Metis

1670 - 1678


The French prohibit the Free Traders from entering the forests
for more than 24 hours without a permit.

The Jesuits make a serious effort to gain control of the
fur trade from the Coureurs des Bois.


A Royal ordinance is issued to prohibit the trading of furs in Indian villages.

The French create 'La Compagne du Nord' to consolidate the French trade

and drive the English from the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay).


1670

Mathieu Faille et Faye - Lafayette Metis the birth was kept quiet by the Iroquois with her son by Andre Lafayette.

The Jesuits say the Coureurs des Bois are not scared to paddle five or six hundred leagues (1,800 miles) in a canoe, live for a year or eighteen months on corn and bear fat, and sleep under shelters made of roots or branches.

Michillimackinac (Machinac) is first mentioned in the Jesuit Relations this year but its existence has been known for years.

Father Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689), the Jesuit, founded the St. Francis Xavier Mission, Wisconsin.

About 47 families at Belle-Isle-en-mer were identified as being of mixed blood (Metis). It is believed the Malacites were decedents of mixed blood people of Saint-Malo fishermen and Indian women. They were located on the Saint John River, Acadia.

Some researchers believe that the Metis acquired their ethnic identity in Georgian Bay before this date. Others say that they acquired it about this time in Eastern Lac Svpeperievr (Lake Superior) (Sault Ste Marie and Michilimakinac) with their merger with the People of the Sault (Ojibwa). Still others argue that ethnic identity was not acquired until the creation of the Red River settlement in 1812, as though it was a product of the English. I believe that the Metis ethnic identity began with the first Mixed-blood, Coureurs des Bois and Voyagers, as these folks made a fundamental choice in their value system that is very unique and fundamentally different than the European peoples value systems. One can argue that the Voyagers evolved gradually vs. the Coureurs des Bois immediate ethnic change, but Metis is a blend of these three peoples and primarily the Saultiers (Ojibwa). It is noteworthy that many other cultures value added to the final product we now call Metis (Mixed-blood or Half-breed). It is noteworthy that the first engages adopted a unique attire more aligned with Native attire, thereby beginning a new cultural tradition from the get-go.

The Mission Sainte Marie de Sault is located 3 leagues below the mouth of the Lake Superior. Towards the end of Lake Superior is found Mission Saint Esprit, covering the district known as Chagaouamigong Point (La Pointe, Wisconsin) and the neighboring Islands. To the southward is the Great River Missisipi (Mississippi) that empties into the Florida Sea more than 400 leagues hence. Beyond the Great River lie eight villages of the Illinois, 100 leagues from Saint Esprit Point. Forty to fifty leagues westward of Saint Esprit Point is found the Nation of Nadouessi. Even further west is another Nation of unknown language, beyond which lies the Western Sea. To the west, northwest are the Assinipoualac. Father Jacques Marquette (1737-1675) would have us believe no French had reached the Illinois on the Mississippi until he arrived 1673.

Sault Ste Marie at this time is considered an important trading center, according to Galinee. It is reported that the Coureurs des Bois of Michilimackina make a profit on everything: furs, making canoes, sheets of bark for cabins, strawberries and other fruits. They trade south and west to the savages. They go to the seats of the Illinese and the Oumamis, or to the Bay des Puants, (Green Bay, Wisconsin) and to the River of Missisipi. Green Bay (Wisconsin) is also a place of trade for these Coureurs des Bois. The savages sell them corn, peas, beans and fruits for their travels on the Missisipi. It is estimated that 50% of the Furs are being sold to the Dutch by those Coureurs des Bois and Metis. The business is so ulcerative and the freedom so compelling that the exodus to the west could not be stopped. The French edicts forbid trade with the Indians of the interior. The French would attempt over and over to offer amnesty to the Coureurs des Bois, provided they returned to the yoke of French colony.

The Jesuits create a mission, Saint Ignace, not far from Michilimakinac, among the displaced Ottawa. The Jesuits are trying to discover the copper deposits in Lake Lac Svpeperievr (Superior), but the Ojibwa were very averse to giving the Jesuits information.

The 1670/71 season saw smallpox visit the Ojibwa at Sault Ste Marie.

The Acadian Metis community of La Heve (Port Royal), Nova Scotia had a population of 400-500. The Melanson brothers are of Scottish ancestry; Roger Kuessy (Caissey) is of Irish descent, Granger of English origin and Mirande(a) of Portuguese origin, mixed in with the French origin and Micmac origin. Other settlements, this decade, include Beaubassin (Amherst), Grand Pre (Wolfville), and Cobequid (Truro).

