Metis

1685 - 1699


The Hudson Bay Company, for all practical purposes, is non-functional.

Eight hundred French, out of frustration, become
Coureurs des Bois in a single year.

One thousand Metis and Coureurs des Bois traders
are on Lake Winnipeg for one trading season.


The French King abolished all trading privileges in the
Canadian Indian Territories thereby causing a disastrous
financial blow to those who followed the French policies.


1685

The Dutch are reported to be trading at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan). At Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin) the Dakotas said they saw horses and Europeans (Spaniards) to the west, where they get blue and green stones. They also reported that the Dakota are trading to the north at the Bay of the North. Some suggest Green Bay (Wisconsin)was established later. It is noteworthy that the Metis and Coureurs des Bois were at Green Bay long before the French entered the area.

Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714) joined Henri Tonti in Illinois Country until 1702.

Michel Messier, sieur de Sainte Michel (1640-1725), was involved in the fur trade about the same time his son-in-law Pierre LeSueur was trading in the west.

(I)-Nicolas Perrot (Pere) (1644-1718), a Coureurs des Bois, is appointed Commandant of the West by Governor de La Barre. He traveled Minnesota, Wisconsin, north of the Mississippi and Prairie du Chien in the heart of the Dakota Country where he built Fort Saint Antoine (others suggest it was Fort St. Nicholas near Prairie du Chien), returning to Quebec in 1688.

Durantaye built Fort Checagua, Wisconsin. The French built Fort de Francis near the forks of the Albany and Kenogami Rivers in Ontario. The Metis are reported to be trading Minnesota this winter.

It is estimated that the Ojibwa and Ottawa are supplying the French with 2/3 of their furs. It is unknown how much is being supplied to the Dutch and English. There is little doubt that the Ojibwa are at the center of the fur trade at this time and would hold this position many years into the future.

January 19: (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) and his colonists arrived at Matagorda Bay (Texas), claiming it to be an outlet of the Mississippi River. They had likely landed at Matagorda Bay, Texas. (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) led a party overland in an attempt to find the Mississippi. Captain de Beaujeu traveled by water to find the river.

February 1: In Quebec Frs Charron de La Barre, merchant of Montreal sells permit to Jean Baptiste d'Ailleboust des Muceaux and Pierre Cartier originally issued Sr. Gitton September 10, 1684.

February 20: (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle's (1643-1687) ship, Amiable, is lost on a reef.

April 19: (II)-Gillis Deniau (Deneau) (b-1666) listed voyager West.

May 20: The King of France grants the Compagnie du Nord a twenty year permit to the exclusion of all others the trade, including forts and habitations of the Bourbon River and the lands along its shore. The permit allows forts at Abitibi Lakes and Lake Nemiscou.

July: Due to (I)-Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle's (1643-1687) incompetence and paranoia, most of the supplies are lost, the Indian (Karankawa) are alienated and the colony faces starvation. This Fort called St. Louis is the first known European colony in the state of Texas, built on the Garcitas River near Lavaca Bay, Texas.

October 31: (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) and 50 men search for the Mississippi River until March 24, 1686.

1686

(I)-Daniel Greysolon Du Luth (Du Lhut, Dulhud) a Coureurs des Bois (1639-1710) built a fort at Detroit near the outlet of Lake Huron on the Detroit Strait.

A Dutch trading party wintered near Oswego. The Fleming and English of New York sent a trading expedition to Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan). Thomas Dongan of New York sent a trading expedition to Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) offering their goods at lower prices than the French.

(I)-Mathurin Cadote, alias Poitevin (1649-1729), signed on as a voyager to Outaouais (Ottawa) on June 14, 1686.

(III)-Marie Anne Denis de Fronsac, Metis, b-1686, daughter (II)-Richard Denis and Anne Parabego (savage); married October 16, 1709, Quebec, Quebec (II)-Jean Mercan

(1685-1718).

Fort St. Joseph or Fort du Luth is established at the present site of Port Huron by (I)-Daniel Greystone, sieur de Lhut (Duluth) (1636-1710). Fort Gratiot and Fort St. Clair are established later (1696) in the same vicinity, on the St. Clair River. He is appointed commander Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario).

(I)-Charles Le Moyne de Loungueuil (1626-1685) for the Compagnie Francaise de La Baie d'Hudson sends his three sons (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres

(1661-1706), (II)-Jacques Le Moyne de Sainte Helene and (II)-Paul Le Moyne de Maricourt into James Bay against the English. They capture control of Monsoni (Moose Factory), Rubert (Charles) and Quichichouuuane (Albany); all south of Bottom Bay (James Bay).

The Acadian Metis community of La Heve (Port Royal), Nova Scotia received an addition of 40 families from France, boosting the population to 800.

A chapel on the east bank of the Fox River, Wisconsin, built in 1671 by Father Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689) Jesuit and Father Louis Andre, is burnt by the Indians and abandoned in 1728.

