Metis

1640 - 1664


The Company of New France assigns it's fur trade monopoly
to Compagne des Habitants.

However over thirty percent of the Canadian fur trade is
controlled by the Free Traders.

The French and Iroquois/English war drove the
Coureurs de Bois and Metis further into the West.


THE FRENCH ARE COMPLAINING

Those Coureurs des Bois are traveling everywhere, illegally
and without permit.


1640

The Jesuit admit that many Frenchmen, in the past, have visited the Neutral Nation and beyond for furs. The following is a recap of the official Jesuit known lands:

The Great Lake of the Huron, or Fresh Water Sea, empties into Lake Erie, or Lake of the Nation of the Cat, and at the end of the Lake, it enters into the territory of the Neutral Nation, and takes the name Onguiaahria, which empties into Lake Ontario or Lake Saint Louys, whence finally emerges into the Saint Lawrence River.

There are about 12,000 people in this region. The Neutral Nation or Attiwandaronk (People of a Slightly Different Language) are at peace with their neighbors. The Jesuit however say the Neutral are at war with the Fire Nation or Atsistaehron taking 170 prisoners this year and are burning women and men, which is not done by the Huron at this time. This could be Jesuit propaganda but if true this is a significant cultural change as women were never molested prior to this time, even during war. The Jesuit say the administration of villages is conducted alternatively by men and women, except in matters of war.

Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) with (I)-Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot (Chaumonnot, Calvonotti) (1611-1693), visited the Neutral Nation. This angered the Wendat (Huron) as they are being bypassed in trade. Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Father Charles Lalemant's (1587-1674) religious education had reduced the desire and effectiveness of the Wendat (Huron) to defend themselves. Brebeuf said he had a vision of the Iroquois driving their brothers, the Wendat, (Huron) off their traditional lands into the Ojibwa Chequamegon Territory to the west. Some contend they fled as far as Chequamegon Bay and Green Bay, Wisconsin. The Algonkin had previously had a vision showing that the French would destroy the Wendat. These claims are historically both correct as the French had instigated the mischief between the Iroquois and Wendat (Huron), Algonquian, French alliance.

The Illinois Country included both sides of the Mississippi River from Prairie du Chein, Wisconsin to the mouth of the Ohio River and then south along the west bank of the Arkansas River.

Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), Charles Lalemant's (1587-1674) (Superior of Canada) and Father Ennemond Masse (1574-1646) are the advance guards of the Jesuit Order's storm troupers. They had been instructed to operate under a cloak of secrecy concerning Jesuit covert activities and are, under orders of punishment, to eliminate the Recollect, convert the Indians and secure the fur trade for God. This evil order would focus on the fires of Hell to undermine the Native's belief in the brotherhood of all men.

Charles Lalemant's (1587-1674) received his marching orders from Jesuit Philibert Noyrot, confessor to Duc de Ventadour Viceroy of Canada.

Those who believe the musket opened the Northwest is brought back to reality when they learn that a German writer boasted this year that his prince's musketeers, in a battle lasting six hours, had fired their pieces five times. Others suggest one had to fire away their own weight in lead for every enemy killed, so inaccurate was the piece. Others suggest that the bow and arrow was more than ten times more efficient now and for years to come.

1641

Father Charles Raymbault or Raimbault (1602-1642) and Isaac Jogues (1607-1646), the Jesuits, attended a mission with the Ojibwa at Sault Ste Marie. They named the place the Rapids of Saint Mary. They must have been aware that the Ojibwa strong hold is nine days further to the west at Chequamegon, La Pointe (Wisconsin). An additional nine days by river led to the Nadoussis (Nadouessioux meaning Rattlesnakes) People (Dakota Sioux). About 2,000 Saulteurs are gathered here at Bawating (place of the rapids) for the semi-annual meetings, for trade, and for the fishing season. Father Le Jeune, one of the authors of the Jesuit Relations, returned to France to seek aid against the Iroquois.

A sketch of Ojibwa fishing at the Sault rapids of Sault Ste Marie. Each fall, large schools of whitefish migrated upstream. They scooped the fish with a dip-net and large numbers could be acquired in a relatively short time. They also fished at night using a birch bark torch and spear.

It is believed that the Ojibwa and others have been fishing here since 1500 or earlier. This is also a meeting and trading location from very early times. If you hit the picture for a larger view, use your return key to get back.

The Winnebago enroute in their canoes, preparing to attack the Fox, were caught in a storm and 500 warriors are drowned.