May 2: The Hudson Bay Company, as a Corporation, called 'Governor and Company of Adventurers into Hudson Bay', is formed by Prince Rupert and seventeen other alleged noblemen to import furs and skins into England. They are given a Royal Charter by Charles II, giving it power of life and death over its subjects in Hudson Bay in order to to maintain a navy, make war and a trade monopoly in the Bay forever. The Coureurs des Bois, (I)-Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, the founding fathers who made all this possible, being lower class, are declared not fit to have a share in the new Company. This English superiority towards non English peoples would dominate the Hudson Bay Company's economic policy into the twentieth century, causing much suffering to future Canadians.

The English gave the Governor and Company of Adventurers into Hudson Bay absolute power, an autocracy of life or death to all people in what they considered their domain, to pass their own laws and to enforce them. No one is to invade, settle or trade in their domain without the consent of the Company; an absolute feudal policy. This, in effect, is a declaration of war, guised in their perverted formality of chivalry. This self-righteous notion of being gallant, courteous, and honorable with a readiness to help the weak, demanded their economic victim be regarded as simple in nature, primitive in culture and savage in religion.

June: Charles Bayly (1630-1680), Governor, and Company of Adventurers into Hudson Bay, sailed for Port Nelson on the west side of Hudson Bay. The Coureurs des Bois, (I)-Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and (I)-Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier are with this expedition. Bayly then joined Zachariah Gillam at Fort Charles. (I)-Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) wintered at James Bay and planted peas and mustard seeds. Thomas Gorst appears at Rupert's House on James Bay 1670-75.

The Jesuits are not dissimilar to the English in their attitudes toward the Native and Mixed Blood peoples. The popular Jesuit writings would provide ample proof for this ignominious classification.

Fort St. Charles is renamed Rupert's House and Fort Nelson named York Factory at Harts Creek in the mouth of the Nelson River.

The Mad Quaker, Charles Bayley (1630-1680), established trading posts in Hudson and James Bay, threatening the historic French trading routes. In retaliation, Jean Talon (1626-1694) sent Simon Francois Daumont of Saint Lusson (died 1677), Louis Jolliet (Joliette) (1645-1700), a Coureurs des Bois (co-discoveror of the Mississippi), Jesuit Fathers Claude Dablon, Gabriel Druillettes, Father Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689), Jesuit, and Louis Andre (1631-1715) to take formal possession of Sault Ste Marie and surrounding territory. Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696), a Jesuit, is ordered to James Bay to persuade the Mistassini (Montagnais or Chipewyan) people to again trade at Tadoussac. More important, however, is for him to spy upon Radisson and des Groseilliers. Father Albanel is not successful with the former command.

Nicholas Perrot (Pere), also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, is the engage of the Jesuits this trip. He could speak a dozen different dialects of the Algonquian language with fluency, and he went to Green Bay (Wisconsin) on Lac Des Ilinois (Lake Michigan) to urge attendance of the Miami tribe in the spring at Sault Ste Marie (Michigan/Ontario). He also secured the attendance of the Winnebago (Ojibwa) and the Algonquian tribes of Sauk, Menominee and the Potawatomi (Ojibwa) to solidify trade relations and freeze out the English. The Jesuit journals called the English those new heretic traders on Hudson Bay who are luring the Natives down on trade.

Part of their priestly duties is to secure the trade monopoly for the Church. The Keiskatchewan (Cree), at time of contact with the Hudson Bay Company, inhabited the country from the sea coast nearly to the Great Lakes. The cultural and linguistic difference between Cree and Ojibwa is never very great, and most early travelers, and later residents, would not have been able consistently to distinguish between the two groups.

Fort Baie des Puants (Puans) is built at Green Bay, (Wisconsin) on the left bank of Fox River. This fort is sometimes called Fort Sakisdac and Fort St. Xavier and commanded the route to the Mississippi. Fort Miami is erected on the Miami (Maumee) River in Indiana, in the heart of the Miami Nation. Fort Wayne would later be built on this site.

Fort Miami (Fort Wayne) is established on the Miami (Maumee) River in Indiana.

A major smallpox plague is reported to have depopulated most of Ontario and Quebec of her Native people. Some believe the ancient Ojibwa route on the Kaministikwia River to the interior is continuously in use by the French Metis from this time until 1821. The Pigeon River route only became popular during the 1731-1804 period.

September: Intendant Jean Talon commissioned (I)-Simon Francois Daumont de Saint Lusson d-1677, to seek the copper mines in the lands of the Outaouais, Nez Perces, Illinois and other Nations discovered or to be discovered. This is the first major official admission that all these lands, and those to be discovered, have previously been well traveled by others (Coureurs des Bois, Metis and Voyagers).

