Chapter XXIX.
History of Cuba Township.

By B.O. Bergerson.

The town of Cuba was mostly settled during the years of 1871 and 1872. A few came in 1870, but they were only there three or four. Their names were Martin Olsen, B.O. Bergerson, Halvor M. Beaver and Ole Kittelson. Nearly every government quarter section was settled on during the years 1871 and 1872.

Martin Olson was the first to arrive in the township, although the land was not surveyd at that time, so that this locality did not posses a name. Next after him came the writer, Bernt O. Bergerson. I was born in Norway, July 23, 1847, and with my parents came to America in the year 1852, and settled in Winnishiek County, Iowa, in the village of Decorah, where my father worked for a name named Painter, who was building a canal and mill, which was the first mill in that county. In the year 1863, we moved to the town of Bancroft, Freeborn County, Minnesota, where my father opend up a new farm, and after working on that farm until the year 1870, I started west to find a farm for myself. After traveling with an ox team for twenty-one days, I finally arrived at my present homestead, the southwest quarter of Section 36. The land was not surveyed yet. If it had been, I could not have taken it as a homestead, for it would have been become school land when surveyed, it being on Section 36. I was not married then, so I had to "bach" it that summer; but late in the fall of that year I hitched my oxen to the wagon and turned their heads towards Albert Lea and went over the road once more that year. I slept out of doors every night and late in the fall the ground was frozen hard nearly every night. I arrived safe at my father's farm in Freeborn County, none the worse for the trip both ways with a pair of oxen, which is not the fastest way to get over the country roads. That winter I visited with my folks till in the early spring when I got married to Ingeborg Grasdalen, a daughter of a neighbor of my parents. Immediately after we were married we started for Becker County in company with several others who wanted to go and get land for themselves. The parties who came with me that spring were my brother-in- law, Lars P. Laite and Erick Quam. They are still living in the county; On arriving at my claim that spring, I found everything as I had left it. The previous summer I had built a house which came handy now when I brought my wife home with me. We lived through that summer mostly on what we had brought with us. Then in the winter, I had to go to work in the woods hauling ties and cutting cord-wood for the railway company in order to get flour and pork; besides, we had three cows which were a great help to us. In 1871, the year the railroad was built through here, we sold milk and butter in the railroad camps near our home for a good price. They mostly paid us in groceries, but they paid us well, I thought. The first years we tried to farm, we did not have any success, the grasshoppers and blackbirds got in their work so that we were left without anything, not even seed. I had to buy seed wheat three times. The first I bought cost $1.90 a bushel, the second lot cost $1.50, and the third lot cost $1.25. In order to get that last seed I had to sell a' cow, which was a great loss, because the cows were our main support then as now. I stay by the cows yet, and this is thirty-five years after, and I will always stay by them as long as I stay on the farm. A good many of the settlers went to Dakota to do breaking, and also some of them did breaking for a Mr. Paul Van Vlissingen, who opened a farm near where Hitterdal now is, in Clay County; and in 1872 a man by the name of M. E. d'Engelbroner, opened a large farm in the western part of Cuba.

This township was organized in the winter of 1871-72. We held our first election at the claim shack of Halvor Beaver. There were quite a few of the early settlers present at that election; so far as I can remember the following settlers were there: Charles W. Smith, Alonzo F. Chase, Thomas Torgerson, H. M. Beaver, Thorville Hanson, Amund Baarstad, H. Salveson, Lars P. Laite, Ole Kittelson, Barney Olson, Torger Matson, Ole Asleson; Andrew Pederson and B. O. Bergerson. At that meeting it was decided to name the town McPherson, after a famous general in the civil war, but it was discovered that we could not get that name, as there was another town by that name' in the state. At a later meeting it was finally named Cuba by Charles W. Smith, in honor of the village of Cuba, Allegany County, New York, the native place of Mr. Smith. Smith was appointed town clerk to act until we held a regular town election. At the regular town election Theodore Holton was elected town clerk, he being the first town clerk elected in the town of Cuba. As there is no record of the first town meeting I am unable to say positively who were the first board of supervisors, but I do remember that two of them were Ole Kittelson and Thomas Torgerson, the last being chairman. Charles W. Smith was the first assessor, and B. O. Bergerson was first justice of the peace. Theodore Holton was town clerk for three years; after him was Thomas Torgerson, who held the office for four years; then after him, B. O. Bergerson was elected and he has held the office ever since.

