Metis

1748 - 1749

Trade goods are again in good supply and travel permits now cost 600 francs. The French voyagers flood into the West and the Metis into the North West Territories


THE METIS ARE TRADING WITH BOTH THE ENGLISH AND FRENCH


1748

The French were informed that contraband traders (Coureurs des Bois and Metis) have introduced the savages to English trade goods, especially the rum, cloth and kettles.

The savages prefer these English trade goods to the the French trade goods.

Travel permits cost 600 francs per canoe this season. A new post is built at Sault Ste Marie, New France (Michigan/Ontario).

(II)-Louis Cesair Dagneau (1704-1767) moved his trading business from Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan) to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) . He was in financial difficulties, so his wife Marie Anne Picote (1717-1756) returned from Montreal, Quebec to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), to assist her husband. He provided clothing, canoes, and huge supplies of grain to the Fort.

(I)-Jose de Escandon of Spain is in Northern Mexico.

Angelica Mangosid (Loon Foot) born 1748, likely Lake Superior, died March 29, 1841, La Point, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, Marie Julie Reaume (1748-1795) daughter Hyacinthe Reaume (1704-1774) and Agathe Lacelle (1709-1778): married 1764 Jehu Hay.

Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin), marriage, Jean Baptiste Philippe Testard (1721-1799) son Jacques Testard sieur de Montigny (1662-1737) and Marie Anne Laporte de Louvigny (1696-1763); married 1748 Marie Charlotte Troiter Desrivieres.

Thomas Walker an English physician is at Cumberland Gap, Virginia (1748 to 1750).

Fort a La Corne (Fort Des Prairies or Upper Nipawi) at the forks of the Saskatchewan Rivers, North West Territories, is built by Verendrye. It is also known as Fort St. Louis, Upper Neepawa and Des Trembles. Also built is Lower Nipawi (Fort Nepoin) on the south side of the Saskatchewan River just below the Nipawin Rapids. Finlay House would be established 1767 across the river.

Fort Lorette-Du-Lac, Quebec, is built this year.

January 7: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage, (I)-Simon Gendron dit Potevin, a merchant, 1st marriage to (II)-Suzanne Bienvenu born 1722, died August 20, 1764 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (I)-Francois Bienenu; 2nd marriage Genevieve Vagne born 1714, died June 27, 1794 (no children recorded second marriage)

January 18: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (III)-Catherine Casse daughter (II)-Jacques Casse and (IV)-Catherine Jean Vien died 1779; married December 1, 1768 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Ignace Tibault.

January 27: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Pierre Chesne died August 25, 1748 son (III)-Pierre Chesne born 1724 and (II)-Marie Clemence Chapoton (1726-1753)

February 1: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Athanasie b-1728 daughter of Mouue (Mouns) a savage and records refers mother of above, likely referring to December 6, 1747 baptism child by Hamelin and his female savage called Catherine of the Saulteux Nation.

February 3: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Charles Francois Gouin. Ten men are recorded at Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), in the parish register, one being Gagau.

February 4: (III)-Charles Hamelin dit LaGunnier also La Gueniere, Gueniere and LaGuenier, born July 8, 1714, Grondines, died 1760, called an ancient voyager, son (II)- Jacques Hamelin La Gueniere (1680-1728) and (II)- Antoinette Richard La Vallee (1689-1759); widower de Catherine Anastasie (Marie Athanasie) (1726-1748) of the Sauteaux Nation married Mackinac, New France (Michigan), Athanasie (Athanaise) Marie Savage Sauteuse. (Married 1st about 1730 his slave Marie Athanase a Sauteux woman born about 1708 died 1744 Pte St. Ignace, church wedding November 27, 1738 Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), 2nd marriage February 4, 1748,

Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), Catherine Anastasie Sauteux (1725-1748) daughter of Mouus Sauteux. Catherine was slave of Marie Athanasie b-1708 who was slave wife of Charles and some say took the same name as 2nd wife of Charles, 3rd marriage 1760 Montreal, Quebec, girl born 1742, Charles stated Athanasie was dead.

Athanasie however applied in 1757 for marriage in Quebec saying Charles was dead in 1757. February 4, 1748 marriage record reads married Marie Anastasie Sauteuse born 1728 died February 1, 1748 fille de M8us, sauteux infidele, filleule de Daillebout de Coulonage et de Mme Langlade.

February 5: Kamouraska, Quebec, birth, (II)-Marie Madeleine Gagnon Metis daughter (I)-Pierre Gagnon savage (Metis) (1709-1773) and Marie Anne Sauvagesse.

February 11: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Louise Chiquot, died February 14, 1748, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (III)-Zacharie Chiquot (1708-1775) and (III)-Marie Angelique Godfroy (1720-1791).

February 28: Mackinac, New France (Michigan), birth/death, (V)-Jacques Dumay son (IV)-Jacques Dumay (1719-1760) and (III)-Marie Madeleine Chevalier born 1724.

March 17: Prairie du Chein, baptism, Angelique Pellitier, born January 18, 1748, where they wintered on the other side, daughter Pierre Pellitier and Marie Parent.

March 23: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (III)-Jacques Casse, died April 13, 1748, son (II)-Charles Casse and (II)-Therese Esteve (1724-1748).

March 29: April 9, Detroit, birth/death, (IV)-Marguerite Campeau, died April 9, daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Campeau (1711-1783) and (III)-Catherine Perthus (1718-1763); married Catherine Boyer.

March 30: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (III)-Therese Janis died February 12, 1752, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (II)-Nicolas Francois Janis b-1720 and (II)-Therese Meloche b-1732.