November 14: Sillery, Quebec, birth, Louis Durand, Metis, son Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine (Katherine) d'Annannontak Huronne b-1649; Catherine 2nd marriage 1672, Jacques Coutourier, b-1646; 1st married September 9, 1698, Quebec, Quebec (II)-Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon b-1682, died May 12, 1718 St. Antoine-Tilly; 2nd marriage January 30, 1719 St. Nicolas, Quebec Jeanne Houde.

1671

Cadeau, a French Officer, is ordered to explore the north west, with Simon Francois Daumont of Saint Lusson, (died 1677) and Nicolas Perret, who married Madeleine Raclot, arrived at Sault Ste Marie and stayed (wintered?). Cadeau (Cadotte?) has taken a Chippewa (Ojibwa) girl as his wife. This may not be true as Monsieur Cadeau, who is claimed to arrived at Sault Ste Marie 1671 in the party of Simon Francis Daumont Sieur de St. Lusson, d-1677, is not married until July 31, 1688 in Montreal.

Mathurin Cadote, alias Poitevin (1649-1729), married a Marie Catherine Durand born June 4, 1666 (a Wendat Metis) daughter Jean Durand (1636-1671) and Catherine (Katherine) Annennontak (Huronne). The Wendat or Huron Indians, however, are eventually absorbed into the Ojibwa culture. At this time Potawatomi, the Algonquian village at Sault Ste Marie, (Michigan/Ontario), Michilimackinac (Michigan) and Green Bay, (Wisconsin) all New France Posts are established trading centers.

Father's Claude Dablon, Father Gabriel Druillettes (1610-1681) a Jesuit, Father Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689) Jesuit and Louis Andre (1623-1715), a Jesuit, conducted a mission at Sault Ste Marie in Ojibwa Country. Early Missions are not necessarily religious in nature but rather economic or military according t their actions.

Father Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689), a Jesuit, reported of seeing the buffaloes (bison) or pisikiou as the Illinois called them. The Illinois speak of Europeans on the Mississippi River who twenty leagues from the Florida Sea are splitting trees with long knives to make houses both on land and on water.

Father Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689), Jesuit, and Father Louis Andrie (1623-1715) a Jesuit, built a chapel on the east bank of the Fox River, (Wisconsin), but it was burnt in 1686 by the Indians and abandoned in 1728.

Pierre Pere Moreau, La Toupine (Taupine) (1639-1727) is at Sault Ste Marie with Simon Francois Daumont de Saint Lusson (died 1677); Moreau married 1677, Quebec, Marie Lemire. He is classified as a Coureurs des Bois under the protection of Frontenac. Sieur Pere reported the discovery of copper mines on the Lake Superior.

Nicholas Perrot (Pere) dit Turbal aka Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1717), a freeman ( Coureurs des Bois), is currently in the employ of the Jesuits and encourages fourteen Nations of People to visit Sault Ste Marie to enter into treaty with the Jesuit and French officials.

Daumont de Saint Lusson, d-1677, the infamous, on his return to Quebec, called for the seizure of the furs brought back by Nicholas Perrot (Pere) dit Turbal aka Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1717), a freeman ( Coureurs des Bois). Although Perrot was in the employ of the Jesuits, or maybe because of his relationship with the Jesuits, this action humbled Perrot forcing him into debt to his creditors. It was because of Perrot that the French could make claim (although a false claim) on all lands west, north and south of Sault Ste Marie. It was he who brought the fourteen Nations together with the French at Sault Ste Marie on June 4.

Talon writes that more than twenty Frenchmen have witnessed copper deposits on Lac Svpeperievr (Lake Superior).

Father Jacques Marquette (1637-1675), at this time, had charge at Chequamegon Bay (La Pointe, Madeleine Island) at the mission called St. Esprit, which also contained some of the displaced Wendat and Ottawa. He also failed to convert the Ojibwa, and they mutually agreed to end any missionary activity in this region for the next 160 years.

The Church ,however, would attempt to boycott trade to the La Pointe area. A group of Coureurs des Bois were reported to have built a Fort on Madeline Island (La Pointe) with a small cannon, now that the Good Fathers have left the area. Father Jacques Marquette (1637-1675), a Jesuit, is forced to abandon his mission at Point du Saint Esprit and return to Michilimackinac (Mishinimaukinong) to found the St. Ignace Mission in July, on Manitoulin Island.

Jesuit Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696) occupied Fort Charles on the Rupert River, claimed the region for New France and began trading up river. Jean Talon (1626-1694) had ordered Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696) to explore and spy upon the Hudson Bay Company. Reports reached England that the French are intercepting trade to their Bay side post in violation of Company Policy.

