Chapter XVIII.
History of the White Earth Reservation.

White Cloud
WHITE CLOUD.

Hole-in-the-Day
HOLE-IN-THE-DAY.
Paul Beaulieu
PAUL BEAULIEU.
Truman A. Warren
TRUMAN A. WARREN.

I will begin the history of White Earth with a letter from Major J.D. Bassett, who was Indian agent for the Mississippi Band of Chippewas at the time of their removal to White Earth in 1868:

Wolfboro, N. H., August 10, 1906.
Yours of the 27th ult. reached me a few days since, forwarded from Minneapolis. I have delayed answering it in order to consult with Mr. James Bean, who now lives in California, but was expected here, and who was my clerk during my incumbency of the Indian agency and could from memory, which is not as clear as they would have been if I had some diaries kept at the time, which I have in Minneapolis. I find that forth years dims my memory of events that transpired that length of time ago.
When the treaty was made in Washington in 1867, the party that went with me consisted of George Bonga (interpreter), Head Chief Hole-in-the-day, Peter Bottneau and five or six other Chiefs and Headmen; all full blooded Indians. We were there over two months before the treaty was made and ratified. Paul H. Beaulieu was sent by me to White Earth in the spring of 1868, before the removal to explore the country and meet me on my arrival there, which was to precede the arrival of the Indians. Truman Warren was employed as an interpreter and collected the Indians at the old agency, near Crow Wing, superintended collecting the outfit and accompanied them on their journey. I followed them a few days after and overtook them at Otter Tail Lake, where they were met by a delegation of Sioux Indians and were holding a friendly council. Paul Beaulieu met me, before I arrived at the point afterwards selected for the agency, and accompanied me back to the reservation, and together with him the agency was located, also a road to White Earth Lake, and a site for the sawmill selected.
I do not recollect now of sending any one to the reservation to do any work except what was done by Paul Beaulieu, in exploring on the reservation. As soon as the site for buildings was selected and the location of the land to be broken was marked out, I employed Joseph Wakefield to break the land for an Indian farm and to break land separately, for such Indians as desired to occupy it. I do not recollect the exact date when the breaking commenced or ended, but there is no question about Paul Beaulieu being the first settler. He was there before the first colony arrived and I think his family was there also, and he was employed as a farmer from the time of the first arrival of Indians at White Earth Reservation, until I left the agency. There were Indians and half-breeds constantly going and coming, but the number there was constantly increasing. I think, when the Indians arrived near the Reservation, Paul went out to meet them and piloted them to the ground. I think he met me at some point and came back with me before the arrival of the Indians. I left the Indians at Otter Tail Lake and did not see them again until their arrival. Truman Warren stayed with the Indians until their arrival at their destination. Truman was the Moses from the start, and true and faithful. Most of the Indians that went that year, went together with Warren. No band or body of them went together after that time during that year. Several ox teams went with the Indians, and I think the same teams were put to work breaking land. There were some pine logs cut as you suggest, and it was done by Joseph Wakefield the next winter. I do not recollect how many, but enough to build many houses for Indians and store-houses.
My experience with the Indian Department show to my mind the most incomprehensible absurdity that a civilized people ever attempted to impose upon an uncivilized race. To attempt to civilize a people and at the same time prevent them from adopting any of the arts or advantages of civilization, is to my mind absolutely absurd and ridiculous, Give the benefit of law and the work is done at once. Abrogate law amongst the white people and we would soon relapse into barbarism.
Respectfully yours,
J.B. Bassett


First Land Plowed in Becker County.

