Chapter V.
The Wild Trees and Plants of Becker County.

I did not claim to be a scientific botanist, as I never studied the subject at school a day in my life, but when a boy I picked up a botany that an older sister had borrowed and in a short time acquired a sufficient knowledge of the science to analyze plants correctly, and at the end of the first flowing season had studied out a majority of the native plants in the neighborhood. I soon acquired a fondness for the study that amounted almost to a passion, and for many years devoted much of my leisure time to the study and analysis of plants. Next to my work as a surveyor, the practical application of botany in the analysis of plants has been the delight of my life; and even now when too old to run lines over the prairies and through the forests and swamps, I still delight in exploring new botanical fields in other states, and hunting out new species of the vegetable kingdom. I am aware that but few people in this world take any interest in this science, and many of them are extremely puzzled at the enthusiasm of the zealous botanist when his interest in awakening at beholding for the first time some plant or flower of a new and rare species, and are inclined to make light of his passion for collecting what they consider mere worthless weeds, and are apt to look upon him not only as whimsical and cranky but his sanity is frequently called to question.

I will now give a brief outline of the general plan of classifying and distinguishing plants in a simple language as possible, laying aside as far as practicable all scientific terms.

The whole vegetable kingdom is divided first into two grand series, the flowering and the flowerless plants. The flowerless series is a small one, and we will here leave it with the remark that tit is made up chiefly of ferns, the mosses and lichens.

While they have no flowers they bear seeds in abundance which are borne on the backs of the fronds or leaves. The flowering series is in its turn divided into two classes, the Exogens and the Endogens. In the class of Exogens, the growth of the plant or tree is always on the outside and is accomplished by a succession of rings or circles, one of which, as in the case of trees is added to the circumference each year. The seeds are always divided into two lobes, which are lifted from the ground as the seed sprouts upward and forms the first pair of leaves as in the case of the bean and pea. The parts of the flowers are always in four or five or some multiple of these numbers. All plants of this class have park and pith. In the case of Endogens the growth of the plant is in the interior and the increase in size by expansion outward from the center, and the seeds have but one lobe which remains in the ground when the seeds sprout upwards. This class of plants has neither bark nor pith. To this class belong the wheat, the corn, the grasses and the palms. The wood of the palm tree has no circular rings or grains or pith or bark. The parts of the flowers in this class are always in threes or sixes, the leaves are always parallel-veined like those on a cornstalk, while those of the Exogens are net-veined like those of the maple. As this last class (Endogens) is much smaller, I will now leave it behind.

The class Exogens is divided into two sub-classes, on of which includes only the coniferous trees, such as the pine and the spruce, so I will leave it and take up the other sub-class which is called the Angiospermae. This sub-class is divided into three divisions, the polypetalous, the monopetalous, and the apetalous. The petals, as most people know, are the flower leaves or the leaves of the flowers themselves. In the first division the corolla is made up of separate petals like the rose. In the second division the petals are all more or less united into one piece, forming a somewhat cup or bell-shaped flower, like the morning glory. In the third division the flower has no petals or corolla, although the other parts of the flower are perfect. We will now turn to the monopetalous division. This is divided into four subdivisions founded upon the different positions of the stamens in the flower. The stamens are the male organs of the plant, the two sexes being as actual and positive and as important in the vegetable as in the animal kingdom. In the first subdivision the stamens are more numerous than the lobes of the corolla. In the second they are of the same number as the lobes of the corolla and opposite to them. In the third division the stamens are of the same number as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with them. In the fourth subdivision the stamens are fewer than the lobes of the corolla. These subdivisions are again divided into natural orders of which there are about one hundred and forty in the northern states. These orders are based on some peculiarity of the plant, such as the leaves growing opposite to each other, or alternate on the stem. The natural order in turn are divided into genera, and the genera into species. Genera is the plural of genus. All the oaks in the country form one genus, while the white oak and the bur oak, for instance, are each separate species of the genus oak.

All the standard text-books of botany contain not only descriptions of all known plants in their territory, but are also furnished with analytical tables which traces each and every plant down through the different series, classes, sub-classes, divisions, subdivisions, natural orders, genera and species. Having acquired a general knowledge of the principles of botany and the meaning of the peculiar terms employed in the science, the student proceeds to study and analyze plants with a view to determine their names and the places they occupy in the system. In order to analyze a plant it should be taken when in full leaf and in full bloom, and it is sometimes essential that some of the fruit or seeds should be present, although it is generally difficult to find all these conditions present at once. In the case of some flowers, when the parts are of fair size and fully developed, it is quite a simple process, but when the parts of the flower are small and indistinct, and when some of the parts such as seeds are not matured until after some of the other parts have perished, it is quite a difficult problem. A magnifying glass is indispensable in some cases.