John Ogilvie wrote this year that the North Western Territories remained yet undiscovered because so many discoveries of new areas are carried out by Coureurs des Bois and other such men who put very little in writing and map form. What he failed to mention is that, if they did report, they would be whipped and sent to the Mediterranean galleys for life.

Abraham Wood, an English trader, sent an expedition to Virginia consisting of Thomas Batts and Robert Fallam with a guide called Perceute.

The Mission at Sault Ste Marie is burnt as a result of a skirmish between the Cree, Ottawa and the Iroquois. The Iroquois are killed.

June 4, Sault Ste Marie:

Simon Francois Daumont de Saint Lusson (died 1677), Louis Jolliet (Joliette), a Coureurs des Bois (1645-1700), (co-discoverer of the Mississippi) and Nicholas Perrot (Pere), also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, this trip the Jesuit engages, claimed all the lands and waters to the West, North and South for New France. The Ojibwa Nation from their La Pointe Capital town is not pleased with this presumptuous gesture and ripped down the cross. This French action is curious given they have been traveling this region for over fifty years. It would appear their absurd claim is to justify some future action against the English. It is noteworthy that the Saultiers were very aware of the Mississippi River, as were Father Jacques Marguette and Louis Jolliet when they were at Sault Ste Marie.

August 6: Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696) is ordered by Talon to visit Hudson Bay to verify the presence of Radisson and des Groseilliers. The Albanel group wintered at Chicoutimi.

1672

Jacques Couturier b-1646, married likely Sillery, Quebec Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649, veuve September 23, 1662, de Jean Durand (1640-1671).

Father Nouvel of Sault Ste Marie, Ojibwa Country, reported two English ships and they are annoyed by a third ship that followed them, which they apprehended and shipwrecked. The English landed about two hundred men. Charles Bayley (d-1680) established a depot on Charlton Island to supply the James Bay outpost. He began staking out the matrix of the Hudson Bay factory system. Trade began to fall off in the Hudson Bay, and Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) discovered that Jean Talon (1626-1694) of Quebec had sent the Jesuit, Charles Albanel (1616-1696), to Fort Charles to claim the area for New France. The French are pressing north by way of Lake Winnipeg (Lake Bourbon) and through the Saguenay River, cutting off the English trade routes. Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696) delivered a proposal to Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier, to return to the French side of the issue, believing their removal is critical to containing the English.

Meanwhile, the French continued establishing good relations with the Natives by sending Louis Joliet (Jolliet), a Coureur des Bois (1645-1700), the Jesuit Jacques Marquette (1637-1675) and five companions to visit the Wild Rice tribe, the Long Haired Miami, the Mascouten (Illinois), the Kickapoo, Mississippi and Arkansa (Sioux Quapaw). The party returned to Green Bay, Fox Country (Wisconsin), and Louis Joliet (Jolliet), a Coureurs des Bois, returned to Quebec to report their success. Louis de Baud Count of Frontenac (1620-1698) also built a Fort at Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac, Kingston, Ontario) while conducting a Grand Council with the Iroquois (July 1673) that included sixty delegates of the Five Nations. The Fort was constructed during the four day council, where Lake Ontario runs into the St. Lawrence River (Kingston), to guard the main trade route from the Iroquois and English.

Pierre d'Esprit Radisson (1640-1710) and Medard Chouart (1618-1696) of Groseillier established Fort Moose at the mouth of the Moose River for the English.

Green Bay, Fox Country, (Wisconsin): Some buildings dated to this period survived into the 21st century.

February 3: Quebec, birth, (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, died July 15, 1731 St. Augustin, Quebec son (II)-Jean Dubeau, Metis, (1669-1743) and Marie Felix d'Arontio (Huronne); 1st marriage September 23, 1697 St. Augustin, Quebec Francoise Paule Campagna; 2nd marriage September 10, 1718 St Augustin, Quebec, Marie Francoise Sevigny

October: Quebec, Louis Jolliet (1645-1700), a Coureurs des Bois, organized six other Coureurs des Bois to explore the Mississippi River.

October 5/6: (II)- Louis Jolliet (1745-1700), a Coureurs des Bois, departed Quebec with a commission to voyage to the mouth of the Mississippi river with five other Coureurs des Bois but with one condition- that he take a Jesuit with him.

December 8: The Coureurs des Bois expedition arrived at Michillimakinac, enroute to the Mississippi River.

1673

Jean Baptiste Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, son (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur b-1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e(1631-1699), a Algonquine; married 1705 Lachine, Quebec, Anne Sauvagesse.

Francois Joseph Hertel de Moncour (1642-1722) assisted in the construction of Fort Frontenac, (Kingston, Ontario).

Abraham Wood, an English trader, sent an expedition to Kentucky and Tennessee, consisting of Gabriel Arthur and James Needham. Arthur was captured by the Shawness, but escaped.

