Metis

1763 - 1766


New France passed from French control to English control
to be later called Lower Canada.

The Montreal Company consolidated the remnants
of the French Trading Companies.


The Assinipoval Metis had little concern over the
withdrawal of France from North America.

The Indians however considered it a proclamation of war.

Two thousand soldiers, traders and settlers died
this first spring and summer.


1763

Prior to this year, all lands west of the Appalachian Mountains and most of Canada was considered French Territory by reason of possession. The Treaty of Paris this year gave all the lands west of the Mississippi River to Spain. The central part of North America, west of the Mississippi River, is now known by the Spanish as the Viceroyalty of New Spain . The Metis, however, occupied these territories and knew they were Indian Territory, not French, English or Spanish. The Metis established posts far up the Saskatchewan River, and have seen the Stony Mountains and were aware of the Oregon River. It is noteworthy that the Metis reached the Stony Mountains (Rockies) some two decades before Daniel Boone pushed the American frontier west to Kentucky.

Louisiana Territory east of the Mississippi River is ceded to Great Britain. West of the Mississippi is the Viceroyalty of New Spain. As a result 700 Canadian exiled Acadians who were sent to Virginia then England where sent to Louisiana, New Spain. Jean Jacques Blaise d'Abbadie became Governor Louisiana.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Angelique Bourassa died 1767 daughter (III)-Rene Bourassa dit LaRonde (1718-1792) and (III)-Anne Charlotte Veronica Chavalier baptised 1746 see marriage August 3, 1744

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Genevieve Bourdeau daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont; Genevieve married March 30, 1785 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Amable Cosme.

Alexius (Alix) Brebant born 1763 likely Lake Superior, Ojibwa Country, died December 28, 1847 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau living Grand Maris born October 19, 1737 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) son (III)-Jean Baptiste Campeau (1711-1783) and (III)-Catherine Perthus (1718-1763); married British Fort Detroit (Michigan) about 1763 Catherine Boyer.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Aide-Crequy married 1763 Marie Madeline Gatignon-Duchesne most likely a country marriage in or near British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

William Fleet b-1763 married Widow Metis b-1775 North West Territories.

(I)-Joseph Howard b-1797 is trading British Michilimackinac, (Michigan), and this year he married Marguerite Reaume and had one known son named Howard.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Pierre Reaume son (III)-Pierre Reaume (1691-1740) and Marie Therese Esteve (Stebre) dit Lajeunesse; 1st married 1754 Marie Josephe Pilot, 2nd marriage 1763 Marie Catherine Dubois.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Jean Baptiste Reaume (1741-about1807) son Hyacinthe Reaume (1704-1774) and Agathe Lacelle (1709-1778): married 1763 Agatha Lootman Barrois daughter Francois Lootman and Marie Anne Sauvage.

The Ojibwa and Metis began to replace the Assiniboine and Cree in the Red River region. They also began moving into the Swan River and Cumberland districts and penetrated as far as the Assiniboine River at its confluence with the Souris River. It would appear the Assiniboine and Cree withdrew. Some believe, until this date, the the Western Cree acted as middlemen in the fur trade and did not trap furs. About this time the the Metis and French Voyagers moved into the interior and surpassed the Cree in trade. The Cree began to abandon the Red River Valley and Assiniboine River, being replaced by the Ojibwa and Metis.

Nicolas Marchesseau b-1730's and Pierre Antaya (Peltier) are independent traders at British Michilimackinac, (Michigan), Prairie du Chein in partnership with Ales Hamelin.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan) records include Vital Goyau married to Marie Joannd Deshetris, Vitalis Gayau married to Elisabeth Parun, Guillilmus Goyau married to Maria Jeanne Deshistres and Francois Gauderes married to Johnne Parent.

Louis Gayau alias Garau, Gorau and Goiau married to Chene Panis (Channe, Cherne, Cherire and Chirise) Jasen alias Jannis, Jaues, Jarris and Chirise. Children recorded are Louis Gaiau baptized about 1761, Jean Baptiste Garau baptized 1766, Antoine Gayau baptized 1781, Jacques Gayan baptized 1783 and Angelique Gayau baptized 1784 all at British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

The British seriously considered trading the whole gigantic country of Canada back to the French in exchange for the Caribbean Island of Guadaloupe.

During the period 1763 to 1775, twenty thousand Scots emigrated to America and established themselves in Canada and in New York's Mohawk and upper Hudson Valleys.

Issac Batt d-1791 and Joseph Smith d-1763 went up the Fox River. Joeeph Smith died on the return trip leaving his canoe and tent mate with his orphaned Metis child.

Joseph Smith of the Hudson Bay reported no French are wintering on the Saskatchewan river. Unfortunately he died on the return trip, leaving a country wife and child. This is likely a false report. The French population at this time is sixty five thousand people. The Territory of Quebec passed from the French to the English, and the Montreal, Quebec based fur trading companies consolidated the remnants of the French trading companies. France withdrew from North America, giving the Louisiana Territories (Lands west of the Mississippi) to Spain and lands east of the Mississippi to the British.

A flood of new traders entered the Great Lakes with some heading towards the Red River (Msanitoba) and Saskatchewan River networks of the North West Territories.

Lachine, near Montreal, Quebec, with its cluster of forty warehouses, is the major convergence point of the great supply network to the North West Territories.

La Mothe and Michel Joseph Marchetteau, alias Noyer, voyagers, are recorded at British Mackinac (Michigan), this year in the birth, death and marriage records.

Alexander Henry (1739-1824) of New Jersey, Lieutenant Jamet, two Canadians and two Ojibwa, traveled in winter from St Mary's village to Mackinac due to the Sault fire.

Father P. Dujuanay, baptized Joseph la Mothe, was the son of a woman named Chopin, a former slave of Sieur L.E. Chevalier, and now a slave of Alexander Henry (1739-1824) of New Jersey. Alexander protested the baptism, but Chopin insisted and the baptism continued. Chopin declared the father as la Mothe, a Voyager, now at La Pointe.