The pious Samuel Maverick proposed establishing a breeding program of Negro slaves on Noddles Island, east of Boston.

1642

Father Isaac Jogues is captured by the Iroquois in August.

Fort St. Marie, Nova Scotia is built this year.

May 17: During the construction of Fort Richelieu at Sorel, Quebec, 300 Iroquois attack but (I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny (called Ontario) (1583-1653) and his soldiers drive off the Iroquois after a fierce conflict. One Frenchman called des Lauriers is killed and four wounded.

October 27: Sillery, Quebec, death Jean Nicollet de Belleborne, born 1598, died October 27, 1642 Sillery, Quebec, Coureurs des Bois, trader, interpreter, agent of the gentlemen of the Company of New France, died this year in a shipwreck (his shallop overturned). He lived 25 years (1618-1643) in New France. He spent 2 years with the Island Algonguin. He accompanied 400 Algonguin to the Iroquois to make treaty. He spent 8-9 years living with the Algonquin Nipissiriniens. Having joined that Nation, he maintained his own household among them. He spent the remainder of his years as interpreter in Kebec and Three Rivers. He journeyed 300 leagues to the People of the Sea to make treaty. They numbered some 4 - 5 thousand people. He is survived by a wife and daughter who he assigned to Monsieur de Savigny.

1643

Louis d'Ailleboust, seigneur de Coulanges (Coulonge) (1612-1660), became temporary Governor of Montreal (1643-1646) He died in May at Montreal. He became the Governor of New France 1648-1651 and acting Governor 1657-58.

1645

The Company of New France agreed to assign its fur trade monopoly to the Quebec based Compagnie des Habitants. Thirty percent of the known thirty thousand pound fur trade down the St. Lawrence River went to the free traders- those Coureurs des Bois. This would imply that, at a very minimum, there are twenty unrecognized Coureurs des Bois trading the Great Lakes. The official recognized European Voyagers of the Great Lakes area are sixty eight French living with the Wendat, primarily in the Jesuit Saint Marie Mission between Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe. At the Jesuit Mission are twenty two soldiers, eighteen priests and twenty lay members, most of whom are part time fur traders. The Jesuit mission fort, the most modern of it's kind, contained a three year supply of food, making it defensible from any Iroquois attack.

The trades of the fort included:

Robert la Cog - Business Manager,

Charles Boivin - Builder and Carpenter,

Joseph Molere - Apothecary,

Ambrose Brouet - Cook,

Louis Gauber - Blacksmith,

Pierre Masson - Tailor,

Christopher Regnaut - Boot-maker.

Fort Latour, on the St. John River, Nova Scotia, is built this year.

Fort St. Marie, New Brunswick is built this year.

February 1: Father Anne de Noue (1587-1646) froze to death crossing the ice near Three Rivers, Quebec.

April 13: Francoise Marie Jacquelin (1602-1645) surrendered Fort Sainte Marie at St. John, New Brunswick, and Menou d'Aulnay of France hung most of the surviving Frenchmen. Meme La Tour died soon afterwards. Charles La Tour (1593-1666) of Acadia, by 1646, became a fur trader in Quebec - likely a Coureurs des Bois.

1646

October 18: Father Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) is killed by the Mohawks at Ossernenon (Auriesville, New York).

1647

Rene Goupil and Father Hierosme Lalemant are captured by the Iroquois between Three Rivers and Kebec. Guillaume Couture escaped into the forest but is soon captured.

1648

Some claim the first white child born in Montreal was Barbe Meusnier this year. There were 191 births to date in New France. This might imply that the majority born in Montreal before this time are Metis. It is noteworthy that very few births are recorded as mixed blood or Metis. Any reference to Capitaines des Sauvages who served as interpreters, intermediaries or guides were usually Metis.

One thousand and two hundred Iroquois assembled at the Ottawa River to winter around lake Nipissing. The Wendat suspended the fur trade down the Ottawa River. The Ojibwa of Chequamegon Territory, however, continued to free trade to Montreal. The Iroquois had acquired five hundred guns from the Dutch traders in the New York area.

The Wendat, at this time, had only one hundred and twenty guns from the French Traders. The Wendat ceased to respond to the Jesuit's urge for war because they believed their Christianity and French associates would protect them.

Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) governor of New France, in 1688 claimed some French are residing at Michillimackinac by 1648.