A Royal decree prohibited Coureurs des Bois (independent fur traders) from entering the forest for more than 24 hours without permission. This only caused them to divert their trade to the English. The French are slow to understand that previous attempts of this nature only alienate the Canadians and are a direct cause of the establishment of the English in Hudson Bay.

The hostility between the Jesuits and the traders hit a new low when (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) accused the Jesuits at Fort Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac, Kingston, Ontario) of trying to monopolize the fur trade. The Abbe De Queylus, a Sulpician, had established Rene Robert Cavalier De la Salle (1643-1687) in the seigneury of St. Sulpice in Montreal. This association made him a doubly dangerous man to the Jesuits. The Jesuits served (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) a salad of hemlock and verdigris that made him very sick, but did not kill him. He accused the Jesuits of trying to dispose of him. He would, however, be murdered in March 19, 1687.

The Jesuits contend that Nicholas Perrot (Pere), also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, confessed his guilt to the poisoning, but this seems highly unlikely. It is interesting that the Jesuits would accuse their own employee in an attempt to cover their own intrigue. Historically the Jesuits are known for their intrigue.

Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) continued to upgrade Fort Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac, Kingston, Ontario) and improve trade relations with the Ojibwa, Ottawa and some other tribes. The Coureurs des Bois Expedition, led by Louis Jolliet (Joliette), a Coureurs des Bois (1645-1700), five other Miami Metis, Jesuit Jacques Marquette (1637-1675), and Jesuit missionary Inlays, departed Michillimakinac to find the Mississippi River and the Illinois. They entered the Mississippi River at Prairie du Chein after following the Wisconsin River. They traveled as far south as the Arkansas River; others suggest the Louisiana and Arkansas boundary. They verified that the Mississippi River emptied into the Gulf of Mexico. They did not proceed further for fear of falling into the hands of the Spanish of Florida. They were surprised that the Illini People were in possession of firearms and Spanish trade goods.

Father Henri Nouvel, (1621-1702) the Jesuit, at Sault Ste Marie, reported the English north of Lac Svpeperievr (Lake Superior) is trading and selling guns to the Cree causing a division with the Ojibwa of Lac Svpeperievr (Lake Superior). This would be second hand report from the Ojibwa and Ottawa who traveled and traded in the north but returned to Sault Ste Marie to obtain more trade goods. This report contributed to the decision by the French to launch their Compagnii du Nord in 1676.

The first reference to the location of Toronto appeared this year in a manuscript map now preserved in a library in Paris.

Father Jacques Marquette (1637-1675) and the Coureurs des Bois expedition, headed by Louis Jolliet (1645-1700),a Coureurs des Bois, visited a tribe of Peoria of the Illinois confederacy, believed by some to be the first visit by an European. Others contend Jolliet had traveled much with the Illinois prior to 1673.

The English exported 89,000 African slaves to New England from 1673-1689, so strong was the demand.

The English at the Bay of The North (Hudson Bay) are making liberal presents to the Ojibwa Indians to secure their trade according to Father Henri Nouvel (1621-1702) at Ste Marie Du Sault.

March 1: Quebec, birth, Charles Couturier, Metis died April 25, 1699, Batiscan, Quebec, son Jacques Couturier b-1646, and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649, veuve September 23, 1662, de Jean Durand (1640-1671).

May 17: Louis Jolliet (1645-1700) and company, including Father (I)-Jacques Marguette, a Jesuit (1637-1675), and five Frenchmen, departed Fort Michilimakinac to explore the Mississippi River. They ventured to the Mississippi River via Bay Des Puants (Green Bay) also called La Baye Salle (Salt Bay). Marguette suggests Jolliet was selected for the trip because he had been to the Illinois before and knew the way. Jolliet was commissioned to determine if the Mississippi River flowed into the Gulf of New Mexico or into the Pacific Ocean at California.

June 5: A royal decree prohibited Coureurs des Bois from entering the forest for more than 24 hours without permission. This was no great inconvenience as they just directed their trade to the English.

Louis Jolliet (1645-1700), Father Jacques Marguette, a Jesuit (1637-1675), and the five Frenchmen, arrived Maskoutens (Fire Nation) that is considered by Marguette to be the limit of French discovery. The Illinois on the Mississippi however had Coureurs des Bois or Metis living among them according to Father Claude Jean Allouez (1613-1689). The village consists of the Miamis, Maskoutens and Kikabous. These people worshiped the Great Manitou.

June 13: Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) is at Cataraqui (Kingston, Ontario).