In desperation, Captain Simeon Ecuyer introduced the first biological germ warfare in America by sending smallpox infested blankets and handkerchiefs to the natives surrounding Fort Pitt, which started an epidemic among the natives. Smallpox spread around the Great Lakes into Ohio and the Mississippi and is spreading into the North West. Lord Jeffrey Amhurst, the British Commander-in-Chief for America, had previously encouraged this tactic in a letter to Simeon Ecuyer. This horrific genocide activity was to repeat itself throughout the Americas. General Jeffrey Amherst and Colonel Henry Bouquet used smallpox infected blankets and handkerchiefs to transmit this disease to the Indians.

To the 'Assinipoval Metis' of Red River and La Pointe (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) it is business as usual. To the Natives of the Great Lakes, the passing of Quebec to the English was a proclamation of war. Pontiac, who was born in an Ottawa village, sent war belts to the chiefs of other Algonquian tribes to declare war in the Northwest Wilderness against the British. Two thousand soldiers, traders and settlers died this spring and summer at such locations as:

Fort Sandusky on the south shore of Lake Erie fell to the Ottawa and Wyandotte,

Fort St. Joseph (Niles, Michigan) fell to Potawatomi,

Fort Miami (Fort Wayne, Indiana) fell to the Miami,

Fort Ouiatenon (Lafayette, Indiana) fell to the Miami, Kickapoo, Wea (a sub group of the Miami) and Peoria (Mascouten a sub group of Illinois).

Fort Michilimackinac (Mackinac) fell June 3rd to the Ojibwa who overpowered thirty-five soldiers killing twenty of them.

Earlier Minavavana, the Ojibwa Chief, had warned the British trader: Englishmen, although you have conquered the French you have not yet conquered us,

Fort Edward's Augustus (Green Bay, Wisconsin) was abandoned by Gorrell an Englashman to the Ottawa,

Fort Venango (Franklin), Fort Le Boeuf (Waterford) and Fort Presqu'isle (L'Assomption) (Erie, Pennsylvania) fell to the Seneca, Venango, Ottawa,Wyandotte (Wendat) and Ojibwa.

The following forts are listed as destroyed:

Fort St. Peter at Rain Lake.

Fort St. Charles at Woods Lake (Lake of the Woods).

Fort Mayrepas on Lake Winnipeg.

Fort Dauphin on Meadows Lake.

Fort Nipawee on the Saskatchewan is believed destroyed this year.

Russian traders, seeking the fur of sea otters, reached Kodiak (Alaska). The Alutiiq drove them away.

The English reported that the French traders at Green Bay and Sault Ste Marie, having purchased wives from the Indians, still preserved their feelings for the French King.

A 40 ton sloop is built at Point Aux Pins, Lake Superior, north Sault Ste Marie.

The transfer of control from the French to the English would have a longer term impact on the Metis as the English systematically began the process of replacing the French and Metis from significant positions in business. This strategy would continue into the late twentieth century. The North West culture would not feel the impact until the 1790's when they began their incivility programs.

The Spanish takeover of Louisiana, Viceroyalty of New Spain, was an attempt to oust the the French Coureurs des Bois and the Taovayas (Wichita & Caddo Peoples) from their ancient trading positions, especially the villages of San Bernardo and San Teodoro on the Red River east of Comanches.

January 5: Longueuil, marriage Jacques Cesar, black, slave M Ignace Gamelin married Marie De Longueuil, black slave M. De Longueuil.

January 12: Michilimackinac, baptism, Gabriel Metivier son Jean Baptiste Metivier and Josette Parent.

February 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Jean Baptiste DesComps son (II)- Antoine Louis DesComps dit Labadie-Bodichon (1767) and (IV)-Angelique Campeau ( 1742 -1767)

February 10: France ceded all rights in North America. The French Culture, at this time, had already been fractured into Quebec French, Canadian French Metis, Upper Louisiana (Illinois) French Metis and Lower Louisiana French Metis. The Quebec French had effectively alienated the Metis who no longer held any alliance with France.

The Lousisiana Territory was ceded to Spain by the Treaty of Paris. The French decedents are classed as the White Creaoles: mixed blood French and German, the Black Creoles: mixed blood French and Blacks, French Indian: mixed blood French and Indian, Cajuns: French Acadians: mixed blood Acadian, and all else: German, Italian, Scots, Irish, Spanish, etc. It is estimated that Viceroyalty of New Spain (west Louisiana) contained about 7,500 European, mostly mixed blood.

February 13: Detroit, birth, (V)-Charles Lauzon son (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse; married April 23, 1792 Angelique Raymond.

February 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Anne Chauvin daughter (II)-Noel Chauvin born 1732 and (III)-Jeanne Meloche born 1742.

April 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Pierre Jamer son (I)-Joseph Guillaume Jamer and Anne Jamer.

April 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Alexis (Elexis) Campeau living River Bosseron, born July 6, 1737, died September 5, 1782 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Antoine Campeau (1702-1759); married (V)-Madeleine Dumays born 1745, died June 30, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Jacques Dumays (1719-1760) and (III)-Marie Madeleine Chevalier born 1724.

April 11: Kaskaskia, Illinois marriage (I)-Joseph Rastel de Rocheblave died 1802 Montreal, Quebec married Marie Michelle Dufresne, they had six children, three boys, three girls. The third boy is named Noel born Kaskaskia died 1805 Montreal married Mackinac about 1799 British Mackinac, (Michigan), Nigans Ottawa.

April 13: Quebec, Quebec, baptism (II)-Marie Julienne Couc Metis daughter (I)-Jean Couc and Marguerite sauvage (savage).

April 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Joseph Fauvel daughter (III)-Joseph Amable Fauvel dit Bigras and (II)-Marie Charlotte Dufour born 1739; married November 20, 1780 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Andre Boismenu.

May 23-26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Alexis Bienvenu son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu born 1701 and (III)-Elisabeth Bouron died 1758, see parents marriage 1740; marriage to (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born October 8, 1745 daughter (III)-Nicolas Campeau ((1710-1756) and (II)-Agathe Casse dit St. Aubin (1716-1808).

May 23: British Mackinac (Michigan), baptism, Joseph, a son of Chopin, a slave and trader La Mothe of La Pointe. Chopin is formally a slave of Le Chevalier, being sold to an English trader called Henneri (Alexander Henry).

