Metis

1715 - 1720

THE FRENCH CREATE THE COMPANY OF THE WEST


The French Jesuits have an order passed to void all property deeds
at Fort Detroit. This made the Fort inactive for the next 50 years
and forced the men to become Coureurs des Bois.


The Metis and Coureurs des Bois have made
Chequamegon Bay (La Pointe, Wisconsin) their headquarters.


1715

After this date, Coureurs des Bois and Voyagers are returning with larger quantities of bison furs. This likely represents their penetration out into the Great Plains as the south west beaver furs decline.

After 19 years of a French ban on fur trading in the Great Lakes, the Jesuit imposed ban is finally lifted.

Some claim that William Stewart, being guided by a Chipewyan woman named Thanadelther who is living among the Cree, visited the Chipewyan to encourage the fur trade.

They say this resulted in Churchill Factory (Prince of Wales Fort), Hudson Bay being built in 1717. This is not likely true as Jens Munk wintered here in 1619-1620. The river was called Church Hill River in 1686; its Cree name was Missinipi or Big River.

The French soldiers returned to build the second Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) on the south shore of the Mackinac Strait. They called this second construction, Fort Mackinaw, New France (Michigan). Fort Michilimackinac (also Mackinac, Mackinaw) refers to three distinct forts on the Straits of Mackinac. The first French fort is established in 1690 (St. Agnace, Michigan) but the area was inhabited since 1634. About 1715, a second Fort was constructed on the south shore (Mickinaw City, Michigan). About 1764, the Fort was moved to Mackinac Island (Michigan). Records use all three names and don't align with actual physical location names. Its most likely that all three areas are inhabited, and the names on documents refer to the general area.

(I)-Jacques Charles de Sabrevois, sieur de Bleury, chevalier de Saint Louis (1667-1727) commander of Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) is hiring voyagers for Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

Constant La Marchand, sieur de Lignery/Ligneries d-1732 commanded Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan).

Jean Paul LeGardeur, sieur de Saint Piere (1661-1724) son Jean Baptiste LeGardeur de Repentigny and Margaret Nicolet de Belleborne and grand son (I)-Jean Nicolet was at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), this year.

Louis Lefebvre dit Duchouquet is hiring voyagers for Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Ambroise Amiot born 1694 married 1715 Anne Kitoulague Sauvagesse who died August 16, 1758 Mackinac, New France (Michigan).

Chartierstown, a Shawnee village on the Ohio River in Pennsylvania was named after the Metis, Peter Chartier.

February 17: Montreal, Quebec, marriage, (III)-Jacques Cardinal bourgeois born 1685 died September 21, 1763 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) son (II)-Jacques Cardinal born 1659, died May 18, ???, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) and (II)-Louise Arrive (1665-1744); Jacques family moved to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), by 1719; they returned to Montreal, Quebec, 1720-1728, then back to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan); Jacques married February 17, 1715, Montreal, Quebec, (II)-Jeanne Duguay born 1691, died June 10, 1778, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

February 20-23: La Prairie, birth (III)-Marie Anne Godfroy born 20, died February 23 daughter (II)-Jacques Godfroy de Mauboeuf (1684-1730) and (II)-Marie Anne Chesne (1690-1738).

February 24: St. Augustin, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Francois Dubeau, Metis, daughter, (II)-Jean Dubeau et Dubocq, Metis, (1669-1743) and (II)-Marguerite Harnois (1677-1747; married April 19, 1736 Jean Baptiste Valieres.

March 13: St. Nicolas, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Madeleine Durand, Metis, died October 11, 1749, Montreal, Quebec, daughter (II)- Louis Durand, Metis, b- 1670 and Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon (1682-1718); married January 7, 1738 Montreal, Quebec, Jean Baptiste Bibaut.

March 31: (II)-Jean Gareau alias Saint Onge (born 1679) is an engage to Michilimakina to the West departing Montreal.

March 31: (II)-Andre Gautier (b-1678) voyager West.

April 12: (II)-Robert Germain (b-1680) listed voyager West.

May 11: (II)-Jacques DesNoyers (b-1694) voyager West.

May 22: (II)-Mathieu Perrin alias Garao, Garaut, Gavahau and Perrin de Louarget (1664-1742) born Bout de I'Ile, Montreal, Quebec, also departed Montreal, Quebec, as an engage (Voyager) to Michilimakina, (Mackinaw), New France (Michigan). He is the father of (III)-Oliver Garneau. Also (V)-Jean Baptiste Rene LeGardeur (b-1695), sieur de Repentigny Voyager West.

May 29: (II)-Pierre Gareau alias Saint Onage (1673-1740) listed Voyager West.

June 20: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth (III)-Augustin Langlois died August 25, 1715 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) son (II)- Jacques Langlois (1676-1733) and Marie Renee Toupin.

August 13: Quebec, Quebec, birth, (III)-Phillippe Dubeau, Metis, died December 20, 1759, Ste Foye, Quebec, son, (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, (1672- 1731) and (II)- Francoise Paule Campagna (1683-1717); married April 10, 1759 Ste Foye, Quebec Marie Therese Gaboury.

August 25: (II)-Ignace Gamelin (1663-1739) listed voyager West.

August 26: (III)-Joseph Jacques Gamelin Garde-Magasin Du Roy alias Chateauviux (b-1691) listed voyager West.

September 1: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage Jean Baptiste Truteau died 1754 to Magdeleine Parant

September 4: (II)-Jean Baptiste DuBois alias Brisebois is recorded as a voyager West.

Ignace Gamelin dit Lafontaine (1663/4-1738) hired Jean Baptiste Regeas dit Laprade, Quintal, JacquesSeguin, and Louis Venne for Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan). He continued to hire men for Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) in 1716.

November 3: Montreal, marriage Jean Baptiste Joly and (II)-Madeleine Galarneay Metis died July 16, 1716, Montreal, daughter (I)-Jacques Galarneau born 1642 and Jacqueline Heron born 1645 epouse May 9, 1706, Montreal Jean Picard; 1st. married August 8, 1691, Quebec Joseph Langevin, 2nd marriage October 24, 1701 Montreal Jean Deslandes, 3rd marriage November 3, Montreal 1715 Jean Baptiste Joly.

November 4: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage (III)-Jean Baptiste Fafard (dit Macouce in 1724) Metis son (II)-Jean Fafard born 1657 died December 21, 1756 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) and (II)-Marguerite Couck born 1664; married Marguerite Joseph Queroti (Querotti) a Huron daughter of Joseph Querotti.

Chief Factor (I)-James Knight (1640-1720), a shipwright, almost lost York Factory when the Hayes River rose nine feet in a flood. After the flood he moved the Fort to higher ground. This year he sent William Stuart with a band of Cree and a Chipewyan slave woman, to survey the interior but did not supply him with surveying instruments. He spent almost a year in the interior but his accounts are confused and questionable. Some feel he may have reached as far as Great Slave Lake. They are believed to have encountered the Beaver, Slave, Dogrib and Yellowstone people.