(I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) governor of New France, ordered 105 men, both regulars and Canadian militia, to take the English establishments at James Bay. They did, seizing 50,000 beaver pelts.

It is believed the English first visited Lake Ontario this year.

January 29: Quebec, permit for voyage to 8ta8acs by M. de Dononville for Louis Leconte Dupre, merchant and ceded to the Pierre et Oger Le Maitre brothers, by contract June 25, 1686.

January 29: Quebec, permit for voyage to 8ta8acs by M. de Dononville for Jacques Le Ber, merchant, ceded to Jacques Testard and Pascal Prevost, by contract July 10, 1686.

February 13: (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi River but was unable to find (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle's (1643-1687) Fort as it was located in Texas by error.

April: (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687), the would be Jesuit, fur trader, explorer and intriguer, with 20 men, set out to seek help at Fort St Louis des Illinois.

Dissension, desertion and murder finally led to the assassination of La Salle on March 19, 1687.

March 20: Chevalier Pierre de Troyes d-1688 arrived in Quebec in August 1685 with a force of 30 French troops and 60 militia from Montreal, on the way to James Bay, created a Fort at Lake Abitibi, meaning halfway water; halfway between James Bay and the Ottawa River. It is located on the Quebec/Ontario border. The French were aware of this Algonquin meeting place as early as 1640. Governor Jacques-René de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1642­1710) ordered them to expel the English and capture unauthorized traders, especially those working for Radisson.

April 20: (I)-Henri de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, departed Mississippi but left a note with the Indians for La Salle. It was given to d'Iberville in 1698.

April 22: (I)- Rene Robert Cavelier de La Salle (1643-1687) continued his search for the Mississippi River until October 17.

June 20: Pierre de Troyes (b-1688), with his 90 man army including (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661-1706)- the son of (I)-Charles Le Moyne (1626-1685), arrived at the Hudson Bay and captured Fort Monsipi (Moose Factory) (16 men) which they renamed Fort Saint Louis. A humorous moment occurred when when the gate closed on twenty four year old (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), who was leading the attack against Moose Factory , leaving him with sword and musket in hand to hold the 16 English at bay while his friends forced the gate open. They went on to capture Charles Fort (Fort Rupert) which they renamed Fort Saint Jacques. They then captured Fort Albany which they renamed Fort Sainte Anne. The three day siege of Albany resulted in 140 cannon shots on the Fort before surrender. The English are found in the Fort's cellar. De Troyes returned to Quebec while d'Ilberville remained in command at Hudson Bay. There is a reward for the capture of the Coureurs des Bois, Radisson, but he is not captured. The English ship Craven is also easily captured.

August 10: (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) commands the English posts which were just captured but also goes on to capture two English ships.

The English now only held the Port Nelson (York) and New Severn River Posts. Michael Grimington, in the sloop Hayes, reached the mouth of the Churchill River where he found two pieces of artillery that he supposed were the remains of expeditions by the Dutch or the Danes.

1687

The Dutch party that wintered near Oswego went to trade Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), but were not successful. The Metis and Coureurs des Bois are likely, themselves, out trading. Thomas Dongan of New York sent a trading expedition to Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) but they were intercepted by the French and ended up in prison at Quebec. The Canadians who helped them were executed as renegades.

The Quakers in Pennsylvania were the first settlers in America to publicly oppose slavery. They contend that those who buy or purchase slaves are no different than those who steal or rob men.

Marquis de Seignelay complains that the French deserters (Couriers des Bois) are bringing the far Indians to trade with the English, thereby destroying the French trade.

Alphonse Tonti Baron of Paludy (born 1759) passed through the Detroit River to join Duluth de Greyzelon who built a stockade called Fort St. Joseph at the mouth of Lake Huron, later called Fort Gratiot.

Jean Colin, soldier, died 1687 Boucherville, Quebec a possible relation (III)-Oliver Garneau alias Coline, Perrin. (I)-Mathurin Cadote alias Poitevin (1649-1729) signed on as a voyager September 7, 1687 to Outaouais (Ottawa).

Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), with a new frigate, is appointed Commander in Chief of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay). While gathering furs, being anchored off Charlton Island, he is challenged by two English ships; the 18 gun Churchill with a crew of 85 and a smaller frigate, Younge. The newly appointed Chief Factor, Captain John March, and veteran Admiral William Bond arrived to recapture Fort Albany. England and France were not officially at war and there was no immediate hostility. Iberville cut loose the river channel markers and the H.B.C. ships promptly ran aground, allowing time for the French to secure their land defenses. The H.B.C. had no idea they outnumbered the French four to one. (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) maintained the illusion of superiority by assigning snipers to prey on the British camp, not allowing them to hunt for fresh game. The new Chief Factor is the first to die of scurvy due to lack of fresh meat. Admiral Bond and his mate are captured on a partridge hunt, as was a search part sent after them. A delegation of 17 men, dispatched to plead for Admiral Bonds release, is also captured. (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) pounded the remaining English with canon fire until they surrendered.