May 23: Michilimackinac, baptism, Therese Sans Peur born 1762 Saghinau (Saginaw) son Joseph dit Sans Peur and Michelle.

June: Michilimackinac, a Joseph Louis Ainse a.k.a. Hains (Hins), is dispatched to British Fort Detroit (Michigan) with news of the attack by the western tribes. Fort Cadot (Sault Ste Marie) escaped attack because of the respect for French trader (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) who also had a son born this year named (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) some say 1761.

June 4: (I)-Ezekiel Solomon of Berlin is at British Fort Michilimackinac (Michigan), was taken prisoner, rescued by the Ottawa and ransomed at Montreal, Quebec. He had one known son (II)-William Solomon, Metis, born late 1790's and married a daughter of John Johnson, Metis born Mackinaw.

June 30: Michilimackinac, baptism Ignace Tellier, Metis, born January 5, 1763 in Upper Ouisconsin, son Antoine Tellier dit la Fortune and Charlotte a Outoukis.

July 16: General Jeffrey Amherst bemoaned the fact that he didn't have enough war dogs to effectively employ the "Spanish Method" of hunting and exterminating the Native Americans. It is noteworthy that this is the same man who deliberately introduced smallpox to the savages (germ warfare).

July 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Archange Lacelle died July 29, 1763 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (II)-Nicolas Lacelle et Laselle (1715-1779) and (II)-Marie Joseph Cardinal (1733-1763).

July 25: Michilimackinac, marriage Michel Joseph Marchetteau (Marchettant) des Noyer, voyager, married Therese Parant.

August 5: Chief Pontiac and his warriors engaged Captain James Dalyell and his force of two hundred and fifty soldiers from British Fort Detroit (Michigan). They killed Dalyell and nineteen others and wounded forty in the battle of Bloody Run. Pontiac's army had seized all but one fort in the upper Great Lakes, and the English were on the run. The British Fort Detroit (Michigan) area under British control contained perhaps two thousand people at this time. Alexander Henry (1739-1824) of New Jersey escaped death at British Fort Michilimackinac, claiming help from Ojibwa sponsors. He returned to the Sault this summer. At the Sault he witnessed the locals making maple sugar.

August 22: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Marguerite du Charm, born August 19, 1763, daughter Laurent de Charm and Marguerite Metivier.

August 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Jacques (James) Duperson Baby died February 19, 1833 York (Toronto, Ontario) son Jacques Baby dit Duperont (1733-1789), a Fort Detroit merchant and (IV)-Suzanne Reaume (Rheaume) (1740-1760). He was classified as a man of most gentlemanly manners but rather slow of apprehension. It is said he is one of the 21 children of Jacques, but obviously not of Suzanne.

September 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/baptism (V)-Seraphin Lauzon born June 5, 1763, baptism September 17, 1763 son (IV)-Antoine Nicolas Lauzon (1727-1770) and (III)-Angelique Chevalier b-1733: married November 9, 1790 Detroit Marie Louise Morand..

October 7: Fur trade regulations are issued requiring all traders to obtain licenses and restrict trade to designated posts. This would remain in force until 1768.

October 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Charles Chesne died July 29, 1766, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Charles Chesne born 1732 and (II)-Marie Joseph Descomps dit Labadie born 1737.

October 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (V)-Anonyme Campeau child (IV)-Jacques Campeau born 1735 and (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739.

October 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Charles Cabassier son (III)-Joseph Cabassier (1722-1773) and (II)-Angelique Bienvenu dit Delisle born 1721; Charles married January 27, 1791 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Jeanne Milmenne, 2nd marriage (III)Angelique Moran veuve de Paschal Viger daughter ((II)-Vincent Moran.

October 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (III)-Madeleine Langloisw born 1708, married February 18, 1737 Montreal, Quebec to (III)-Louise Gervaise born April 12, 1708 Montreal, Quebec captain Cote south of Fort Detroit, Michigan.

October 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (III)-Marie Madeleine Langlois b-1708, married February 18, 1737 Montreal, Quebec, Louis Gervaise. Marie is the daughter (II)-Jacques Langlois (1676-1733) and Marie Renee Toupin.

November 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Augustin Lafoy son (I)-Antoine Lafoy and Elisabeth Moreau; married to (III)-Elisabeth Cosme et St. Cosme (St. Come) b-1747, died March 2, 1776 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (II)-Pierre Laurent Cosme et St. Cosme 1721 and (III)-Catherine Barrois (1727-1790).

November 29: Indian Fort Makinae, (Michilimackinac) baptism (IV)-Angelique Bourassa birth November 18, 1763, daughter (III)-Rene Bourassa dit LaRonde (1718-1792) and (III)-Anne Charlotte Veronique Chavalier born 1746 see marriage August 3, 1744; Angelique married July 23, 1781 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Alexandre Ouellet.

December: Pierre Laclede, a partner of the New Orleans Fur Trading Company of Maxent, Laclede and Company landed 18 miles south of the Missouri River Mouth on the Mississippi River, Viceroyalty of New Spain, to establish a trading post.

December 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Jean Baptiste Cosme et St. Cosme son (II)-Pierre Laurent Cosme et St. Cosme born 1721 and (III)-Catherine Barrois (1727-1790).

December 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Antoine Nicolas Boyer son (III)-Ignace Boyer (1721-1784) and (IV)-Angelique Pepin dit Descardonnets.

December 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Francois Noel Douaire de Bondy died December 18, 1766 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (IV)-Joseph Douaire de Bondy, and (IV)-Marie Joseph Gamelin born 1741.

1764

The Pedlars, now included English, and Scots traders and not just the French, out of Montreal, Quebec. Captain Mekiss and his Ojibwa clan killed three English and four French traders form Montreal, Quebec, as they were disrupting trade to the Hudson Bay Company. Humphrey Marten of Fort Albany, Hudson Bay, reported they expected a reward for killing those they call the H.B.C. enemies.

Peter La Clade, a Frenchman, is claimed to have founded St. Louis, Missouri which was inhabited entirely by Frenchmen and Metis decendents.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, Etienne Drouillard born 1763 son Jean Baptiste Drouillard and Marie Charlotte Guignard daughter Pierre Guignard aka Dinhargue a Basque.

