), Port Huron and Northwestern (1878), Port Huron Electric (1886), and Port Huron Southern (1900). The population growth tracked over the years displays Port Huron's ability to retain its citizenry and attract new residents. The pattern of the city's expansion gives insight as to what industry had the largest draw. The wealth claimed, identified with occupational interests, proposes the industry that was the most beneficial, providing capital to help build Port Huron.

The City's Population and Expansion

Various resources provide information on a city's population. Of these, the federal census is the most uniform, taken every ten years since 1790 and addressing many of the same questions, and the most publicly available as images of the pages can be found in public libraries across the nation. These reports are the closest an historian ever gets to interviewing their subject as they give vital information on one's background and offer a snapshot into that person's daily life, at that time, as opposed to a summary of highlights shared in hindsight. The federal government, compiling statistical data to plan for growth, did not set out to create such a useful tool for researchers but there are many of us who are glad they did [175].

The City of Port Huron was established in 1857 and the additional property combined at that time doubled the city's area from the original four Black River villages [176]. Within two years, the city limits had been expanded with another portion of similar size until it reached the edge of Fort Gratiot [177].  In 1893, the five early villages were finally all under the auspices of the City of Port Huron upon the annexation of the Village of Fort Gratiot. It is a reasonable viewpoint that the development of the areas, eventually found to be within Port Huron's 1893 city limits, contributed to the city's overall growth. It is for that reason that a broadly defined boundary was adopted in dealing with the census reports for this project. Tracking the populace through these records has been challenging but even a broad definition provides compelling data to indicate the railroad's influence outpaced that of navigation.

Four-Industry Employment and Wealth

Table 1 presents the employment numbers as given in the various census records. The four industries shown are the most prominent and most closely linked to Port Huron's prosperity; the other occupational fields have been disregarded as inconsequential to this study. As one can see, the largest discrepancy for one field, due to broad versus strict defining, exists in Agriculture. The most obvious reason hinges upon the large rural areas covered when including the townships. As the city progressed, and as more people moved into the city, urban development encroached on farmland and farmers were forced to move further into the country or seek alternate employment.

 

Table 1. Employment Total and Percentage, per Census, as Defined by Reported Boundaries

 

 

 

Broadly Defined

 

Strictly Defined

 

 

 

Total

(%)

 

Total

(%)

Agriculture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

 

45

24.2

 

1

0.5

 

1860

 

262

35.5

 

70

15.0

 

1870

 

133

18.1

 

33

6.0

 

1880

 

76

7.9

 

49

7.1

 

1894

 

-

-

 

99

6.4

 

1900

 

-

-

 

88

5.3

Lumber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

 

91

48.9

 

78

41.9

 

1860

 

279

37.8

 

251

53.7

 

1870

 

283

38.6

 

275

49.9

 

1880

 

59

6.2

 

57

8.3

 

1894

 

-

-

 

72

4.7

 

1900

 

-

-

 

64

3.8

Navigation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

 

50

26.9

 

44

23.7

 

1860

 

153

20.7

 

121

25.9

 

1870

 

221

30.2

 

190

34.5

 

1880

 

363

37.9

 

315

45.8

 

1894

 

-

-

 

678

43.8

 

1900

 

-

-

 

715

42.8

Railroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1860

 

45

6.1

 

25

5.4

 

1870

 

96

13.1

 

53

9.6

 

1880

 

461

48.1

 

267

38.8

 

1894

 

-

-

 

699

45.2

 

1900

 

-

-

 

804

48.1

 

The extreme decline in Lumber involvement as shown in Table 1, between 1870 and 1880, lends solid numerical data to the end of the lumber era, a depression that could have proven disastrous to Port Huron had not the lumber barons turned their attention to more promising endeavors. Many embraced the railroad as a worthy business venture as can be seen in the stock subscriptions of 1872 for the Port Huron and Northwestern Railroad. Local businessmen and residents pledged $91,200 towards its construction and of this amount, $50,550 can be connected to those in the lumber business [178]. That the lumbermen had the lion's share of the city's wealth is proven by the total assets claimed in 1870, as provided by Table 2. The subscription list shows broad representation from local businessmen and residents. The contributors likely shared the conviction that the railroad would widely benefit the city as it would transport its products to outside markets and, in turn, drive prosperity to the city.

 

Table 2. Total Estate Wealth, per Census, Based on Broadly Defined Boundaries

 

 

 

Real

 

Personal

 

Total

Agriculture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

 

$   38,790

 

$   -

 

$   38,790

 

1860

 

328,450

 

50,350

 

378,800

 

1870

 

170,500

 

59,285

 

229,785

Lumber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

 

144,500

 

-

 

144,500

 

1860

 

610,635

 

96,279

 

706,914

 

1870

 

781,400

 

374,400

 

1,155,800

Navigation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

 

20,250

 

-

 

20,250

 

1860

 

70,100

 

68,575

 

138,675

 

1870

 

100,000

 

50,000

 

150,000

Railroad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

 

0

 

-

 

0

 

1860

 

27,000

 

2,035

 

29,035

 

1870

 

13,100

 

4,200

 

17,300

 

Before deliberating on Navigation and Railroad, one should note that after the 1880 data, the amounts discussed below refer to those found in the "strictly defined" column as the city had reached its generally accepted boundaries. In considering Navigation, one sees moderately steady involvement over the years. Numbers for the Railroad reflect the slow growth in the early years of Grand Trunk's activities but a large increase after the introduction of subsequent rail lines. There are a few factors one must ponder in comparing the involvement in these two fields. Table 1 states that Navigation peaked in 1880, though Railroad continued to grow into 1900. Navigation peaked at 43.8% of the selected employees (1894); Railroad met and exceeded this rate the same year as well as the one prior.