This town was settled principally by Norwegians and Swedes, about all of them coming in the years 1870-71-72. Being near the railroad, even numbered sections were opened for homestead entry. If every section could have been settled, all the land would have been taken those three years. Besides the Norwegians and Swedes there were a few Irish settlers in town those early days, but some are dead and some have gone away. There is only one family now, Hugh Sullivan's, who reside on Section 30. Besides the Irish we had some American families, but those of the early settlers have gone away. We have some that came later.

In the winter of 1872-73, we had to look to something else be sides our crops for a living, as they gave us nothing for the winter except a few potatoes, so some of us went cutting cord wood and others went hauling ties to the railroad. I hauled ties which was both trying on man and oxen. The snow was deep and the cold was intense. We got $2.00 a day for man and team, and we had to make two trips each day with from 22 to 24 ties each load. In order to do that we had to be out in the woods before daylight, and never got back to camp until after dark. We who hauled by the day had to load our own loads which was very hard work when we had to work in snow from two to three feet deep in the woods. When loading we got wet from snow, and when we got out of the woods on the prairies where the wind blew hard with the mercury at forty below zero, and the roads drifted full of snow, we would chill to the bones, but we did not mind it much, for when we got back to the camp in the evening and got our oxen stabled and our supper over we had forgotten all our hardships suffered during the day.

The next winter I was cutting cordwood. We got eighty cents per cord, and we had to pay fifteen cents a pound for salt pork and $8.00 per barrel for flour. Money we hardly ever saw. What paid best was trapping. Fur was high those days and this helped us quite a bit. I can remember that I got as high as thirty cents for muskrats. One Christmas eve in 1873, we had nothing for Christmas, and no money to get anything with, but having a few muskrat pelts I went to Lake Park and traded them for groceries. I was allowed twenty-eight cents for the rats so we had a merry Christmas' after all.

In July, 1871, a swarm of grasshoppers settled over this country, and as there were but few grain fields they did not do much damage that year, but most of the new settlers had broken a few acres of new land, and while the grasshoppers stayed there they put in their time laying eggs in the new breaking, and all the bare spots they could find. After they had finished laying, they arose one windy day and left us for that year. The next year, 1872, the eggs hatched out in the early summer, and the grasshoppers began their work of destruction. That year they ate everything that was sowed or planted, so that there was nothing left for us to harvest. I remember that the piece of land that I had sowed that spring was eaten close down to the earth, so that I could not have believed there had been any wheat there, if I had not sown it myself, and had seen the grain coming up in the spring. They stayed here that summer until they were full grown, then they took to their wings and left us for where I do not know. Miss Lottie Rossman, of Detroit, taught the first school in Cuba Township, beginning in 1877 and completing her second term in the summer of 1878.




Martin Olson.

Martin Olson was born near Trondhjem, Norway, in October, 1839. After he had grown to manhood he followed the occupation of sailor until the year 1866, when he came to America. He first settled in Alamakee County, Iowa, where he remained four years. In 1869 he was married to Christine Osberg. In the spring of 1870 they started for Becker County, with an ox team and on the 11th day of June located on what is now the southeast quarter of Section 35 in the town of Cuba. The land was not surveyed at that time, so he could not know what land he was on until the next October.

On the 7th day of May, 1871, a baby boy was born to them, and he was the first white boy born in the township.

Mr. Olson remained on his farm, where he had erected good substantial buildings, until his health failed, when he sold his farm for a good price and moved to the village of Lake Park, which adjoins his farm. He still has two other farms which are rented out.




Halvor M. Beaver.