Joseph Hamel b-1764 married Charlotte Indian b-1774 most likely North West.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Jehu Hay to Marie Julie Reaume (1748-1795) daughter Hyacinthe Reaume (1704-1774) and Agathe Lacelle (1709-1778).

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Philippe Leduc son (III)-Jean Leduc b-1684 and Marie Catherine Descary; married Marie Josephte Pelletier daughter Jean Baptiste Pelletier and Marie Josephte Cornet.

(I)-Ignace Laforce an Iroquois Kentjiong8a married Marie Ga8ennontie, and had one child (II)-Therese Laforce born September 30, 1765 Lac des Deux-Montagnes.

(II)-Moses Norton d-1773, a Metis of the H.B.C. wrote: "I am certain and shure that there is no Pasage into ye Western Ocan in this Hudson Bay ... there is no likelihood of any further Discovery in Pasage or a Large River after So many attempts ..." Besides Chesterfield Inlet, he explored two entrances near Whale Cove and Marble Island.

Louis Primeau, a Canadian, is engaged by the Hudson Bay Company for two years service. The English considered him an illiterate braggart of a trader who is nevertheless a master in Indian dialects.

Amable Roy (LeRoy), born Montreal, is in the upper Mississippi region.

(I)-Joseph Isbister in the field (1750's-1764), an Orkney and bigamist, and John Patterson deserted the Hudson Bay Company and joined the Lake Winnipeg Peddlers (Metis).

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) of Sault Ste. Marie and Alexander Henry journeyed to La Pointe in Chequamegon Bay to establish a trading post. Simon McTavish (1750-1804) came to America from the Highlands of Scotland, Stratherrick, Scotland, probably indentured. Alexander Henry (1739-1824) wrote at the carrying place of Toronto on June 18 that the Indians obliged me to carry a burden of more than a hundred pounds weight. The Indians walked at a quick pace, and I could by no means see myself left behind. Next morning we reached Lake Ontario. Anastasie Nipissing saved Alexander Henry's life and he described her as an Indian woman of the Chippeway nation and, generally, very respected. Some contend a daughter of a chief of the Awause clan and a relative of chief Matchekewis helped instigate the 1763 Fort Michilimackinac affair.

The following voyagers are recorded at Mackinac this year in the birth, death and marriage records; (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois (d-1777), Jean Baptiste Le Beau, Laurent DuCharme and Francois Le Blanc born 1712 also known as (Franceway, Saswee and Shish), voyager of Michillimahnac. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois (d-1777) son (III)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois (1700-1736) and Marie Gagnon; married Michilimakinac an Angelique (Sans Chagrin) Sejourne daughter d'Alexis Sejourne (Sans Chagrin) and Marie Angelique Tareau.

Fort Michilimackinac refers to three distinct forts on the Straits of Mackinac. The first French fort is established 1690 (St. Agnace, Michigan). About 1715, a second Fort was constructed on the south shore (Mickinaw City, Michigan). About 1764, the Fort was moved to Mackinac Island (Michigan).

Fort Erie is built as a British trading post this year.

The Metis essentially assumed control of the French Fort de Chartes (Ste-Anne) (Fort Cavendish, Illinois) (that reverted to New France 1767), and establishing St. Louis, Illinois and making it their trading center for the Mississippi/Missouri Western trade. It is noteworthy that other Metis settlements included: Fort Vincennes, (St. Francois Xavier) ou Ouabache (Knox, Indiana), Cahokia, (Illinois) Kaskaskia, (Illinois) and Prairie du Rocher, Illinois, St. Genevieve and Fort de Chartres, Missouri, and Prairie de Chien, Wisconsin and many more. Some claim that St. Louis (Missouri) was established by Pierre Laclede (1724-1778) and Auguste Chouteau in February 1764 as a fur trading post using 30 men for the construction. This area originally called Cahokia des Illinois or upper Louisiana was first settled about 1698 by Europeans and included most of central and southern Illinois. It was originally a great Mound Builder City of over 50,000 people located near Collinsville, Illinois.

British Fort Assomption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Sandwich Co. Essex, Ontario) maintained birth, marriage and death records (1764-1799).

Canadian exiled Acadians flooded into Santo Domingo.

January 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Madeline Campeau daughter (IV)-Alexis Campeay (1737-1782) and (V)-Madeline Dumays (1745-1795).

February 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jean Baptiste Couture, son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Couture born 1735 and (IV)-Marie Campeau born 1742.

February 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Hyacinthe Deshetres son (I)-Antoine Deshetres, living Grosse Pointe, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), maitre armurier, and (country marriage) (III)-Marie Charlotte Chevalier born August 3, 1710 daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Chevalier (1677-1752) and (II)-Francois Alavoine (1690-1756); Hyacinthe married Marie Anne Pilet born 1748 daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Pilet.

February 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (IV)-Alexis Bienvenu son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage 1763; born February 14, died October 3, 1764.

February 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Angelique Chauvin daughter (II)-Charles Chauvin (1702-1772) and (II)-Marie Anne Casse born 1710.

February 14: Auguste Chouteau b-1751 with a small group of men including black slaves constructed St. Louis, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain

February 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Charles Fauvel born 1761 son (III)-Joseph Amable Fauvel dit Bigras and (II)-Marie Charlotte Dufour born 1739.

February 20: Lac des Deux Montagnes, marriage Jean Baptiste Lalonde to Cecile Hery en sauvage Kil8ibe (Kil8abe).

March 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Joseph Guilbaut, son Jean Guilbaut b-1733 and (III)-Marie Joseph Marcheteau (1735-1765).

May 4: Michilimackinac, marriage (III)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois (died before 1777), voyager son (II)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois (1700-1736) and (III)-Marie Gagnon (b-1701) epouise 1778 Pierre Cardinal of British Fort Detroit (Michigan); married (II)-Angelique Sejourne dit Sanschagrin daughter (I)-Alexis Sejourne, (Sans Chagrin) married June 26,1778 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Pierre Cardinal.