Another factor one should not discount is the rate of increased employment over the time period being discussed. Between 1850 and 1900, Navigation's overall increase was 15.9%, with its largest increase at 9.5% (1860-1870). If one disregards the 1850 starting point, due to the non-involvement in Railroad at that time, and begins with the data from 1860, Navigation's overall increase rises to 22.1%. With regard to Railroad, the first year of Grand Trunk business only occupied 6.1% of those employed. The largest jump between enumerations occurred in the 1870-1880 interval, a 35.0% increase, and corresponds with the 32.4% reduction in Lumber workers. As early as 1880, nearly half of the employees worked in Railroad, a level relatively maintained as late as 1900.

Railroads' Consequence

St. Clair County, with the county seat located at St. Clair, was set off from Macomb County on March 28, 1820 [179]. Overtures were made early on to remove the county seat to Port Huron. Seven proposals were introduced between 1824 and 1870 [180]. Port Huron's rising prominence in the county can be seen in the growth of its population and industry. In 1860, the City of St. Clair had a population of 1,572, whereas the four wards of the City of Port Huron had 4,366 [181]. By a difference of four, Port Huron had more people employed than St. Clair had residents [182]. The wealth of these cities, in 1860, amounted to: St. Clair ($839,780) and Port Huron ($2,573,899) [183]. A comparison of the largest industries of these cities shows St. Clair gained the most, according to reported values of real and personal estates, from Agriculture ($270,650), and Manufacture ($243,294), and Port Huron from Manufacture ($1,184,286), and Trade ($793,260) [184]. In dividing the occupations into the four primary interests: Agriculture, Lumber, Navigation, and Railroad, one sees the largest gain is brought to St. Clair by Agriculture ($270,650) and to Port Huron by Lumber ($690,239) [185]. At this early date, there was little involvement in railroads by either city. St. Clair showed no residents employed by the railroad; Port Huron had only twenty-five with a wealth of $29,035 [186].

On the eve of the final county seat battle, it is with regret that the 1870 census data for the City of St. Clair cannot fully be shared, due to deplorable microfilm copies, as the residents' wealth would have been of interest. However, another source does report on St. Clair's population, which stood at 1,790, and that of Port Huron, 5,973 [187]. A very telling indicator of Port Huron's rise to county prominence is the fact that its fourth ward, alone, numbered larger than the City of St. Clair with a population of 1,936 [188]. An 1876 map offers an apt portrayal of this tale of two cities as all of the county's railroads lead to Port Huron save one.

Conclusion

The development of Port Huron owes its evolution to a combination of economic interests. There was no single, specific factor responsible for the city's prosperity, but rather, they all shared to create and enhance its economy. The extraordinary location Port Huron found itself therein, traversed by the Black River, abutted by the St. Clair River, fed by the waters of Lake Huron, and less than a thousand feet from Canada, placed it in an enviable position of limitless access. The immense wealth brought to this area by the lumber concern lent the clout necessary to gain attention and fund improvements. The waterways did much to attract the early business of Port Huron. However, it was the railroad that superseded maritime traffic with its ability to stretch across land and water to distant markets, at a fraction of the time and cost, and opened Port Huron to prosperity and progress.

 


Appendix A

Port Huron's Place on a Wider Scale

As a Great Lakes port, Port Huron would be just like any other except for its close proximity to Canada. There are only four American cities on the St. Clair River with Canadian sister ports: Port Huron to Sarnia, St. Clair to Courtright, Marine City to Sombra, and Robert's Landing to Port Lambton. The only other city with a similar status is Detroit as it is opposite Windsor along the Detroit River. The factor that made Port Huron more favorable to the railroad is the placement of Canadian rails traveling west from Toronto. The 1891 Grain Dealers and Shippers Gazetteer map shows a practically straight route from Toronto to Wellsboro, Indiana, which is nearly straight east from the railroad hub of Chicago.

Port Huron's relationship to these railroad cities is that it is barely shy of being the midway point. Detroit, although the more populated and wealthier city, was a less direct route from Toronto for the Chicago and Grand Trunk Railway. As the Grand Trunk built the tracks heading from Port Huron, Detroit's ability to provide better funding was inconsequential to the Canadian company that was prepared to spend its own capital. Indeed, as Detroit was already so widely settled, the openness around Port Huron would have allowed Grand Trunk more leeway as they planned their route. It was not the industry of Port Huron that necessarily lured the Grand Trunk Railroad Company to target it as a station. As previously presented in this paper, the unique position of Port Huron at the confluence of the Black River, the St. Clair River, and Lake Huron influence.