Halvor M. Beaver was born at Kongsberg, Norway, in June, 1842, In 1865 he came to America, locating in Dodge County, Minnesota, where he remained for about five years. He came to Becker County on the 11th of November, 1870, and took a homestead on Section 34 in Cuba Township, and in the spring of 1871 built a house on his place, and has resided there ever since, Mr. Beaver was married to Betsey E. Aaberg on the 21st of August, 1875. Mrs. Beaver was a native of Urdal, Norway. His first crop of wheat was sown in 1872, and what promised to be a good crop at first was nearly all destroyed by blackbirds, In 1875 he planted his first trees, and has planted some around his house every year since, so that now he has a large grove around his buildings, Mr. Beaver's farm is provided with commodious buildings, and he conducts his farm on the diversified plan. He keeps a large number of cows and other stock, and does not depend on raising grain altogether. In the early part of January, 1873, we had the worst blizzard in the history of the country, which lasted for forty-eight hours. Stables were covered with snow in some places so that cattle could not be taken out or in, and had to be fed by cutting a hole through the roof. Water they did not get for three days. On the 9th of July, 1876, a swarm of grasshoppers came down by the million, and laid their eggs in immense numbers, which hatched out the next year and threatened to devour everything in the country. That year the hopper dozers were invented and came into use. They were long, scraper-like things, that were besmeared with coal tar on the inside. Beaver and his wife would pull this machine back and forth across the fields while the baby slept in the cradle near by.




Lars P. Laite.

Lars P. Laite was born in Hafslo, Norway, August 2nd, 1847. When nine years of age he came to America with his mother, who was a widow at the time. After living at Stoughton, Wisconsin, for three years they moved to Freeborn County, Minnesota, where they lived in the town of Bath until 1871. On the 27th of October, 1870, he was married to Sophia Bergerson and in the spring of 1871 they came to Becker County, arriving in the town of Cuba on the 12th day of June. They came with oxen and a prairie schooner, and were three weeks on the road.

The first white girl born in Cuba was a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Laite. This little girl was born on the 24th day of August, 1871, and her name is Caroline. She is now Mrs. Edward Jordahl, of the village of Lake Park.




John Olson.

John Olson came to Cuba Township in 1871, and took a homestead on Section 12, and in 1875 began the erection of a gristmill but for lack of capital it went slow. Finally after a few years his mill was so far advanced that he was able to make a little flour, which he continued to do for several years, but owing to frequent trouble with his dam and lack of capital he finally became discouraged, and in the year 1885 it broke up altogether. Mr. Olson has since moved out of the county.




Thorville Hanson.

Thorville Hanson was born in Hakkedalen, Norway, on the 4th day of August, 1847. He lived at home until he had grown to manhood when he left his native land for America, arriving in Houston County, Minnesota, on the 26th of May, 1867 On the 11th day of May, 1871, he came to the township of Cuba, in Becker County and located on the same quarter section where he now resides. He was not married at that time, but on the 28th day of June, 1872, he was married to Christine Halverson. She came to Cuba on the same date and took a pre-emption on Section 26, adjoining Hanson's, and as soon as the government plat of the township was received at the land office she proved up on her claim which gave them a fine farm of 320 acres including the whole of the south half of Section 26. I well remember the wedding day, as it was the first wedding in the township of Cuba. They were married by a traveling minister by the name of Manuel Hagebo. I think he was the first Scandinavian minister in this part of the country. The wedding was held in Mrs. Hanson's own cabin which was about ten by twelve feet. Right in the midst of the ceremony a great shower of rain came down. The roof of the house was made with a few rails for rafters, and these were covered with hay and sods of earth, and when the rain began to pour down it came through the roof and brought a large quantity of black soil with it, covering the table and also the groom and bride. They, however, got married in good shape and have stayed married ever since. They have since taken on more Cuba soil, and are now the largest land owners in the township.




Lars Larson.

Lars Larson was born in Sweden in the year 1850, and came to the United States in 1869. He lived two years in Eau Claire. Wisconsin, and in 1870 came to Clitheral, in Otter Tail County, Minnesota, and in March, 1871, came to Becker County and took a claim on Section 18, in Lake Park Township, where he lived for four years. Since that time he has lived on Section 29 in the township of Cuba.