May 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (V)-Charles Dupuis, born 1763 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (IV)- Charles Dupuis dit Moise (1728-1767) and(III)-Catherine Casse.

June 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (I)-Francois Godfroy (1717-1764) son Francois et de Jeanne Cronier de Villeneuve St George, diocese de Paris; husband (III)-Suzanne Pepin b-1749 daughter (II)-Robert Pepin and epouse September 10, 1764 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Pierre Javray.

June 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, (II)-Cecile Brillant dit Lapierre, Metis, born November, 1763 in the woods, daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste (Brian) Brillant dit Lapierre and Francoise Itagisse Chretienne Sauteuse (Ojibwa). Source Tanguay.

June 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Genevieve Laforest, daughter (IV)-Guillaume Laforest b-1725 and (IV)-Marie Marguerite Tremblay (1725-1768).

June 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Louis Alexis Chapoton son (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1721 and (III)-Felicite Cesire born 1737; married February 26, 1783 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Catherine Meloche.

June 23: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Anne Marchetau daughter Michel Joseph Marchetau dit des Noyet and Theresa Parent.

June 28: Fort St. Philippe, Illinois birth Joseph Belcourt Bellecour son Joseph Trottier Bellecour b-1705 and Marie Anne Mercier; married July 18, 1798 Rocher, Illinois Marie Ann Thibault.

July 1: St. Pierre les Becquets, Quebec, birth, (III)-Francois Eustache Couturier, Metis son (II)-Denis Joseph Couturier, Metis, b-1681, and (II)-Therese Hamel, b-1707, died March 14, 1737 St. Pierre les Becquets, veuve de Jean Tousignan, daughter (II)-Jean Francois Hamel..

July 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Joseph Heve born 1745 son (III)-Joseph Heve b-1710 and (III)-Barbie Gontier et Gautier b-1719.

July 24: Michillimackinac, marriage (some suggest married 1765) Jean Baptiste Lebeau to (IV)-Marie Joseph (Liselle) Jourdain, Metis born June 20, 1747 Michillimackinac daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Jourdain b-1718 and Marie Joseph Reaume.

July 24: Michimackinaw, marriage Francois LeBlanc born 1712 * also known as (Franceway, Saswee and Shish), voyager, married July 24, 1764 Michillimackinac (IV)-Marie Josephe Jourdain dit Josette Metis born South West October 10, 1751, baptised July 19, 1756 Michillimackinac died about 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-John (Jean) Baptiste Jourdain (of Green Bay) and Mary Joseph Reaume Metis (daughter Qoua gua Bouk Que). Also noted Jean Baptiste Le Beau, voyager married Mackinac Marie Joseph Jourdain dit Lysette. *The family believes Franceway may have come from Nova Scotia, but more likely Trois Riviers . source Dan LeBlanc.

August 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Therese Casse daughter (II)-Jacques Casse and (IV)-Catherine Jean Vien died 1779.

August 10: Kamouraska, Quebec, marriage, (II)-Pierre Benjamin Laur et Lor son Jacoues Laur et Lor de St. Francois, Acadia and Marie Charlotte Bonnevie; married (II)-Marie Blanchard daughter (I)-Pierre Blanchard.

August 13: Mackinac, baptism (IV)-Michel Cadot born July 22, 1763 Sault Ste Marie who died 1837 son (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadot (1723-1803) and Marie Athanasie Nipissing (Equawaice) (d-1766).

August 21: Kamouraska, Quebec, marriage, Joseph Guignard to (IV)-Marie Angelique Larrive born August 1, 1747 Berthier daughter (II)-Francois Larrie b-1709 and (III)-Genevieve Gaudin b-1706.

August 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Madeleine Aide-Crequy born this year daughter (III)Jean Baptiste and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763, she later married Patrivk Mackalpen.

August 30: Kaskaskias, Illinois baptism Veronique Beauvais daughter of George Beauvais and Marguerite Negro slaves of Jean Baptiste Beauvais

September: Voyage west: (I)-Richard Dobie (1731-1805), a Scot, is posted out of Montreal to Fort Timiskaming (Temiscamingue) where over the next decade he acquired a respectable fortune. Richard was in partnership 1767 with (I)-Lawrence Ermatinger (1736-1789), Pierre Montbrun, and Benjamin Frobisher this year and during this decade. He also traded out of Green Bay and Michilimackinac during this period. Green Bay is re-occupied by the English under the command of Howard.

September 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Augustin Lafoy son (II)-Augustin Lafoy and (III)-Elisabeth Cosme et St. Cosme (St. Come) (1747-1776); married January 28, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (IV)-Catherine Bourdeau b-1773 daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau

September 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (I)-Pierre Javray et Javar dit Laderoute and (III)-Suzanne Pepin b-1719 died February 6, 1793 veuve Francois Godfroy, daughter (II)-Robert Pepin

September 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Hyacinthe Gonzague dit Pigeon son (II)-Hyacinthe Gonzague and (III)-Marie Anne Pilet born 1748 daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Pilet.

September 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Cecile Campeau daughter (IV)-Jacques Campeau born 1735 and (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739.

September 13: Michilimakina, Sieur Cardin's slave woman baptized her little girl Marie la Joye born September 10 declaring the father as Sieur la Joye.

September 13: Michilimackinac, baptism, Laurent Constant Kerigoufili, born September 8, 1764 son Constant Kerigoufili and Angelique Metivier.

September 13: Michilimackinac, baptism, female La Joye, born September 10, 1764 daughter Sieur La Joye and female slave of Sieur Cardin.

October 1: Fort Vincennes, Knox, Indiana, baptism male child of a Dagneau de Douville de Quindre illegitimate son Joseph Che (Clermont) and Louise an Indian slave of Sieur de Douville de Quindre.

October 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Charles Denis Courtois dit Marin born December 27, 1744 Montreal, a doctor, residing for sure, his place is south west, son (III)-Charles Denis born 1711 and (III)-Madeline Ouevillon; married (III)-Catherine Cosme et St. Cosme born January 26, 1749 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter (II)-Pierre Laurent Cosme et St. Cosmeborn 1721 and (III)-Catherine Barrois (1727-1790).