(II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) returned to Quebec via the sea with a captured ship loaded with English furs and merchandise.

Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut's trading post at Lake Nipigon traded with 1,500 Indians, mainly because it was a historic trading route.

February: The (I)- Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) colony was reduced to 36 persons. La Salle was considered bad-tempered, haughty and harsh, having alienated even his strongest supporters. La Salle was finally shot at point blank range after three of his allies were killed before him. The remaining men turned on each other.

March 19: It is reported that (I)- Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle (1644-1687) is murdered by his men near Trinity River, (Texas) Louisiana Territory after being ship wrecked in the Bay of Matagorda. One of his ships had been previously captured by pirates. A second ran aground with most of their supplies and is lost. The fourth ship sailed back to France, leaving only 180 settlers from an original 300 men and women. Joutel, Douay and three others made their way to New France then home to France to seek help for the remaining colonists, but King Louis XIV (1643­1715) refused to send help.

June: A French force of 1,500 men invaded Iroquois Country and burned and pillaged the Seneca towns.

June 14: Pierre de Troyes (b-1688) and Jacquers Rene de Brisay Marquis Denonville (1637-1710) departed Quebec on a campaign against the Iroquois. Denonville captured 200 Iroquois, ravaged Seneca villages on the south shore of Lake Ontario, and rebuilt La Salle's Fort at Niagara.

(I)-Henry de Tonty (1649/50-1704), the Italian, ruled the kingdom about St. Louis and Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois River. Oliver Morel de la Durantaye (1640-1716) is commanding at Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), (some suggest the Fort is not built until 1790), and Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut held Detroit, New France (Michigan) area. Charles Greysolon de la Tourette is trading Lake Nipigon, (Ontario). These men encouraged the assembly of three thousand men to deal with the Iroquois. The Seneca (Iroquois) slipped away into the forest, not prepared to engage in all out fighting. The force destroyed their town. The Voyager force failed to press on despite the warnings of the Natives who said that if you upset a wasp nest you must crush the wasps or they will sting you. Retaliation would come at Lachine on the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, in 1689. A fire destroyed the Jesuit trading post of De Pere, wiping out a large supply of furs.

August, (I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) governor of New France, returned to Montreal, Quebec leaving Troyes in command at Niagara.

September 14: Henri Joutel and the remaining La Salle party arrived at Tonty's fort at Starved Rock on the Illinois River. The men concealed the death of La Salle. Others suggest that Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) is murdered. Some believe it is by the Jesuit, as they had previously made an attempt on his life. La Salle's exploration party attempted to keep the murder from (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de la Honton (1666-1710/1716), suggesting they may have been party to the murder.

1688

Simon Cardinal, son of Simon Jacques Cardinel (Cardinault), born 1667 Lachine, Quebec and Michelle Garnier (Grenier), is hired by Francois de Boisguillot for le voyage des 8ta8ats along with Cardin, Michel Charbonneau, Gabriel Cardinal, brother of Simon, Nicolas Jette, Francois Rivard and (II)-Louis Couc Sr. du Montour, b-1659, Metis.

The Hudson Bay Company built Fort Prince of Wales at the mouth of the Churchill River (Manitoba).

Ignace Hubert dit Lacroix de Bellair b-1656?, a voyager, and his brother Louis Joseph Hubert (1663-1730) are in the west, employed by Nicolas Perrot.

Jean Baptiste L. Franquelin's map, published this year from reports of Coureurs des Bois and Metis, clearly indicates they had penetrated into northwestern plains prior to this date. Lac de Baude (Lake of the Woods), Lac des Assinibouels and Lac des Christinaux represent Lakes Winnipeg and Winnipegosis, (Manitoba), Madeline Island, La Pointe (Wisconsin) and Isle de Tour (it later became known as St. Michel Island). The map also lists Fort St. Antoine west of Lake Superior on the Mississippi River system.

I believe we grossly underestimate the mobility of these early explorers because they were driven by wonder-lust and not greed or glory.

Jacques de Noyen, voyager, traveled Quebec to Rainy Lake this season where he wintered.

The English reestablished Fort Albany with instructions to fire on the French only in self defense. Despite the uncertainty and hazards of the fur trade, the Hudson BayCompany declared a dividend of fifty percent this year.

Jacques de Noyon (b-1668) of Trois Rivers, Quebec is reported wintering on the Ouchichiq River (Rainy Lake, Wisconsin). He journeyed up the Kaministiouia (meansering River) River to Lac Le Pluie (Rainy Lake) and returned via the Pigeon River. He is believed to be the first person recorded to use the Fort William portage at the mouth of the Kaministiquia (Kaministikwa) River (Ontario). He met the Cree and Assiniboine People. He reported that Lake of the Woods (Ontario) is called Lac des Assiniboils and Rainy Lake is called Lac des Chistinaux (Ontario). It is noteworthy that Lake Winnipeg (Manitoba), was known at this time.