On the 22nd of December, 1875, Mr. Larson was married to Gertrude Pearson, who was born in Sweden and came to America about the same time as Mr. Larson.




Ole Christenson.

Ole Christenson was born in Norway on the 6th day of January, 1850, and came to the United States in 1867, locating at La Crosse, Wisconsin, where he lived until May, 1871, when he started with an ox team for Becker County, Minnesota, and his mother who came with him took a homestead. Ole was not then old enough to hold a homestead himself, but his mother died a few years afterwards and he filed a homestead on the place himself, where he still resides in good circumstances.

After his mother died he found that it was not good to do his own dish washing, so he married Christine Potter in 1880, and they have since raised a family of three girls and a boy; They now have a fine farm in a high state of cultivation.




Erick Anderson.

Erick Anderson was born in Vermland, Sweden, February 6th, 1845. In June 1869, he left Christiana on a sailing vessel and after a voyage of eight weeks landed in Quebec, Canada. From there he went to Iowa and in the summer of 1870 came to Becker County, and on the 12th day of October of that year, began work for A. H. Wilcox, who had just commenced surveying the township of Cuba. He remained in the employ of Mr. Wilcox until the 1st of February, 1871, when he went onto his claim on Section 32 and built himself a house where he still resides. In 1871 he was married to Annie C. Anderson.

They now have a beautiful home, surrounded with beautiful shrubbery, consisting of trees of nearly every species that are natives of Becker County, with many others transported from foreign lands.




Peter E. Olson.

Peter E. Olson was born in Voss, Norway, on the 24th of June, 1843. He came to the United States with his father at the age of twelve, when they settled in Illinois, but later settled in Freeborn County, Minnesota.

At the age of eighteen he enlisted in Company E, Tenth Minnesota Volunteers, serving in the army three years. In 1868 he was married to Elizabeth Hanson and came to Cuba Township in the spring of 1871, taking land on Section 36. He lived there for several years when he sold out and removed to Atlanta Township.

Mr. Olson died on the 12th of July, 1895.




Ole Halverson.

Ole Halverson was born in Norway and came to America in the year 1867, and first settled near La Crosse, Wisconsin. In the spring of 1871 he and his wife and son started for Becker County, with a yoke of steers and an old wagon that looked as though it had been brought over to this country by the Pilgrim fathers when they came to Plymouth Rock in the year 1620. The steers and old wagon, however, carried them through all right, although Ole and the boy walked most of the way, and it took them about five weeks to make the trip.

Mrs. Halverson died on the 31st day of July, 1872, being the first woman that died in Cuba Township.

Mr. Halverson died on the 31st day of December, 1901, but the farm is now in the possession of Theodore Halverson who is one of the pioneers of Becker County, being only a boy when he came here. He was a little too young to take a homestead so he stayed at home with his father and helped on the farm. On May 20th, 1878, Theodore was married and they have raised a family of sons and one daughter all of whom are still living.

The first summer the Halverson family lived in a tent, then they dug a hole in the side of a hill and made a roof of hay and sods. They had one small window in front, and in this way they lived for four years, when they built a log house.

Theodore now has as fine a set of buildings, and as fine a farm as can be found in the country.




Barney Olson.

Barney Olson was born in Voss, Norway, in the year 1837, and came to America in the spring of 1867. After staying a year and a half in Wisconsin, he went to Freeborn County, Minnesota, where he was married to Brita Jerdahl. In the spring of 1871, he and his wife started for Becker County with a yoke of oxen and wagon, and on the 26th day of July settled on their homestead on the northeast quarter of Section 26, in the township of Cuba, where he has continued to reside ever since. They have a fine farm of 240 acres and have raised a family of nine children, who are all alive and in good health at the present day. Like most of the other settlers in the vicinity, Mr. Olson had his first crops destroyed by grasshoppers, and had to go away to work in order to support his family. Work was readily obtained on the M. E. d'Engelbroner farm, which was then just opening up and also on the Hawley farm which included three sections of land right in his neighborhood.