Suppose we have in our hand a flowering branch of some shrub or tree. Turning to the analysis, we compare it first with the series of flowering plants with which we find it to agree as having flowers. Then cutting the branch across, we see if it is made up of wood, pith and bark; if the leaves are net-veined, and if the flowers are in fours or fives. Showing these peculiarities it doubtless belongs to the class of Exogens. Then if the seeds are contained in an ovary, it comes under the sub-class of angiospermous plants, instead of the coniferous. We next find that it has a corolla as well as a calyx, and the petals of the corolla are separate and distinct, so that it belongs to the polypetalous division. Our attention is next directed to the insertion of the stamens, whether they are growing on the corolla, or on the calyx, or on the receptacle. In this case they are growing on the receptacle. Then if the stamens are more numerous than the petals, which we find to be so, this places our plant in the hypogynous subdivision. That we find the leaves to be opposite instead of alternate, and the seeds are solitary instead of being more than one. This brings it down to the natural order, Tiliacea which is found on page 101 in the body of the flora in Gray's Botany.

We then compare our plant with the character of the order and find they agree. We now proceed to find the name of the genus, which is readily done, as there is only on in this order, and we find it to agree with every particular. It belongs to the genus Tilia. There are three species of Tilia, one of these is a large tree and the other two are small ones. This branch came from a large tree, so it is the Tilia Americana, or basswood.

I have a list of 801 different species of wild trees and plants which I have analyzed in the United States, of which number I have found in Minnesota 460, North Dakota 13, Iowa 41, Missouri 12, Arkansas 36, Texas 25, Louisiana 7, Florida 8, South Carolina 9, North Carolina 19, Tennessee 6, Ohio 41, Pennsylvania 7, New York 82, West Virginia 26, Delaware 9, a grand total of 801.

Following is a list of the 460 wild plants and trees I have found growing in Becker County. I have analyzed all of these myself, and know the list is correct as far as it goes. Of course there are a few species that I have never found, especially among the grasses and sedges, but the list will be found to include nearly all the native plants and trees growing wild in the county.



Native Wild Plants.

The following is a list of the native plants, trees and large shrubs I have found growing in the county:

Botanical Names.Common Names.
Clematis Virginiana ..........................Virginia's Bower.
Anemone patens ..................................Pasque Flower.
Anemone cylindrica .......................Long-fruited Anemone.