Louis Dupuis (1658-1724), Jacques Ethier, Joseph Goulet and Rene Brisson are wintering near Michilimakinac, New France (Michigan).

In the spring of 1688 (II)-Mathieu Garaut, also Garao, Gavahau and Perrin (1664-1742), engage of La Roy to the West, while conducting goods to Fort Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac, Kingston, Ontario), is captured by the Iroquois. He is held prisoner at the Iroquois village of Anoyottes. Shortly thereafter the Iroquois also capture (I)-Jeanne Therese Pilet (1671-1750) at L'Anne. She is taken to the Iroquois village of Anoyottes. They contracted marriage at Anoyottes in the presence of Father Pere Millet, the Jesuit, who is also held as prisoner.

Jacques de Noyon, born 1668, traveled the Kanimistiquia River (Ontario) along the Great Dog Portage and over the Height of Land to Lac La Pluie (Rainy Lake) where he built a fort and wintered. He met with the Assiniboine Indians who advised him of Lake Winnipeg (Manitoba) and the river that flows into the Western Sea. They tried to encourage him to travel with them into that region.

Pierre de Liette is at an Illinois village with Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714).

(I)-Mathurin Cadote, alias Poitevin (1649-1729), signed on as a voyager on August 4, 1688 to Outaouais (Ottawa). Jacques de Noyon (born 1668) traveled the Kanimistiquia River, along the Great Dog Portage and over the Height of Land to Lac La Pluie (Rainy Lake) where he built a fort and wintered. He met with the Assiniboine Indian who advised him of Lake Winnipeg and the river (Mackenzie) that flows into the Western Sea (Arctic Ocean). They tried to encourage him to travel with them into that region.

Jacques de Noyon (b-1668) of Trois Rivers, Quebec wintered on the Lake of the Woods (Ontario). He is exploring the Kaministiquia River route (Ontario), also called the Assiniboines Route or Trois Rivieres route, which is occasionally used until 1732.

Fort St. Nicholas is built at the mouth of the Wisconsin River.

Parrot established a trading post at Lake Pepin, Wisconsin.

Fort St. Antoine is built at the mouth of the Chippewa River, Wisconsin.

Fort Beauharnois is built on the north side of Lake Pepin, Wisconsin.

January 7: St. Francois du Lac, marriage (III)-Francois Couc, Metis, son (II)-Louis Couc dit Montour, Metis, born 1659 and 1st married Madeleine Sacokie; 2nd married Jeannie Quigesig8k8e, born 1656

March 21: Henri Joutel and the remaining La Salle party departed Tonty's Fort at Starved Rock on the Illinois River and arrived in Montreal, Quebec, on July 14.

April 1: (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de la Honton (1666-1710/1716) journeys from Fort Niagara via Sault Ste Marie to arrive at Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan) when (I)-Rene Robert Cavalier de la Salle (1643-1687) and Father Anastase arrive, having come by way of Texas and Fort St. Louis, Illinois. This is interesting because Baron La Hontan says he encountered the survivors of Cavelier de la Salle who hid the fact that La Salle had been murdered on March 19, 1687.

May 13: (II)-Rene Deniau (Deneau) (b-1665) listed voyager West.

May 26: Lahontan reported that the Coureurs des Bois have a little settlement at Missilimackinac, New France (Michigan).

June 15: A Declaration of Neutrality is signed by the Onondaga, Oneida, and Cayagu.

June 27: (III)-Rene LeGardeur, Sieur de Beauvais (1660-1742) listed Voyager West.

July 31: Joseph Goulet listed Voyager West.

July 31: Quebec, marriage, Mathurin Cadau to (II)-Marie Durand, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Annennontank, Huronne b-1649.

August 1: (II)-Louis Gauthier (1675-1694) voyager West.

August 1: (II)-Louis Gauthier, alias Landreville, (b-1675) listed Voyager West. Also same date (II)-Jean Goguet (b-1668) listed Voyager West.

August 3: (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) sails into the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) with 20 men and captures two English ships and 80Englishmen. (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706), although heavily outnumbered, overcame Captain Bond and recaptured the English Fort Albany and three ships.

August 10: Governor (1685-1689) (I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) wrote to the Marquis de Seignelay; son and heir of Jean Baptiste Colbert: I have noticed that, faced with the strain of crossing rapids, it is common for out tired Canadian men to drink up a pint of alcohol directly from the barrel, in order to regain some strength. Afterwards, feeling strong, they cross the rapids and then fall asleep, without a thought for food, having no appetite until evening. In the drinking establishments, Monseigneur, all the drinkers, of whom there are many, especially among the Coureurs des Bois, usually drink a pint or quart of alcohol each after drinking wine. Many women drink as a matter of habit and several get inebriated.

August 24: (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de la Honton (1666-1710/1716) returns to Fort Niagara to discover its commander Chevalier Pierre de Troyes has died of fever. He razed the fort and all head to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan) as supplies are in short supply.