J.W. Wakefield, now of Aitkin, Minn., who did the first plowing in Becker County, says:

Aitkin, Minn., July 22, 1906.
In the fall of 1862, I passed through Becker county with the Indian agent, on our way to Clearwater, where he made payment to the Otter Tail, Pembina and Red Lake Indians. We followed the old Red River Trail, and camped at Detroit Lake on our way out. Edwin Clark was the agent at the time. It was a wild trip. The Sioux were all over the country, and were very hostile; it being soon after the beginning of the terrible massacre in southern Minnesota. The Otter Tail Indians escorted us through to the Clearwater. I broke 240 acres of land for the Indians at White Earth, in the summer of 1868, and the winter following cut one million feet of pine logs to be sawed into lumber and to be used in the construction of the agency buildings.
I started my teams from old Crow Wing in the latter part of April, 1868, and Paul H. Bealieu was the leader of the party, because he knew better how to manage the fording of the rivers, but William Thompson took charge of the work. Paul was employed by the government as farmer and surveyor. After locating my teams at breaking, he returned to accompany Major Bassett. I commenced breaking about the middle of May, with two six-ox teams and four two-horse teams. I think Paul Beaulieu's first trip to White Earth was when he went with my teams, arriving there early in May 1868. James Warren and George Van Valkenburg came to White Earth later on. I opened up a store there, as I was the only licensed trader in the country at the time. Robert Fairbanks was my clerk. E. B. Lowell took charge of my logging camp that next winter. I think our making the trip through that country in the fall of 1862, was the cause of White Earth being chosen for a reservation, for we all recommended it to the government as the Garden of Eden, and we were not much mistaken.
I have been trying to refresh my memory as to the names of those of my party who went to White Earth to do the breaking of land. There were, beside Beaulieu, four men and one woman. The woman was Wm. Thompson's wife, a white woman, and the entire party were white men, but for my life I cannot remember their names, except Wm. Thompson and Simeon Weaver. As to Paul H. Beaulieu, he went back to Crow Wing and brought his family back, and so did Robert Fairbanks. The following winter I cut one million feet of logs to build the Agency. Again Paul Beaulieu returned to Crow Wing and piloted my teams and c crew through. They left Crow Wing the early part of January, 1869. This party was P.H. Beaulieu, E.B. Lowell, John B. Wakefield and True Moores. Somewhere in the vicinity of Detroit, they experienced a snow storm. So much snow fell with the heavy wind, the men got discouraged and all agreed to turn back, when True Moores with a four-horse team hitched up and said he was going to White earth, as he had hired out to do and started out alone. Paul Beaulieu soon followed and after some time they all pulled out, and with much difficulty, with snow and cold, made their way by following the ridges and high land, for the valleys were ten to twenty feet deep with snow. It was quite an undertaking to haul our supplies so far without roads or bridges. I got $13.00 per acre for breaking and $10.00 per one thousand feet banking logs and it was not too much either.
Yours respectfully,
Joseph B. Wakefield
To A.H. Wilcox

The William Thompson referred to took a claim the next year two or three miles south of where Frazee now stands and lived there for several years. The place is now owned and occupied by Thomas Keyes. His wife referred to afterwards became the wife of C. H. Whipple and lived in Detroit for several years and died there on the 13th day of March, 1888.



First Saw Mill at White Earth.


Long Prairie, Minnesota, July 10, 1906.