April 5: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Joseph Gamelin, died July 4, 1749, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (III)-Laurent Eustache Gamelin born 1695, negociant, died March 11, 1774, British Fort Detroit, (Michigan), and (III)-Marie Joseph Dudevoir et Bonvouloir dit Lachene daughter (II)-Claude Dudevoir dit Bonvouloir and Barbara Elisabeth Cardinal.

April 16: (IV)-Charles Cardinal, born 1732 likely Lachine, Quebec, died April 16, 1748, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (III)-Jean Baptiste Cardinal (1691-1764) and (II)-Marie Louise Massioy (1703-1752) and it would appear the family moved from Lachine, Quebec to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), about this time including (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cardinal born June 1, 1730 Lachine, Quebec, and (IV)-Marie Joseph Cardinal born (1733-1763) who married January 14, 1754, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Nicolas Laselle.

April 22: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Francois Xavier Campeau son (III)-Paul Alexandre Campeau born 1709 and (III)-Marie Charlotte Pineau.

May 14: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Francois Chenevert; Francois Lafantaisie assoce de Montreal, Quebec; Joseph Lavallee de Sorel, Quebec; Jacques Boyer de Lechine; Paul Baron de Montreal, Quebec; Noel Piquet de Montreal, Quebec; Baptiste Chenier de Montreal, Quebec. Charles Hamelin also Lagueniere or Laguenier, (1714-1760), an ancient voyager, son Jacques Hamelin and Antoinette Richard, married February 4, 1748, Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), a Marie Athanasie Sauvagesse Sauteuse. This is his second known marriage see 1738. 3rd marriage was in 1760.

May 20: A permit, to Moisan Montreal, Quebec to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Jean Baptiste Garant.

June 9: A permit, to Jean Giasson from Montreal, Quebec, to Kamanastigoka includes Jean Giasson, leader and Jean Baptiste Pomainville de Lachine, Quebec; Pierre Giroux, Jean Lafleur and Rene Lafleur de Laprairie; Joseph Dauth de la Pointe Claire, Jean Baptiste Villeneuve (b-1722) Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), son Madame L'Anglade.

June 9: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Jean Giasson; Nicolas Volant, guide, Jean Baptiste Basinet de Saint Leonard; Francois Fournel de Lachenaie; Nicolas Millet de la Pointe aux Trembles, Quebec; Louis LePanis de Laprairie; Francois Chretien de Montreal, Quebec; Augustin Meilleur de la Riviere des Prairies.

June 10" A permit, to Michillimakinac for Pierre Hubert, Andre Pageau de la Pointe Claire; Basile Riel de Lavaltrie; Jacques Chaput de L'Assomption; Jacques Jasmin de la Cote des Vertus; Jean Baptiste Mallet de Lachine; Jean Basptiste Labreche de Repentigny; Louis Biscornet, passager, de Laprairie.

June 10: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for sieur Dufresne; Jacques Pare, Gabriel Merlot and Joseph Dardenne de Lachine, Quebec; Joseph Ladouceur de Montreal, Quebec; Antoine Pilon de la Pointe Claire; Joseph Carquelle (?) de Varennes.

June 10: A permit, to Michillimakinac for Michel Hamelin; Charles Hamelin, Augustin Hamelin, Francois Hamelin trois freres des Grondines associes dans le dit canot; Bernard Laviolette de Chateauguay; Claude Quartier (Gartier) de Saint Francois; Francois Racine des Grondines.

June 10: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Joseph Germain and Louis Ducharme; Joseph Picard de Lachine, Quebec; Charles Saint Denis du Coteau Saint Pierre; Vincent Chamaillard de la Pointe Claire; Jean Bonnier (?) de la Cote Saint Charles; Joseph Bajeau (?) de la Pointe aux Trtembles; Michel LaCarriere de varnnes.

June 15: A permit, to de la Riviere Saint Joseph for Antoine Grenon, guide, and twelve men.

June 15: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Laurent Bernard and Joseph Hubert; Pierre Champagne, Louis Francois Marie, Constant Bertrand de Longueuil; Etienne Jelle, Jacques Lecomte and Pierre Desonniers de Montreal, Quebec.

June 15: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Ignace Hurbert; Thomas Pilon and Jean Baptiste Perrier de la Pointe Claire; Pierre Petit and Joseph Godu de Varennes; Jean Baptiste Gibouleau de I'Ile Jesus; Gabriel Bienvenu de Varennes; Joseph Belzile de L'Assomption.

June 16: A permit, to (III)-Louis Charly of Saint Ange to depart Montreal, Quebec, with three canoes and crew of twenty men under command of Joseph LaViolette for them to render to La Pointe of Chagouamigon, Ojibwa Country (Lake Superior, Wisconson). Prohibited from making treaty elsewhere than at the Post of La Pointe of Chagouamigon, Ojibwa Country. The role of the engages of the canoe: Joseph LaViolette, in charge, Hubert LaViolette, Joseph LaViolette son, Pierre La Madeleine, Joseph La Madeleine, Pierre Ranger, (4)-Oliver Ganahau (*) (alias Garneau, Garao, Garau, Gavahau, Garahan, Garaheau, Coline de Carillon and Perrin de Louargat born 1706 at Bout de I'IIe, Montreal, all from Saint Anne; Francois Dillaire? (*) Alias Dinaire and Daguille, of Montreal, Quebec; Jean Baptiste Forgeron, of La Longue Pointe; Jean Baptiste La Joie also called Jasmin, of La Prairie; Joseph Boismenu (*), Adrian Boismenu (*), Francois Bourguignon of the Staut au Recollet; Ignace Crevier, Louis Crevier, Pierre Morisseau, Joseph Morisseau son, of Saint Michael; Pierre Robert of Boucherville; Francois Aubuchon, of Berthier; Charles La Jeunesse, of I'Ile Perrot. (*) All appear to be traveling using aliases.