 


Appendix B

St. Clair County Map*

[*] George A. Ogle, Standard Atlas of St. Clair County, Michigan: including a Plat Book of the Villages, Cities and Townships of the County. (Chicago: Geo. A. Ogle, 1897), 7.

 


Appendix C

Regional Map[**]

 

 

[**] Chicago and Grand Trunk Railroad, 1891 Grain Dealers and Shippers Gazetteer, www.memoriallibrary.com/Trans/RRGaz/CGT/map.htm

 


Appendix D

Chronology of Railroad Development in Port Huron[***]

1847

Port Huron & Lake Michigan Railroad Company : incorporated

1856

Port Huron & Northern Michigan Railroad Company : organized

1859

Port Huron & Detroit Branch of the Grand Trunk Railway : completed

1859

Grand Trunk Railroad Station : built at northeast corner of military reservation

1864

Port Huron & Lake Michigan and Port Huron & Milwaukee : united

1866

Port Huron & Gratiot Railway Company : organized & right-of-way granted

1866

Port Huron & Lake Michigan Railroad : bought property, terminals and yards

1867

Port Huron & Gratiot Railway Co. : horse-drawn car through Pine Grove Park

1870

Port Huron & Lake Michigan Railroad : completed to Imlay City (July)

1871

Port Huron & Lake Michigan Railroad : completed to Lapeer (June)

1871

Port Huron & Lake Michigan Railroad : completed to Flint (December)

1873

City Railway Company : organized

1874

City Railway : franchise amended & extended road (built)

1877

Port Huron Railway Company : new company from PH & Gratiot/City Railway

1878

Port Huron & Northwestern Railway Company : organized, construction begun

1879

Port Huron & Northwestern Railroad : opened to Croswell (May 12)

1880

Railroad Right-of-Way : approved by U.S. Congress, through Pine Grove Park

1880

Union Passenger Station : built at the foot of Court Street, for all railroads

1880

Port Huron & Northwestern Railroad : opened to Harbor Beach (September)

1881

Black River Railroad Bridge : petition for construction submitted

1881

Port Huron & Northwestern Railroad : opened to Marlette (January 17)

1881

Port Huron & Northwestern Railroad Co. Depot : construction begun (Aug.)

1882

Port Huron & Northwestern Railroad : completed to Saginaw (February 21)

1882

Port Huron & Southwestern Railway : completed branch to Almont (October)

1882

Port Huron & Southwestern Railway : completed from Palms to Port Austin

1883

Port Huron Railway Co. : applied for new franchise, request operate electric cars

1886

Railroad Tunnel : 1st attempt at construction

1886

Port Huron Electric Railway Company : organized, took over PH Railway Co.

1886

Port Huron Electric Railway Co. : 1st electrically operated street railway in MI

1888

Railroad Tunnel : 2nd attempt at construction

1889

Port Huron & Northwestern Railway : bought by Flint & Pere Marquette

1891

Railroad Tunnel : opened by Grand Trunk Railroad; later, first to be electrified

1892

City Electric Railway Company : took over PH Electric, extended to tunnel

1899

Port Huron, St. Clair & Marine City Railway Company : org. by City Electric

1900

PH Southern : built by PH Salt Co., connect to Grand Trunk and Pere Marquette

1900

Port Huron, St. Clair & Marine City Railway : right-of-way to Marine City

1901

Electric Lines : sold to Detroit United Railways, opened service to Detroit

1907

Electric Locomotives : Westinghouse installation contract, tunnel electrified

1917

Port Huron & Detroit Railroad Company : incorporated (December 28)

1917

Port Huron Southern line bought & extended to Marine City

 

[****] Notes taken from numerous sources. Please contact for specifics.

 


Appendix E

A Chronology of the City of Port Huron[****]

 

1780

Black River Property : deeded by the Indians to Duperon Baby

1790

Desmond / La Riviere Delude : established at the mouth of the Black River

<1800

1st Sawmill : built by Anselm Petit on Black River for Park & Meldrum, of Detroit

1814

Fort Gratiot : established, named in honor of General Charles Gratiot

1820

St. Clair County : severed from Macomb County (March 28)

1821

1st county assessment roll : @ 80 names, Anselm Petit only person from Port Huron

1822

Fort Gratiot : abandoned

1823

Fort Gratiot Lighthouse : authorized by Congress, one of 1st Great Lakes lighthouses

1824

Black River Ferry : license granted to Jean B. Desnoyer (July 6)

1825

Fort Gratiot Lighthouse : built, 1st in the lower Great Lakes

1827

Construction of Military Road, a.k.a. Gratiot Turnpike, authorized by U.S. Congress

1827

Desmond Township : provided for by act of territorial legislature, future PH Twp, etc.