Hon. A.H. Wilcox
Frazee, Minn.,
Dear Sir:
I have your favor of the 2nd inst., asking about my trip to White Earth in the spring of 1868, and in reply will say I went there at that time to build a saw mill for the Indians, under contract with Major J.B. Bassett, then Indian agent.
We loaded the engine, boiler and mill machinery into a flatboat at the old village of Crow Wing and poled the boat up the Crow Wing River to the mouth of Leaf River and up that river to Leaf Lake. The party was made up of the late Wm. L. Dow, Little Falls, Minn., Mr. ___ McCabe, of Minneapolis, Minn., Mr. Jerry Bartrum and a brother of his, whose name I have forgotten, and myself, with about half a dozen Indians who helped pole the boat.
We found the water very low that spring and in many places were obliged to build wing dams to raise the water sufficiently to enable use to get up over the rapids; when we got into Leaf River we found it so crooked that our boat, which was seventy feet long, could scarcely make the turns and we were greatly delayed and did not reach Ruffee’s Landing on Leaf Lake as soon as we expected; we ran short of provisions and the last few days lived on fish which we caught in the river. We left the boat at Ruffee’s Landing, and the cargo was afterwards loaded onto wagons and hauled through to White Earth Lake. After leaving our boat, we went to Otter Tail Lake where Charley Peake had a trading store, only to find he had nothing to eat except fish and potatoes, and for four days, while we were waiting for the teams which started from the Crow Wing Agency the day after we did and which were greatly delayed by bad roads, we shared his generous hospitality and scant bill of fare. At Otter Tail Lake was also located Mr. Van Norse, to whom we were indebted for many courtesies.
When we reached Buffalo River we were obliged to bridge that stream before we could get our teams across, and while there Major Bassett overtook us and went ahead to White Earth and sent back Mr. Paul Beaulieu to pilot us in to our destination.
Upon our arrival we immediately commenced work on the saw-mill, and soon had it running. It was located about two miles east of the present village on the bank of White Earth Lake.
Thompson & Peake had banked a lot of pine logs across the lake the winter before, and from these we sawed quite a lot of lumber and shingles and then left the mill in charge of Anton St. Germain, who ran it for some time.
The following winter I built a saw-mill at Red Lake for the Indians of that agency; the mill was located at the outlet of the lake and was run by water power.
The fir of Thompson & Peake, who did the lumbering at White Earth the winter before I went there, was composed of Mr. William Thompson, whom you mention, and Fred Peake. Giles Peake and Charley Peake were at Otter Tail at the time.
There were no Indians with Major Bassett, they came later and arrived while I was there during the early summer. Paul Beaulieu was at White Earth ahead of us and before major Bassett went there, he must have gone there very early in the spring.
Truman Warren was at the old Crow Wing Agency at the time and did not reach White Earth until the middle of June. It is difficult for me to give the exact date when my party left Crow Wing in the spring, but my best recollection is that it was about the middle of May.
I regret that I am unable to go more into detail or be more definite as to dates, but the fact is I am now eighty-four years old and my memory is not as good as it was some years ago. I came to Minnesota in 1856 and settled at Little Falls, have lived in this part of the state ever since, and am interested in the history of the state and am pleased to contribute anything I can, to make the history that I have had anything to do with making a matter of record.
Yours truly,
Samuel Lee

Mr. Lee is that father of Hon. Wm. E. Lee, of Long Prairie. Mr. Samuel Lee died at Long Prairie October 22nd, 1906.



Nathan Butler.

Nathan Butler
Nathan Butler.

Nathan Butler, an old U.S. government surveyor, who was with the first party of Indians when they went through to White Earth in the month of June 1868, says:

It was in June 1868 that I first went into Becker County. It was the time Major Bassett moved the Indians to White Earth Reservation. I joined him near Otter Tail Lake and went to White Earth with him.
Paul Beaulieu was living at White Earth with his family when Major Bassett and I arrived there. He met us two or three miles this side of the agency. He was hunting along the road, and had killed a lynx and some other game. He returned to the agency with us, and we took dinner with him, which his wife had prepared, apparently in anticipation of our arrival. I recollect very distinctly that she had bear meat and a turtle cooked. I noticed that Bassett ate pretty freely of the bear meat, but not of the turtle. When we were out after dinner, inspecting the breaking that Jos. Wakefield was doing for the government, Bassett remarked, that he did not think his wife would put a turtle on the table more than once with the feet on it. That accounted for his eating bear instead of turtle. I ate the turtle and preferred it to the bear meat.
We were there nearly a week on account of one of the mules being lame, and while we were there I recollect Bassett talking with Lee about putting up a saw mill by contract, but could make any bargain to do it.
When we got back to the outlet of Rush Lake the heaviest of the saw mill machinery was there loaded on wagons waiting for Bassett. We gave them information about the road, and gave them three weeks to get to White Earth Lake. In seven days they had the mill there ready to set up; the best job of handling ox teams I ever saw.