June 21: La Ronde departed for La Pointe, Ojibwa Country, and La Veranderie for the West Sea via Fond du Lac (Minnesota). Fond du Lac is that region west of Lake Superior which includes the upper waters of the Mississippi. It literally means the end of Lake Superior. It later became a trading post at the western end of Lake Superior in Douglas County, Wisconsin.

June 25: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Antoine Boyer son (III)-Pierre Boyer (1707-1765) and Marie Anne Louise Pepin; married January 12 1778, British Fort Detroit, (Michigan), Angelique Gibault daughter Etienne Gibault.

June 26: Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), Claude Pierre Pecaudy, sieur de Contrecoeur (1706-1775) is at Mackinac, New France (Michigan), and Jacques Legardeur is commander.

July 7: Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), marriage (I)-Jean Baptiste Jutras et Jutras born October 27, 1714 son (II)-Jean Baptiste Jutrat et Jutras b-1678 and (III)-Marie Joseph Godfroy de Linctot b-1682; married Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), (IV)-Marie Catherine L'Archeveque daughter (III)-Augustin Larcheveque aka L'Archeveque et L'Arche b-1702 and Marie Madeleine Reaume..

July 7: Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, (IV)-Augustin L'Archeveque et L'Arche, born January 9, 1746, son (III)-Augustin L/Archeveque et L'Arche b-1702 and Marie Madeleine Reaume.

July 12: Michilimackinac, baptism Catherine Personne dit la Fond, Metis, born April 14, 1748 at La Baye, daughter Charles Joseph Parsonne (Personne/Parson) dit Lafond, Forgeron, and Suzanne Reaume, Metis.

July 17: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), baptism, (IV)-Antoine Faucher dit Chateauvert, born July 22, 1741, Illinois Country son (III)-Jean Baptiste Faucher dit Chateauvert born January 26, 1704, Pte Aux Trembles, Quebec and 1st marriage (III)-Francoise Delise born 1701 daughter (II)-Antoine Delisle.

July 17: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), baptism, (IV)-Amable Faucher dit Chateauvert, birth August 12, 1743 Illinois Country son (III)-Jean Baptiste Faucher dit Chateauvert born January 26, 1704 Pte Aux Trembles and 1st marriage (III)-Francoise Delise, born 1701, daughter (II)-Antoine Delisle.

July 17: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Laurent Faucher dit Chateauvert, born November 24, 1747, Illinois Country son (III)-Jean Baptiste Faucher dit Chateauvert, born January 26, 1704, Pte Aux Trembles, Quebec and 1st marriage (III)-Francoise Delise born 1701 daughter (II)-Antoine Delisle.

It is noteworth that (IV)-Jean Baptiste Faucher dit Chateauvert, born September 5, 1745, Illinois Country, is not baptized this date, likely died, son (III)-Jean Baptiste Faucher dit Chateauvert born January 26, 1704 Pte Aux Trembles, Quebec, and 1st marriage (III)-Francoise Delise born 1701 daughter (II)-Antoine Delisle.

August 2: Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), marriage Jacques Bariso and Marie Joseph Catherine L'Acheveque. Likely the same as below?

August 2: Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), marriage Joseph (Jacques) Baritau (Bariteau dit LaMarche) to (IV)-Marie Joseph Esther L'Archeveque et L'Arche daughter (III)-Augustin L'Archeveque et L'Arche b-1702 and Marie Madeleine Reaume

August 8: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, Charles Jean Baptiste Cuillerier Beaubien, died July 4, 1794, Fort Miami (Fort Wayne) Indiana, son Jean Baptiste Cuillerier Beaubien and Marie Anne Lootman Barrois; married Catherine Pocanne Roy, a Metis.

September 4: Marie Josephte Angelique Lemaire, (1717-1748), (Savage), died Mackinac, New France (Michigan), the wife Sieur (III)-Jean DuLignon, a voyager.

September 8: Michilimackinac, baptasm Marianne Bourassa b-1728 slave Sieur Bourassa the elder.

September 8: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Charles Hamelin. Rene Bourassa Sr. born 1688 of Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), the elder, ancient and former voyager, who had his slave Marie Anne (Marianne) Bourassa, born 1728, baptised this date at Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan).

October 13: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth/death, (II)-Simon Gendron, born October 7, died October 13, 1748, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (I)-Simon Gendron dit Potevin, a merchant, and (II)-Suzanne Bienvenu (1722-1764).

October 27: Fort Chartres, Illinois, death Marie Josephte (Picard) Dagniaux b-1724, wife Philippe D'Agneaux Douville sieur de la Saussaye (1700-1754). Marie Josephte is the daughter of Philippe D'Agniaux and Marie Joseph Picard.

December 20: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Gouyou son (III)-Jean Baptiste Gouyou (1722-1764) and (II)-Louise Delieres (1724-1766).

1749

THE ACADIANS of Canada

The Acadians were a mixed blood people with a distinct culture unlike the French or English. They were a high bred people more aligned to the Indian culture than the Europeans. The Acadians were a collection of closely knit families. Family, God, and land were important to them. No one was rich, no one was poor. They were non-materialistic. No political parties were required. Acadian life was calm, gentle and tolerant. Crime was unheard of. They had no social classes. Acadians resisted political or moral rule. The church had no more authority than minor religious administration. The church had its cloak of invincibility removed and was vulnerable to personal criticism. They were pacifists by nature. Some called their culture a sort of utopia. These attributes were a source of irritation to both Church and State.