Amund E. Baarstad.

Amund E. Baarstad was born in northern Fron Gubbrausdalen, Norway, December, 28th, 1831. He grew up on a farm in his native land and in 1857 he was married to Miss Maret Erlandson. In the spring of 1869 he and his wife came to America and settled in Vernon County, Wisconsin, and early in the summer of 1871 came to Becker County, and on the 4th day of July settled on the northwest quarter of Section 26, of Cuba Township, where he is still living. Mrs. Baarstad died on the 30th of May, 1902, and was buried in the cemetery on their own farm. Mr. Baarstad has a fine farm and a fine grove of trees around his buildings.




Andrew O. Wee.

Andrew O. Wee was born at Flo, Hallingdal, Norway, and came to America in the spring of 1861. He lived for a while in Rice County, Minnesota, and then went to Houston County, and in August, 1864, enlisted in the Second Minnesota Regiment of Volunteers, and served with them until the end of the war. On the 8th of April, 1866, he was married to Briget Evenson. They lived at Spring Grove for five years, when in the spring of 1871 they came to Becker County and took a homestead on the southwest quarter of Section 4 in the town of Cuba. He lived on and cultivated this place for thirty-three years when he moved to the village of Lake Park, where he has built a fine residence.




Peter R. Jacobson.

Peter R. Jacobson was born in Helgeland, Norway, on the 9th of August, 1844. He was married to Olava Pederson, who was born in 1842. In May, 1866, they started for America in a sailing vessel, and after a voyage of nine weeks they landed in Quebec, Canada, from which place they went to Farmington, Dakota County, Minnesota. They lived in this vicinity until the spring of 1871, when they started for the Northwest, intending to go to North Dakota. When they got to Fort Ambercrombie they left their teams to look around over the Red River valley. Appearances indicated that the country about there was liable to overflow, so they started for the rolling country to the northeast and finally came to the place where Audubon Village has since been built, where they camped for a while. After looking the country over for a week, they selected the southwest quarter of Section 10, in the Township of Cuba, on the 22d day of June, 1871. They still live on this same land, hale and hearty, and have one of the best farms, and some of the best buildings in the country. Their home is sheltered with a fine grove of timber, where snows and storms have no terrors for them.




Hugh Sullivan.

Hugh Sullivan was born in Houghton County, Michigan, August 15th, 1850. As soon as he was old enough he went to work in the copper mines where he remained until 1870, when he went to Duluth, and there remained one year, coming to Becker County in August, 1871. He settled on the southwest quarter of Section 30 where he still resides.

He was married to Margaret Hogan on the 14th day of February, 1886.

In addition to the settlers who came here in 1871, already mentioned, there was Theodore Holton who located on Section 18, Otto Peterson and Andrew Thorson on Section 8, M. Carlson on Section 18, two John Sullivans on Section 20, Thomas Torgerson on Section 28, Alonzo Chase and Hugh Sullivan, Sr., on Section 30; John Teg on Section 32, and Iver Larson on Section 34.

The following are also among the early settlers of Cuba, Torger Matson (now dead), Magnes Lindstrom, Andrew Hedlund, John Sandgren, Tom Olson (now dead), Nels Peterson, John Peterson, Andrew Peterson, Charles M. Smith and Ole D. Olson.




Hans J. Bakken.

Mr. Bakken was born in Ringereke, Norway, December 26th. 1833. He was married to Christene Gulbranson of the same place on the 18th of June, 1855. In 1864 they came to St. Croix County, Wisconsin, where they lived nine years. In 1873 they came to Becker County and took up a homestead on the northeast quarter of Section 4 in the town of Erie, Cuba, where they are still living in easy circumstances.




Ole O. Dokken.