1827

1st Hotel : built, a log house on Quay Street

1828

La Riviere De Lude : renamed Desmond

1832

Asiatic Cholera : epidemic hits

1832

Black River Steam Mill : built by Francis P. Browning, 1st Steam Mill, NW Territory

1833

1st Military Street Bridge : built

1833

Gratiot Turnpike : completed

c 1833

Port Huron to Sarnia Ferry : begun by William Eveland of Canada

1834

Black River Steam Mill : incorporated (December 5)

1835

Peru : platted by Edward Petit, measured twelve acres, later known as "the Flats"

1835

Desmond / Port Huron Village : platted by Daniel B. Harrington & White

1835

Military Street : laid out by Harrington & White

1836

Indian Reservation : ceded to the United States

1837

Village of Paris : platted under direction of Major Thorn

1837

St. Clair River Ferry (Michigan to Canada) : established near mouth of Black River

1838

Desmond : organized (April 8); incorporated (1840)

1840

Village of Fort Gratiot : organized from settlement outside military fort of Fort Gratiot

1849

Village of Port Huron : incorporated, included Desmond, Huron, Fort Gratiot & Peru

1857

Port Huron : organized as a city (April 8)

1866

Customs District of Huron : awarded, oversee 550 miles, Lake St. Clair to Mackinaw

1870

1st Utility in Port Huron : Port Huron Gas Light Company

1871

County Seat : removal from St. Clair to PH, validated by state supreme court (July 7)

1873

Military Reservation : platted and sold

1873

City Water Works : opened (Sept 6), protection against water-born disease & fires

1875

Customs' Rail Traffic : 140,000 cars through PH, @ 440/day; duties: $40,000+/mo.

1879

Telephone Exchange : necessary number of subscribers committed

1880

Immigration : (1866-1880), 565,816 entered at PH; @ 1/3 of MI's population (1883)

1880

Railroad Right-of-Way : approved by U.S. Congress, pass through Pine Grove Park

1893

Fort Gratiot Village : a.k.a. Fort Gratiot, annexed to Port Huron

 

[****] Notes taken from numerous sources. Please contact for specifics.

 


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Mansfield, J. B. History of the Great Lakes, vol. I. Chicago: J. H. Beers & Company, 1899. Online Transcription by Walter Lewis and Brendon Baillod. Maritime History of the Great Lakes. www.hhpl.on.ca/GreatLakes/Documents/HGL/default.asp.

 

Merrilees, Andrew. "The Railway Rolling Stock Industry in Canada: A History of 110 Years of Canadian Railway Car Building." unpublished manuscript, 1963. www.nakina.net/builders2.html.

 

Michigan History Magazine: The Mitten. "Michigan's White Pine Era." January 2003. www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/kids/pdfs/mittenjan03.pdf.

 

Miller, W. G., R. L. Gibbs, J. A. Robbins, J. M. Robertson, and M. W. Silver. "The Industrial Facilities of the Grand Trunk Western Railroad." after 1952. Typed report in the "Grand Trunk" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

 

Minnesota Historical Society. "History and Development of Great Lakes Water Craft." www.mnhs.org/places/nationalregister/shipwrecks/mpdf/mpdf2.html. Adapted from the National Register's Multiple Property Documentation (MPDF) "Minnesota's Lake Superior Shipwrecks A.D. 1650-1945," by Patrick Labadie, Brina J. Agranat and Scott Anfinson.

 

Minnesota Population Center. "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: 1880 Occupation Codes." University of Minnesota. www.ipums.umn.edu/usa/volii/88occup.html.

 

Mitts, Dorothy M. That Noble County: The Romance of the St. Clair River Region. Philadelphia: Dorrance & Company, 1968.
________."St. Clair County From Pioneer Days: Logs, Logs, Logs." Port Huron
Times Herald, circa 1947. Clipped article in "Lumbering" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.
________. "St. Clair County From Pioneer Days: The Lumberjack's Day," Port Huron
Times Herald, March 5, 1947.
________. "St. Clair County From Pioneer Days: Sawmills Lined Black River in Heydey of Lumber Boom Here," Port Huron
Times Herald, February 2, 1947.
________. "Where the Wild Goose Flies: Edisons Owned Trollies," Port Huron
Times Herald, September 19, 1976.
________. "Where the Wild Goose Flies: The 'Iron Bridge' and the Tracks Which Lead to It." Port Huron
Times Herald, March 17, 1957.
________. "Where the Wild Goose Flies: Lights Went on 100 Years Ago, People Dazzled by Arc Lights in Grand Trunk Shops," Port Huron
Times Herald, March 3, 1981.
________. "Where the Wild Goose Flies: Those Historic Railroad Tracks." Port Huron
Times Herald. Clipped article found in the "Railroad" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.
________. "Where the Wild Goose Flies: World Famous Car Ferry Becomes Suffern St. Dock, "Port Huron
Times Herald, February 21, 1954.

 

Moore, Charles. History of Michigan, vol. I. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1915. http://name.umdl.umich.edu/BAC8762.0001.001.

 

New York State Canal Corporation. "The Erie Canal: A Brief History." www.canals.state.ny.us/cculture/history/index.html.

 

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. "Firewood: How to Obtain, Measure, Season, and Burn." http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-2507/F9440web.pdf.

 

Port Huron Daily Times. "G. T. Employs 1,200 Persons: Company Rebuilds More Than 200 Cars Each Month." July 23, 1938.
________. Friday, August 12, 1892. Transcription hosted by Maritime History of the Great Lakes,
www.hhpl.on.ca/GreatLakes/HomePort.asp.

 

Port Huron Sesquicentennial. www.ph150.org/index.html.