Louis d'Ailleboust, seigneur de Coulanges, on this return from France, replaced Charles Huault de Montmagny (called Ontario) (1583-1653).

July 4: St. Joseph's mission, north west of Lake Simcoe, which usually had a population of two thousand people, sustained the first attacked by the Iroquois. They took seven hundred prisoners and killed the rest. The city was set on fire and burned for one day and night.

July 4: The Iroquois broke their peace agreement and attacked the Wendat (Huron) villages of Saint Joseph II and Saint Michel,. near Hillsdale, Ontario. Father Antoine Daniel (1601-1648) is killed by the Iroquois at Teanaostae (Hillsdale, Ontario).

December: From the Sault to Kebec there are more than 50 soldiers bearing arms.

1649

The Iroquois had completely routed the Wendat from their historic Montreal and Ottawa locations. On March 16, at the trading village of Saint Louis Wendat, Chief Stephen (also Thomas according to TKTEKLA) Annaotaha, one of the bravest of the Wendat chiefs, warned the Jesuits Father (I)-Jean of Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Father Gabrial Lalemant's (1610 -1649) to leave before the Iroquois attacked. Both these Jesuit War Lords are hand picked for they're over zealous nature and willingness to lay down their lives for the Jesuit movement. They are captured tortured and killed, as the Iroquois held them in great disdain. The Iroquois believed all Black Robes brought sickness and death and were evil witches, not to mention responsible for raiding attacks on their people. More fundamental is the elimination of their historic trade networks.

Sainte Marie, Huronia is abandoned and burned by the Jesuits. They moved to Christian Island, but in 1650 the Jesuits withdrew to Quebec.

Pierre Boucher, sieur de Boucherville baptised August 1, 1622 Normandy, France died April 19, 1717 Boucherville, below Montreal, son Gaspard Boucher and M. Nicole; married 1st Marie Madeleine Ouebaddinoukoue dit Chretienne a Huron, 2nd marriage 1652 Jeanne Crevier. This Boucher family arrived at New France in 1635.

Pierre worked among the Jesuit Huron Missions until 1644, settling at Trois Rivieres, Quebec. He was Governor of Trois Rivieres three times between 1653-1668, and in 1667 founded Boucherville. It is not know how many children were from the first marriage and therefore Metis. The first child, Jacques, died young. Pierre Boucher is a possible Metis, but this would require research. The problem is that native women were given French names and this hides their origin.

March 17: Father Gabriel Lalemant (1610-1649) is tortured to death by the Iroquois at St. Ignace, Hurons (between Coldwater and Vasey, Ontario)

December 7: Father Charles Garnier (1605-1649) is killed by the Iroquois in Petun Village, St Jean (Etharita) (Osprey, Ontario).

December 8: Father Noel Chabanel (1613-1649) is killed by the Huron near the mouth of Nottawasaga, River (Ontario).

1650

Many of the displaced Wendat (Huron) and Ottawa people relocated near Ashland, Wisconsin, a stronghold of the Ojibwa Nation. It is highly likely that this included many Metis who had lost their trade position of middlemen between the French and Ojibwa. The Wendat called the Ojibwa Eskiaeronnon, meaning people of the falls (Sault Ste Marie). Lands east of Sault Ste Marie, the Centre of trade with the Northwest, are considered by the Ottawa as their preserve. The Ottawa is concerned that the French will bypass the Ottawa in trade with their cousins, the Ojibwa.

As many as sixty Europeans have been living among the Huron in the past sixteen years that a mission has been established, many of whom are of a very feeble constitution.

No one has died of natural causes, bit withstanding the great inconveniences and sufferings.

The largest city in the western world was Potosi, Bolivia with a population of 160,000 people.

1651

The Iroquois believed they had effectively cut the Wendat fur trade down the St. Lawrence River. The Ojibwa, however, continued to travel the waterways with impunity. The Coureurs des Bois and Metis also continued to operate by going out in small parties and by using different routes to the Ojibwa source of supply. New networks and partnerships established the trade to near previous annual values. This adaptive strategy, employed throughout the French trading period, highlighted the flexibility of one of the world's greatest trading empires. It would allow the French to adapt to the country and to the Native's culture and traditions.

1652

May 10: Father Jacques Buteux (1600-1652) is killed by the Iroquois at St. Maurice River, north of Three Rivers, Quebec.

1653

The French Coureurs des Bois and Metis with the demise of the Huron moved in to become the middlemen in the fur trade. They went to live among the Algonquians (Ottawa) of the upper Great Lakes.