(I)-Jacques (James) Albert Apert dit Lapine and Marie Catherine Dagneau, born 1728, died April 2, 1753, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), transferred their business this year from Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), to Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), and brought his wife out from Montreal, Quebec because of financial difficulties. He is dealing in clothing, canoes and grain.

Father (I)-Joseph Pierre de Bonnecamps (1707-1790) says Fort Cataracoui is situated at the start of the St. Lawrence River.

(I)-Peter D. Kalm (1716-1779), the Norwegian naturalist, visited Canada and noted that where many nations imitate the French customs, these Canadians imitate the customs of the Indians. They smoke in Indian pipes, tobacco prepared in the native way. They wear shoes in the Indian fashion, and garters and sashes like the Indians.

(I)-Pehr Kalm (1716-1779), a Swedish botanist, wrote about the Voyageurs: It is hard to imagine the pains and difficulties Canadians must endure during those journeys.

They must haul or portage their cargo and many are killed by the natives. They suffer from hunger, thirst, and the extreme heat and cold. They are harassed by mosquitoes and threatened by venomous snakes, other animals and insects. Thus is Canada deprived from a good portion of its youth. The other consequence of this situation is that Canadians do not live to be very old. However, these people make very enduring and courageous soldiers, who fear no danger or inconvenience. Kalm also noted that he has seldom seen people shoot with the dexterity of these Canadians. There was scarcely one of them who was not a clever marksman, and who did not own a rifle.

(I)-Pehr Kalm (1716-1779) went on to say that the inhabitants of Canada, even ordinary men, surpass in politeness, by far, those people who live in these English Provinces.

On entering one of the peasant's houses- no matter where, and on beginning to talk with the men or women, one is quite amazed at the good breeding and courteous answers which are received- no matter what the question is. Frenchmen born in Paris said themselves that one never finds in France, among country people, the courtesy and good breeding which one observes everywhere in this land. I heard many native Frenchmen assert this.

(I)-William Coates of England is on the east coast of Hudson Bay (Bay of the North).

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, 1749/1750 (IV)-Francois Gamelin son (III)-Laurent Eustache Gamelin, born 1695, negociant, died March 11, 1774, British Fort Detroit, (Michigan), and (III)-Marie Joseph Dudevoir et Bonvouloir dit Lachene daughter (II)-Claude Dudevoir dit Bonvouloir and Barbara Elisabeth Cardinal.

Basil Gard, born 1749, died 1819, Prairie du Chien, married, a Sac woman, had a Spanish claim of 3 square miles in McGregor, Viceroyalty of New Spain (Iowa) and arrived Prairie des Cheims in 1781.

Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (III)-Catherine Gastinon died January 13, 1783, British Fort Detroit, (Michigan), daughter (II)-Francois Catignon also Gastinon et Gastignon dit Duchesne born 1700 and (III)-Marie Joseph David ( 1698-1793); married November 7, 1762 British Fort Detroit, (Michigan), Nicolas Patenote.

(I)-Andrew Graham born about 1733 Edinburgh, Scotland, died September 8, 1815, Prestonpas, Scotland, worked for the Hudson Bay Company in Canada at Churchill, York Factory and Fort Severn (1749-1775).

(I)-John Hayter, having spent 6 years at Moose River, Churchill and Albany (James Bay), he says HBC men were lashed for trading with Indians. He also said a man named Philgrim was deliberately starved to death, although provisions were available.

(II)-Louis Hery (Duplanty-Kil8abe), born July 16, 1711, son (I)-Jacques Hery (1664-1746) and (II)-Jeanne Vanier b-1685; married Marie Anastasie Missalim8k8e of the Sauteux Nation.

(I)-Zacharie Hotesse, second Chief Huron de Lorette married about 1749, Montreal, Quebec, Charlotte LaHrenouatha I)-James Isham, d-1761, a bigamist, and Chief Factor York Factory, and a 17 year veteran, testified before a British parliamentary committee that inland posts are not practicable. The rivers are too full of shoals for shipping supplies, no corn can be grown to maintain permanent settlements and this would only divert the trade from existing H.B.C. posts. Isham, a bigamist, had to admit that traders' native offspring around the post had become pretty numerous. The Hudson Bay London Committee had established strict company policy against such practice and refused to allow the recording of these transgressions.

Thomas Pinn born 1749 North West, census 1835 Red River, Metis Country.

Claude Pierre Pecaudy, sieur de Contrecoeur (1706-1775) is with Pierre Joseph Celron, sieur de Blainville on the la Belle Riviere (Ohio River).

The following voyagers are recorded at Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), this year in the birth, death and marriage records: Pierre Parent, Jean Baptiste La Joie alias Jasmin, Urbain Texier dit Lavigne, (II)-Joseph Victor Couvret, born January 8, 1695, Montreal, Quebec, an ancient voyager, who married this year a Marie Charlotte Demeurant an Sauteuse (Ojibwa) of Sault Ste Marie and Bourassa- also listed as an ancient voyager. (II)-Joseph Victor Couvret, born 1695 former voyager and family are still living Sault Ste Marie, (Ojibwa Country )(Michigan/Ontario), in 1754.