November 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Chretienne Huyet daughter (II)-Pierre Huyet et Huguet-Huiette-Ponceley-Champagne born 1737 and (IV)-Marie Reine Trempley born 1744; married Jean Baptiste Yax.

November 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Etienne Bourdeau son (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont; Genevieve married March 30, 1785 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Amable Cosme.

December 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Marie Joseph Freton dit Nantais daughter (I)-Julien Freton dit Nantais born 1727 and (III)-Marie Joseph Gatignon born 1744; married June 2, 1783 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Pierre Yax.

1765

(I)-John Askin (Erskine) (1739-1815) arrived at British Fort Michilimackinac (Michigan), and established a store, establishing relations with Arent DePeyster, Isaac Todd, James McGill and Alexander Henry.

Franceway alias Saswee also Francois Le Blonc (Blanc) of Fort La Prairie is on the Saskatchewan River.

Franco Boucher b-1765 married Jossette Indian b-1765 likely North West.

Thomas Bunn b-1765 England married Phoebe Sinclair Metis b-1792 likely North West.

Jonathan Carvier is on the Mississippi by way of Lake Michigan.

Mackinac?, marriage (V)-Gabriel Cote born June 12, 1742 Kamouraska, Quebec, son (IV)-Nicolas Cote and (IV)-Marie Claude Levasseur born 1721; married to Agathe Roy Desjardins.

John Sen (Johnson) Daniel born North West, census 1835 Red River.

Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787) and Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) sent an expedition that departed Fort Michilimackinac for the interior but were stopped at Rainy Lake where the Indians plundered their trade goods and turned them back.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Pierre Baron Lupien to Marie Anne Reaume born 1745 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter Hyacinthe Reaume (1704-1774) and Agathe Lacelle (1709-1778).

Richard McCarty arrived Cahokia (St. Louis, Illinois) shortly after the British possession and obtained a 400 acre plot of land. He built a grist mill and cabins for his laborers. This would suggest settlers were already in the area. He named a small outpost St. Ursele (east St. Louis, Illinois) after his Canadian wife.

Josephine Makateikwe (Black Woman) born 1765 likely Lake Superior died January 4, 1843 La Pointe, Wisconsin. (I)-William Pink joined HBC this year at York Factory and journeyed inland four times, returning to England in 1770.

Peter Pond (1740-1802/07), son Peter Pond and Mary Hubbard of Connecticut are at a peace council at British Fort Detroit (Michigan) with 11 Dakota chiefs.

Marriage Jean Marie Raimbault to Marie Louise Testard (1721-1799) daughter Jacques Testard sieur de Montigny (1662-1737) and Marie Anne Laporte de Louvigny (1696-1763).

Juan Maria Rivera leads a Spanish expedition into San Juan, Colorado and the Sangre Decristo Mountains in search of gold and silver.

Vincentius (Vincent) Roi born 1765 died September 12, 1845 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Blanc Tesar b-1765 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as camping.

(I)-Thomas Thomas b-1765 England married Sarah Indian b-1786 North West Territories.

Fredericus Kitchi-Weshki (Great First One) or Chief Great Buffalo of LaPointe, principle Chief of the Ojibwa (Chippewas) of Lake Superior born 1765 died September 7, 1855 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Henry Woodward, an Englishman, is on the Ocmulgee and Chattahoochee Rivers and encountered the Creeks People.

The following voyagers are recorded at Mackinac this year in the birth, death and marriage records: Jean Baptiste Charles Chaboyer, and Etienne Champion (Campion)

Marie Louise Beaupre b-1744 is kidnapped at St. Sulpice about 1760 by the Ojibwa of Sault Ste Marie. She would marry a young Ojibwa Indian and have two children.

One of these Metis children would become the grandmother of the famous Father Albert Lacombe (1827-1916). One of her uncles, a trader, in 1765 near Sault Ste Marie recognized his niece and returned her to St. Sulpice. In 1767 she married Pierre Duhamel, who raised the two Metis children as their own.

Reports say that some Ojibwa are pillaging canoes on their way to Lake Winnipeg during the 1765-1766 season. Despite this obstacle, the French had re-established most of their old trading posts. Captain Mekiss and his Ojibwa clan killed several Montreal pedlars, telling Humphrey Marten at Fort Albany: They will not suffer their Country to be stolen from them.

No person is to go into the countries lying North West of British Fort Detroit (Michigan), unless furnished with a license from a military commander. The exclusive rights are given to British Fort Michilimackimac and Alexander Henry (1739-1824) the elder. Traders are required to take their furs to the post where they received their license.

Alexander Henry (1739-1824) of New Jersey is appointed Captain of western trade with headquarters at Mackinac. He had enter into partnership with (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803), gaining a three year right to Lake Superior trade. They established a trading post called Fort St Joseph on the south banks of the Sault Ste Marie River, opposite the southern end of St. Joseph Island.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1723-1803) assembled a large party of traders at Sault Ste Marie. Included are Metis, Coureurs des Bois, trappers and a few Iroquois. He intends to conduct an expedition to Fond du Lac. Included among the traders Alexander Henry (1739-1824) are Reyaulm's men, Pickette, Roberts, Bell and their men. The expedition numbered some sixty men. Younger brother (IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) also conducted a party for his own account. They noted meeting two traders, one called (John Dougal ?) Cameron at Prairie Portage, Red River. The women and children of the party wintered at Fond du Lac so as not to encumber the expedition. The party had built a fort to protect their families, leaving Rasle the Coureurs des Bois at the Fort. Bowitigowinin of Sault Ste Marie with the Cadotte expedition settled at Red Lake to raise his family. Some contend this is the beginning of the distinction between the Red Lake Ojibwa Clan and the Pillager clan.

The British troops built Fort St. Joseph opposite the southern end of St. Joseph Island at the outlet of Sault Ste Marie.