In a letter to W.W. McLeod, Mr. Butler says:

On our return I met three or four men from Clitheral, Otter Tail County, looking for good land on which to locate and I persuaded them to go through the Detroit Woods to the vicinity of Oak Lake. They were delighted with the land in that vicinity and made claims there to which they afterwards moved their families. One of them, Henry Way, was living in the vicinity the last I heard of him. These, at the time were supposed to be the first white men who ever settled in Becker county. Patrick Quinlan was living on the river bank just south of where Frazee is now, but he thought he was living in Otter Tail County until after the county line was run two years afterwards.
In 1874 I was employed by the U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs to locate and survey a wagon road from Detroit to the Red Lake Agency.
As there was a good road already located to White Earth Agency and from there to the Wild Rice River, I adopted the old road that far, and the road from there north did not vary two miles at any one point from a straight line.
In July, 1871, I went to Oak Lake, then the end of the railroad, and outfitted three parties to examine land for the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, and in the fall of that year took a party into the woods east of Richwood and examined the towns of Grand Park and Carsonville.
N. B
To W.W. McLeod

Mr. Butler is now living at Minneapolis, but was back here in July 1906, at the age of 74 years, making a survey of some land in the woods a few miles south of Frazee, about as nimble as ever.

Mrs. Julia A. Spears
MRS. JULIA A. SPEARS.

Julius Brown
JULIUS BROWN.
Rev. John Johnson
REV. JOHN JOHNSON.
Mrs. John Johnson
MRS. JOHN JOHNSON.

History of White Earth.

by MRS. JULIA A. SPEARS

In 1867 my home was at the old Chippewa Agency near Crow Wing, Minnesota. A widow, with three children, I was employed as government day teacher, and remember very well the events which occurred at that time. J. B. Bassett was Indian agent, and the same year went to Washington with the head chief Hole-in-the-day, and other chiefs of the Mississippi band of Chippewas, to make a treaty with the government in the exchange of their old reservation for a new one which was to be selected for them in northern Minnesota. It was a year after the treaty, before all the Indians could be persuaded to leave their old home, and when at last they were willing and ready to move, Hole-in-the-day became dissatisfied and unruly. He demanded much for himself as head chief which was refused by the government. He then began to oppose the removal and made much trouble by trying to prevent the other chiefs and braves from starting, telling them to wait until next spring as he would not be ready until then; that he was going to Washington again to demand of the government that improvements be made at the new reservation before removal, including a saw-mill, houses for the Indians, and a large house for himself like the one that was destroyed by fire during the Indian raid in 1862. He told them that when all these improvements were made he would be ready to go, and they and the Agency would all move together. He urged them to wait, but they would not listen to him and were determined to go. The agent had received orders from the department to have the Indians removed to their new home early that spring, and they were all ready to start. Hole-in-the-day was very angry when he found that he could not prevent them from moving, and threatened to kill the first to go. Some of his braves supported him in his stand. Finally, after much trouble, they were ready to start on the 4th day of June, 1868.

T. A. Warren was appointed by the government to superintend the transfer of the Indians to their new reservation at White Earth. He collected together men, women and children, about two hundred in all, at the old agency. I saw them when they started, with a long train of ox teams, Mr. Warren in a light buggy with his wife and child. My friend, Reverend Fred Smith, now rector of Saint Columbia church at White Earth, accompanied them. He was then a very young man. He has given me some information of the first two years of the settlement at White Earth, including the following narrative of the removal written by himself:

In the morning of June 4, 1868, Truman Warren started with the Indians for their new home, White Earth, with eleven ox teams, moving the Mississippi band of Chippewas, under the chiefs White Cloud, Wah-bon-ah-quod, Nay-bon-ash-kung and Mun-ne-do-wab. It was a trying time. Hole-in-the-day had told his braves that whoever went first would surely be killed on the spot. Nay-bon-ash-kung, who was a brave as well as a chief, took his gun and told the party to follow him, saying: "Now, follow me; whoever will come in my way to stop me from going, he will be killed on the spot." All the Indians went along with him, having their guns ready for business, and nobody dared to come in his way. T. A. Warren was their leader, having charge of the removal. In coming through to Otter Tail Lake we saw few houses, but after leaving the lake we saw none. It was a vast wilderness. The Indians arrived at White Earth at noon, June 14, 1868. We camped near the present site of the agency buildings, and lived in tents and wigwams until houses were built. Few were ready by cold weather, and some of the Indians built little log huts for their first winter. T. A. Warren had charge of the Indians after they reached their new home. He built a log store house for the flour, pork, groceries and other supplies, and distributed weekly rations to the Indians for one year.