Thirty four men are listed at Fort Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), including: Jean Baptiste Gernaise, Caron, Langlois, La Come Jeanne Campeau, Gagau, L. Gayau and Baptiste Gayau

The Red River, Metis Colony, census of 1831 to 1838, lists Laurent Cadotte Sr. born 1749 North West and Canada depending on the census year. Could be son (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte born 1723 and living Nipigon and Sault Ste Marie, New France (Michigan/Ontario), both Canadian and American side. His date of birth varies from 1747 to 1757. The two Laurent Cadotte jr. born 1773 and 1783 may suggest two or more Cadotte Sr.?

(I)-Matthew Sergeant reported that HBC employees were beaten for visiting Indians in their tent to light pipe. He reports the Indians were also beaten by the Governor. Sergeant stated that very few Indians would steal, and that they were very civil and good natured when sober. Most Cree living in Northern Ontario were Swampy Cree who occupied lower Hudson Bay and James Bay.

Edward Thompson surgeon, at Moose River for 3 years, said HBC officials abused the Indians who, starving, asked for food. He also said he never know them to pilfer.

(I)-Christopher Bannerman, 22 years with the Company, says the HBC always shorten the measure for powder in trade with the Indians. Richard White, a 10 year man, confirmed Bannerman's allegations. He said if the HBC Standard is one skin, they take two skins. He also confirmed that just talking to an Indian resulted in a lashing and imprisonment.

In the Parliamentary Committee of Inquiry, the Hudson Bay Company was embarrassed by allegations that outsiders knew more about the geography of the alleged Hudson Bay Region than its own officers. The Company men insisted the cost, difficulties of terrain, and transportation problems ruled out any large scale movement inland. During the parliamentary investigation it was described how an Indian boy wrote a letter to the Company, desiring to come over to be baptized; upon which the Company sent an order to Staunton, the Governor, to take away his book and not let him read any more; upon which the boy was sent out of the Factory, and died. The Hudson Bay policy of not allowing the servants to bring their wives to the forts and prohibiting relations with Indian women was considered unrealistic. The Factors, however, could have Indian women from 1730 onward. They said most Factors keeps a bedfellow within the Fort at all times.

A number of Montreal, Quebec, men have been wintering with the Indians on the Saskatchewan River, North West Territories, over the past few years, but their names are unknown. The Indians said the river started in the shining mountains. Based on this information, it is reported De Niverville, this year, searched for the sources of the Saskatchewan River.

Pierre Gautier Chevalier de la Verendrye (Verandrye) returned from the extreme West and donated a slave, Jean Francois Regis born 1743 (age 6 years), to the Jesuit Mission at Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), who baptised him April 6, 1750.

The Pas (Fort Pasquia), also called Paskoya (Paskaya), Paskoia and Pascoyac, is built at the mouth of the Saskatchewan River by the French. Paskaya is the Cree name for the Saskatchewan River, North West Territories.

Roland Michel (Marquis) de la Galissoniere (1693-1756), Governor of New France since 1747, is being replaced this year by Governor Jonquiere. Louis XV gave instructions that the English had no right to a single foot of North America. (III)-Louis Joseph Gautier of Verendrye (1717-1761) departed Fort Bourbon, attempting to find the North West Passage and thereby restore his father's position, but more likely to enhance his own potential position. He traveled up the Saskatchewan River to the forks of the north and south branch. Louis immediately returned to Montreal, Quebec, with the news that the River Paskoyac was the most promising route to the Western Sea.

Governor General La Jonquiere included it in his report, but did not issue a commission.

Joseph de la Margue, Monsieur Marin (fils), who previously held Green Bay, New France (Wisconsin) and Lake Pepin, operated Fort La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin), until 1751. He convinced the Governor Marquis de la Jonquiere to reintroduce the license system over the leasing systems, promising kick backs. In recognition of a generous cut, the fur licensing system is restored. Margue is called away in 1755.

The English report the Coureurs des Bois are not above conducting hidden trade with the Hudson Bay Company when it is to their advantage.

There is a German Colony about ten leagues above New Orleans, Louisiana. Three French Villages containing some 140 families is located in the lower Mississippi River, Louisiana.

A Spaniard and Portuguese are mining metals, mostly lead.

Philadelphia, New England fur traders are working the Ohio Country.

The Ohio Company, formed 1747, secured a grant of 500,000 acres of the French Ohio Valley for settlement. This alarmed the French who sent Pierre Joseph Celoron de Blainville (1693-1759) to defend the French claim to the Valley.

Some believe a trading post is located at the Grand Forks of the Saskatchewan Rivers, North West Territories. They consider it an ancient trading location.

If the company could not suppress country marriages. It could and did suppress the growth of dependent post communities and free traders by removing from the Hudson Bay, all British servants who retired or were dismissed, and by encouraging natives to disperse to their hunting grounds each winter. The H.B.C. referred to these Metis as the 'Cree Homeguard'.

Fort de Vincennes (St. Francois Xavier) ou Ouabache (Vincennes Co. Knox, Indiana) recorded birth, marriage and deaths (1749-1786).

FORT MICHILIMACKINAC

This drawing by Victor Hogg is based on the Lotbinere map of 1749 and represents Fort Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan). It could accommodate the soldiers, their families, plus about 35 families of the traders. This fort serviced the trade and religious needs of the North West and the South West for years. The original fort was built in 1715, then turned over to the British in 1761, the Canadians in 1796 and the Americans in 1815.

January 21: Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, (IV)-Marie Joseph Hamelin (Gueniere), Metis, born December 1848,daughter (III)-Charles Francois Hamelin dit LaGunnier also La Gueniere, Gueniere and LaGuenier, born July 8, 1714, Grondines, died 1760, called an ancient voyager, and his wife's slave woman Marie (Catherine) Anastasie (Athanasie), a Sauteux woman, born 1725/1728, died February 1, 1748, daughter de M8us (Mouus), sauteux infidele, filleule de Daillebout de Coulonage et de Mme Langlade.