This year 172 canoes of Misshenipee (Cree), Sturgeon (Cree), Stone (Assiniboine), Upland, Muscotay (Blood, Blackfoot or Gros Ventre), Mountain and Strange Indians, traded to York Factory, Hudson Bay (Manitoba, Canada), but this would mark a continuous decline in trade until the 1750's.

1716

(IV)-Gabriel Denis, Metis, b-1716, died December 28, 1732, Beaumont, Quebec son (III)-Nicolas Denis, sieur de Fronsac, Metis (1682-1732) and Marie Sauvagesse.

Paris, France is pressured by the Jesuit to pass an order to void all property deeds issued by (I)-Antoine Laumet de La Mothe sieur de Cadillac (1658-1730) at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan). This action caused a further deterioration of the Fort Detroit as residents began to abandon the Fort. This Fort remained of little importance for nearly the next fifty years. Again, amnesty is offered to those illegal Metis traders (Coureurs des Bois) if they would only rejoin the French Colony. Most former residents of Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) joined the ranks of the Coureurs des Bois and lost all allegiance to New France. The Jesuit's vindictive actions contributed to the ultimate loss of Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) and the surrounding region to the English speaking peoples.

The activities of the Coureurs des Bois are once again legalized, and they had evolved to the point where a second generation of Coureurs des Bois, Voyagers and Metis have emerged. About this time the Voyagers are being replaced with engages or hired men. Those Voyagers who remained in the field are called 'Merchant Voyagers'.

Kaskaskia, (Illinois), marriage, Pierre Roy d-1721 to Marie Anne Macoutentiaoue.

Claude Charles du Tisne, a Frenchman, is in temporary command at Natchitioches while Deny was away.

Alexandre Dagneau dit Douville (1698-1773) entered the fur trade and spent 1716 to 1731 in the fur trade at Miamis, Fort des Sables (Irondequoit, N.Y.), Baie des Puants (Green Bay Wisconsin) and Michilimackinac. He fought against the Saucks and Foxes near Green Bay.

Prior to 1730, most likely 1716, married, while engage ouest March 15, 1716, Jean Dagneau, sieur Douville, born December 31, 1694, Sorel, Richelieu, Quebec died August 27, 1751, Montreal, son Michel Dagneaux, sieur de Quindre/Douville and Marie Lamy dit Defond; 1st married likely 1716 Iroquoise woman, 2nd marriage March 17, 1728 Longue Pointe, Quebec, also when engaged in the western fur trade1727/28 Marie Elizabeth Raimbault (1705-1772), Iroquoise? daughter of Pierre Raimbault and Jeanne Francoise Simblin.

Fort Rosalie (N.-D. de l'Immaculee Conception is built at Natchez, Mississippi. The Natchez People numbered about 5,000 souls at this time. They are now ( in 2000) believed extinct.

January 18: Ste Anne de la Perade, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Joseph Couturier, Metis, died January 15, 1746, Ste Anne de la Perade (dans I;eglise) daughter (II)-Denis Joseph Couturier, Metis, b-1681 and Catherine Proteau (1691-1717) dauighter (I)-Luc Proteau (1668-1752) and (II)-Marie Madeleine Germain (1670-1757); married June 1, 1733 Ste Anne de la Perade (dans I'eglise) Joseph Baril

March 15: Engage ouest, (II)-Jean DaGneau or DaGnaux, sieur de Douville, Born December 31, 1694, d-1741-1751), voyager son (I)- Michel Dagneaux, sieur de

Quindre/Douville and Marie Lamy dit Defond; 1st married likely 1716 or 1723 Iroquoise woman, 2nd marriage March 17, 1728 Longue Pointe, Quebec, Elisabeth Raimbault, Longue Pointe, Quebec (1705-1772),daughter Pierre Raimbault and Jeanne Francoise Simblin.

March 17: Jean Dagneau sieur de Douville born December 31, 1694 Sorel, Quebec died August 27, 1751 Montreal. 2nd Marriage March 17, 1728 Longue Pointe, Quebec, Marie Elisabeth Raimbault , Iroquoise, 1st marriage before 1730 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) an Iroquoise likely during his voyages west 1716 or 1723.

John Musgrove Sr. is assigned to Chattahoochie by the Government of Carolina to make peace with the Creek People. His son, John Musgrove Jr., accompanied his father to Coneta, Alabama and married Mary Consaponaheeso(b-1700).

Governor Vaudreuil of New France initiated the 'postes du nord' - a policy favorable to the construction of a chain of forts from the upper Great Lakes to the Prairies of Indian Country.

The Fox Band (Ojibwa) built Fort Fox near Baie Des Puants (Green Bay, Wisconsin). 500 warriors and 3,000 women and children defend the Fox Green Bay Fort. At Mackinac, New France (Michigan), 800 French, including 400 Coureurs des Bois and other savages, gathered under the command of Sieur de Louvigny to deal with the Fox.

The French Jesuit claimed that the Fox had been attempting to prevent them from making direct contact with their neighbors and enemies- the Dakota Sioux. Louis de La Porte de Louvigny (1662-1725) led the attack that turned into a three day siege. The Fox held firm, finally offering a peace pact as much French and Fox blood was on the ground. It should be noted that this Fox Fort is not taken or occupied by the French. If these Metis and Coureurs des Bois numbers are to be believed, then the Metis population in the West must run into many thousands scattered over a wide territory.

(I)-James Knight (1640-1720), a shipwright of the Hudson Bay, encouraged the sending of more Hospital Boys (poor children lacking one or both parents), some as young as fourteen years old, to be indentured as slaves for seven years in the service of the fur trade. Many child slaves were sent without their parent's permission. English children were considered chattel well into the twentieth century. It is believed that this practice started about 1680. He wrote: "It will do very well to have one at each factory that writes well and is brought up to account." He also reported the clearance of deer (caribou) for one hundred miles around Fort York, Hudson Bay (Manitoba) and as a result, the local Cree is suffering. The English morality that supported this white slave trade would have serious future consequences on the Cree, especially their women. Over 1,000 Cree and a few Assiniboin and Ojibwa assembled at York Factory, Hudson Bay. waiting for the arrival of ships with supplies to trade.

The use of the Trade Passport (licensis (conge's) to enter Indian Country), allowing 25 canoes a year into the interior, starts but stops again in 1718. Permits (conge's) are restricted to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), and the Illinois posts in Indian Country. This would imply that all traffic to La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin) and sites further West are through Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) or by those former Coureurs des Bois of Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

These Trade Passports had a value of 1,000 pounds and were granted to poor families, widows or poor religious orders. The grantee could then sell it to a trader and 5 % of the value was a tax paid to the Royal Revenuers. The traders then hired Voyageurs to conduct their business. These traders sometimes accompanied the Voyageurs.