September 12: (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) again sails for Quebec with English furs and merchandise.

September 15: At the demand of the Iroquois (I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710) governor of New France, abandoned and demolished Fort Niagara.

September 24: (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de La Honton (1666-1716) departed Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) to explore the west. He has a party of six canoes with some good Ottawa hunters. He first travels to Baie des Puants (Green Bay, Wisconsin) then down the Fox River and portages to the Wisconsin River. Traveling the Wisconsin River, he reached the Mississippi River and claims to have traveled the Long River. Some suggest his claims may have been false. He returned to Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), on May 22, 1689.

November 2: (I)-Baron Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce de la Honton (1666-1710/1716) and company reach the Mississippi and return by the Ohio and Illinois Rivers. They went via the Chicagou, New France (Chicago, Illinois) portage and lake Michigan (aka. Lake Illinois) then returned to Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan) by July 9, 1689.

1689

Port Royal: birth (II)-Bernard Anselme d'Abbadie de Saint Castin, Metis, (1689-1720) son a (I)-French officer at Acadia d-1707 and Matilda Penobscot (Abenaki) d-1734, Pau, France daughter Madockawando (Matakando) d-1698; married Marie Charlotte Damour daughter Louis Damour. Castin was a pirate by trade, preyed on the English and used Port Royal as his home base where he was well regarded.

(I)-Jacques Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville (1637-1710), Governor General New France 1685-1689, noted that the Canadians prefer to spend their lives in the bush, like savages, trading with the Indians, rather than laboring on the land where their parents, (cures) priests and officials could govern them. I cannot emphasize enough the attraction that this Indian way of life has for all these youths. These Canadians, however, are all big, well built, and firmly planted on their legs, accustomed when necessary to live on little, rubust and vigorous, very self willed and inclined to dissoluteness; but they are witty and vivacious. Brisay was reliably informed that some six hundred Coureurs des Bois were in the interior, away from the colony. This likely did not include the Metis.

Jacques de Noyen having wintered Rainy Lake is in the Lake of the Woods this year.

Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1672-1704) is with (I)-Nicolas Perrot (1641-1717) at Fort Antoine (lower Lake Pepin on the Mississippi). (I)- Nicolas Perrot (1641-1717) built Fort Saint Nicolas at the junction of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers.

August 4: About 1,500 Iroquois attacked Lachine, Quebec in retaliation for Governor Jacquers Rene de Brisay Marquis Denonville's (1637-1710) attacks on the Iroquois Nation. It is said the Iroquois took ninety prisoners when they departed. The Sault Ste Marie mission, New France (Michigan) established in 1668, moved to Mackinac, New France (Michigan). Governor Jacquers Rene de Brisay Marquis Denonville (1637-1710) of New France is recalled to France, ending a tyrannical reign. Some contend the general amnesty for Coureurs des Bois saw them all return to Montreal, Quebec and Quebec, Quebec. This claim is interesting, given that 55 known canoes of fur arrived Montreal, Quebec, in 1690.

August 27: Father (I)-Claude Jean Allouez (1613-1689) died at the Ottawa Missions, among the Miamis of St. Joseph River (near Niles, Michigan).

(II)-Zacharie Jolet, a younger brother of (II)-Louis Joliet (1645-1700), a trader, is at Mackinac and married November 1678 Marie Niel epouse November 1692.

1690

This is the last year that the Hudson Bay Company paid a dividend. Dividends are not paid for the next 28 years and, for all practical purposes, the company is non functional.

(I)- Louis Jolliet (Joliet), a Coureurs des Bois (1645-1700), trading post at Mingan, Quebec, was raided by the English who carried off his wife, mother-in-law and goods worth some 10,000 francs.

Alphonse de Tonty (Tonti) de Paludy (1650-1727) is hiring men for the Illinois Country. He hired Pierre Le Boeuf for the voyage.

Laprairie, birth Francois Roy (LeRoy) (1690/91-1747) son Pierre Roy and Catherine Ducharme; married 1735 Detroit area, New France (Michigan), Barbara Elizabeth Dudevoir dit Lachine.

Illinois, marriage (I)-Michel Accault married 1st Aramepinchone aka Marie Rouensa born 1677 Kaskaskia, (Illinois) died June 25, 1725 daughter Illinois chief Rouensa; 2nd marriage 1693/94 Mary Pinchieoua daughter Kaskaskia chief, (some suggest 1st & 2nd are the same person), 3rd marriage 1701 at Kaskaskia, (Illinois), Marie Suzanna. (see 1694)

Fort St. Louis, Quebec is built this year.

April 5: St. Thomas Pierreville, died, (II)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, Metis, son (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, born 1624 and Marie Mite8ameg8k8e, born 1631, died January 8, 1699, Trois Rivers, Quebec, a Algonquine.