January 26: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage, Paul Dumouchel born January 11, 1717 Montreal, Quebec, son Paul Dumouchel; married Jane Chapoton, died 1750, daughter Dr. John Chapoton and Mary Magdelene Esteve.

January 26: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (III)-Catherine Cosme et St. Cosme daughter (II)-Pierre Laurent Cosme et St. Cosmeborn 1721 and (III)-Catherine Barrois (1727-1790); married October 29, 1764, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Charles Denis Courtois.

January 27: Mackinac, New France (Michigan), (V)-Blaise Amiot, Metis, born and died October 1, 1750, Mackinac, New France (Michigan), son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Ambrose Amiot born 1694 and Marie Kitoulague sauvagesse. Agathe Amiot is the sister of Blaise Amiot.

February 14: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Anne Chesne, died December 28, 1752. She was burned in her fathers house with her little sister Angelique; daughter (III)-Pierre Chesne born 1724 and (II)-Marie Clemence Chapoton (1726-1753)

March 11: Michilimackinac, baptism, Angelique Sejournee daughter Alexis Sejournee dir Sans Chagrin and Angelique Taro.

March 19: Pierre Joseph Celoron (1693-1759) of Blainville, commanded an expedition into the Ohio Valley to resist the Ohio Company claim to the territory. It consisted of fourteen officers and cadets, twenty French regulars, a little better than 100 Canadians and a few Indians. Philippe Thomas Joncaire de Chabert (Hady) b-1707 and Daniel Marie Joncaire de Chabert en Clausonne (1744-1771) and Father Jean de Bonnecamps was on the expedition.

March 22: Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), birth (III)-(Antoine Janisse) Chevalier, Garcon illegitime ondoye (prenom omis) child M de Quindre and Constance Chevalier, veuve de Hins. Antoine Janisse lui a donne son nom. M de Quindre is most likely (II)-Louis Cesair Dagneau de Quindre (1704-1767).

March 25: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Jean Baptiste Lefebvre; Joseph Saint Andre de Leprairie; Joseph Larabelle de la Longue Pointe; Charles Queneville de Lachine, Quebec; Joseph Brissette (?) de I'Ile Perrot; Jacques Larivee de Boucherville; Paul Labrosse de Montreal, Quebec.

March 29: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Joseph Marie Campeau, died September 19, 1771, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (III)-Jean Baptiste Campeau (1711-1783) and (III)-Catherine Perthus (1718-1763); married Catherine Boyer.

April 27: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Louis Douaire de Bondy, died April 27, 1749, Vercheres son (III)- Joseph Douaire de Bondy (1700-1760) and (III)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1707.

April 27: Fort Vincennes, (St. Francois Xavier) ou Ouabache (Knox, Indiana), marriage, Julien Trottier Desrivieres (1716-1761) son Julien Trottier Desrivieres (1687-1737) and Marie Madeleine Duclos (1676-1747); married Marie Josette Marie, a Metis, d-1759.

May 6: Lacine, Quebec, Nicholas Venet, born August 29, 1727, Montreal, Quebec, an engage of Michel Gamelin dit Gauche of Montreal, Quebec.

May 20: A permit, to Michillimakinac for widow of Hubert Lacroix and son Pierre Hubert, Jacques Hubert, G. Marie Hubert, Dom. Hubert and Jean Hubert tous de Montreal; and Gabriel Meriot de Lachine.

May 22: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Jacques de Tailly; Pierre Saint Andre, Pierre Desroches de Lachine, Quebec; Joseph Catis, Pierre Therrien, Nicolas Panis, Baptiste Senneville de Montreal, Quebec.

May 24: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Ignace-Hubert Lacroix; Claude Lafranchise and Louis Lafranchise de Sainte Therese; Pierre Lebeuf de Chateauguay; Francois Basinet de la Pointe aux Trembles; Gervais Baril de Saint Pierre; Francois Saint Cyr de Batiscan.

May 24: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for sieor Marin de la Periere; Humo, guide, Pierre Humo and Pierre Jasmin des Vertus; Jean Baptiste Hubardeau de Montreal, Quebec; Benoit de Laprairie; Michel Raymond de la Pointe Claire; Pierre Mornay de L'Assomption.

May 24: A passport, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for sieur de Perigny; Antoine Pilon, Jacques Pilon and J. Charlebois de le Pointe Claire; Eustache Diel de I'Ile de Montreal, Quebec; Juste Meunier de Laprairie; Joseph Potvin de I'Ile Perrot.

May 24: A permit, is issued to Monsieur Moison two canoes six men to Post Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), engages the Monsieur La Batte, his wife and one Panise, passenger, (II)-Jacques Benard also Besnard, Baptiste Saint Pierre, Paul Saint Pierre, Gaudreau, Barre, (II)-Jean Baptiste Gareau (b-1679), every one of Montreal, Quebec; Saint Onage, of La Pointe Claire; Mallet, of Lachine, Quebec; (III)-Jean Baptiste Mousseau born 1702 and (III)-Joseph Mousseau born 1697, of Saint Sulpice; (IV)-Pierre Rivet born 1717, of Repentigny.