July 30: News arrived that the Algonquin of the north are uniting with the remnants of the Tobacco and Neutral tribes, are assembling beyond the Sault Ste Marie, Lake Superior, to unite against the Iroquois. It is noteworthy that the Algonquin had previously, before the arrival of the French, had assembled a great army to punish the Iroquois for their evil ways. In this way peace had been secured in the past.

1654

Two hundred and fifty voyagers (including Ojibwa) ventured to Quebec and excited thirty young Frenchmen into a voyage to the west to trade. Father's Leonard Garreau (1609-1656) and Father Gabriel Druilletes are ordered to accompany the young men. The Iroquois kill Father Garreau and the party fails to reach the Ojibwa Nation.

June: Captain Anniehronnon, a Metis, the son of an Iroquois mother and a Dutch father arrived Kebec from Fort Orange in New Holland to confirm peace with their Savage allies.

July: Captain Anniehronnon, a Metis, returned to Kebec with two French prisoners captured by the Iroquois.

July 2: Father Simon Le Moyne (1604-1665), a missionary living with the Wendat, journeyed to Iroquois country via the St. Lawrence River route. He is the first recorded Frenchman to travel this route due to the Iroquois threat.

August: Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) turns Coureurs des Bois, and with another Coureurs des Bois goes to what is known as the Western Area of the North Bay. They go up the Ottawa River, near Lake Nipissing, then down the French River towards Georgian Bay and Lake Huron, to the Links between Lake Erie to Lake Michigan. Although Radison wrote about this expedition, some believe he was not involved. It also would appear that Groseilliers and his companion ventured 600 miles (400 leagues) west of Sault Ste Marie. If this is true it would place them beyond the Mississippi River, but the Jesuits tend to exaggerate in all things.

August 6: Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710), and his brother-in-law, Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier wintered at Green Bay. They explored the Fox River from May 1655 to June 1656. There is some doubt as to whether Radisson actually made this trip. It likely refers to their 1658-1660 fur trading expedition. They explored the Fox River from May 1655 to June 1656.

September 21: Father Mercier reports that two free traders (Coureurs des Bois) and a flotilla of canoes arrived Sault Ste Marie from 400 leagues to the west. His major concern is the loss of trade for the Church. He strongly recommended thirty French be sent into this region to harvest the furs and souls.

The Jesuits would encourage French exploration and trade for the next few years in an attempt to eliminate the Coureurs des Bois trade.

Samson's map of 1655 and Du Creux's map of 1660 clearly defines the New France Canadian limits that include North Bay to Eastern Lake Superior, all of Lake Huron and all lands East.

November 28: Death, Pierre Delaunay born 1616, killed by the Iroquois. The location of death not mentioned.

1655

May 29: Brother Jean Liegeois (1599-1655) is shot by the Iroquois at Sillery, Quebec.

1656

David LeMoyne of Diepe died at Lake Tiohero in Iroquois Country of a bloody flux.

The use of the eqaulettes on Indian and Metis' long shirts is traced to before this date, making the traditional assumption of European military origin debatable. The east coast Indians called Europeans "coatmen", giving credibility to the long held origin belief.

Thirty Frenchmen, including Pierre Espirt Radisson and Medart Chouart de Groseilliers, ventured to the far west to establish trade relations. They were told, at this time, of the Great River (Mississippi) that flowed to the Gulf of Mexico.

May 17: Zacharie Dupuy (1608-1676), commandant of Quebec, departed with a group of Frenchmen to establish a settlement in Onondagas country.

July 17: Zacharie Dupuy (1608-1676) began constructing a house at Syracuse, New York. This settlement, however, would be abandoned May 1658.

August: Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98), a Coureurs des Bois, returns to Quebec with 50 canoe, laden with furs, as was noted by Father Mercier last year.

September 2: Father Leonard Garreau (1609-1656) is shot in the spine by the Iroquois on the north shore of the Lake of Two Mountains.

September 3: The elders of the Onnontage were informed that if they wanted the French to dwell amongst them, as they requested, they must provide little girls to be placed with the Ursuline Mothers. The savages loved their children and the only way they could obtain slave children for the Church is to raid their neighbors. It is hard to accept that alleged civilized Christian peoples could rationalize child slavery.