So great is the potential profit of the fur trade and so repressive the French regime, that Intendant Jacques Duchesneau de La Doussinière et d'Ambault, chevalier Intendent 1675-82 (d at Ambrant, France, 1696) reported eight hundred French had become Coureurs des Bois this year alone. (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724), an apprentice clerk, reported that on Lake Winnipeg and the Nelson River this year, there is a French (Metis & Coureurs des Bois) party of six hundred canoes with one thousand men and a few women who are engaged in the fur trade. This could be second hand inflated information supplied by the Indians, trying to get higher prices for their furs. Others suggest there is 600 in all of the North West, not just one party. This is a gross underestimate if the report of 800 just this year is accurate. The Reference to the French or Canadians covers all traders not authorized by the Hudson Bay Company. Many of these people observed are probably Metis. The Hudson Bay Company built York Factory and Fort Severn. Fort York is defended by a 36 gun man of war, so Commander (II)-Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) captured Fort Severn and its rich store of pelts. Indians from the Saskatchewan River system are trading the Bay of the North. The French intend to cut this trade.

Intendant Duchesneau of New France wrote that there is practically a state of general disobedience, as an estimated 600 Coureurs des Bois, not counting those who go off every day, occupy the West. The Baron de Lahontan, a French officer, recorded that he observed these Pedlers, called Coureurs des Bois, numbering some thirty canoes with two to three men who have have been out a year and eighteen months gathering furs in trade. When they return, they lavish, eat, drink and play like pirates.

(II)-Jean Gauthier, alias Saguinguira (Sakingoara) (b-1669), a Coureurs des Bois, is listed Voyager West.

The Governor of the Hudson Bay sent (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724), an apprentice clerk, and Thomas Savage to the Churchill River to build a trading post. While Thomas Savage was building the fort, (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) and an Indian companion went out to publicize the post among the Indians. They penetrated the back country some 140 miles. (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724), an apprentice clerk, at age 23, in August of 1690, deserted the Hudson Bay Company because he could not stand the Company's indifference towards the interior of the country. He likely believed that the Hudson Bay Company was doomed due to its poor performance. He took a Native wife, and the English assumed him to be the first Englishman to see the broad Canadian prairies. He reported an abundance of wildlife and huge species of bear and buffalo on desert and barren ground; a wrong perception that would prevail in the English mind for a hundred and fifty years. (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) traveled with the Stone and the Naywatamee (probably the Atsina, often referred to as the Fall or Gros Ventre); both members of the Blackfoot confederation. He traveled The Pas, across the Saskatchewan and Red Rivers and possibly as far as Touchwood Hills. Some contend he made it to central Alberta and built a log cabin on the Red Deer River. However, his guide Alphonse Bouch (through Henry Stelfox and Bessie Swan) claims the (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) party did not reach central Alberta. It is likely that Red Deer River, Saskatchewan is being confused with Red Deer River, Alberta in the story telling. He would return to the H.B.C. by about 1692 and be accepted back into its employ.

It's questionable if this can be claimed as an exploration of the H.B.C., as Kelsey was essentially a free trader.

The Cree, at this time, had fire-arms through trade with the English on the Northern Bay. The Hudson Bay Company disapproved of cohabitation with the Natives and is reluctant to allow (I)-Henry Kelsey's Cree wife in the Fort when he returned. The English still would not authorize inland exploration but are quick to claim credit for(I)-Henry Kelsey's (1667-1724) unauthorized exploration. This is a strange policy, considering that they would claim to own all these North West Territory lands.

Daniel Greysolon (1639-1710) Monsieur Du L'hut retired this year at Fort Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac, Kingston, Ontario).

Late summer, Louis de La Porte, sieur de Louvigny (1652-1725) arrived at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) as its commander until 1694 when he resigned. He replaced LaDurantaye.

The major trading and wintering location of Chequamegon Bay, Ojibwa Country (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) is first officially called La Pointe this year.

Monsieur Colin (possible relative of (III)-Oliver Garneau, alias Coline de Carillon, and Perrin de Louargat), interpreter, is burnt with LaBossiere by the Iroquois in 1690.

Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) refers to three distinct forts on the Straits of Mackinac. The first French fort is established in 1690 (St. Agnace, New France (Michigan)). About 1715, a second fort was constructed on the south shore (Mickinaw City, New France (Michigan)). About 1764, the Fort was moved to Mackinac Island (Michigan). The name changed from Mishinimaukinong, Michilimackinac, Mackinac and Mackinaw and numerous different spellings appear on documents.

Louis Dupuis and Guillaume Herbert voyage to the Ottawa Country; which means to the west or north west.

The Illini of Illinois had no beaver to trade but discovered the French and the Jesuits wanted slaves. They raided the Pawnee for women and children slaves. They raided the Pawnee so often that Pani, the French word for Pawnee, became synonymous in New France for any Native American slave.

1691

The General amnesty had little effect as it is reported that at Mackinac, New France (Michigan) or in the wilderness thereabouts, lived 200 French (Canadian) Coureurs des Bois. Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) recorded their population as 143. A nearby village of Metis, French and Ojibwa treated both establishments as one. The Metis village and fort would have assimilated if it had not been for the presence of the Jesuit and French officers in command. About 200 canoes of fur are known to have arrived at Montreal, Quebec this year. Paul Le Gardeur Sieur de St. Pierre is reported at Mackinac, New France (Michigan).