May 24: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Jean Noel Trotier DesRivieres (Beaubien) (1721-1765); Pierre Magnon de Laprairie, Antoine Bouteiller de Longueuil; Gabriel Allard (1714-1777) and Michel Laforest de Saint Francois; Urbain Texier dit Lavigne de Chateauguay; Charon de Longueuil (1); un Iroquois du Sault. Jean Noel DesRivieres (Beaubien) (1721-1765) and brother Pierre Julien Trotier DesRivieres (Beaubien) (1719-1777) is reported to have leased Fort Maurepas and Fort La Reine from La Verendrye. (1) This is possibly Joseph Charron (1708-1773) son Nicholas Charon and Madeleine L'Esperance; Joseph married Marie Anne Riendeau/Reguindeau)

May 24: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for sieur Giasson; Francois Bourbonnais and Paul Bayeu de I'Ile Perrot, Francois Le Blanc born about 1712 also known as (Franceway, Saswee and Shish), voyager of Michillimahnac, New France (Michigan), and Pierre Sauvage de la Petite Cote; Louis Joly de Berthier; Podevin (Potvin) de I'Ile Perrot.

May 24: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Jacques Giasson; Nicolas Volant de laprairie; Pierre Hubert de Montreal, Quebec; Francois Deno (Denault), Dom. Delray, Pierre Sansoucy, Michel Bissonnet de Laprairie; Ignace Prud'homme and Louis Mornay de L'Assomption; Jean LeBrodeur de Varennes; Louis Beaumais du Sault au Recollet; Jean Bisaillon de Laprairie; Joseph Lavallee de Maska; Francois Morisseaux de Lavaltrie; Pierre illisible de I'Ile Jesus.

May 24: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Jean Baptiste Joliette; Joseph Cartier and Pierre Cartier de Saint Francois; Jacques Latraverse and Jean Baptiste Pare de Sorel; Orf. Papin de Lanoraie; Saint Antoine illisible; Louis Pare (for the Post of Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan)).

May 24: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for sieur Laguerche; Antoine Laguerche, Joseph Saint Cyr, Gervais Baril, Antoine LaBissonniere de Batiscan; Pierre Tourette de la Riviere Du Chesne; Joseph Pothier, Charles Longval.

May 24: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for sieurs Dufresne and Francois Lafantaisne; Francois Lassiseraye, Jean Perrier anf Francois Perrier de la Pointe Claire; Jean Baptiste Pare and Joseph Primo (Primault) de Chateauguay; Jean Baptiste Rousseau de Montreal, Quebec.

May 25: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for sieur Baribault; Jean Lavallee and Francois Canada de Berthier; Pierre Migneron, Etienne Leonard de Saint Leonard; Antoine Gurier de Montreal; Pierre Bordeaux de Laprairie.

May 25: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for Philippe Leduc; Joseph Couillard, Pierre Primot and Paul Primot de Chateauguay; Baptiste Du Chesne des Cedres; Joseph Dubeau de Saint Michel; Joseph Durand de Chateauguay.

May 26: A permit, is issued to (III)-Louis Charly of Saint Ange to depart Montreal, Quebec, with four canoes and a crew of six men under command Joseph LaViolette to render to the Post of Chagouamigon (Bay), Ojibwa Country (Wisconsinb). Prohibition to make treaty with the Savages elsewhere than at the Post and its dependencies. The role since engaged the four canoes: Joseph LaViolette, guide, Hubert, Joseph Hubert, Noel Bergeron, all of La Pointe Claire; Antoine Estro(?), of La Valtrie; Janvrin of La Prairie; Descardonet, Jacques (illegible), Laderoute, Michael Fauconier, of Boucherville; Moreau, Marcoux, of Repentigny; Louis Moreau, of Berthier; Adrien Boismenu (**), Joseph Boismenu (**), Joseph Ladouceur (*), (III)-Olivier Gaspe? (*) alias Garao, Garau, Gavahau, Ganahau, Garahan, Garaheau, Coline de Carillon and Perrin de Louargat born 1706 at Bout de I'IIe, Montreal, Quebec, Francois Dinaire (*) alias Dillaire? and Daguille, Charles LaPlaque (*) alias LeBlanc of Charlesbourg, of the Sault au Recollet; Antoine (illegible), Pierre La Madeleine alias LaDouceur (born 1718), (II)-Pierre Hubert Ranger (born 1723), (III)-Joseph Ranger alias LaViolette (born 1727), Charles LaJeunesse, Joseph LaJeunesse (possible marriage 1767), of I'Ile Perrot (Bout de I'IIe Montreal?). (*) All appear to be traveling using aliases. (**)Boismenu meaning slightly wooded or Mixed Blood could also be a reference to slightly Coureurs des Bois.

June 4: A permit, to Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), for sieur Saint Ange Charly to guide the wife of Jean Baptiste Charles Chaboyer and seven children; Jacques Joachim, Francois Provost, Baptiste Provost, Pierre Robert de Boucherville; Joseph Pierre Dutrempe de Berthier; Francois Charpentier de Berthier.

June 20: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot son (III)-Zacharie Chiquot (1708-1775) and (III)-Marie Angelique Godfroy (1720-1791); married June 18, 1770, British Fort Detroit, (Michigan), Angelique Poupart.

July 4: Michillimackinac, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Jourdain, Metis, born November 1748 at La Baye, son (III)-Jean Baptiste Jourdain b-1718 and Marie Joseph Reaume.

July 17: Michillimakinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, Antoine Tessier-Lavigne, Metis, born 1734 slave M. Tessier-Lavigne, voyager and savage.

July 29: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (II)-Jacques Apert daughter (I)-Jacques Apert and Marie Dagneau, see 1744.