November 20: A Dutchman (Otsirdiakhon) from New Holland visited Three Rivers to provide safe conduct to the Agnieronon peace team who returned 7 French prisoners and requested release of their prisoners. The terms of peace include they bring little girls as slaves for the Church. The French must have realized the savages love their children and would not give them up for slavery. They would be forced to conduct slave raids or continue warring with the French.

1657

The Tamarouas (Tamarious) and Cahokias (Faoukia) are Illinois on the Mississippi River near the mouth of the Pekitanoui (Missouri) River and are believed to have merged this year to become the Cahokia.

Medard Chouart (1618-1696), of Groseillier a Coureurs des Bois, reported the existence of Lake Winnipeg (Lake Burbon), North Bay and many rivers to other oceans.

The Algonquian had told him that they are aware of three oceans to the North West of the Great Lakes. Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) joined his family at Three Rivers after returning from the Onondaga country, and he joined forces with Medart Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, who had married his half sister Marguerite Hayet in 1653.

April 16: Trois Rivieres, Quebec, marriage, (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, born 1624, married Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (Miteouamigoukoue), an Algonquine, born 1631 died January 8, 1699 Trois Rivers, Quebec.

June 1: Pierre Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart Des Groseilliers (1618-1695/98) depart Quebec for Lake Superior and beyond to visit the Dakota Sioux.

1658

Nicholas Perrot (Pere), also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, also an engage of the Jesuit, in his memories of 1658, mentioned Nipigon River and Lake Nipigon (Ontario). Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier and Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710), against the wishes of the Governor Pierre Voyer d'Argenson, depart Trois Rivieres for Lake Superior. Radisson reported that the portage of Keeweenaw Point, used to avoid a circuitous around on the south shore of Lake Superior, is well marked by the feet of the comers and goers. This further supports the contention that many Coureurs des bois had ventured west of Lake Superior years earlier. Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710), at the time of his first trip to Lake Superior said, "Those Coureurs des Bois are Caesar's, being nobody to contradict them."

They are traveling everywhere, illegally without permit. These Coureurs des Bois and Metis explorers could not record their discoveries as the Jesuits and authorized explorers wanted to control history and the fur trade. It is noteworthy that both Radisson and Groseillier are now officially classified as Coureurs des Bois as they ventured into the west without permission. These unauthorized voyagers are the first recorded French to see the Mississippi River and to visit the Dakota. The Cree also describe the route to the North Bay.

August 8: Quebec, birth Ann Hubou, died January 31, 1728 Montreal daughter Mathieu Hubou dit Deslongehamps (1628-1678) and Suzanne Boteaite pou Beschefer. Au recensement de 1681 (from the census of 1681), elle est appelee bettefer, born 1634 English; Anne 1st married Rene Sauvageot, 2nd marriage July 30, 1691 Montreal Moise Hilarest.

It would appear that much historical confusion exists during this period. The Groseillier/Radisson venture is recorded as being between 1658 and 1660. There is no doubt the Coureurs des Bois traveled the traditional Indian waterways that lead to the Stony Mountains and /or the known three oceans. The Coureurs des Bois included many Metis, and both are out for adventure, not being encumbered with tradition, culture, power, wealth or recognition. They are intoxicated with the Native culture, their freedom, the abundance of food and the beauty of the country. To the Coureurs des Bois, the French Religious tradition must have seemed like Hell on Earth and the Indian tradition the lost paradise found.

March 23: LaMote and Tieri were condemned by the Gentlemen of the Council of Quebec to pay a fine of 500 livres each for having sold trade goods at a higher price than the tariff.

March 31: Monsieur Chartier condemned the sieur Lespinay and his associates for entering into a contract with the Hospital Nuns allowing them to enter into trade, because this was not allowed. It is noteworthy that the Priests could enter into trade but not the Nuns.

1659

Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier and (I)-Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710), as Coureurs des Bois, established a trading post at Chequamegon Bay, on the south shore of Georgian Bay, among some of the displaced Wendat and Ottawa peoples. Other historians contend that the location of the Chequamegon Bay is La Pointe, Madeleine Island, Wisconsin, in Ojibwa Country, and the party built a log cabin and wintered in that location. They also confirmed the Jesuit reports which said that many Coureurs des Bois had preceded them into this region. Others contend they traded Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, returning to Sault Ste Marie where they wintered with twenty nine Frenchmen. Others suggest they pushed beyond the western end of Lake Superior and are the first recorded unofficial French party to meet with the Dakota.