Ole O. Dokken was born at Ness, Hallingdal, Norway, on the 27th of September, 1838. He worked on a farm in his native land until 1867 when he came to Winneshiek County, Iowa. In November, 1870, he was married to Hilleborg Seim, and in May, 1871, they started on their journey to Becker County, with an ox team the same as all the settlers came to this country in those days. After about five weeks travel they arrived in Cuba and took a homestead on the southeast quarter of Section 4, where the family are still living.

Mr. Dokken died on the 27th day of September, 1901.




Ole Johnson.

Ole Johnson was born in Skaam, Sweden, where he lived until he had grown to manhood, and in the spring of 1866 he came to the United States locating first at Red Wing, Goodhue County, Minnesota, where he lived for one year, then went to Denmark, Washington County, where he lived for three years and then in the spring of 1872 came to this township and took a homestead on the northwest quarter of Section 12. While in Goodhue County he was married to Elna Truls who was also a Swede. He is still living on his homestead, but has been in poor health for several years.




Michael Ristvedt.

Michael Ristvedt was born in Norway on the 27th of August, 1847, and came to the United States in the spring of 1866. He lived for a while in Wisconsin, working in the lumber woods and on the log drives, and for the farmers in the summer. In the spring of 1872 he was married to Lina Potter, and three days after the wedding they started for Becker County, arriving in the township of Cuba. He afterwards took a homestead on the southwest quarter of Section 2, where he still resides. He has a fine farm with good buildings in the midst of a fine grove of timber.

B. O. BERGERSON.




The Adelaide or M. E. d'Engelbroner Farm.

About the 22d of May, 1872, I was directed by the Northern Pacific Railroad Company to go with M. E. d'Engelbroner and Paul Van Vlissingen, two men from Holland, and show them the land located between the White Earth Reservation and the Red River flats. They were looking for land where they could open up wheat farms on a large scale.

We left Oak Lake City in the morning and passed over the site of the present village of Audubon, and up across Hamden and Cuba to the south branch of the Wild Rice. L. S. Cravath and Charles B. Plummer were with us on this trip. We found only one family at home during the day. The others had left their homes and gone to Oak Lake or Lake Park for fear of the Indians. We met one family going at a fast gait, the woman driving the horses, and the man carrying a broadaxe for a weapon. We tried to persuade them to go back home, telling them there was not a particle of danger, but they were afraid to go back. We, however, managed to borrow the broadaxe as we had no axe with us. We camped that night by a lake in the eastern part of Township 141, Range 44, in Clay County. There were two families there who had not heard of the Cook murder and they were all at home. Van Vlissingen was delighted with this location and afterwards opened up a big farm right there. The next morning we drove on west to the Red River flats, and from there started back in a southeast direction, and at night arrived at old John Sullivan's place on Section 20 in the town of Cuba. There was no one at home when we arrived, but we soon found the old man and his wife out in the brush where they had been hiding for fear of losing their scalps. We convinced them that it would be safe to stay in the house that night, at least when we were there, so the old lady helped to cook up some of our provisions and we carried some hay into the house and made beds on the floor and passed a very comfortable night.

I had told my Holland friends for the start that I was going to show them the best location the last of all, so the next morning we drove down to Section 19 in Cuba looking over that and several other sections near by. d'Engelbroner was so well pleased with the land in that vicinity that he bought about 3,600 acres in Cuba and the adjoining towns and in a short time had them nearly all under the plow, with headquarters on Section 19. He carried on wheat raising on a large scale for several years, his land producing abundantly, but nearly every season the grasshoppers would swoop down onto his fields just about the time the wheat began to fill and nearly ruin his crop. He fought bravely year after year against fate, but finally in 1877 had to give up the battle; the same year the grasshoppers left the country.

His land consisted of Section 33 in Atlanta, Sections 5, 19 and half of 20 in Cuba and 13 and 23 in the town west of Cuba, in Clay County.

On Section 19 in Cuba he erected a dwelling house, a boarding house and a commodious barn and granary, and gave employment to a large number of men, and the farm was a boon to the settlers in the vicinity during the grasshopper period.