Some suggest the Governor of Manath (New York) is called Kinshon or 'The Fish'. The word Kinshon however really refers to New England.

Fort St. Louis was moved this year by Henri Tonti.

Forts St. Louis and Grand Kaskaskia (Illinois) are abandoned for the new Fort Pimitoui at Lake Peoria (Fat Lake).

Father (I)-Sebastien Rale (1657-1724) winters at Mackinac, New France (Michigan) on his way to the Illinois.

(II)-Ignace Durand, Metis b-1669, died November 30, 1670?, Cap St. Ignace, Quebec, son (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne b-1649; married February 24, 1691 Catherine Miville.

August 31: (II)-Nicolas Gatineau, alias Gastineau dit Duplessis (b-1664), listed Voyager West. Also (II)-Jean Baptiste Gamelin alias Launiere (1670-1703) listed Voyager West.

September 1: (II)-Louis Durand, Metis, (b-1670) Sillery, Quebec son (I)-Jean Durand (1640-1671) and Catherine Annennontank, Huronne, b-1649; became a voyager to the Outaouais Country, replacing Joseph Guillet de Bellefeuille who became sick. He was permitted to trade his gun, a blanket, six shirts and one coat for his own profit and to transport the furs belonging to himself in the returning canoe which he manned. He made a number of trips until 1696.

September 31: Mathurin Rivard Feuilleverte engage west, source Lyle Trottier.

December 27: (II)-Andre Geoffrion also Joffrion (b-1670) listed Voyager West.

1692

The English razed (I)- Louis Jolliet's (Joliet), a Coureurs des Bois (1645-1700), trading posts at Mingan and Seven Islands.

Pierre Le Sueur (Pierre Levasseur L'Esperance alias LaFleche?) (1692-1704) is trading Lake Superior, Ojibwa Country and exploring the region for possible fort locations.

(I)-Henri Perrin de Louargat (born 1623) of Montreal, Quebec is a bowman Voyager to the West, departing August 21, 1692. He is recorded as the son Francois Perrin and Marguerite Chefvoye. Some contend he may be the son of Monsieur Collin, interpreter who in the summer of 1690 is burnt with LaBoessiere by the Iroquois. Pierre Le Sueur (1692-1704) built a fort on the south end of Magalen Island. (II)-Maurice Menard alias LaFontaine (born 1664), son Jacques Menard dit Lafontaine (1628-1707) and Catherine Fortier; interpreter married Mackinac, New France (Michigan) a Madeleine Couc La Fleur (LeFebvre), Metis, daughter (I)-Pierre Couc dit Lafleur, b-1624, and Marie Miteouamigoukoue (Mite8ameg8k8e), (1631-1699) . "The parents of Marie are Barthelimi and Carol Pachirini both born around 1600 of the Nation of Outiataronons."

Source Mary Powers. Norm Leveillee; suggests Carole Pachirini is the mother of Marie Mite8ameg8k8e (married to Pierre Couc dit Lafleur) and Barthelemi as her father. Mite8ameg8k8e's parents are unknown.

(II)-Pierre Roy (Leroy) (1676-1743) is employed by the Jesuits to go to the 8ta8ois People.

Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714) arrived at the new Fort St. Louis with a force of voyagers and soldiers.

A female Negro Metis slave of Salem is accused by a group of young girls of being a witch. Her master flogged her into confession and into implicating others. Over 150 people are eventually forced to confess to broomstick rides, witches sabbath, sexual relations with the devil and other acts according to the book of witches. The religious frenzy did not halt until prominent people like the Boston clergy, wealthy merchants and Lady Phips are classified as witches. Twenty people are executed for witchcraft. In 1712 the courts annulled the convictions and indemnified relatives of the victims, but it couldn't bring those murdered back to life. One of the Judges, Samuel Sewall (1652­1730), in 1697, said the convictions were a mistake. He accepted the blame and shame for the false convictions until his death in 1730. This Massachusetts Superior Court judge spent a day each year in repentance, fasting and praying. It is noteworthy that the European churches, as a matter of faith, had to accept witches as a reality.

Jean Couture, a French Coureurs des Bois, is trading from the Mississippi River to Allegheny Mountains from 1692 to 1700.

Martin Chartier, a Frenchman, is on the Ohio and Susquehanna Rivers, traveling with the Shawnees and he settled among them.

Father (I)-Sebastien Rale (Rasles) (1657-1724), a Jesuit, arrived Missilimakinak (Mackinac, Michigan) to winter.