 

Port Huron Times Herald. "1200 Railway Workers Here: Railroad's Growth Parallels That of City." circa 1938. Clipped article in the "Grand Trunk" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.
________. "Community Rallied To Keep Car Shops After Disaster." October 24, 1972.
________. "Railroad YMCA Closes: Ending 52 Years Service." June 27, 1965.
________. "Railroading Among Pioneering Industries in City, District." October 24, 1972.
________. "Rails Helped Build County: History of Lines Serving Community Traced." June 28, 1937.

 

"Profits From Forest Primeval: Lumber Industry Boomed Here in Nineteenth Century." Newspaper and date unknown. Clipped article in "Lumbering" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

 

Robnmegfuller. Directory of Photographs hosted by Rootsweb.com. http://freepages.nostalgia.rootsweb.com/~robnmegfuller/ph.jpg.

 

Schramm, Jack E. and William H. Henning. When Eastern Michigan Rode the Rails, vol. 2, The Rapid Railway and Detroit-Port Huron by Rail-Ship-Bus. Glendale, California: Interurban Press, 1986.

 

Scott Aaron. "Aaron Family Tree" (Rev. 119). http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=scottypimpin&id=I1206.

 

Smith, William V., ed. Historic Michigan, Land of the Great Lakes; Its Life, Resources, Industries, People, Politics, Government, Wars, Institutions, Achievements, the Press, Schools and Churches, Legendary and Prehistoric Lore. Vol. 2, An Account of Flint and Genesee County from Their Organization. Dayton, Ohio: National Historical Association, Inc., 1924. The digital images of this book are hosted by the University of Michigan Digital Library Production Service at http://name.umdl.umich.edu/arx8251.0001.001.

 

Soini, Paul D. "Huron Happenings: Railroad Fever Once Climbed High." The Times Herald, November 4, 1973.

 

"The Story of the Grand Trunk Western." after 1928. Typed report in the "Grand Trunk" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

 

United States Treasury Department. "History of the U.S. Tax System." www.treas.gov/education/fact-sheets/taxes/ustax.shtml.

 

Ward, David. The Autobiography of David Ward. New York: Private Printing, 1912. Transcription hosted by Ancestry.com, www.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=4101&o_xid=9872&o_lid=9872.

 

Wedge, Margaret. "A History of the Y.M.C.A. of the Blue Water Area, 1886-1986." 1986. This report can be found in the "Y.M.C.A." file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

 

Whipp, Charlie Collection. Grand Trunk Western Railroad: Port Huron Station. MichiganRailroads.com. www.michiganrailroads.com/RRHX/Stations/CountyStations/St.ClairStations/PortHuronArea/PortHuronMI-GTW.htm.

 

Wilkinson, Jerry. "History of Wrecking." Historical Preservation Society of the Upper Keys. www.keyshistory.org/wrecking.html.

 


Endnotes

1    New York State Canal Corporation, "The Erie Canal: A Brief History," www.canals.state.ny.us/cculture/history/index.html. (accessed November 4, 2005).

2    William Lee Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, its History and its People; a Narrative Account of its Historical Progress and its Principal Interests, vol. I (Chicago and New York: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1912), 5-6.

3    Ibid., 6.

4    Ibid., 7.

5    Ibid., 4.

6    Ibid., 4-5.

7    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 6.

8    New York State Canal Corporation, "The Erie Canal."

9    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 7.

10    New York State Canal Corporation, "The Erie Canal."

11    Ibid.

12    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 95-97.

13    Helen Endlich, A Story of Port Huron (Port Huron: Helen Endlich, 1981), 19 and 27; History of St. Clair County, Michigan, containing an account of its settlement, growth, development and resources, its war record, biographical sketches, the whole preceded by a history of Michigan (Chicago: A.T. Andreas & Co., 1883), 256 and 534; Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 22, s.v. "Port Huron," (1911), 118, quoted in Online Encyclopedia, Net Industries, http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/POL_PRE/PORT_HURON.html. (accessed September 2005).

14    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 384.

15    Ibid., 385.

16    Allan Carlisle, Map of Port Huron, February 6, 1929.

17    Ibid.

18    Ibid.

19    Ibid.

20    Ibid.

21    Ibid.

22    United States Census Bureau, 1840 Federal Census: St. Clair County, Michigan, 201-5.

23    Ibid.

24    History of St. Clair County, 132.

25    Ibid.

26    Ibid.

27    Ibid.

28    George N. Fuller, Historic Michigan, Land of the Great Lakes; Its Life, Resources, Industries, People, Politics, Government, Wars, Institutions, Achievements, the Press, Schools and Churches, Legendary and Prehistoric Lore, vol. 3, Local History and Personal Sketches of St. Clair and Shiawassee Counties (Dayton, Ohio: National Historical Association, Inc., 1924), 29.

29    History of St. Clair County, 264 and 271; Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 143.

30    History of St. Clair County, 264 and 271.

31    Ibid., 304.

32    Ibid., 297, 304, 305, 312, 316, and 317.

33    Ibid., 306-7.

34    Dorothy M. Mitts, "St. Clair County From Pioneer Days: Sawmills Lined Black River in Heydey of Lumber Boom Here," Port Huron Times Herald, February 2, 1947; idem, That Noble Country: The Romance of the St. Clair River Region, (Philadelphia: Dorrance & Company, 1968), 81.