Voyageurs are also called Engages or Canotier.

The French built a trading post 7 days paddle up the southwest River (Kenogami) to detract the Albany, James Bay (Ontario) trade. A French Indian (Ojibwa or Ottawa) visited Fort Albany, James Bay (Ontario) and reported that 30 French canoes are coming to destroy Fort Albany, James Bay, (Ontario), as the French had offered 40 beaver for every English scalp.

March 14: Louis de La Porte, sieur de Louvigny b-1652 commander of Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), departed Quebec with a force of 800 French, on a punitive campaign against the Fox. A battle took place about 37 miles above Green Bay, New France (Michigan), and Louis was back in Quebec by October 12 of this year.

March 15: Bode, a priest, writes the Academy of Sciences in Paris, France: Among the Sioux of the Mississippi are always Frenchmen trading. It is known that toward the source of the river in the Highlands is a river that leads to the Western Ocean. This is likely a reference to the Missouri River (Pekitanoui) in Indian Country.

March 8: Mackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, Anne Villeneuve (1715-1757) daughter Daniel Joseph Amoit de Villeneuve born 1665 died before 1728 and Domitilde Oukabe (LaFourche) 2nd husband Augustin Langlade; married Antoine Guillory.

March 15: (II)-Jacques Godefroy (Godfroy) de Maubeuf (1684-1730), died, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) listed voyager West. Also (II)-Jean DaGneau or DaGnaux, Dagneaux, d'Agneau (1694-1741/51), sieur de Douville Voyager West. Also brother (II)-Alexander DaGneau (b-1698-1773/74) Voyager West.

April 16: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage, Guillaume Bouche married Angelique Ptolomee (Tholme) 1st marriage Pierre (Antoine) Robert dit Lafontaine.

April 28: New France received the authority to reinstate the Conge de Traite (Trade Passport) that was repealed in April 28, 1696. It is now in effect.

April 29: (II)-Jean Lemire (1676-1754) voyager West.

April 29: (II)-Jean Godreau (1682-1722) married Indian Country (Michigan) Marie Francoise Richard.

April 29: (II)-Francois Gauthier alias Saint Germain (b-1691) listed voyager West.

May 1: (II)-Henri Nicolas Catin born 1697 is listed as an engage (voyager) to the West.

May 1: (III)-Antoine Menard (b-1695) Michillimakinac is recorded as a voyager West.

May 9: (II)-Michel Marcot (b-1689) voyager West married 1720 (III)-Marguerite Aide Creduy (b-1701).

August 2: , Michel DuRivage, Metis, is baptized Mackinac, New France (Michigan), son of old Ignace DuRivage and savage.

August 16: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), married Guillaume Boucher to Angelique Tholme widow Pierre Robert,: Guillaume 1st marriage Jeanne Beauvais died 1703.

August 22: Montreal, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Catherine Godfroy died July 21, 1777 Montreal, Quebec, daughter (II)-Jacques Godfroy de Mauboeuf (1684-1730) and (II)-Marie Anne Chesne (1690-1738); married December 30, 1739 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Alesis Desruisseaux.

August 30: (III)-Louis Menard (b-1697) Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), is recorded as a voyager West.

September 22: Dakota Country: (III)-Joseph Trottier dit Dusruisseaux (1668-1708 to 1716) is killed with Sieur Brisebois, his engage, at the River of Serpents in Siouc (Sioux) Country. Source: L. Trotter.

1717

(IV)-Jacques Denis, Metis, b-1717, died February 6, 1732, Beaumont, Quebec son (III)-Nicolas Denis, sieur de Fronsac, Metis (1682-1732) and Marie Sauvagesse.

Pierre Duquet, Metis, b-1717, died April 19, 1760, Ste Famille I.O, son Pierre Duquet and Marie Sauvagesse..

The Hudson Bay Company established Fort Churchill, a.k.a. Prince of Wales Fort, Hudson Bay (Manitobe), this year. The Churchill River (Manitoba) was known as Missinipi or Big River. (I)-James Knight (1640-1720), a shipwright, recorded the hellish insects at Churchill, Hudson Bay (Manitoba); of such swarms of small sand fly that he could hardly see the sun. (I)-James Night, a shipwright, reported weakness of men in the (Hudson) Bay as a result of poor food, and the resulting scurvy caused bitter complaints among the men.

Of those individuals who left for the Pays d'en Haut (Upper Country), 61 of 151 were engages (hired men) rather than Coureurs des Bois, Metis or Merchant Voyagers. It is noteworthy that Merchant Voyagers are being classified as almost Coureurs des Bois at this time.

Jean Baptiste Barrois (Bertlor) dit Lottman aka Lothenane born 1691 Montreal, Quebec, died 1757 son Jean Baptiste Antoine Barrois Dit Lootman (Lotman/Lottman) and Anne Leber; married 1717 Montreal, Quebec or Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) (family moved from Fort Detroit some time between 1722 to 1732, moved to Kaskaskia Illini Country (Illinois)), Marie Madeleine Cardinal and children are Therese married Francois Lefevre du Chouquet, Catherine married Joseph Duguay Duplassy, Benaventure born 1724 married 1st Louis Martin, 2nd de Portneuf, Celeste married 1757 Michel Lamis, Joseph born 1722, Louis born 1732, Francois, and Jacques married 1747 Suzanne Baron.

(II)-Jean Baptiste Chevalier (1677-1752) of Montreal, Quebec, moved with his wife, (II)-Francoise Alavoine (1690-1756), and family to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan). The Family included M. Charlotte b-1710 who married 1729, Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), Antoine Deshetries, M. Anne b-1722 who married 1735, Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), Charles Chaboillez, Catherine b-1714, Michel Jean b-1715, M Joseph b-1718. Eleven more children are born in or around Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan).

Pierre Sidrac Dugue dit Laf, sieur de Boisbriant (Boisbriand) (1675-1740) is commander at Mobile, Alabama.

Pierre Duquet Metis born 1717 son Pierre Duquet and a sauvagesse died April 19, 1760 Ste Famille, I.O., Quebec.

(I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) is appointed Governor of all the Hudson Bay Company Trading Posts. He was apprenticed to the H. B.C. in March of 1684 and served the company nearly 40 years -all but 3 of them at Hudson Bay.

Antoine Crozat leased Louisiana for 15 years. The lease was surrendered in 1717 to Duke d'Orleans.

John Law (1671­1729), a Scott, organizes the Mississippi Fur Company this year. His Compagnie de la Louisiane ou d'Occident controlled large grants of land around the Mississippi River and had the exclusive rights of trade in the territory for 25 years. It would be reorganized in 1719 as the Company of the Indies. It went into rapid decline in 1720, leaving John Law a poor man. It would, however, operate until 1770. Law is credited with the introduction of slavery into the Louisiana Territory.