August 13: Michilimackinac, baptist, Rose Amerindienne Sauteuse, de La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin) b-1714 wife Jean Magnan.

August 13: Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, of Alexis Magnan alias L'Esperance (b-1741), husband Jean Magnan also Manian, Magan dit L'Esperance and Rose Amerindienne Sauteuse, de La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

August 13: Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, of Anne Esther Magnan alias L'Esperance (b-1743), son Jean Magnan also Manian, Magan dit L'Esperance and Rose Amerindienne Sauteuse, de La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

August 13: Michilimackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, of Marie Josephe Magnon alias L'Esperance (b-1746) (Josephe is baptised August 29, 1749) all are the children of Jean Magnan also Manian, Magan dit L'Esperance and Rose Amerindienne Sauteuse, de La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

August 22: Cahokia, Illinois on the Mississippi River, marriage (III)-Joseph Dorion born April 5, 1717 Quebec, Quebec don (II)-Pierre Dorion (1695-1755) and (III)-Genevieve Chappau (1696-1747); married Marie Anne Padoka des Ricaras, a Cahokia savage, died July 27, 1757, veuve de Louis Picard.

August 27: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (II)-Louis Dufour son (I)-Pierre Dufour dit Bonvivant born 1714 and (III)-Marie Charlotte Gloria (1721-1766).

August 29: Mackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, Anne Esther L'Esperance, born 1743, son Jean Manian Le Sperance and a Rose Amerindienne, Sauteux woman, Savage of La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

August 29: Mackinac, New France (Michigan), baptism, Marie Josephe L'Esperance born 1746 daughters Jean Manian L'Esperance and a Rose Amerindienne, Sauteux woman, Savage of La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

August 30: Machilimackinac, New France (Michigan), church wedding, Jean Magan (Manian) dit L'Esperance married Mackinac, New France (Michigan), LaRose Amerindienne, Sauvagesse, Sauteuse de La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin), living together about 9 years.

September 10: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1721 son (I)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton; married (III)-Genevieve Elisabeth Godfroy born October 1, 1728 died July 25, 1750 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (II)-Jacques Godfroy (1684-1730) and (II)-Marie Anne Chesne b-1690; 2nd marriage September 22, 1755 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), (III)-Felicite Cesire born 1737.

September 14: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (II)-Jeanne Sazanne Casse dit St. Aubin daughter (I)-Jean Casse and (II)-Suzanne Esteve dit Lajeunesse born 1721.

October 3: Mackinac, New France (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Joseph Couvret, born January 8, 1695, Montreal, Quebec, son (I)-Victor Couvret, born 1666, and (II)-Therese Cherlot dit Dumoulin, born 1678, daughter (I)-Jean Cherlot dit Dumoulin; third marriage Marie Charoltte (Demeurant) Sauteuse (Ojibwa) from Sault Ste Marie, Ojibwa Country (Michigan/Ontario): first marriage November 13, 1726, Montreal, Quebec, (II)-Marguerite Couturier born 1700, daughter (I)-Pierre Couurtier dit Bourguignon en 1708, and (II)-Marguerite Payet (1681-1728). one child recorded Joseph Dominique born December 2, 1727, Montreal, Quebec; second marriage November 3, 1734, Montreal, Quebec, (II)-Marie Levasseur (1713-1739) daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Levasseur, one child recorded Joseph Rene Couvert born August 2, 1735, died March 22, 1737 Montreal, Quebec.

October 13: (II)-Joseph Victor Couvret, born 1695, ancient (retired) voyager, married Mackinac, New France (Michigan), Marie Charlotte (Demeurant) Savage Sauteuse. (II)-Joseph Couvret and wife retired to Sault Ste Marie, New France (Michigan), Lake Superior.

October 27: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Therese Campeau daughter (III)-Antoine Campeau (1702-1759 and (V)-Marie Anne Pelletier; married November 24, 1766, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), Ambroise Riopel.

October 27: Ste Anne de la Perade, Quebec, marriage (III)-Antoine Couturier son (II)-Denis Joseph Couturier, Metis, b-1681, and Angelique LeTellier, b-1699, died December 7, 1729 daughter (I)-Francois Letellier; married October 27, 1749 Ste Anne de la Perade (dans I'eglish), Marie Joseph Baril b-1730 daughter (II)-Louis Baril.

October 29: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (III)-Francois Janis, died February 22, 1752, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (II)-Nicolas Francois Janis b-1720 and (II)-Therese Meloche b-1732.

November 11: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Suzanne Boyer daughter (III)-Pierre Boyer (1707-1765) and Marie Anne Louise Pepin; married November 9, 1779, British Fort Detroit, (Michigan), (IV)-Charles Francois Gouin born February 3, 1748.

November 19: Michilimackinac, baptism Angelique Parent daughter Pierre Parent and Marianne Chaboiller, witness Jean Baptiste Jasmin, voyager.

November 24: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Ignace Boyer born 1721 died May 22, 1784 British Fort Detroit, (Michigan), son (II)-Antoine Boyer; married (IV)-Angelique Pepin dit Descardonnets daughter (III)-Joseph Pepin.

November 30: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Nicolas Joseph Campeau son (III)-Nicolas Campeau (1710-1756) and (II)-Agathe Casse (1716-1808).

December 20: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Suzanne Boyer died July 27, 1751, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (III)-Pierre Boyer (1707-1765) and Marie Anne Louise Pepin.

December 26: Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Anne Boyer daughter (III)-Pierre Boyer (1707-1765) and Marie Anne Louise Pepin; married October 25, 1773, British Fort Detroit, (Michigan), Nicolas Moras.