35    Mapquest, www.mapquest.com. (accessed November 11, 2005). Driving directions from Palms to Port Huron.

36    Dorothy M. Mitts, "St. Clair County From Pioneer Days: Logs, Logs, Logs," Port Huron Times Herald, circa 1947. Clipped article in "Lumbering" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

37    American Automobile Association, Road Atlas: Michigan, (1997).

38    Ibid.; idem, "St. Clair County From Pioneer Days: The Lumberjack's Day," Port Huron Times Herald, March 5, 1947; idem, "Sawmills Lined Black River."

39    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 365.

40    Ibid., 365-6.

41    "Profits From Forest Primeval: Lumber Industry Boomed Here in Nineteenth Century," Clipped article in "Lumbering" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

42    Ibid.

43    Victor Lauriston, Lambton's Hundred Years: 1849-1949 (Sarnia: Raines Frontier Printing Co., 1949), 204-5.

44    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 144.

45    Lauriston, Lambton's Hundred Years, 205.

46    Ibid.

47    Ibid.

48    Ibid., 297, 304, 305, 312, 316, and 317.

49    Ibid., 307, 311, and 313-5.

50    Ibid., 317.

51    Ibid., 315.

52    Mitts, That Noble Country,  94.

53    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 237; Mitts, That Noble Country, 96-7.

54    David Ward, The Autobiography of David Ward, (New York: Private Printing, 1912), 94. Transcription hosted by Ancestry.com at www.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=4101&o_xid=9872&o_lid=9872. (accessed November 16, 2005).

55    Carlisle, Map of Port Huron.

56    Ibid.

57    Ibid.

58    William Hosea Ballou, "The Last of the Pines," 677-8. Clipped article in "Lumbering" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library; Michigan History Magazine: The Mitten, "Michigan's White Pine Era," January 2003, www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/kids/pdfs/mittenjan03.pdf, (accessed November 16, 2005).

59    Michigan History Magazine, "Michigan's White Pine Era."

60    Department of Natural Resources, "History & Ecology of Fire in Michigan," State of Michigan, www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-30301_30505_30816-24038--,00.html, (accessed November 11, 2005).

61    Ibid.

62    Charles Moore, History of Michigan, (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1915), 526.

63    "Chart of the Burnt District of Michigan," http://www.michigan.gov/images/FIRE1881_22139_7.jpg, (accessed November 11, 2005). History of Michigan, by Charles Moore, refers to the report: "The Michigan Forest Fires of 1881," in its footnotes on page 526. This report, directed by Maj. Gen. W. B. Hazen, Chief Signal Officer of the Army, was written by Signal Corps Sergeant William O. Bailey and included a map of the burned district. It is possible that this is that map.

64    American Red Cross of Southeastern Michigan, "Ask Us," www.semredcross.org/about/ask_us.html, (accessed November 12, 2005); Mitts, That Noble Country, 98-9.

65    Mitts, That Noble Country, 98.

66    Ibid., 99.

67    Department of Natural Resources, "History & Ecology of Fire in Michigan."

68    History of St. Clair County, 493 and 502.

69    Silas Farmer, The History of Detroit and Michigan (Detroit: S. Farmer & Co., 1884), 909.

70    Farmer, The History of Detroit, 914 and 916; Lauriston, Lambton's Hundred Years, 203.

71    Fuller, Local History and Personal Sketches, 70, 76, and 135; Mitts, That Noble Country, 85.

72    Mitts, That Noble Country, 92.

73    Fuller, Local History and Personal Sketches, 71.

74    Mitts, That Noble Country, 117.

75    Lauriston, Lambton's Hundred Years, 204.

76    Mitts, That Noble Country, 119-121.

77    Lauriston, Lambton's Hundred Years, 204.

78    Ibid.

79    Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, "Firewood: How to Obtain, Measure, Season, and Burn," http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Document-2507/F9440web.pdf. (accessed November 14, 2005).

80    Lauriston, Lambton's Hundred Years, 206.

81    Michael Glenn, "A Short History of the Steam Engines," Steamboats.com, www.steamboats.com/museum/engineroom1.html. (accessed November 14, 2005).

82    J. B. Mansfield, History of the Great Lakes, vol. I, (Chicago: J. H. Beers & Company, 1899), chap. 29. Online Transcription by Walter Lewis and Brendon Baillod, hosted by Maritime History of the Great Lakes. www.hhpl.on.ca/GreatLakes/Documents/HGL/default.asp. (accessed November 2, 2005); Minnesota Historical Society, "History and Development of Great Lakes Water Craft," www.mnhs.org/places/nationalregister/shipwrecks/mpdf/mpdf2.html. Adapted from the National Register's Multiple Property Documentation (MPDF) "Minnesota's Lake Superior Shipwrecks A.D. 1650-1945," by Patrick Labadie, Brina J. Agranat and Scott Anfinson. (accessed November 14, 2005).

83    Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System, "Locks, Canals and Channels," www.greatlakes-seaway.com/en/aboutus /lcc.html. (accessed November 27, 2005); Mansfield, History of the Great Lakes, chap. 26.