A Jesuit missions was built at Fort Pimitoui, then at Chicago, Cahokia, (Illinois) and then Kaskaskia (Illinois). Cahoka and Kaskaskia (Illinois) are located on the Mississippi River in what was called Illinois Territory or Upper Louisiana. The reason for the missions is that the Jesuits wanted to ban the French from the Illinois. The Jesuits, at this time, refused to marry Canadians who married the savages, or baptize their Metis children. They considered this a sinful relationship. In time they would be forced to accept these mixed marriages and marry them within the church. It is noteworthy that Cahokia, S.W. Illinois on the Mississippi River was an ancient Indian city of some 50,000 people.

August 8: Quebec, marriage, Joseph Langevin and (II)-Madeleine Galarneay Metis died July 16, 1716, Montreal, Quebec, daughter (I)-Jacques Galarneau born 1642 and Jacqueline Heron born 1645 epouse May 9, 1706, Montreal, Quebec, Jean Picard; 1st. married August 8, 1691, Quebec, Joseph Langevin, 2nd marriage October 24, 1701 Montreal, Quebec, Jean Deslandes, 3rd marriage November 3, Montreal, Quebec, 1715 Jean Baptiste Joly.

August 19: Louis Couc, alias Montour, listed Voyager West.

August 21: (II)-Jean Gauthier, alias Saguinguira (Sakingoara) (b-1669), listed Voyager West.

George Geyer is Chief Factor at York Factory, Hudson Bay, having received 440 gallons of brandy for use in trading ceremony with the Indians.

Louis Dupuis winters in the Ottawa Country, which means to the west or north west of Quebec.

1693

The Reverend Thomas Anderson helped draw up the surrender terms, in Latin, of York Factory to the French. He represents one of the few resident chaplains in the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay).

Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac (1658-1730) took command of Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan).

Francois Dauphin/Daupin, sieur de Laforest (1649-1714), in partnership with Henri Tonti and Accault, buys merchandise from Charles Juchereau de St Denis.

Kaskaskia (Illinois), marriage, (I)-Michel Accault, married 1st Aramepinchone, a.k.a. Marie Rouensa, born 1677, Kaskaskia (Illinois), died, June 25, 1725, daughter, Illinois chief Rouensa; 2nd marriage 1693/94, Mary Pinchieoua, daughter, Kaskaskia chief, (some suggest 1st & 2nd are the same person), 3rd marriage 1701, at Kaskaskia Illinois),

Marie Suzanna. (see 1694)

A powerful expedition of 213 marines and 82 cannons, commanded by (I)-James Knight- a shipwright and a Chief Factor of Fort Albany, retook Forts Albany, Moose Factory and Charles on James Bay from the French. Fort Albany, defended by five French, held the English at bay but they eventually fled back to Quebec.

Antoine Laumet Cadillac dit de Lamothe (1658-1730), as commandant at Michilimackinac (1693-1697), New France (Michigan), successfully engaged in the fur trade.

Father (I)-Sebastien Rale (Rasles) (1657-1724) wrote that the Illinois on the Mississippi live in great abundance of everything, they take 2,000 oxen ( buffalo) (or more correctly bison) every season. He said I have seen 4,000 to 5,000 oxen grazing on the prairies. He also observed a flock of 200 turkeys and they were larger than those in France. Much cruelty however is inflicted by the Illinois on their enemy. Scalping is practiced. When prisoners are taken some are selected as 'resuscitated' to replace a killed warrior. He is to assume the dead persons position and family. It is the women who decides who is to live and who is to die. Those not chosen are burned. It is noteworthy that the brandy trade had not reached the Illinois in any big way.

May: Pierre d'Ailleboust, sieur d'Argenteuil (1669-1711) is hiring men in partnership with Simon Reaume at Montreal, Quebec for le voyage des 8ta8ois.

May 4: Father (I)-Antoine Dalmas (1636-1693) is killed at Fort Ste Anne, Hudson Bay by Guillory, a French Armorer.

August: Two hundred French traders from Mackinaw, New France (Michigan) arrived Montreal, Quebec to attend a Grand Council called by Frontenanc. Nicholas Perrot (Pere) also Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) (1644-1718) Commandant of the West is ordered to establish a post at Miamis to recapture English trade.

Louis de Buade, Count of Frontenac, appointed Pierre Charles Le Sueur (1692-1704) to La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) with a company of traders

to build a fort and secure this strategic and historic Ojibwa location. Some contend this fort is named Fort Pointe de Chagouamigon. He erected a fort near Upper Saint Croix

Lake and another fort on Prairie Island, nine miles below present Hastings, Minnesota. He reported lead mines on the upper Mississippi. Green Bay, New France (Winconsin) is closed at this time, so the importance of La Pointe is paramount to the fur trade.

August 4: Two hundred canoes laden with furs arrived at Montreal, Quebec, from the West.

Dominique Etienne dit LaFranchise (1671-1708) is listed a voyager West.

September 1: (III)-Pierre Gelinas (1674-1731) listed Voyager West.

September 11: (III)-Augustin LeGardeur, Sieur de Courtemanche (b-1663) listed Voyager West.