Mr Paul Beaulieu, at the request of the Indians, was their first farmer. He came from Crow Wing with his family and four white men and they arrived a short time in advance of the Indians and settled at a place four miles from White Earth Lake, now known as the "Old Trading Post," This was their first village here.

James Warren, government sawyer and carpenter, and George Van Valkenberg, government blacksmith, came with Paul Beaulieu on one of his trips.

Samuel Lee and a party of men left Crow Wing about the middle of May with the machinery for a sawmill which he afterwards built at White Earth Lake and he had hard time getting through with the mill. The government farm was located, farmhouse and stables built, as also a dwelling house for T. A. Warren and several small houses for the Indians - all log buildings. There were no gardens the first year, as they arrived too late in the season, but there was plenty of wild rice in the lakes, and ducks, geese and prairie chickens were also plentiful. The lakes were filled with many varieties of fish, including catfish, pickerel, muskallonge, black and rock bass, suckers, red-horse and wall-eyed pike. Sturgeon were also caught in White Earth Lake. The first two years deer were quite plentiful, and also elk, moose, bear, muskrats and rabbits. Nay-bon-ash-kung, one of the chiefs, who died in 1873, killed the first elk. The Indians did not hunt much the first year, those who were able to work being hired by the government to help build their own houses. In the fall of the same year (1868) Rev. Mr. John Johnson (En-meg-ah-bowh) sent word he was coming to White Earth with his family, bringing with him a few Indians from Mille Lacs. He requested a party of Indians to meet him at Otter Tail Lake as it was not safe for a small party to travel alone through the wilderness, the Sioux being feared at that time. That winter a little log church was built. Rev. Johnson was sent by Bishop Whipple to convert and civilize the Indians, in which work he was very successful. He was an eloquent preacher and very popular with the Indians. In September, 1868, Julius Brown, (Mamuckkawange) the first male child, was born. Jane Parker, daughter of Bahbewob (Peter Parker), was the first girl born.

The first death occurred September 1, 1868, Gin-gion-cumig-oke, mother-in-law of T. A. Warren. Ah-zhe-day-gi-shig and wife were the first couple married, on January 12, 1869, in Saint Columbo church, where they were also baptized.

In the fall of 1868, the Indians were paid their first annuity money, ten dollars per head, at White Earth.

R. P. Fairbanks, who was a big boy at this time, says he remembers well that Joseph Wakefield came here before the Indians arrived and built a small store at the old trading post. The name of the members of the firm were Joseph Wakefield and Fred Peake. His father, Robert Fairbanks ran the store for them. This was the first store at White Earth in recent years.

The 14th day of June of each year has always been observed by the people and Indians as the anniversary of the day when the first Indians arrived at White Earth. They named their new home Gah-wah-bah-bi-gon-i-kah, or White Earth, from the white clay found under the black soil.

On April 1, 1869, Mr. Bassett resigned his office as Indian Agent, and an army officer was then appointed by the government to fill the vacancy, during whose term two annuity payments were made to the Indians.

During 1869 most of the Indians that had remained at the old agency at Crow Wing and Gull Lake moved to White Earth, as did also a number of mixed-blood families from Crow Wing and Leech Lake. In that year a Roman Catholic priest, Father Tomazine, arrived and his first church was a small building built of logs and located about three miles south of the agency.