Alexander Henry Sr.(1739-1824) as a partner of (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte the elder (1723-1803) is appointed Captain of the western trading posts, with headquarters at Michilimackinac. Alexander Henry Sr.(1739-1824) is recorded to have built a house on the mainland at La Pointe or La Grand Pointe, Wisconsin. He recorded that the French Fort on the Island is called Pointe du St. Esprit. Alexander Henry Sr.(1739-1824) totally ignored the presence of (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) in his diary, but noted that at Chagouemig (Grand Pointe) there are 50 lodges of Ojibwa, and that 50 families had accompanied him from Sault Ste Marie. He noted the Ojibwa went on their hunt for 100 leagues. He sent his unnamed clerk to Fond du Lac (Superior, Wisconsin). He noted the true name of Chagouemig is O'Chibbuoy. He noted that on the Island (Madelaine Island) was a former French trading post, which was much frequented, and a large Ojibwa village.

Louis Primo (Primeau), a French Canadian, having wintered since 1759 in the prairies, visited York Factory and described the hardships encountered. The Canadian Louis Primeau took Isaac Batt d-1791, employed by HBC (1754-1775), into the interior from York. Both men would later desert the Hudson Bay Company.

Some known Metis agricultural settlements at this time include: Fort Vincennes, Knox, Indiana, Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Prairie du Rocher, Illinois, St. Genevieve, Missouri, Fort de Chartres, Missouri and Prairie de Chein, Wisconsin, among others.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte a Metis (1723-1803) and his partner Alexander Henry (1739-1824) wintered among the Indians of Lake Superior, likely at La Pointe.

Two Frenchmen, a Louis Primo and Jean Baptiste Larlee went to Fort York for employment being tired of living among the savages. About the same time Mr Osbester and John Patterson departed Hudson Bay Company for service among the savages. Other suggest Larlee joined HBC June 1759, maybe this is the year of Osbester and Patterson defection?

The first reported group of Canadian exiled Acadians arrived Louisiana, New Spain.

January 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Charles Dominique Janson dit Lapalme born October 29, 1733 Quebec son (II)-Charles Janson dit Lapaime b-1702 and (II)-Marie Genevieve Filiau b-1702; 1st marriage (III)-Marie Anne Bineau b-1747; 2nd marriage Jeanne Gendron.

January 8: Kaskaskias, Illinois, marriage Paul Trottier Bellecour born May 15, 1736 Batiscan, son Francois Marie Trottier Bellecour and Marie Francoise Mercereau; married Marie St Gemme Beauvais daughter Jean Baptiste St Gemme Beauvais and Marie Louise Lacroix.

January 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jacques Fauvel died June 29, 1766 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Joseph Amable Fauvel dit Bigras and (II)-Marie Charlotte Dufour born 1739

February 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Augustin Chaboille born 1739 son (II)-Charles Chaboille; married (II)-Marie Joseph Chadoton daughter (I)-Jean Chadoton.

February 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Louis Greffard ne a St. Francois du Sud son (III)-Louis Greffard (1713-1756) and (III)-Catherine Garand d-1748; married (III)-Marguerite Casse daughter (II)-Pierre Casse (1709-1794) and (II)-Marguerite Fourneau (1711-1791.

February 18: Lachine, Quebec marriage (III)-Jacques Lacelle et Laselle maitre-menuisier; en 1775 il etait negociant aux Miamis (registres du British Fort Detroit (Michigan),

March 1, 1775) il etait, the April 6, 1775 British Fort Detroit (Michigan); b-1755 died August 14, 1791 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (II)-Jacques Lacelle b-1701 and (II)-Marie Anne Lalande b-1701; married (III)-Therese Berthelet dit Savoyard daughter (II)-Francois Berthelet.

February 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Angelique Douaire de Bondy died July 8, 1765 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Joseph Douaire de Bondy, and (IV)-Marie Joseph Gamelin born 1741.

March 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Noel Elienne Chauvin died March 29, 1765 son (II)-Noel Chauvin born 1732 and (III)-Jeanne Meloche born 1742.

April 6: Makinac, brrth (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois son (III)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois (died before 1777), voyager and (II)-Angelique Sejourne dit Sanschagrin.

April 11: Kamouraska, Quebec, birth, (III)-Marie Rose Laur et Lor daughter (II)-Pierre Benjamin Laur et Lor and (II)-Marie Blanchard; married January 24, 1791 Nicolet Michel Martin.

April 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Joseph Maillou (Mailloux) born January 28, 1725 Beauport, Quebec died December 10, 1778 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Pierre Maillou Desruisseaux born 1693 and (III)-Louise Vachon (1696-1749); married (IV)-Therese Leduc born 1736 daughter (III)-Jean Leduc born 1684 and Marie Catherine Descary.

April 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Therese Godet died May 26, 1765 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Francois Godet b-1720 and (III)-Jeanne Parant b-1739.

April 18: Detroit, birth, (V)-Jean Baptiste Lauzon son (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse.

April 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (IV)-Charles Bouron alias Huron son (II)-Joseph Bouron born 1722 and (IV)-Marguerite Reaume born 1725, see marriage January 7, 1756 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

May: Captain Howard of Mackinac sent (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) to Sault Ste. Marie with a wampum belt to show all the Indians that they should come to St. Mary's and to acquaint them with the news of the peace which William Johnson had recently negotiated with the Shawnees and Delaware.

May 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth (V)-Cecile Lauzon daughter (IV)-Antoine Nicolas Lauzon (1727-1770) and (III)-Angelique Chevalier b-1733: married March 3, 1783 Detroit Jacques Belle Perche.

June: (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) is back at Mackinac with eighty canoes of Ojibwa from Lake Superior. Captain Howard wrote Johnson on June 24, acknowledging that all those Indians are guided by Mr. Caddot. Permission is given by Captain Howard to (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803), to trade to La Pointe. Cadotte would remain in the English employ until at least 1769.

April 20: Mackinac, baptism of Jean Baptiste Georges Cauchois son Jean Baptiste Cauchois and Angelique Sejourne..

April 23: Lac des deux Montagnes birth (III)-Marie Charlotte Hery Metis death July 28, 1765 daughter (II)-Louis Hery (Duplanty-Kil8abe) born July 16, 1711 son (I)-Jacques Hery (1664-1746) and (II)-Jeanne Vanier b-1685; married Marie Anastasie Missalim8k8e of the Sauteux Nation.