84    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 141.

85    Fuller, Local History and Personal Sketches, 72-3.

86    Port Huron Sesquicentennial, www.ph150.org/index.html. (accessed November 1, 2005).

87    Endlich, A Story of Port Huron; Directory of the City of Port Huron, 1877-78, (Detroit: R. L. Polk & Co., 1877),11.

88    Mitts, That Noble Country, 101 and 127.

89    Jerry Wilkinson, "History of Wrecking," Historical Preservation Society of the Upper Keys. www.keyshistory.org/wrecking.html. (accessed November 3, 2005).

90    History of St. Clair County, 587-8 and 592-3.

91    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 408.

92    Port Huron Sesquicentennial, www.ph150.org/index.html. (accessed November 1, 2005).

93    Mitts, That Noble Country, 132.

94    Ibid., 126.

95    Ibid., 126 and 128.

96    History of St. Clair County, 568.

97    Scott Aaron, "Aaron Family Tree" (Rev. 119), http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=scottypimpin&id=I1206. (accessed October 2005).

98    Ibid.

99    C. Exera Brown, Brown's 1871-1872 City Directory of Port Huron, Michigan, (Port Huron: Port Huron Times Company, 1870), 4; Directory of the City of Port Huron, 1881, (Port Huron: Leath & Talbot, 1881), 17.

100    Cyclopedia of Michigan: Historical and Biographical, Comprising a Synopsis of General History of the State, and Biographical Sketches of Men Who Have in Their Various Spheres, Contributed Toward Its Development, (New York and Detroit: Western Publishing and Engraving Co., 1900), 139; History of St. Clair County, 600.

101    History of St. Clair County, 559; Port Huron and St. Clair County Directory, 1883, (Port Huron: C. E. Meech & Co., 1883), 50.

102    Ibid.

103    History of St. Clair County, 559.

104    Fuller, Local History and Personal Sketches, 1560; History of St. Clair County, 594; Port Huron and St. Clair County Directory, 1883, 129.

105    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 424.

106    History of St. Clair County, 511.

107    Ibid., 511-2.

108    Robnmegfuller, Directory of Photographs hosted by Rootsweb.com, http://freepages.nostalgia.rootsweb.com/~robnmegfuller/ph. (accessed October 2005).

109    Thomas S. Thompson, Thompson's Coast Pilot : for the Upper Lakes, on both shores from Chicago to Buffalo, Green Bay, Georgian Bay, and Lake Superior; Including the Rivers Detroit, St. Clair and Ste. Marie, with the Courses and Distances on Lake Ontario, and other information relative thereto (Detroit: Thos. S. Thompson, 5th ed., 1869), 8-9 and 126.

110    United States Treasury Department, "History of the U.S. Tax System," www.treas.gov/education/factsheets/taxes/ustax.shtml. (accessed November 27, 2005).

111    History of St. Clair County, 271.

112    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 377.

113    Ibid., 378.

114    Ibid., 377.

115    "The Story of the Grand Trunk Western," 3. This report can be found in the "Grand Trunk" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

116    Ibid.

117    Dorothy M. Mitts, "Where the Wild Goose Flies: World Famous Car Ferry Becomes Suffern St. Dock," Port Huron Times Herald, February 21, 1954.

118    1859 Map, D. B. Weldon Library, University of Western Ontario, quoted in Jack E. Schramm and William H. Henning, When Eastern Michigan Rode the Rails, vol. 2, The Rapid Railway and Detroit-Port Huron by Rail-Ship-Bus, (Glendale, California: Interurban Press, 1986), 160.

119    Ibid.

120    Ibid.

121    Rick Barrett, "When Railroads were King," Port Huron Times Herald, November or December 4, 1994. Clipped article in the "Grand Trunk" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library; Port Huron Times, "Grand Trunk Railway," September 12, 1872.

122    "The Story of the Grand Trunk Western," 3.

123    Charlie Whipp Collection, "Grand Trunk Western Railroad: Port Huron Station," MichiganRailroads.com www.michiganrailroads.com/RRHX/Stations/CountyStations/St.ClairStations/PortHuronArea/PortHuronMI-GTW.htm. (accessed October 2005).

124    Andrew Merrilees, "The Railway Rolling Stock Industry in Canada: A History of 110 Years of Canadian Railway Car Building," (unpublished manuscript, 1963), www.nakina.net/builders2.html. (accessed October 30, 2005); Port Huron Times Herald, "1200 Railway Workers Here: Railroad's Growth Parallels That of City." circa 1938, Clipped article in the "Grand Trunk" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

125    Dorothy Mitts, "Where the Wild Goose Flies: Lights Went on 100 Years Ago, People Dazzled by Arc Lights in Grand Trunk Shops," Port Huron Times Herald, March 3, 1981.

126    Merrilees, "The Railway Rolling Stock."

127    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 264.

128    Port Huron Times Herald, "Rails Helped Build County: History of Lines Serving Community Traced," June 28, 1937.; "The Story of the Grand Trunk Western," 4.

129    W. G. Miller et al, "The Industrial Facilities of the Grand Trunk Western Railroad," after 1952, 2. Typed report in the "Grand Trunk" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.; Times Herald, "Rails Helped Build County."