On the morning of Sept. 9, 1870, I started with my three children from Little Falls, Minnesota, in company with my sister, Mrs. James Warren, and family of seven children, on our journey to White Earth. Mr. La Chance and Mr. Mouchamp were hired with their two two-horse teams and one ox team. We went to Crow Wing and took the Leech Lake road as far as Twenty-four-mile Creek, so named from being 24 miles from Leech Lake, where a road had just been completed by the government across the country to White Earth. Here we met an Indian with an ox team who had been sent by my brother, Truman, to guide us to White Earth. Mr. LaChance went back to Little Falls, while Mr. Mouchamp continued with us. We traveled very slowly as the teams were heavily loaded. It was a desolate country, but we saw large numbers of ducks, geese, prairie chickens and partridges. My sister and I walked nearly the entire distance. When we reached Pine Point we met Rev. Johnson with his family, on their way to visit Bishop Whipple, and taking his two daughters to Saint Mary's Hall, Faribault, where they were to attend school. We camped together that night and had a pleasant visit with them. Mr. Johnson informed us that the roads were in a very bad condition and that we were yet one and a half day's journey from White Earth, which proved true. Ten days after leaving Little Falls we arrived at our new home, where we were warmly welcomed by relatives and friends. We were much pleased with the country, the fruitful gardens and the tall oak trees which were so green and beautiful, there having been no frost. I was much surprised to see the great improvement in my Indian friends whom I had known at the "Old Agency" and who had come with the first removal. When they left there they were heathens and wore blankets, long hair, feathers, and painted their faces, and now when they came to shake hands and welcome me they were dressed like white men, with short hair and unpainted faces. This was the result of the good work of their missionary, who had converted most of these Indians. They were now trying to live Christian lives and had taken their lands near each other. The government had houses built for them and they all appeared contented and happy. I never heard any of them express regret at having come to White Earth, their only complaint being the lack of schools for their children. Mr. John Cook had been appointed by the government to be their farmer and overseer, having arrived with his family from Leech Lake early in the spring of 1870, where he had filled a similar position for a number of years. I was very glad to renew their acquaintance, as I had known them at Leech Lake where we first met. Mrs. Cook was the first white woman who came to White Earth. They had three beautiful children, two boys and one girl. They were good Christian people, Mr. Cook being an honest, upright man, and the Indians had great respect for him. For his home he had selected another place near a lake two miles from the village, where a new farm-house and other government buildings were being erected. When completed in the fall he moved there with his family, and kindly offered me the house he had vacated for a day school and residence, which I gladly accepted. There were about forty children in attendance and I taught all winter, it being the first school on the reservation.

In the fall of 1870 there was a new blacksmith appointed, a Mr. Cochran who had been there only a few weeks. Early one morning he went out in a boat to shoot ducks, and in reaching over the side of the boat to pick up a duck, which he had killed, the boat upset and before assistance could reach him he was drowned. His body was not recovered until the following spring. He was the first white man buried at White Earth.

The removals, including ourselves, were: Alfred Warren and family, Madeline Warren, Tyler Warren and Mrs. Delia Winters. These were all the children of W.W. Warren the historian. They have since all passed away except Madeline, who is now Mrs. George Uran. There were also Mr. Tim. Moore and wife and mother-in-law, Mrs. Fountain, Mr. Frank M. Campbell, wife and four children, Mr. Robert Fairbanks, wife, four sons and one daughter, and Mr. Frank Roy, wife and family, all from Crow Wing. Besides these there were two traders, George Fairbanks and Wm. McArthur, the last named coming several years later. I remember the Indians secured quantities of furs in the fall and early spring, such as bear, timber wolves, coyotes, red fox, mink, lynx, wild-cat, coon, muskrat, skunk, weasel, marten, fisher, otter and badger. The four last mentioned animals are now very rare.

In 1870 Mr. Bardwell was appointed Indian agent, with head-quarters at Leech Lake, and held the office for one year, another annuity being paid during his term. In that year Bishop Whipple came to visit the Indians. He held services and confirmed a large number of Indians in the little log church, on this his first visit to White Earth. All the Indians loved and respected their good Bishop and he was their best friend. With his influence with the Department at Washington he did much to help them when in trouble and want during the grasshopper plague.