(The earlist flowers of spring.)
Anemone Pennsylvanica .......................Anemone.
Anemone nemorosa ............................Windflower.
Hepatica triloba ........................Liverwort, Liverleaf.
Ranunculas multifidus .........................Yellow Crowfoot.
Ranunculas flammula .........................Smaller Spearwort.
Ranunculas rhomboidous ..........................Crowfoot.
Ranunculas sceleratus .........................Cursed Crowfoot.
Ranunculas abortivus ..................Small-flowered Crowfoot.
Ranunculas septentroinalis ....................................
Ranunculas Pennsylvanicus ................Bristly Crowfoot.
Ranunculas acris .....................Buttercups, Yellow Daisy.
Caltha Pulastris ......................Cowslip, Marsh Marigold.
Coptis trifolia .................................Goldthread.
Aquilegia Canadensis ...........................Wild Columbine.
Delphinium azureum ..............................Larkspur.
Actaea spicata ..................................Red Baneberry.
Actatea alba ..................................White Baneberry.
Menispermum Cadadense ..............Moonseed.
Caulophylum thalictroides .......................Blue Cohosh.
Nympaea odorata ..............................White Pond Lily.
Nuphar adevna ................................Yellow Pond Lily.
Sarracenia purpurea...........Pitcher Plant, Sidesaddle Flower.
Sanguinaria Canadensis ..........................Bloodroot.
Papaver somniferum ..............................Wild Poppy
Adlumia cullaria ..........................Dutchman's Breeches.
Corydalis aurea ..............................Golden Corydalis.
Arabis hirsuta ..................................Sicklepod.
Arabis perfoliata ...............................Tower Mustard.
Arabis confinis ...............................................
Lesquerella Ludoviciana .......................................
Camelina sativa .................................False Flax.
Nasturtium armpracia ............................Horseradish.
Eryimum chirantroides ....................Wormseed Mustard.
Sisymbrium canescenes ...........................Tansy Mustard.
Sisymbrium sophia ..............................Hedge Mustard.
Sisymbrium thaliana ...........................Mouse-ear Cress.
Brassica alba ...................................White Mustard.
Brassica nigra ........................Black or Common Mustard.
Brassica compestris...........................White Rutabaga.
Capsella bursa-pastoris....................Shepherd's Purse.
Thlaspi arvense ...........................Wing-seeded Mustard.
Lepidium Virginicum ......................... Wild Peppergrass.
Polanisia graveolens ..........................................
Cleome integrifolia ...........................................
Reseda luteola ................................... Dyer's Weed.
Viola pedata.................................Bird's-footViolet.
Viola palmata...............................Common Blue Violet.
Viola blanda................................Sweet White Violet.
Viola rotundifolia.........................Round-leaved Violet.
Viola pubescens............................Downy Yellow Violet.
Viola hastata............................Halberd-leaved Violet.
Viola canina...................................Low Dog Violet.
Viola tricolor................................Pansy Heartsease.
Dianthus barbatus................................Sweet William.
Saponaria officinalis...................Soapwort, Bouncing Bet.
Silene noctislora..............................Catchfly Cockle.
Lychinis githago...................................Corncockle.
Arenaria lateriflora.................................Sandwort.
Stellaria media...............................Common Chickweed.
Stellaria longifolia....................Long-leaved Stitchwort.
Cerastium arvense..............................Field Chickweed.
Cerastium vulgatum............................Larger Chickweed.
Portulaca oleracea............................Purslane, Pusley.
Malva rotundifolia...............................Common Mallow.
Malva sylvestris...................................High Mallow.
Malvastrum coccineum........................False Mallow.
Linum usitatissimum...........................Common Blue Flax.
Linum sulcatum...................................Yellow Flax.
Geranium maculatum......................Cranesbill.
Geranium Carolinianum................Small Cranesbill.
Oxalis violacea.....................Rose-flowered Wood .Sorrel.
Oxalis corniculata..........................Yellow Wood Sorrel.
Impatiens pallida.................................Touch-me-not.
Ceanothus americanus........................Redroot Jersey Tea.
Rhus toxicodendron......................Poison Oak, Poison Ivy.
Poly gala paucifolia.........................Fringed Polygala.
Polygala senega...............................Seneca Snakeroot.
Baptisia leucantha................................False Indigo.
Trifolium pratense..................................Red Clover.
Trifolium medium.................................Zigzag Clover.
Trifolium stoloniferum.............Running Clover.
Trifolium repens..................................White Clover.
Trifolium prcumbens..............Low Hop Clover, Yellow Clover.
Mellilotus alva...................................Sweet Clover.
Medicago sativa.......Luzerne Alfalfa.
Psoralea esculenta.......Pomme de Terre, Ground Apple.
Amorpha canescens.......Lead-plant.
Petalostemon violaceus.......Sweet-scented Prairie Clover.
Petalostemon candidus.......White Prairie Clover.
Astragalus caryocarpus.......Ground Plum.
Astragalus Canadensis.......Milk Vetch.
Astagalus Missouriensis.......Vetch.
Glycyrrhiza lepidota.......Wild Liquorice.
Desmodium acuminatum.......Tick-trefoil.
Vicia Americana.......Climbing Pea-vine.
Lathyrus ochroleucus.......Everlasting Pea.
Lathyrus venosus.......Wild Pea-vine.
Lathyrus palustris.......Creeping Pea-vine.
Amphicarpaea monoica.......Hog Pea-nut.
Rubus oboratus.......Purple-flowering Raspberry.
Rubus triflorus.......Dwarf Swamp Raspberry.
Rubus strigosus.......Wild Red Raspberry.
Rubus occidentalia.......Black Raspberry.
Rubus villosus.......Common High Blackberry.
Rubus Canadensis.......Low Blackberry, Dewberry.
Rubus hispidus.......Running Swamp Blackberry.
Geum macrophyllum.......Yellow Avens.
Geum rivale.......Water Avens, Purple Avens.
Geum triflorum......................................
Fragaria Virginianna.......Common Wild Strawberry.
Fragaris vesca.......Smaller Wild Strawberry.
Potentilla Norvegica.......Cinquefoil.
Potentilla Pennsylvanica.......Fivefinger.
Potentil'a palustris.......Marsh Fivefinger.
Agrimonia eupatoria.......Agrimony.
Rosa engelmania.......Prairie Wild Rose.
Rosa Carolina.......Hedge Wild Rose.
Tiarella cordifolia.......Mitrewort.
Mitela nuda.......Bishop's Cap.
Heuchera hispida.......Alum-root.
Parnassia palustris.......Grass of Parnassus.
Ribes cynosbati.......Prickly Gooseberry.
Ribes bracile.......Smooth Gooseberry.
Ribes prostratum.......Skunk Currant.
Ribes floridum.......Wild Black Currant.
Ribes rubrum.......Wild Red Currant.
Epilobium angustifolium.......Rosebay, Firewood.
Epilobium coloratum.......Willow Herb.
Epilobium adenocaulon.......Marsh Rosebay.
Genothera biennis.......Evening Primrose.
Genothera albicaulis.......Prairie Primrose.
Genothera serrulata.......Shrubby Primrose.
Circaea litetianna.......Enchanter's Nightshade.