Joseph Francois Lefebvre b-1674 son Pierre Lefebvre and Marie Marguerite Gagne; married to Marie Anne Testard and moved to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), this year.

Louis de La Porte, sieur de Louvigny (1652-1725), is back at Green Bay, New France (Michigan) establishing Fort St. Francois. He died on August 27, 1725, shipwrecked near Louisburg.

Constant La Marchand, sieur de Lignery/Ligneries d-1732, commanded Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), being sent to punish the Fox People. His wife, Anne Francoise Robutel, is hiring men for Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) from 1713-1717.

Kaskaskia, (Illinois), birth, Marie Louise Roy Metis daughter Pierre Roy d-1721 to Marie Anne Macoutentiaoue.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth (III)-Marie Angelique Roy daughter (II)- Pierre Du Roy and Marie Angelique Faye Lafaillette, Laprairie.

(I)-Alphonse de Tonty (Tonti) de Paludy (1650/59-1727) is commander at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

The French attempt to colonize Louisiana with Metis Coureurs des Bois but this only resulted in the settlement of twenty five families in all of Louisiana. Illinois country, however, is annexed by Louisiana and included a lot more Metis inhabitants.

A French map of this period displays the Jesuit Mission of Missilimakinak or Saint Ignace on the shore of Lake Huron near the entrance to Lake Michigan. Just north of Saint Ignace is a Huron and Odawa Village, the inhabitants being refugees from the Iroquois wars. The Ojibwa Village is further north. To the south is Fort DeBuade, surrounded by the French and Metis Village.

Zacharie Robute (Robutal) de la Noue (1665-1732) re-established a fort at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River, Indian Territory, called Fort Kaministiquia or as others called it La Noues Fort, close to the modern city of Thunder Bay. This fort would be abandoned in 1758. Some say Zacherie is in the Lake of the Woods Region, in search of the Western Sea. Traders had originally built a trading post here about 1679. The English say the French are inciting the Dakota Sioux to war against the Assiniboine and Cree.

A fort is built at the Western end of Green Bay, New France (Michigan) to re-establish a French presence in this Fox controlled region. Fort La Baye, as it is called, is commanded by Philippe d'Amours sieur de La Morandiere (1680-1746), which he held until 1721.

The creation of Company of the West includes trading privileges for the next 25 years. Lieutenant Zacharie Robutel de La Nouve, (1665-1733), Commander of the Northern Region, with eight canoes and 50 voyageurs, in July, is ordered to secure three Trading Posts. One on the Kanastigoya (Kaministikwa) River in Indian Country, at the western end of Lake Superior (Thunder Bay). A second at Takamamisson (Takamamionen), built at the outlet, also called Fort Rainy Lake, Fort Lac La Pluie, and one in the direction of Lac Des Christinaux (Rainy Lake). He is also ordered to obtain information for the setting up of a third at Lac Des Assenipoelle (Lake of the Woods). Commissioned with eight canoe to a four year term, Lieutenant Zacharie Robutel de La Nouve (Noue), (1665-1732) would remain at Fort Kaministiquia in the North West Territories until 1721.

This Post de Nord, some claim, is in response to the Hudson Bay Company's activity with the Dakota Sioux via the Cree traders. The title of Commander of the North West Region does not appear to effectively apply to Fort La Pointe, Ojibwa Country, Lake Superior or the West beyond the Lake. It would appear to be an honoree title with little actual power. The Rainy Lake Post is composed of 40 men, and the Voyageurs advised the Indians that their numbers would be increased to 60 or more by next season.

Rainy Lake (Tekamamigogauen), Red Lake (Misaisacaigan) and the Lake of the Woods (Minittic) is known historically to be frequented by the Dakota Sioux, Ojibwa, Cree and Assiniboine Nations during this and earlier periods. Their historic route departed Moningwunakauning (Mackinac Island), New France (Michigan) through Lake Superior (Kitchi Gami), Ojibwa Country to River du Fond (DuLuth) to Red Lake and down the Red River (Miskouessipi) to Lake Ouinipigon (Winnipeg, a.k.a. Bourbon).

February 15: Montreal, Quebec, birth, Charles Marie Godfroy, a Metis, the son of Godfroy de Normanville De Vieux Point and Therese Taques Sauvagesse.

April 25: St. Augustin, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Charles Dubeau, Metis, died May 3, 1740, Quebec, Quebec, daughter, (II)-Jean Dubeau et Dubocq, Metis, (1669-1743) and (II)-Marguerite Harnois (1677-1747.

May 11: Merchants in New France are now permitted to hold meetings for commercial exchange. Zacherie (Zacharie) Robutel (1665-1732), sieur de LaNoue, commandant of Kaministikwa is believed to have operated a Fort at Rainy Lake until 1720 and traded with the Cree on the Kaministikwia River.

May: Louis de La Porte de Louvigny (1662-1725) is at Mackinaw, New France (Michigan) attempting to make treaty with the Fox and Dakota. He failed, and the trade shifted north to the English at Hudson Bay.

May 4: (II)-Jean Catin (b-1689) is recorded as a voyager West.

May 8: (II)-Jean Francois Cadot (1693-1743), the Metis, is a voyager to the West.

May 5-15: Voyage west (III)-Julien Trottier dit Desrivieres (1687-1737) son (II)-Antoine Trottier Dusruisseaux (1640-1706) and Catherine Lefebvre (1648-1705), source L. Trotter

June: (I)-James Knight (1640-1720), the shipwright of H.B.C., sent William Stuart to the mouth of the Churchill River, (Manitoba) where the Fort Prince of Wales is established in 1719.

July: (I)-Richard Norton, an apprentice clerk, purchased a slave woman for 60 skins value in goods, to use as an interpreter to the Chipewyan. Slave women usually also served as bed companions.

July: Zacharie Robutel de La Noue (1665-1732) is sent to the Hudson Bay from New France to establish a trading post on the Kaministikwia River. This Post operated until 1721.

July 1: (III)-Louis Menard (b-1697) Michillimakinac is recorded as a voyager West.

July 18: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), death, Louis Maillet born 1673 Montreal, Quebec, married, 1697 Lachine, Quebec, Marie Jeanne Brunet.

August 6: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Jean Louis Bourgery pour Bougis born December 12, 1685 son (II)-Pierre Bourgery (1644-1703) and Marie Boulland b-1643; married Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Anne Alimacoua Quescacan de Nation Kaskakan (Kascakaon), Illinois.

August 24: St. Antoine-Tilly, Quebec, birth, (III)-Pierre Joseph Durand, Metis, son (II)- Louis Durand, Metis, b- 1670 and Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon (1682-1718).