Other accounts suggest that they also reported that much beaver existed to the north by way of Lake Winnipeg (Lake Bourbon), and from the Cree they learned that North Bay existed north of Lake Winnipeg. The confusion, some contend, was due to the fact that the Chequamegon Territory covers all the Lake Superior area and may also refer to all lands occupied by the Ojibwa, which is a vast region. To add to the confusion Groseillier/Radisson did not tell the French of all their discoveries because of poor treatment by New France and France officials.

Louis Couc dit Montour b-1659, Metis son (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, born 1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, (Miteouamigoukoue) born 1631, died January 8, 1699, Trois Rivers, Quebec, a Algonquine.

The French are working the Hudson Bay via two routes, Tadoussac and Three Rivers.

Two Frenchmen wintered Lake Superior. During their stay they visited the Dakota this winter. They encountered the Alimiwec on the Mississippi River. The next spring Lake Superior and Lake Ouinipeg saw the return of these two Frenchmen who arrived from the Upper Countries, with 300 Algonkins, in 60 canoes loaded with furs.

The Iroquois French war resulted in the capture of many French men and women who were placed in bondage, some resulting in marriage which, in turn, resulted in many mixed blood children.

Six canoe of Sault (Ojibwa) arrived at Three Rivers among 33 canoe from inland of Attikameg and Piskatang.

Louis Garnaud of Grimaudiere (1641-1698) arrived ,during the summer, at Quebec, being the first of the American Garneau clan in New France. He is the only known Garnaud to immigrate into the Americas. The name change to Garneau occurred about 1703.

August: The Groseillier/Radisson Expedition returned with 300 men and many furs. The Jesuits reported 100 canoes departed Lake Superior but 40 canoes turned back.

The remaining 60 canoes contained 200,000 livres of pelts. There was great celebration by the people upon their return. However, because they were Coureurs des Bois and not an official French expedition, the Governor imprisoned them. The popular heroes were heavily fined and their trade goods were seized.

Pierre Trottier (1644-1693) owned a trading permit for Outaouais in 1659??. Source: Lyle Trottier. This is likely an error. Pierre was age 15. It is more likely that he is listed on a travel permit, or the date is in error?

Jean Pere, a French Metis, traveled from Lake Superior to the Hudson Bay.

1660

Some historians mark this year as the official beginning of the 'wood rangers', or 'wood runners' or more commonly called the 'Coureurs des Bois', some would call them illegal Voyagers.

The Spanish receive word that the French, likely the Coureurs des Bois or Metis are trading with the Pawnees on the Missouri and Platte Rivers, Nebraska.

Word reaches the French either in 1659 or 1660 that the savages living 60 leagues to the West of Lake Superior are trading with Europeans.

Jean Pere, a Metis, reported that he traveled Lake Superior to Hudson Bay having brought back many furs for trade. This could refer to Nicholas Perrot (Pere) also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, and if so would be based upon a false report by the Jesuits.

The voyagers, led by Grosilleres and Ojibwa, returned from Lake Superior to Quebec with sixty canoes of fox, beaver and buffalo skins valued at 200,000 livres. They had left 50,000 livres worth at Montreal, Quebec and took the balance to Three Rivers, Quebec. Groseillier, six men and three priests had wintered with the Ox Nation (Nadwesseronon) which numbered 4,000 men. In 1659 they wintered at Lake Superior, Ojibwa Country.

The People living to the west of Lake Superior advised they are aware of the seas to the south, west and north. They advised us that 8-10 days journey to the north is the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay). It would appear that some French had already visited the Bay of the North with these people.

Father du Creux recorded on his maps the Assinipoualacus River and Lake Lac Des Assiniboels, now called Lake Winnipeg (Manitoba). Obviously the maps are from the Coureurs des Bois or Indian accounts rather than actual sightings. An Indian named Awatanik told Father Gabriel Druillettes, who told the Huguenots Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710), about the Hudson Bay and the great fur potential. The good Father suggested to Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) that he should claim the discovery of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) and thereby claim credit for France. This form of deceit is systemic in the Jesuit Relations and led to a universal revulsion towards the priests in the Indian territories. Indian tradition considered this type of deceit the most repulsive of evils.

Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier reported a meeting with the Assinniboines who were reported on the trade route to Lake Winnipeg (Assiniboels) and beyond.