. . .


The following is a list of the native trees and large shrubs I have found growing in the county:

Tillia Americana ...........Basswood, Lin, Linden.
Xanthoxylum Americanum .................Prickly Ash.
Ilex verticillata ......................Black Alder, Winterberry.
Celastrus scandens .....................Bittersweet.
Rhamnus alnisolia ......................Dwarf Buckthorn.
Vitis labrusca .........................Northern Fox Grape.
Ampelopsis quinquefolia ................Woodbine, Virginia Creeper.
Acer spicatum ..........................Mountain Maple.
Acer sacccharineum .....................Sugar Maple, Rock Maple.
Negundo aceroides ......................Box Elder, Ash-leaved Maple.
Rhus glabra ............................Sumach.
Amorpha fruticosa.......................Large False Indigo.
Prunus Americana .......................Wild Red or Yellow Plum.
Prunus pumila ..................................Dwarf Cherry, Sand-cherry.
Prunus Virginiana ......................Choke-cherry.
Prunus serotina ........................Wild Black Cherry.
Prunus Pennsylvanica ...................Wild Red Cherry.
Spiraea salicifolia ....................Queen-of-the-meadows.
Pyrus Americana ........................Mountain Ash.
Crataegus Crusgalli ....................Cockspur Thorn.
Amelanchier alnifolia...................Service-berry, June-berry,

Shad-berry.
Cornus stolomnifera ....................Red Osier, Dogwood,

Kinnikinnik.
Cornus Circinata .......................Round-leaved Dogwood.
Cornus paniculata ......................A small species of Dogwood.
Cornus alternifolia ....................Green Osier Dogwood.
Sambucus racemossa .....................Red-beeried Elder.
Viburnum opulus ........................High Bush Cranberry.
Viburnum pubescens .....................Bitter Haw.
Viburnam lentago .......................Sweet Black Haw.
Fraxinus Americana......................White Ash.
Fraxinus viridis .......................Red Ash.
Fraxinus sambucifolia ..................Black Ash.
Dirca paulustris .......................Moosewood, Leatherwood.
Elaeagnus irentea ......................Silverberry.
Ulmus fulva ............................Slippery Elm or Red Elm.
Ulmus Americana ........................White Elm, Water Elm.
Ulmus racemossa ........................Rock Elm, Cork Elm.
Celtis ocidentalis .....................Hackberry, Sugarberry.
Juglans cinerea ........................Butternut, White Walnut.
Juglans nigra ..........................Black Walnut.
Betula lenta ............................Yellow Birch, Sweet Birch.
Betula papyrifera .......................White Birch, Canoe Birch.
Beutla pumila ...........................Low Birch, Swamp Birch.
Alnus incana ............................Tag Alder, Common Alder.
Corylus Americana .......................Beaked Hazelnut.
Corylus rostrata ........................Beaked Hazelnut, Filbert.
Ostyra Virginica ........................Iron Wood, Hornbean.
Carpinus Caroliniana ....................Blue Beech, Water Beech.
Quercus alba ............................White Oak.
Quercus ,acrpcpr[a ......................Bur-oak, Sweet Oak.
Quercus ruba ............................Red Oak. Scarlet Oak.
Salix alba ..............................White Willow.
Salix Babylonica ........................Wheeping Willow.
Salix discolor ..........................Shining Willow.
Salix tristis ...........................Drawf Grey Willow,