September 3: (III)-Joseph Jacques Gamelin Garde-Magasin Du Roy alias Chateauvieux, listed voyager West.

November 11: Vaudreuil assigned Charles Regnault/Renaud sieur Du Buisson (1664-1739) as acting commander Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) to command Ouiatanon.

1718

New France received the authority to repeal the Conge de Traite (Trade Passport) which was reinstated on April 28, 1716.

Claude Charles du Tisne, a Frenchman, is sent on an exploratory mission of trade up the Missouri (Pekitanoui) and Osage Rivers in Indian Territory, and they established Fort d'Orleans in Carroll County, Missouri.

Charles Jean Baptiste Cheboeuf sieur de Langevin was in Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) this year.

Louis Ducharme, born 1684 Montreal son Louis Ducharme and Marie Anne Mallet (Maillet), was hired by Pierre de Lastage to trade out of Green Bay, New France (Michigan).

(I)-Pierre Sidrac Dugue (Dugtray) dit Laf, sieur de Boisbriant (Boisbriand) (1675-1740) arrives at Kaskaskia (Illinois) from France as the commandant of Louisiana (1718-1724), Chevalier de St. Louis and Governor of Illinois. he was the son Sidrac Dugue and married to Angelique De Lugre

Mrs. James Knight at London, England is credited with the illegal sale of furs. This shadowy commerce is most likely from her husband, (I)-James Knight (1640-1720), who is Chief Factor at York Factory.

Ignace Gamelin dit Lafontaine (1663/4-1738) is hiring men for Green Bay, New France (Michigan) and les pays d'en haut. He hired Pierre de Lestage and Jean Baptiste Reaume, b-1675 son Rene Reaume and Marie Chevreau and Louis Ducharme, to trade Green Bay, New France (Michigan).

Jean Paul LeGardeur, sieur de Saint Piere (1661-1724) son Jean Baptiste LeGardeur de Repentigny and Margaret Nicolet de Belleborne and grand son (I)-Jean Nicolet commanded La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin), from 1718-1720.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, Eusache Lefebvre child of Joseph Francois Lefebvre b-1674 and Marie Anne Testard.

Jean Baptiste Le Moyne sieur de Bienville (1680-1768), brother of Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, founded New Orleans to control river traffic. The French King Louis XV allowed a mere trickle of emigrants to Louisiana, New France, most being young libertines of whom their families wished to be rid: smugglers, poachers and other criminals.

Marriage, Louis Roy (LeRoy) (1694-1724) of Laprairie son Pierre Roy and Catherine Ducharme; married 1718 Marguerite Dumay (Demers).

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Rose Roy daughter (II)- Pierre Du Roy and Marie Angelique Faye Lafaillette, Laprairie.

Marriage, Jacques Testard sieur de Montigny (1662-1737) son Jacques Testard de LaForest and Marie Pournin, de la Faye married likely Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) or Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), Marie Anne Laporte de Louvigny (1696-1763) daughter Louis de la Porte de Louvigny and Marie Nolan.

This is a period of French expansion with the building of:

Fort St. Francois Green Bay, New France (Michigan), by Louis de la Porte, Sieur de Louvigny

Fort de Chartres (Ste-Anne) (Fort Cavendish, Illinois) by Pierre Dugue, Sieur de Boisbriant

Fort La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin)

Fort Ouatanon

Vincennes

Rainy Lake post/Fort Kaministiquia by Zacherie Robutel, Sieur de la Naue (Noue) (1665-1732)

New Orleans by Etienne Veniard (Venyard) de Bourgmont (1680-1730).

The Ojibwa are reported to be established at the mouth of the Kaministikwia River on Lake Superior.

The Company of the West, through Green Bay, Lake Michigan, controls the southern Mississippi River Territory. Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), in principle, governs La Nord, La Pointe and Green Bay. In practice, however, much of the La Nord and La Pointe traffic traded directly with Montreal, Quebec. Green Bay, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin) could also bypass Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), but they probably stopped for their own pleasure.

John Law (1671­1729), a Scott, of the Mississippi Fur Company (Company of the West) started to create a German Colony at the mouth of the Arkansis River called Akensas on the Mississippi. He was granted 16 square leagues and lined up 12,000 Germans for his colony. He sent 100 men to assend the Mississippi to prepare the colony. About 3-4 thousand departed Germany in 1719 but a large number died in the east, nearly all on landing and the balance were called back to Germany. The French took back the grant, 1720 and the colony fell to pieces. When (I)-Father Paul du Poisson, (1692-1729) visited the Colony in 1727 only 30 French remained in this location.

The Cree informed Thomas Mallish of Fort Albany that a nation of Indians, called Poats, had destroyed a great number of his people who trade to Albany, James Bay.
At this time there are a number of French and Metis homes located near the site of Fort Wayne, Indiana.

January 1: The Company of the West obtained an exclusive beaver trade privilege. This privilege demanded that all beaver skins be delivered to the La Nord Posts.

Lieutenant Zacharie Robutel de La Nouve, (1665-1733) and the Company of the West are attempting to control the Assinipoval Metis fur trade on the Mississippi River system but more specifically the Assinipovals River systems and Lake Winnipeg (Bourbon). There is little indication this edict is successful.

February 21: Cap-Sante, Quebec marriage, (II)-Denis Joseph Couturier, Metis son (I)-Jacques Couturier b-1646 and Catherine Annennontak, Huronne, b-1649, veuve 1662 de Jean Durand (1636-1671); 1st married January 11, 1712 Becancour, Quebec Catherine Proteau born June 28, 1691, died March 31, 1717 Ste Anne de la Perade (dans l'eglise) dauighter (I)-Luc Proteau (1668-1752) and (II)-Marie Madeleine Germain (1670-1757); 2nd marriage February 21, 1718 Cap-Sante, Quebec, Angelique LeTellier, b-1699, died December 7, 1729 daughter (I)-Francois Letellier; 3rd marriage April 13, 1733 Deschambault, Quebec (II)-Therese Hamel, b-1707, died March 14, 1737 St. Pierre les Becquets, veuve de Jean Tousignan, daughter (II)-Jean Francois Hamel..

February 24/28: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Louis Hamelin (1681-1693) son (I)-Louis Hamelin, signeur des Grondines and Antoine Aubert; married Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) a (III)-Catherine Neveu born 1698 daughter (II)-Jacques Neveu and Michelle Chauvin.

April 8: (II)-Pierre Gournay alias LaTour (b-1700) listed voyager West.

May 18: (II)-Claude LeGris dit LePine (b-1693) Voyager West.

May 21: (II)-Jacques Godefroy (Godfroy) de Maubeuf (1684-1730) died Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), listed voyager West.

May 22: Montreal, birth (III)-Charles Godfroy died October 20, 1778 Montreal, son (II)-Jacques Godfroy de Mauboeuf (1684-1730) and (II)-Marie Anne Chesne (1690-1738).