130    Merrilees, "The Railway Rolling Stock."

131    Ibid.

132    Times Herald, "Community Rallied To Keep Car Shops After Disaster," October 24, 1972.

133    Ibid.

134    Port Huron Museum Collection, "Fort Gratiot Car Shops," MichiganRailroads.com http://www.michiganrailroads.com/RRHX/Stations/CountyStations/St.ClairStations/PortHuronArea/FortGratiotCarShopsMI.htm. (accessed October 2005).

135    Ibid.

136    Miller et al, "Industrial Facilities," 2.

137    Times Herald, "1200 Railway Workers Here."

138    Ibid.

139    Port Huron Daily Times(?), "G. T. Employs 1,200 Persons: Company Rebuilds More Than 200 Cars Each Month," July 23, 1938. Clipped article in the "Grand Trunk" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library. The newspaper is believed to be the Port Huron Daily Times.

140    Daily Times, "G. T. Employs 1,200 Persons;" Times Herald, "1200 Railway Workers."

141    Miller et al, "Industrial Facilities," 2.

142    Ibid.

143    Ibid., 3; Times Herald, "Railroad YMCA Closes: Ending 52 Years Service," June 27, 1965.

144    Times Herald, "Railroad YMCA Closes"

145    Margaret Wedge, "A History of the Y.M.C.A. of the Blue Water Area, 1886-1986," 1986, 4. This report can be found in the "Y.M.C.A." file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

146    Miller et al, "Industrial Facilities," 3.

147    Ibid.

148    Grand Trunk Reporter, "History in a Trunk Grand Trunk," November 1978.

149    History of Shiawassee and Clinton Counties, Michigan, with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of their Prominent Men and Pioneers, (Philadelphia: D. W. Ensign & Co., 1880), 32.

150    Burton W. Folsom, "An Economic Lesson From Michigan's Early History," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, www.educationreport.org/depts/ecodevo/article.asp?ID=5. (accessed December 5, 2005).

151    Ibid.

152    Ibid.; Grand Trunk Reporter, "History in a Trunk."

153    Times Herald, "Rails Helped Build County."

154    Dorothy Mitts, "Where the Wild Goose Flies: Those Historic Railroad Tracks," Port Huron Times Herald. Clipped article found in the "Railroad" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.

155    idem., "Where the Wild Goose Flies: The 'Iron Bridge' and the Tracks Which Lead to It," Port Huron Times Herald, March 17, 1957.

156    Ibid., idem., "Those Historic Railroad Tracks.;" Paul D. Soini, "Huron Happenings: Railroad Fever Once Climbed High," The Times Herald, November 4, 1973.

157    Soini, "Railroad Fever."

158    Port Huron Museum Collection, "Pere Marquette Railroad: Port Huron Station," MichiganRailroad.com www.michiganrailroads.com/RRHX/Stations/CountyStations/St.ClairStations/PortHuronArea/PortHuronMI-PMRR.htm. (accessed October 2005).

159    Mitts, "The 'Iron Bridge.'"

160    Times Herald, "Rails Helped Build County."

161    Ibid.

162    Ibid.

163    Jim Anderson, "St. Clair County's 'Educated' Line: The PH&D and How It Got Its Degree," 1981, Michigan Railroads, www.michiganrailroads.com/RRHX/Stories/PH&D-StClairCountysEducatedLine%5BInsideTrack %5D.htm. (accessed November 28, 2005).

164    Port Huron Times Herald, "Railroading Among Pioneering Industries in City, District," October 24, 1972.

165    Mitts, "Where the Wild Goose Flies: Echoes of Old Railways," Port Huron Times Herald. Clipped article in the "Railroad" file, Michigan Room, St. Clair County Public Library.; idem., "Where the Wild Goose Flies: Edisons Owned Trollies," Port Huron Times Herald, September 19, 1976.

166    Schramm, When Eastern Michigan Rode the Rails, 110.

167    Fuller, Local History and Personal Sketches, 69.

168    Schramm, When Eastern Michigan Rode the Rails.

169    Fuller, Local History and Personal Sketches, 69.

170    Ibid.; Mitts, "Echoes of Old Railways;" idem., "Edisons Owned Trollies;" Schramm, The Rapid Railway, 114.

171    idem., "Edisons Owned Trollies"

172    idem., "Echoes of Old Railways."

173    Ibid.; Schramm, The Rapid Railway, 39 and 117.

174    idem., "Where the Wild Goose Flies: Stagecoach to 'Electric;' Legend of 'Ole' Alverson," Port Huron Times Herald, March 3, 1957.

175    United States Census Bureau, "History," www.census.gov/acsd/www/history.html. (accessed December 6, 2005).

176    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 256; Carlisle, Map of Port Huron.

177    Ibid.

178    Port Huron Times, "The Saginaw Railroad," January 25, 1872.

179    Jenks, St. Clair County, Michigan, Its History, 209-11.

180    Ibid., 212-3.

181    U.S. Census Bureau, 1860 Federal Census.

182    Ibid.

183    Ibid.

184    Ibid.

185    Ibid.

186    Ibid.

187    History of St. Clair County, 446.

188    Ibid.