In addition to the grasshopper scourge d'Engelbroner was handicapped by want of experience in farming and lack of general business ability. He was said to have been brought up as a page for some nobleman in the city of "The Hague," in Holland, and had too many aristocratic notions to become a successful farmer in America. None of the men in his employ liked him, and were inclined to "soldier" and shirk whenever the opportunity was offered. As an example of his want of perception in ordinary matters: in the spring of 1874 the mill dam at Richwood broke away in time of high water, by reason of which a flood deluged the bottom lands of the Buffalo River which crosses Section 19 not far from where his farm buildings were located. Meeting him in Lake Park not long afterwards he wished me to ask some lawyer in Detroit "if that man what owns the mill at Richwood have any business to let his tam brake loose and flood his pottom ."

In the spring of 1876 I surveyed and staked out in rectangular form all the sloughs and pond holes on his five sections of land, and while there I remarked that there would be a big auction there before many years, and in the spring of 1878 I held an auction there myself, selling property to the amount of over $90 to pay his personal property taxes. The sheriff held another sale soon afterwards which wiped out all the personal property, and the real estate soon afterwards passed out of the hands of the company which he represented, and this proved to be the winding up of the affairs of the so-called "Adelaide Farm."




Fletcher J. Hawley.

PROPRIETOR OF THE HAWLEY FARM.

Rev. Fletcher J. Hawley, D. D., of Lake Park, was a lineal descendant of Captain Jehiel Hawley, the early settler and the founder of the town and church of Arlington, Bennington County, Vt., where Dr. Hawley was born, Nov. 22nd, 1813. His early years were spent on his father's farm and in the common district school. He then entered the grammar school of Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, and afterwards Burr Seminary, Manchester, Vt., where he completed his preparatory course. Then, after a year or two at the Polytechnic Institute of Prof. Eaton, at Troy, N. Y., he entered Union College, Schenectady, graduating in July, 1840. In October of that year he entered the Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church at New York, and graduated in June, 1843. He was ordained deacon in July, 1843, and priest in 1845. His application to study impaired his health so that he sought a milder climate, and accepted the rectorship of St. John's Church, Christianstad, Santa Cruz, West Indies ---an island belonging to Denmark. Three-fourths of the population were negroes and were slaves. Religion and morals were at a low ebb. There was a small and quite inadequate church, which Mr. Hawley set about enlarging, in which work he had to be his own architect and use negroes for his working staff. He succeeded in erecting a church to accommodate over 1,200 people. In conjunction with the Roman Catholic priest he did much towards quelling the insurrection of the slaves, which threatened to destroy everything on the island. The whites were powerless; but these two priests held the slaves in check three days, until soldiers came from the island of St. Thomas. The king of Denmark then appointed Mr. Hawley head of the colonial council---the governing body---and special adviser to the governor general. Certain modifications of former relationship, proposed by Mr. Hawley, were adopted, and the slaves became comparatively free. He returned to the United States in June, 1859. Soon after his return he was appointed to the charge of Trinity Church, New Orleans, where he arrived in December, 1859. Such was his hold upon the people that, when the civil war broke out, he retained the confidence of all, although declaring his adherence to the Union. He kept church and parish united, and during the worst times, he worked without remuneration, until his means were quite exhausted and he had barely enough to sustain life. After the arrival of Gen. Butler he left for the North, and reached New York on Sept. 25th, 1862, to make a new start from amidst poverty and with impaired health. He was a while at Trinity Church, Chicago, then at Grace Church, Brooklyn, until 1864, when he went to Danbury, Colin., where he built a new stone church, and harmonized conflicting interests. He then went to Stafford Springs, Conn., where he did similar work. He acquired some land in Becker county, Minn., and through failing health was led to move to this state, settling over St. Paul's Church, Brainerd, on Sept. 16th, 1880. Here he devoted himself to his work, spending some time on his farm at Lake Park. A fall, and the loss of the use of his left leg, led him to remove with his family to his farm in December, 1887, where he gradual1y sank until he passed to his rest on the 25th day of March, 1891.
MRS. WEST
GEORGE W. BROWNJOHN.




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