May 29: (III)-Joseph Giguere alias DesPins listed voyager West.

June 10: Pte Aux Trembles, Montreal, Quebec, birth (III)-Marie Mercan, Metis, (posthume), died September 10, 1718 Pte Aux Trembles, Montreal, Quebec, son (II)-Jean Mercan (1685-1718) and (III)-Marie Anne Denis, Metis b-1686.

June 21: Voyager west (III)-Pierre Trottier Desaulniers (1672-1736) son (II)-Antoine Trottier Dusruisseaux (1640-1706) and Catherine Lefebvre (1648-1705), source L. Trotter

July 1: (II)-Pierre Gournay dit LaTour (b-1700) Voyager West.

August 27: (II)-Jacque Gaudry alias LaBourbonniere (b-1694) listed voyager West.

August 29: (III)-Rene Etienne dit DuRivage (1701-1723) voyager West.

September: The reoccupation of Chequamegon Bay (La Pointe), Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin) is ordered to displace those Metis and Coureurs des Bois who are making this their headquarters for the North West trade. (IV)-Paul Le Gardeur (1661-1724) sieur de St. Pierre, younger brother of Repentigny and Courtemanche, is sent to La Pointe.

Paul's son, Jacques Le Gardeur (b-1701), is also at La Pointe. This son would be involved in the defeat of George Washington (1732-1799) in 1753. (IV)-Paul Le Gardeur (1661-1724) reconstructed Fort La Pointe at Chequamegon Bay in the Apostle Islands (specifically on Madeleine Island, Wisconsin). The second in command is Rene Godfrey sieur de Linctot. The Metis (Coureurs des Bois) referred to La Pointe as the Grand Pointe. This is the major supply base for Company West's operations into the North West. The North West included the Assinipovals Territory and the Territory of Sioux de L'Quest. He held the position of Captain of La Pointe, Ojibwa Country,

(Wisconsin) until 1720. Fort La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin) is reached by following the Southern shore of Lake Superior from Sault Ste Marie. All canoes to the North West Territories have been following this route and would continue until 1739 when the Northern Lake Superior route is opened. This southern route, even after 1739, would remain the preferred route of the Metis (Coureurs des Bois) to the interior. The Voyagers and engages would prefer the Northern route after 1739.

September 10: St. Augustin, Quebec, marriage, (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, born February 3, 1672, died July 15, 1731 St. Augustin, Quebec son (II)-Jean Dubeau, Metis, (1669-1743) and Marie Felix d'Arontio (Huronne); 1st marriage September 23, 1697 St. Augustin, Quebec, Francoise Paule Campagna; 2nd marriage September 10, 1718 St Augustin, Quebec, Marie Francoise Sevigny, elle epouse September 27, 1734, St. Augustin, Quebec, Jacques Deleugre..

September 11: (IV)-Jean Paul LeGardeur (b-1661), sieur de Saint Pierre Voyager West.

September 11: (III)-Rene Godefroy (Godfroy) (1675-1748), Monsieur de Linctot and Sieur de St. Pierre are listed as making a trip west with soldiers to re-occupy La Pointe, Ojibwa Country on Lake Superior. Lieutenant Zacharie Robutel de La Nouve (1665-1733) complained that the Coureurs des Bois are among the Dakota (Sioux), trading in firearms. Zacharie Robutel is reported as having sent Ensign Pachot among the Dakota Sioux to establish peace with the Cristiaeux (Cree). It would appear that, more likely, the trip is to instigate trouble between the Dakota (Sioux), the Metis, the Coureurs des Bois and their Ojibwa and Cree allies.

September 19: Pierre Couc, voyager west, is married to Marie Miteouamigoukoue.

September 26: St. Pierre, Linctot and two other Montreal, Quebec, merchants entered into partnership in trade.

October 15: Rimouski, marriage (II)-Etienne Brault dit Pominville, Metis son (I)-Henri Brault; married Marguerite Sauvagesse; married 1st 1716 Quebec (II)-Louise Palin (1697-1717) daughter (I)-Mathurin Palin.

November 21: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth (III)-Angelique Godfroy died December 28, 1791 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (II)-Jacques Godfroy (1684-1730) and (II)-Marie Anne Chesne b-1690; married January 8, 1736 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Zacharie Cicotte.

1719

The Dakota Sioux attacked the Cree at Kaministikwa, and the Poets or Pouelles (Dakota) also attacked the Cree at Rainy Lake. (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724), Governor of York, claimed that the French had deliberately lured the Cree into ambush. The French would refer to the establishment of Lieutenant Zacharie Robutel de La Nouve, (1665-1733). The Cree's negative reaction to the French establishment lends support to the English account. Henry also accused the Canadian (Metis) of inciting the Dakota Poets to attack Cree, going via the Albany River to the Hudson Bay Company Post on James Bay. It is interesting to note that the English at this time recognized the French and Coureurs des Bois (Metis) as two distinct peoples.

Some Spaniards from the Gulf of Mexico entered the Country of the Illinois to drive out the French and attacked two villages of the Ocotatas. The Spaniards killed a great many of them. A third village, being warned of ambush, killed a Spaniard, and the others fled on their horses.

Marie Joseph DuLeon born Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), (1719-1749) died October 7, 1749 Montreal, Quebec.

(II)-Jacques Godefroy (Godfroy) sieur de Mauboeuf (1684-1730) died Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), where he is living with his nine children.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, Jacques Lefebvre son of Joseph Francois Lefebvre b-1674 and Marie Anne Testard.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, birth, Genevieve Roy, Metis (1719-1721) daughter Pierre Roy d-1721 to Marie Anne Macoutentiaoue.

Louis Junchereau dit St. Denis/Denys (1674-1744) is sent from Red River to Mexico to lead a siege on the Spanish Post of Pensacola.

The people on the Osage River prevented Claude Charles de Tisne, a Frenchman on the Missouri River (Pekitanoui), from going westward.

The Company of the West united with the French East India and China Company to become a Multinational Company of the Indies.

The English traders from Carolina killed Serigny, starting a war with the Coureurs des Bois and Metis in the Albama and Mississippi regions.

Capt. LeGardeur St. Pierre Sr. is posted to La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

(I)-James Knight (1640-1720), Chief Factor at Hudson Bay, convinced London, England to fund a trip to discover the North West passage, but his two vessels (Albany and Discovery) were trapped on Marble Island and all the crew were lost. This resulted in the London office and engages not straying far from the Forts and not engaging in speculative ventures.

Francis Renalt, with 200 miners, explored the Upper Mississippi, Indian Territory, some times referred to as the Upper Louisiana..

Bernard de la Harpe, a Frenchman, explored Louisiana, Texas to the Red River of the south. He kidnapped Atakapa People, bringing them to New Orleans.