The Ottawa had built a Fort at Houghton Point, across the bay from Chequamegon Point, Ojibwa Country (La Pointe). Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier and Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) visited the Dakota Sioux, a seven day journey out of La Pointe. They also built a fort on Chequamegon Point, Ojibwa Country. Some suggest the fort that was built is a palisade fort and is located on the shore near Ashland, Wisconsin. Radisson at Lac Court Oreille, Wisconsin observed the Feast of the Dead ceremony. They are in the company of the Sault (Ojibwa). The Ojibwa are trading into northwestern Ontario and eastern Manitoba with the Cree and Assiniboin. Most often the Cree came down to the north shore of Lake Superior. According to Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710), at the west end of Lake Superior is the village of Ottawa

Adrian Jolliet (the elder, brother of Louis), (II)-Antoine Trotter (Trottier) (Labissoniere) sieur des Ruisseaux (1640-1706) son (I)-Jules Trotter (1590-1655), (I)-Catherine Louiseau (1599-1656), Jean Bellecourt, Claude David, Pierre Levasseur L'Esperance alias LaFleche, and one unknown, arrived Chequamegon (Chagouamigon) Bay, Ojibwa Country (La Pointe, Wisconsin). A trading post is constructed at this location. Father Rene Menard (1605-1661) is the leader of the expedition but so deep was the animosity towards the Jesuits, he is abandoned at Keweenaw Bay. This action would place the entire crew as Coureurs des Bois unless their actions can remain unreported.

La Pointe on Madeleine Island is a secure Ojibwa location as the Dakota Sioux didn't have canoe so couldn't effectively attack them, or so the French reasoned. Father Rene Menard (1605-1661), who departed Trois Rivieres August 28, expected to find many Christians among the displaced Wendat and Ottawa at Ste Therese after years of religious indoctrination but is unable to locate a single convert. The Mixed Blood French traders held the clergy in low regard, as did the Natives of Lake Superior. Other accounts depict Father Rene Menard (1605-1661) as a kindly old man who had to bear the burden of the not so kind Jesuit Order.

The Iroquois attacked the Ottawa, north of lake Huron, this year.

April: Francois Pelletier of Tadousac, Quebec, married a savage without formal banns, this caused a great sensation in the colony. The French in Acadia have been marrying the sauvages for years. Children of marriages with the Maliseet (Malecite) are called Malouidit (Metis).

April: Adam Dillard Des Ormeaux (1635-1660) and 17 Frenchmen with 44 Huron and a few Algonquin departed Montreal to ambush Iroquois traders, returning by the Ottawa River. They were surprised by a 300 man Iroquois army. Some say it was an army of 800 but this is likely an escalation. After a nine day siege the Huron they fled and the nine surviving French are captured and tortured. Others suggest only one Huron escaped to tell the tale. The zealous Roman Catholics attempted to put a religious and nationalistic spin on the saga, claiming they deliberately sacrificed themselves to fend off an attack on New France. Dillard and company are a band of pirates who are attempting to make gains at the expense of the Iroquois. This was likely not their first pirate raid and it continued to inflame the animosity between the Iroquois and French.

April 27: Eustache Lambert and Dalet departed Quebec, Quebec, for Montreal, Quebec.

May 6: Those who give intoxicating liquors to the savages are excommunicated and/or executed.

August 28: Father Rene Menard (1605-1661) and eight Frenchmen, one being Jean Guerin d-1662, departed Three Rivers for Lake Superior.

October 15: Father Rene Menard (1605-1661) and his eight Frenchmen arrived Outaouax (Ojibwa) Country. Le Brochet (the pike) showed ill will towards the Jesuit. Menard was attempting to baptize dying children against the will of the parents. The parents began the practice of hiding their children from the Black Robe.

1661

Father Rene Menard (1605-1661) and his lay assistant Jean (John) Guerin d-1662 arrived La Pointe, Ojibwa Country, having been relieved of command and abandoned at Keweenaw Bay last year. Some remnants of the Wendat and Ottawa went to Chequamegon Territory of the Ojibwa and establish trade with the Potawatomi, Illinois, Dakota Sioux, and Cree. They would conduct trade with the French at Chequamegon Bay, Ojibwa Country, but are not willing to travel through the area controlled by the Iroquois.

The Iroquois, this year, crushed the Illinois people. The Ojibwa, however, still traveled with impunity, as the Iroquois feared the Algonquian Nation, having been soundly defeated by them in the past.

July 13: Father Rene Menard (1605-1661) and Jean Guerin d-1662 departed Keweenaw Bay, Lake Superior up the Blackwater River, Wisconsin to visit the Huron.