Prarie Willow.
Salix sericea ...........................Silky Willow.
Salix petiolaris .....................................
Salix Canadida ..........................Hoary Willow, Gray Willow.
Populus alba ............................White Poplar, a cultivated

species.
Populus tremuloides .....................Aspen, Quacking-asp,

The Common Poplar.
Populus grandidenta .....................Large-leaved Aspen,

Black Poplar.
Populus balsmifera ......................Balm of Gilead.
Populus monilifera ......................Cottonwood.
Populus .................................Lombardy Poplar.
Pinus stobus ............................White Pine.
Pinus banksianna ........................Jack Pine, Black Pine.
Pinus resinosa ..........................Norway Pine, Red Pine.
Pinus nigra .............................Black Spruce.
Abies balsamea ..........................Fir Balsam.
Larix Americana .........................Tamarac, Larch, Hackmatack.
Juniperus Communis ......................Common Juniper, Dwarf Cedar.
Taxus Canadensis ........................American Yew,

Ground Hemlock.


There a a good many more species of wild plants in Becker County now, than when it was first settled. At that time the most troublesome plant in the county was thought to be the wild morning-glory. A good many new species have followed in the wake of civilization that were not here before, and many of them a very troublesome. Among the species that have been introduced that are somewhat troublesome in their nature are the mullein, the dandelion, the plantain, the purslane, the ragweed, and the yellow daisy. Among those that are considered a positive nuisance are the burdock, the cocklebur, the sweet clover, the white daisy, the wild mustard, the bull thistle, the Russian thistle, and last but not least, the Canada thistle.

These plants have all evidently come in to stay, especially the Canada thistle.

The bull thistle has gained a strong foothold in many places, especially in sections eighteen and nineteen in Grand Park township, where it has spread rapidly along the roadside and through the timber for a distance of two miles or more in the last ten years. It is a biennial plant, always dying the second year, and consequently can be easily destroyed by mowing before the plant goes to seed.

The Russian thistle has made its appearance along the Northern Pacific Railroad track in the last six or seven years, in small quantities. It is an annual plant, always dying the first year and consequently ought to be easily destroyed. It does not thrive well in our moist climate, and the surface of Becker County is not adapted to its rough and tumble habits. So it should not cause any serious apprehensions.

The wild mustard so far has made the most trouble of any pestiferous plant in the county, but farmers appear to have a way of keeping it under control.

The sweet clover is a harmless, inoffensive looking plant, but it has taken possession of a good part of Ohio, where it appears to be master of the situation.

There is a dense patch of it in Otter Tail County, along the road about half way between Pelican Rapids and Frazee. It is slowly creeping towards Becker County, at the rate of about forty rods a year.

The white daisy is a troublesome weed in some of the older states, but in Becker County it has only appeared in flower gardens and dooryards. It is a dangerous pet, and is liable to make trouble in the future.

Nearly all of the above weeds can be kept under control, but there is a vicious plant thriving in our midst that is more to be dreaded than all the mustard, sweet clover, bull thistle, Russian thistle, and the seven years' plague of grasshoppers combined, and that is the Canada thistle. It is like the song of the everflowing brook "Men may come and men may go, But I go on forever."

Some of the other pests of the field and highway may come and some may go, but the Canada thistle has come to stay forever. Silently and slowly, but surely, little by little, year after year, it is spreading over the country. It is a perennial plant, its roots living from year to year, and they are never known to die. I have known a strawstack to be built over a patch of Canada thistles and burned three years afterwards and the year after the fire they were up and blooming as vigorous and thrifty as ever. Sixteen years ago, I discovered a patch of these thistles in a barnyard near the old Oak Lake cut about a rod square, and I do not think there were any more of them in the county at that time. I sent word to the authorities of Audubon township, warning them of the dangerous character of the plant. They were mowed down some time that summer, after they had matured, and that was all I ever heard of being done to them. They are now growing all around in the vicinity. There is a big patch of them in the village of Detroit, a few in the Red Eye country and lots of them on the White Earth Reservation. They are fast taking possession of both Brainerd and Duluth and the north shore of Lake Superior, along the Canadian Pacific Railroad. There are three species, a native thistle in the county, all of which are quite harmless.