In the spring of 1871 E.P. Smith was appointed Indian agent with headquarters at White Earth, bringing his own employees, most of them coming from Ripon, Wisconsin. This being the first agency at White Earth, their names are here given: Mr. Chittenden, unmarried, head clerk and overseer; Mrs. Minnie Cook, niece of E.P. Smith, assistant clerk; Mr. M.V. Nichols, farmer; Mr. Bardwell, blacksmith; Mr. A.K. Murray, engineer in charge of the government sawmill at White Earth Lake; Mr. J.E. Haven, carpenter; Dr. Bodle, physician. All had families. Dr. Bodle and Mr. Haven were employed for a number of years at White Earth. Several government houses for employees were built, including the Indian boarding school, the only school building ready for use that fall. The first superintendent and teachers were Mr. and Mrs. Armour, from Iowa. There was room for only fifty pupils, and twenty-five boys and as many girls were taken, none under fifteen years of age. The pupils were taught to do all the work in the boarding school.

Eastern churchmen assisted the Episcopal mission and a new church and parsonage were built. The new church was consecrated by Bishop Whipple in August, 1872, when he visited White Earth accompanied by quite a party of the clergy and laity.

In the spring of 1871, John Cook and family moved from White Earth to their new home and farm near Audubon, where all the members of this unfortunate family were cruelly murdered a year afterwards by three Chippewa Indians, Bobolink and Boanece being the principal actors in the tragedy. They were both arrested soon after the crime and taken to prison, but Boanece was released for want of evidence. He was quite ill when he returned home, but recovered partially and was able to walk about, always with a loaded gun as if he expected to be retaken. In February, 1873, Mr. James Whitehead came to White Earth to arrest him again. The Indians became very much excited and quickly held a council and all agreed to stop the arrest. They were determined not to allow Mr. Whitehead to take Boanece from the reservation, although knowing him to be guilty. The fear of an Indian outbreak was their reason for resisting the arrest. The Leech Lake Pillagers had several times sent word to the White Earth Indians that if they permitted him to be taken off the reservation to prison again, where he would be hung by the whites, there would be trouble and they would commence killing the white people. Boanece and his wife were related to some of the worst Indians at Bear Island, Leech Lake. This was the last attempt made to arrest him, and he died soon after at his home on Rice River. The west half of White Earth Reservation was surveyed by George P. Stuntz and Shaw of Duluth and St. Paul, in the summer of 1871. During the year 1873 all the government buildings were completed, including cooking, sewing, knitting, carpet-weaving, etc. Miss Hattie Cook, niece of E.P. Smith, the agent, was the matron in charge.

In the spring of 1873 a young Indian woman was murdered in a sugar camp. She was one of two sisters who had been left to watch the camp during the night. An Indian assaulted them and killed the elder one with a hatchet after she had tried to defend herself. The younger sister escaped and reported the tragedy. The murderer attempted to run away, but was caught and taken to Fort Ripley, where he was held a prisoner for some months in the guard house, the only punishment he received for the crime. He is still living.

One night during the same year an Indian was shot while returning home from the village and his body found by the roadside the next morning. He was supposed to have been murdered by a Leech Lake Indian to avenge the killing of a relative.

In 1873, Rev. J.A. Gilfillan, a young Episcopal clergyman, came to White Earth to assist Rev. Mr. Johnson in mission work. He very soon learned to speak the Ojibwa language, and with his kindly ways, won the love and respect of the Indians, who found in him a sincere friend. He instructed a class of young Indian men and prepared them to become clergymen and deacons for the different churches and missions, which through his influence were erected for the Chippewa Indians of Minnesota. In this work he was very successful. Most of his pupils are still living, having charge of the churches and missions, and are preaching the gospel to their own people.

E.P. Smith completed his term as agent in 1872. During the short time he was Indian agent he made a great many improvements at White Earth. He was a Christian man and one of the best agents ever on the reservation. Mr. Douglas, from Minneapolis, succeeded him, and remained in office one year.

During 1873 some of the prominent mixed-blood families and traders from Crow Wing, Minnesota, moved to White Earth. They included Mr. Clement Beaulieu, wife, four sons and one daughter; Albert Fairbanks and family; William Fairbanks and family; George Donald and family. A son of Mr. Scandrett, and grandson of Bishop Whipple, was the first white child born at White Earth, in the fall of 1874.


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