August 15: Father Rene Menard (1605-1661) is reported lost in the wilderness north east Wisconsin. Father Menard, it is alleged, got separated from his French companion and became lost and is never seen again. The Ojibwa held him in such a low regard they would not conduct a search for him. It is noteworthy that the children of his previous assignment distained this man for unknown reasons. Jean Guerin is reported to have been accidentally shot and killed, thereby removing the last witness to the expeditions mutiny. Years later Father Rene Menard (1603-1661) with his kettle, robe and prayer book, is found among the Dahkotah Sauks (Dakota Sioux). Jesuit Father Gabriel Druilletes (1610-1681) is transferred to Sault Ste. Marie, being placed in charge.

August 28: Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier departed Montreal without Government permission. The traveled to Lake Superior and may have reached Lake Assiniboine and the Hudson Bay.

October: Word is spreading that two men are executed on the St. Lawrence River for selling liquor to the Savages.

1662

Adrian Jolliet (the elder), (II)-Antoine Trotter (Trottier) Desruisseaux (1640-1706), Jean Bellecourt, Claude David, Pierre Levasseur L'Esperance, alias LaFleche, and one unknown, departed La Pointe, minus the late Father Rene Menard (1605-1661) and Guerin. Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) is reported to have visited Lake Nipigon this year. Pierre Levasseur L'Esperance, alias LaFleche, reported the Saulteurs are at Kionconan (Keweenaw) to the north and the Nepissings and Amikouets are at Alimibegon (Nipigon?).

Madeleine Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, (some suggest born 1669) daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur born 1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e born 1631 died January 8, 1699, Trois Rivers a Algonquine.

Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) encountered the Saulteur (Ojibwa) at Kionconan (Keweenaw) to the north of Lake Superior. The Nepissings and Amikouets are at Alimibegon (Nipigon?). The Amikwa (People of the Beaver) departed the Georgian Bay area to move further west.

Spring: The Iroquois (Agnieronnons and Onneiochronnons) formed an army of 100 warriors to anbush the Outaoux of the upper Algonquins. They began to prowl the shores of the Lake of the Hurons and were surprised by a band of Sauteurs (Ojibwa) of Lake Superior. The Saulteur (Ojibwa), Amikore, Nipissing and Ottawa encountered a war party of 100 Iroquois (Mohawk & Onedia) just west of Sault Ste Marie, Ojibwa Country. The Iroquois had been conducting raiding parties into Ojibwa territory over the past few years. The Ojibwa, as a nation, vastly outnumbered the Iroquois and although slow to anger, they were tenacious fighters and would not run like the Sioux when the tide of battle went against them. They would slowly retreat, fighting a defensive battle until reinforcements arrived. As a result they were never defeated as a Nation. They quickly surrounded the Iroquois. During this encounter, they annihilated the 100 Iroquois and very few escaped to bring their sad news of their distruction. The Iroquois never again attempted raids into the Lake Superior Ojibwa Region.

September 19: Quebec, marriage, Laurent Dubeau b-1636, died November 1, 1689, Montreal, married Marie Felix d'Arontio (Huronne).

September 26: Quebec, Quebec, marriage, Jean Durand (1640-1671) married Quebec, Catherine d'Annennontak, Huron b-1649 daughter Nicolas Arendankir, Huron. Catherine 2nd marriage 1672, Jacques Coutourier, b-1646.

1663

The Huguenots Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, conducted a second major free trade voyage to lake Superior. The authorities in Quebec, likely instigated by the Jesuit, would quickly put a stop to this practice. This suppression of free trade, which has a religious basis, would eventually lead to the formation of the Hudson Bay Company and the loss of New France to the English and to Protestantism. Meanwhile, Captain Zachariah Gilliam sailed to Hudson Strait before being forced back by ice.

1664

Pierre Boucher, grandfather of Sieur Verendrye, wrote, in Paris, that in Lake Superior, there is an island which is 50 leagues in circumference with a beautiful copper mine. He learned this second hand from 4-5 Frenchmen who had spent three years in the area.

New Netherlands was renamed the New England Colony of New York.

June 1: Trois Rivieres, Quebec, birth, Marguerite Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, daughter, Pierre Couc dit Lafleur born 1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, born 1631, died January 8, 1699, Trois Rivers, Quebec, a Algonquine; married Jean Masse Fafart..