Of the plants threatened with annihilation, I will mention only the ginseng. Thirty years ago, I found it in considerable quantities at the west end of Floyd Lake, and have seen it growing near the narrows of Big Cormorant Lake, and in Lake View; but when the dried roots become worth nearly their weight in gold, it became a shining mark for the Chippewa squaws and the unerring aim of their little steel hoes has nearly accomplished it destruction.

Another plant of great importance in the financial affairs of the Chippewas, in the Seneca snakeroot, tons and tons of which have been dug throughout the brush prairie regions of the county. It is a hard perennial plant, and appears to be holding its own against this persistent Indian warfare with wonderful success. This plant was abundant on the prairies of Atlanta before they were ploughed up. Late in the fall or early in the spring after the prairie has been burned, they were dotted with these plants, the evergreen nature of their radical leaves rendering them nearly fire proof, and quite conspicuous after the fire had blackened the ground.

There are other species of medicinal plants in the county that are used quite extensively. The Leptendra or blackroot and the Ura ursa or the bearberry, and the kidneywort, all of which grow in considerable quantities and which ought to find a ready sale at good price. Here is an opening for squaws after the snakeroot has disappeared.

Of deadly poisons the Cicuta maculata or poison hemlock stands at the head of the list. It grows extensively in wet places all over the county, and looks like a big caraway plant. The roots resemble wild artichokes, only they are a little longer drawn out. It was eating this root that killed Miles Hannah in the spring of 1873 on the Clearwater drive, and it also fatally poisoned a man in the employ of J. W. Dunn near Detroit, eight years ago.

The Cicuta bulifera is also deadly poison. It resembles the maculata, but is not so plentiful.

Any and all plants belonging to the natural order Umbullifera to which the above belong, growing in wet or moist places, are liable to be poisonous, while plants belonging to the same family growing on high, dry ground like the parsnip, the carrot, the caraway, the sweet cicely, the fennel, the dill and the anise, are harmless.

The Rhus toxicodendron, or poison oak, poisons many people externally, and is said to be a rank poison when taken internally. It grows all over the timbered portions of Becker County in great abundance. It grows to be about a foot high, and is readily known by its leaves always growing in threes. There are some suspicious plants belonging to the natural order of Ranunculus, such as the crowfoot, the columbine, the larkspar and the red and white baneberry.

The natural order Scrophulacea, to which the foxglove and the monkey flower belong, has some poisonous species, none of which are native of Becker County to my knowledge, but some of them that do grow here are of a suspicious character.

A plant of much importance in the domestic economy of the Indians is the wild rice. For generations this plant furnished them with their daily bread, or at least with about everything in the shape of bread that they had to eat. As most people will know it grows in the water where it is from two to ten feet deep. The seeds rapidly take root in soft mud, and in the old beds of sunken straw from former growths of wild rice, of which there is frequently a depth of several feet down deep in the water, at the bottoms of some of the lakes and ponds. As a consequence the growing plants are never very strongly rooted and are easily pulled up. The first year I brought a drive of logs down the Otter Tail River, I was bothered and put to a big expense getting them through the wild rice straw in Height of Land Lake, Rice Land and Blackbird Lake. There had been an immense cop the year before and it was still holding by the roots to the bottom of the lakes. The next spring, I hit upon a device of my own to get rid of the old straw. I made a dam at the outlet of Height of Land Lake and another at the outlet of Rice Lake, and about the middle of March, when the ice in the lakes was about as thick as it was going to get, I closed up my dams. The water would them begin to raise the ice in the lakes, and the ice would pull up the wild rice straw by the roots, and as soon as the ice melted the wind would blow the straw ashore where it would be out of the way. The Indians gather the wild rice by placing it in holes in the ground, and pounding it after the fashion of churning with an old-fashioned up and down churn.

The goldenrod is the national flower of the United States. There are forty-two species of Solidago or goldenrod in the Northern States, seven of which are found in Becker County, and the Solidago Canadenses, the national flower is one of the seven.

The Cypipedium or pink lady slipper, the state flower of Minnesota, is also a native of Becker County.

The most curious plant in the county is the Sarracenia purpurea, or side-saddle flower, also appropriately call the pitcher-plant. The leaves are shaped exactly like a pitcher, and one of them will hold a gill of water. They are common in the tamarac swamps.