June 15: Louis Jolliet (1645-1700), the explorer, and Company reached the upper reaches of the Mississippi River via the Meskousing River and explored as far south as the Arkansas River. They killed a wild cattle (Bison) and visited an Illinois village of 300 cabins on the Mississippi River. The Illinois means 'The Men'. They smoked the Calumet (Peace Pipe) in a sacred ceremony and were given the pipe to unsure safe conduct in their trip. They also encountered a tribe in possession of European guns, hatchets, hoes, knives, beeds and flasks of double glass, in which they put their powder. They said they traded with the Europeans who live to the east of the Mississippi River and said they are about 10 days journey down river to the Gulf of New Mexico. They also met the Akamsea who also had European trade goods, hatchets, knives and beads.

They said they obtained their trade goods from the Illinois to the west and other Nations to the east. It would appear that Traders are working the Mississippi River and lands west of this river.

July 12: Louis de Buade de Frontenac et de Palluau (1622-1698) arrived Cataraqui (Kingston, Ontario) to claim credit for building Fort Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac Kingston, Ontario) at the mouth of the Cataraqui River (Kingston, Ontario), which was partially completed on July 19. The Fort was abandoned in 1689 but, upon the return of Frontenac, it was reopened.

September 30: Father Jacques Marguette, a Jesuit (1637-1675), returns to the mission of Saint Francois Xavier (DePere, Wisconsin).

October 24: Montreal, birth Claude Hogue Metis son Pierre Hogue dit St. Malo b-1648; and Catherine Nachita of the Puteotamite Nation b-1654 died September 28, 1676 Montreal.

November 27: Montreal, marriage Pierre Hogue dit St. Malo b-1648; married Catherine Nachita of the Puteotamite Nation b-1654 died September 28, 1676 Montreal.

December 8: Louis Jolliet (1745-1700), a Coureurs des Bois, arrived back at Michillimakinac. He hadn't reached the mouth of the Mississippi River but did determine it emptied into the Gulf of New Mexico. They were told that Europeans existed 2-3 days travel from their present location where they turned back and they believed they were likely the Spanish of Florida.

1674

A Dakota Sioux peace party met at Sault Ste Marie. A fight ensued and all the Sioux are killed, save two who sought refuge in the Jesuit hut. The Ojibwa is eager to burn down the hut because the Sioux had the Jesuit guns and munitions and are firing upon the Ojibwa. The Jesuit, Louis de Boeme, would not permit the burning because he had their trade skins stored between the roof and ceiling. The Jesuit, Louis de Boeme, advised that a cannon should be pointed at the door which, when discharged, killed the two Dakota. Governor Frontenac is indignant, condemning the murderous act of the Jesuit.

Louis Jolliet (1745-1700), a Coureurs des Bois, departed Michillimackinac with a crew of seven men in two canoes for the Mississippi River.

Louis Jolliet (1745-1700), a Coureurs des Bois, Father (I)-Jacques Marquette (1637-1675), Jesuit, and crew visited the Kakinonba on the east side of the Mississippi River. They established a mission at the Grand Village of the Illini (Grand Kaskaskia) near Utica. The use of the word Grand is usually associated with the Metis or Coureurs des Bois. Father Marquette would die this or next year on his way back to Michilimakinac.

Charles Bayley (d-1680), Chief Factor of the Hudson Bay Company, considered Radisson and Groseillier to be useless persons who deserved neither reward nor encouragement. The Coureurs des Bois (alienated Frenchmen) departed the H.B.C. this year.

Charles Bayly is in James Bay this season and would return to Britain in 1679.

Pierre Lamoureux de St. Germain son Jean Lamoureaux married about 1674 likely Bout de Ille M. Marguerite Pigarouiche, a Sauvagesse.

Olicer Morel de la Durantaye (1640/44-1716) married 1670 Quebec Francoise Duquet, commanded Kamouraska in 1674 and Machillimackinac (1683-1690)

The Mission St. Jacques is for the Machkoutench, Kikabouas, Miamis and others. It is noted a French Trader is among them according to Father (I)-Claude Jean Allouex (Allouez) (1613-1689) a Jesuit and he implies a number of French are among them, one of which died this year in the cabin of a Savage.

Father Jacques Marguette, a Jesuit (1637-1675), opened the mission Kaskaskias (Caskakias) a tribe of Illinois.

January 13: Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696) wintered at Lake Saint John on his way to the Hudson Bay.

January 21: A lunar eclipse is used by the Jesuits to discredit the Indian Holy Men. The Savages however did not concern themselves with the eclipse.

January 26: Louis de Buade de Frontenac et de Palluau (1622-1698) arrested and imprisoned Francois Marie Perrot (1644-1691), Governor of Montreal , for illegal dealings with the Coureurs des Bois. Perrot had been encouraging his men to become Coureurs des Bois to improve trade.