The French in the Louisiana colony of Mobile, Alabama imported 1,000 Negroes from Africa.

January 30: St. Nicolas, Quebec, marriage, (II)-Louis Durand, Metis, born November 14, 1670, Sillery, Quebec, son (I)-Jean Durand (1636-1671) and Catherine (Katherine) d'Annannontak Huronne b-1649; 1st married September 9, 1698 Elisabeth Agnes Michel dit Taillon b-1682, died Mar 12, 1718 St Antoine-Tilly; 2nd marriage January 30, 1719 St. Nicolas, Quebec Jeanne Houde.

February 28: Ste Anne de la Perade, Quebec, birth, (III)-Joseph Couturier, Metis, died December 15, 1720, Ste Anne de la Perade (dans I'eglish) son (II)-Denis Joseph Couturier, Metis, b-1681 and Angelique LeTellier, b-1699, died December 7, 1729 daughter (I)-Francois Letellier.

April 3: Mackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, (III)-Coussante (Constance) Chevalier daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Chevalier (1677-1752) and (II)-Francoise Alavoine (1690-1756); 1st married 1741, Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), Sieur Hins (Hains) alias Ainse. She is mother of Joseph Louis Ainse; 2nd marriage 1751, Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), Francois Louis Cardin

April 8: Rimouski, birth, (III)-Pierre Brault dit Pominville, Metis, son (II)-Etienne Brault dit Pominville, Metis and (II)-Louise Palin (1697-1717); married 1745 Therese Paul.

April 17: St. Augustin, Quebec, birth, (III)-Mathieu Dubeau, Metis, died May 6, 1719 St. Augustin, Quebec, son (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, (1672-1731) and Marie Francoise Sevigny.

April 25: (III)-Joseph Gautier alias Saguingoira (1672-1749) voyager West.

April 29: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Joseph Langlois daughter (II)- Jacques Langlois (1676- 1733) and Marie Renee Toupin; married May 24, 1745 Montreal Pierre Lefebvre.

August 2: (III)-Louis Thierry Nolan (b-1695) Voyager West.

September 19: (III)-Antoine Menard (b-1695), Michillimakinac, is recorded as a voyager West.

December 2: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth (IV)-Jacques Cardinal died March 10, 1741 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (III)-Jacques Cardinal (1685-1763) and (II)-Jeanne Duguay (1691-1778).

1720

The Farming Company or Company of the West, maintains warehouses, clerks and other Ffench employees at Tadoussac, Quebec for the fur trade. There still exists English artifacts when they dominated this port. The Fisherman from St. Malo still frequent Tadoussac.

Nicolas Ignace de Beaubois, a Jesuit, born October 15, 1689, France, arrived Canada 1718, and is appointed to Kaskaskia in 1720. Nicolas was an obnoxious fellow and in 1731 got into a row with the Louisiana Authorities and was expelled from the Province.

Monsieur de Beaujeu is commandant at Fort Missilimakinac, (Mackinaw), New France (Michigan), permit August 31, 1720.

Phillipe Dourville, sieur de la Saussaye is trading Magasin Royale, Toronto.

The Iroquois of the Niagara portage help in the portage and expected payment in shirts, gunpowder, bullets and various other items.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth (III)-Marie Charlotte Roy daughter (II)- Pierre Du Roy and Marie Angelique Faye Lafaillette, Laprairie.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, Marie Marguerite Roy daughter Louis Roy (LeRoy) (1694-1724) and Marguerite Dumay (Demers).

Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), marriage, Jean Baptiste Reaume b-1675 son Rene Reaume and Marie Chevreau; married St. Ignace, Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), (pays d'en Haut), Symphorose Ouaouabouigne (8a8ab8k8e). One of their sons Jean Baptiste Reaume married Marie Josephe Matchiouagakouat. A daughter Marie Madeleine Reaume d-1781 married Louis Pascal Chevalier.

Noel Lefebvre dit Lasiseraye b-1700 married 1722 Marie Anne Gervais was hired for pays d'en haut by Jean Magdelaine.

Pierre Sidrac Dugue dit Laf, sieur de Boisbriant (Boisbriand) (1675-1740), finishes construction of Fort de Chartres (Fort Cavendish, Ollinois) (near Kaskaskia (Illinois)).

Louis Thomas Joncaire de Chabert (1670-1740) established a trading post at Niagara Portage and is trading with the Senwca (Iroquois).

(V)-Francoise Amiot Metis born 1720 Mackinac, New France (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Ambroise Amiot born 1694 and Marie Kitoulague sauvagesse see 1715, Francoise married April 27, 1756 Mackinac, New France (Michigan), a Charles Fauteux Sauteux (Ojibwa) second marriage February 14, 1757 Pierre Cario, Quebec, died February 8, 1760 Quebec.

Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marguerite Louise Chevalier daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Chevalier (1677-1752) and (II)-Francois Alacoine (1690-1756).

Philippe Francois Renault brought 500 Negroid slaves to the Missouri from Santo Domingo to work the lead mines in the des Peres River (St. Louis and Jefferson counties).

Father Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix (1682-1761) toured the western missions and posts until 1723 when he returned to France. It is interesting to note that the good Fathers don't appear to have the required travel permits in most cases. Some speculate the permit system is a Church instigated system to control the non-clergy.

Father Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix (1682-1761) wrote about the Coureurs des Bois: The trips they undertake, the strains they endure, the dangers to which they are exposed and the risks they take, the efforts they have to make, all this defies the imagination. However, one will rarely find more disinterested men, who can spend more easily what it costs them so much to gain, and who show less regard for losing it. No doubt it is their for adventure that leads them to undertake these hard and dangerous trips.

They love to breathe the fresh air, and they forgot all the perils and the strains, in which they find glory time and time again.

Don Pedro Villasur of Spain explored Santa Fe, New Mexico, Arkansas River, Nebraska and was killed by the Pawnees. Many of John Law's German settlers were landed on the Arkansas River and killed by the Indians.

The Metis culture began to differentiate from their French base into the 'Assinipoval Metis', extending from the Great Lakes west to Red River of the North and the Saskatchewan River (River Blanche) and south through the plains to the Arkansas River, based upon a unique blending of Native tradition and European customs. They introduced words like prairie, butte and coulee into their language to describe their new country of western America. The 'Illnois Metis, are evolving into a different cultural base than the 'Assinipoval Metis'. The French Coureurs des Bois and Metis have traveled the length of the Missouri (Pekitanoui) and Mississippi River system, instructing the Indians on how to defend themselves from the Spaniards to the south. Their advice is simple; just shoot their horses and, in their heavy armor, they are easy prey.

(II)-Jean Baptiste Goyau (Gouyou) alias LaGarde (b-1688) married 1720 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), a Marie DeGuire.