August 30: Father Charles Albanel (1616-1696) arrived Rupert River. The English arrested Albanel and his companions as spies and sent them to England.

October 25: Pierre Porteret and Jacque with Father (I)-Jacques Marquette (1737-1675), Jesuit, is reported to depart Green Bay, Fox Country (Wisconsin), for a mission among the Illinois, but only reaches Chicago, Illinois Country, by December 4. They repaired a Savages gun and reported some French are living among the Illinois. This Illinois Village numbered 1,500 men not counting women and children.

1675

Louis Joliet (Jolliet), a Coureurs des Bois (1645-1700), scouted Hudson Bay and reported to Louis de Buade, Count of Frontenac, that the English defenses are very poor and could be easily taken, as they only defended towards the sea.

Francois Barrois b-1675 son Antoine Jean Baptiste Barrois and the daughter Francois Le Bar; married Marie Ann Sauvage and lived Fort Detroit.

Francois Lamoureux, Metis b-1675 d-2740 son.(II)-Pierre Lamoureux de St. Germain son (I)-Jean Lamoureaux married about 1674 likely Bout de Ille M. Marguerite Pigarouiche, a Sauvagesse; married Marguerite Menard.

Sault Ste Marie at the eastern end of Lake Superior is the home base for Fathers Henri Nouvel (1621-1702) a Jesuit; Father Gabrial Dreuillettes (Druilletes) (1610-1681) a Jesuit; Father (Claude Ailloquet (Allouez) (1613-1689) a Jesuit.

The Outagamis and Mascoutins are serviced by Father (I)-Claude Jean Allouex (Allouez) (1613-1689) a Jesuit and Father Antoine Silvy (1638-1711) a Jesuit.

Michillimakinac is home base for Father Phillipe Pierson (1642-1688) a Jesuit; and Father Jacques Marquette (1737-1675) a Jesuit.

The Bay Des Puants (Green Bay) is occupied by Father Louis Andrie (1623-1715) a Jesuit.

February 11: Quebec, birth, Jacques Couturier, Metis, son Jacques Couturier b-1646, and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649, veuve September 23, 1662, de Jean Durand (1640-1671).

March 30: Father Jacques Marquette (1737-1675), Jesuit, departed Chicago and, on April 8, established a mission. He died on May 18, near Luddington, Michigan, in the midst of the forest.

May 11: Jean Oudiette is awarded a monopoly for the beaver trade until 1682.

A Fort is established on the Kaskaskia River (Illinois), about five miles from the Mississippi, and is dependent on New Orleans.

May 13: Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) is granted a patent on nobility and the seigneurie of Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario) at Catarqui.

May 18: Father Jacques Marquette (1637-1675) died Ludington, Michigan.

July 9: Montreal, birth Pierre Hogue Metis died April 23, 1697 (1) son Pierre Hogue dit St. Malo b-1648; and Catherine Nachita of the Puteotamite Nation b-1654 died September 28, 1676 Montreal. (1) Census 1681 Pte-aux-Trembles, Montreal named Pierre Hogue and Jeanne Theodore, mentions the name Pierre age 7 years and Jean age 2 years as being the children of Jeanne Theodore, while Pierre in 1675 is not listed wife being Catherine Nachita, woman of Oierre Hogue. (noye a la Pte-Aux-Trembles, Montreal le recensement de 1681 au nom de Pierre Hogue, ("epoux de Jeanne Theodore, mentionne les noms de Pierre age 7 years et de Jean age 2 years, comme etant deux les enfants de Jeanne Theodore, tandis que Pierre, ne en 1675 est fils de Catherine Nachita, premiere femme de Oierre Hogue").

September 18: It became known as 'Bloody Brook' (Deerfield, Massachusetts) where 90 Englishmen who were escorting 18 wagons loaded with grain are confronted by 700 Indians and all the English except 7-8 are killed.

October 9: Louis Joliette (Jolliet) a Coureurs des Bois (1645-1700) married (III)-Claire Francoise Bissot some say married October 7, 1675 and is listed as the discoverer of the Mississippi by L'Abbe Cyprein Tanguay.

Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714) arrived Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario) staying until 1685.

1676

A Royal ordinance prohibited the trading of furs in Indian Villages, hopefully forcing the Savages to come to the Jesuit Missions. This is to support Jean Oudiette's monopoly position in the fur trade. Begging is prohibited in Montreal unless a certificate from a parish priest is obtained. Citizens of Quebec are prohibited to smoke on the streets or carry tobacco. This would remain in effect until 1759.

April 6: Father Antoine Sylvy (Silvy) (1638-1711) a Jesuit is among the Mascoutelns (Fire Nation) and Miamis people who are about 300 leagues from Kebek (Quebec).

April 15: King Louis XIV (1643­1715) signed a decree which stated: New France is to cease granting permission to trade with the Natives. The first penalty is confiscation of the merchandise and a fine of two thousand livres. Concurrently, public markets must be held every week, and fairs, three or four times a year. The purpose is to have the natives come down to trade at established trading posts.

April 25: Father Philippe Pierson (1642-1688) a Jesuit, is at Missimilimakinac (Mackinac).

April 25: Father Gabriel Druillette (1610-1681) a Jesuit, is at Sault Ste Marie.

April 25: Father Henry Nouvel (1621-1702) a Jesuit, is among the Outawacs of Sachis on Lake Erie.

August 20: Quebec, marriage Madeleine Galarneay Metis died July 16, 1716, Montreal, daughter Jacques Galarneau born 1642 and Jacqueline Heron born 1645 epouse May 9, 1706, Montreal Jean Picard; married August 8, 1691, Quebec Joseph Langevin, 2nd marriage October 24, 1701 Montreal Jean Deslandes, 3rd marriage November 3, Montreal 1715 Jean Baptiste Joly.

1677

April 27: Father Claude Jean Allpues (Allouez) (1613-1689) a Jesuit arrives Kachkachria, Illinois on the Mississippi River that consists of 351 cabins, representing 8 tribes. They live on Indian corn, 14 kinds of roots, 42 kinds of fruit, 25 types of fish, 40 kinds of game and birds, bison, turkey, wildcats, and 22 other species of animals. They process salt. They have several wives and are extremely jealous of them.

June 7: Oliver Morel de La Durantaye (1640/44-1716) claimed the Lake Huron and Lake Erie regions for France. He commanded Michillimackinac (1683-1690).

1678

Randin, at the request of Frontenic, preceded (I)-Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710), Monsieur Du L'hut, to the Western extremities of Lac Svpeperievr (Lake Superior) and beyond, visiting the Dakota Sioux.

Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704) arrived in New France as a lieutenant to La Salle.

Daniel Greysolon, Monsieur de L'hut (Duluth) (1636/39-1710), technically a Coureurs des Bois, departed Montreal on September 1, 1678 with three Indian Slaves, seven Frenchmen, his brother LeMaistre, Paul de Vigne, Bellegarde, de LaRue, Faffart, and the two Pepin brothers. Before this time, Greysolon did not know the Assiniboine first hand. The Coureurs des Bois, however, would have informed him of this Lake of the Woods people. The two Pepin brothers, Sieur Le Maistre, Paul de Vigne, Sieur Bellegarde, Sieur de La Rue; interpreter, Faffart, and an Ojibwa and Sioux guide wintered at Sault Ste Marie, and are reported to have visited the Dakota Sioux this or next year. Daniel remained in the Lac Svpeperievr (Lake Superior) area until 1680.

Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710), Monsieur Du L'hut Du Luth, DuLhut, Dulhud), a Coureurs des Bois and 7 Frenchmen, met the Assiniboine at Lake Nipigon and explored the Sioux Country, not returning until 1781..

Charles Greysolon de la Tourette, brother of Daniel Greysolon ((1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut), visited Lake Nipigon and built Fort Camanistogoyan at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River (Thunder Bay, Ontario). This Fort is also called Alemenipigon, Kaministigoyan and Nemipigon. It served the French voyagers of Lac Svpeperievr (Lake Superior) and James Bay regions over the next century.

Fort Jemseg is built this year.

Fort Niagara, on the east side of the Niagara River at Lake Ontario, was a French fortification from 1678 to 1759.

May 12: King Louis XIV (1643­1715) acknowledges that his edict of 1676 is not being put into full effect.

May 12: Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) is granted permission to explore western North America. His party included Dominique La Motte de Luciere

(1636-1700), Henri de Tonty (1649-1704) and Father (I)-Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), a Belgium Recollet, they established Fort Miami a.k.a. Fort des Miamis on the Illinois River. It is contended that Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710), Monsieur Du L'hut, built a fort near the mouth of the Kaministiquia River (site of later Fort William). La Noue would build on this site in 1717. Fort St. Joseph is established about fifty miles from Lac Des Ilinois (Lake Michigan) (South Bend, Indiana).

December 6: Dominique La Motte de Luciere (1636-1700) and Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705); a Belgium Recollet, arrived Niagara River having departed Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario). Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), a Belgium Recollet, rebelled against church discipline, he was vainglorious, and his writings were self-serving embellishments. He however called the Niagara Falls "A vast and prodigious cadence of water."

December 25: Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) and company arrived at Niagra River.