The Trade Passport that was discontinued in 1718 is reinstated this year, allowing 25 canoe a year into the interior, and would stay in practice until 1760. Trade Passports, in principle, are to be issued to poor families, a widow in need or a poor Religious Order. In theory the Grantee could then sell it to a trader, but half the value went into the Royal revenue. In practice, much behind the scenes passport trading is involved before the final voyager is established and half of the real value goes to the speculators. Montreal, Quebec, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), and Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) are allowed to sell Trade Passports, and the Colony of Louisiana had its own Trade Passport. We need to keep in mind that forty to sixty percent of the trade, depending on the year, is not governed by the Trade Passport system. The Metis and Coureurs des Bois conduct the majority of the trade. An unreported Coureurs des Bois one year, can become a Voyager the following year. The Trade Passport is also governed by the Travel Passport which limits the number of canoe and crew as well as activity.

Louisiana, Mobile, Alabama reported the arrival of 240 settlers.

John Law b-1671 Scotland a scoundrel, convicted of murder, organized a migration of 10,000 Swiss, German, Belgian and Austrians to migrate to Louisiana. As a result of poor planning and overcrowding 5,000 died on the trip over. Many abandoned the trip going to different locations. Those who made it established the first German colony in Louisiana.

At this time there are a number of French and Metis homes located at Ouiatarion, Indiana.

Port La Joie, on the west shore of Charlottetown Harbor, P.E.I., is established this year, and Fort Amherst will be built on this site in 1758.

Fort Biloxi (Harrison, Mississippi) maintained death records (1720-1723).

Fort de Chartres (Ste-Anne) (Fort Cavendish, Illinois) maintained birth, marriage and death records (1720-1765).

Fort de la Riviere St. Joseph des Illinois (Pres de Windsor, Co. Lambton, Ontario) recorded birth, marriage and deaths (1720-1773).

January 10: Mackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, (IV)-Marie Louise Therese Villeneuve, Metis, died 1749 daughter (III)-Daniel Joseph Amoit de Villeneuve, Metis, (1665-1726) and Domitilde Oukabe (LaFourche) 2nd husband Augustin Langlade; Marie married October 2, 1736 Sieur Claude Gautier who had a son Charles Gautier.

January 10: Michillimakinak, (Mackinaw), New France (Michigan), baptism (IV)-Daniel Villeneuve, Metis, son (III)-Daniel Joseph Amoit de Villeneuve, Metis (1665-1726) Domitilde Oukabe (LaFourche) 2nd husband Augustin Langlade;

January 20: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Jean Baptiste Gouyou et Gouyau, Goyau dit Lagarde born October 13, 1688 Montreal, Quebec son (I)-Guillaume Gouyou et Goutou dit Langarde (1661-1708) and (II)-Helen Benoit born 1667; married 1st January 29, 1720 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), (II)-Marie Deguire Larose born 1700, died March 1, 1733, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (I)-Jacques Deguire Larose; 2nd marriage Sepember 2, 1740, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), (II)-Marie Anne Darragon daughter (I)-Francois Darragon.

January 29: (II)-Jean Baptiste Gouyou alias Goyau and LaGrade (b-1688) married Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), a (II)-Marie DeGuire LaRose (1700-1733)

March 12: A travel passport is issued to the widow, lady Cabana, and Menteth to send one four-man canoe to the Post of Chagouamigon (La Pointe), Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

April 21: (II)-Charles Deniau (Deniau) (b-1701) is recorded as a voyager West.

May 9: St. Augustin, Quebec, birth, (III)-Charles Laurent Dubeau, Metis, son (II)-Laurent Dubeau, Metis, (1672- 1731) and Marie Francoise Sevigny.

June 26: A travel passport is issued to (I)-Claude DuDevoir alias Lachine born 1660 and the female of Charles LaTour to send one four-man canoe to make treaty with the Savages at Post de Chagouamigon (La Pointe) Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

June 22: Voyager west (III)-Pierre Trottier Desaulniers (1672-1736) son (II)-Antoine Trottier Dusruisseaux (1640-1706) and Catherine Lefebvre (1648-1705), source L. Trotter

(IV)-Jean Paul LeGardeur (1722-1723) died this year. (III)-Rene Godefroy (1675-1748), Monsieur de Linctot, became Captain of Fort La Pointe or the Post of Chagouamigon, Ojibwa Country, (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) from 1720 until 1726. He was made enseigne in June of 1706 and will be made Lieutenant June, 1725.

Others suggest he didn't assume this post until 1721.

July 18: Marriage, Jean Chapoton, surgeon married Marguerite Stebre (1708-1753) daughter Pierre Stebre aka La Jeunesse and Marie Magdeleine Frappier.

August 15: (III)-Rene Etienne dit DuRivage voyager West.

August 20: (III)-Antoine Menard (b1695) Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), is recorded as a voyager West. Also, (III)-Joseph Giguere alias DesPins listed voyager West.

August 27: (III)-Francois Parent (Parant) (b-1700) Voyager West.

October 4: A travel passport is issued to (IV)-Pierre Paul LeGardeur (1657-1736), Monsieur de Saint Pierre, Seigneur of Repentigny, Captain Commandant of La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin). This appears to conflict with the Godefroy entry. It could, however, be issued after the fact. Many travel passports appear to be issued after the fact. Others appear to be issued before the fact.

November 3: Ste Anne de la Perade, Quebec, birth, (III)-Francois Coutier, Metis, died September 5, 1733 Ste Anne de la Perade (dans I'eglish) son (II)-Denis Joseph Couturier, Metis, b-1681 and Angelique LeTellier, b-1699, died December 7, 1729 daughter (I)-Francois Letellier.

November 20: Detroit, marriage (II)-Jacques Godefroy or Godfroy dit Mauboeuf b-1684 died November 20, 1730 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), a voyager; married Marie Anne Chesne.

November 21: Montreal, Quebec, birth, (III)-Angelique Godfroy died December 28, 1791 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (II)-Jacques Godfroy de Mauboeuf (1684-1730) and (II)-Marie Anne Chesne (1690-1738); Married January 8, 1736 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), (III)-Zacharie Cicotte (Chiquot) (1708-1775).

November 30: Mackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, (III)-Louise Therese Chevalier daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Chevalier (1677-1752) and (II)-Francois Alacoine (1690-1756); elle epouse, plus, tard, Jacques LeSage

December 25: Mobile, Louisiana, Alabama: 25 girls arrived from the house of correction, Paris, France, called the Saltpetriere (for Prostitutes). This is in response to the the rejection in 1713 of the vitreous, but ugly women sent to the colony when they said the men are more forgiving of less vitreous woman. It is noteworthy that among Indian cultures, the single women are very promiscuous and this is considered normal, but when married are very chaste. The reverse is true in European culture. The single women are more chaste when single and less chaste when married. This European tradition goes back centuries.