June 13: Michilimackinac, baptism, Antoine La Fortune, Metis, born January 23, 1765 on the Mississippi River above the mouth Ouisconsis, son Antoine la Fontune and Charles Outoukis his wife.

June 27: Matthew Cocking departed York Factory up the Saskatchewan and reported seeing old Franceway's House (built 1761) and old Finley House (established 1760).

June 29: Mackinac baptism a Marie Charlotte de la Pointe Claire born June 2, 1765, daughter Pierre Claire and Catherine a slave of Alexis (Alexander) Sejourne alias Sans Chagrin, voyager. Catherine declared the father as being Pierre de la Pointe Claire.

July 1: Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Kinonchame, born February 1763, son Hyppolite Kinonchame and widow of Kinonchame.

July 3: Michilimackinac, baptism, Francois La Fontune, Metis, born January 1, 1767 on La Grande River, son Rene La Fortune and Savage called Maccatemicoueone daughter Missoussicone.

July 26: (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadot (Cadotte) (1723-1803) went to La Pointe (Wisconsin) with his French voyageurs. He reported that the Indians had not been visited by traders for so long, they had to resort to aborigine conditions. It is noteworthy that the Ojibwa had less reliance on European trade goods and likely traded these goods for niceties from other tribes. Therefore, this is not a good indicator of trading activity. Their pay is 100 pound's of beaver skin per year per man, plus 'Found'. Found is one bushel of corn and two pounds of fat per month. Fifty lodges existed at La Pointe (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin). Cadot obtained 150,000 pounds (150 packs) of beaver skin, 25 packs of marten, and other skins from La Pointe Wisconsin. The English established Middle Fort near Fort La Pointe (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) with a detachment of 50 soldiers, with an objective to destroy the Cadot La Pointe trading center.

August 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Genevieve Comparet daughter (II)-Francois Comparet and (IV)-Marie Judith Tremblay (1738-1768); married December 13, 1784 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) Francois Auclair.

August 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Pierre Parent married (III)-Jeanne Suzanne Casse died August 24, 1771 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (II)-Noel Casse and (II)-Suzanne Esteve; epouse April 15, 1771 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Amable Latour of Fort Detroit.

August 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Cecile daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1737 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) and Catherine Boyer; married September 30, 1782 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Joseph Cadot.

September 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Francois Dubreuil born 1764 son (III)-Jean Baptiste Dubreuil and (III)-Catherine Drouillard.

September 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Pierre Hay son (I)-Pierre Hay and Marie Julie Reaume b1749, died March 23, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

September 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Jacques Philippe DesComps died August 23, 1765 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (II)- Antoine Louis DesComps dit Labadie-Bodichon (1767) and (IV)-Angelique Campeau ( 1742 -1767)

October 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Bienvenu son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage

1763.

October 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jean Baptiste Dupuis son (IV)- Charles Dupuis dit Moise (1728-1767) and (III)-Catherine Casse.

October 10: The Illinois Country was surrendered to the English.

October 22: Au Bout de I'IIe, Montreal, birth Joseph Lalonde Metis son Jean Baptiste Lalonde and Cecile Hery en sauvage (Kil8abe).

October 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Louise Boyer daughter (III)-Ignace Boyer (1721-1784) and (IV)-Angelique Pepin dit Descardonnets.

November 17: Kaskaskias, Illinois, birth Jean Baptiste Desruisseaux son Paul Trottier Bellecour b-1736 Batiscan, and Marie St Gemme Beauvais.

December 15/17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (III)-Jean Louise Desnoyers son (II)-Pierre Desnoyer born 1721 and (IV)-Marie Louise Leduc (1734-1766).

1766

The exploration of the Mississippi Valley this year included Peter Pond, Benjamin Frobisher, Jean Baptiste Cadotte (Metis scout), his partner, Alexander Henry (1739-1824), James S. Goddard, William Bruce, Jonathan Carver an Englishman, Charles Boyer (scout) Franceways (LeBlanc) (scout) and Captain James Tute. Source "First Exploration of the Mississippi Valley in 1766", as provided by Dan LeBlanc. It is not clear if this is one coordinated exploration or if it was just those known to be exploring the Mississippi this year. Jonathan Carver wintered on the Wisconsin River with the Sauks. Jonathan Carver visited the Fox village and called it 'Dog Plain' but it was later named Prairie du Chien (Wisconsin). The People considered this neutral ground even in times of war.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte, Metis, Sr. (1723-1803) and his partner Alexander Henry (1739-1824) had to this point in time brought down from Fond Du Lac 1,500 lbs furs.

The Indians of Henley House complained that the the Peddlers (Pedlers) are forcibly seizing their furs. This would appear as an excuse as another report says that, one by one, the Indians transferred their loyalty to those damned Pedlers (Metis).

Paul Boucher born 1766 North West, census 1835 Red River. Possible error- see 1779.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) put up a supply of maple sugar at La Pointe and fifty canoes of fur. Marie Anastasie Nipissing died this winter and her husband (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) married Marie Mouet shortly thereafter.

William Cook b-1766 England married 1st Kahnawpawama Indian b-1769, 2nd marriage Mary Metis b-1790, 3rd marriage Mary Cocking b-1818, 4th marriage Mary Cocking b-1780 of European nature.

Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787) and Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) sent a second expedition that departed Fort Michilimackinac for the interior but were again stopped at Rainy Lake where the Indians again plundered their trade goods and turned them back. Others suggest this happened in 1769.

Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) joined the Hudson Bay Company as mate on the little sloop Churchill and engaged in the northern whaling trade. He is later assigned to search for the western passage, by river or sea. His first two attempts ended in failure as he was bullied, robbed and deserted by his native guides- or so he claims.

Francois Lalonde b-1766 Canada married Josephte Marlot b-1770 most likely North West.

Peter Pond (1740-1802/07) is trading 1766 to 1773 near the headwaters of the Mississippi River.

Charles Racette b-1766 North West Territories married Josephte Indian b-1780 North West Territories.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Joseph Reaume (1739-1796) son Hyacinthe Reaume (1704-1774) and Agathe Lacelle (1709-1778): married 1766 Marie Charlotte Levasseur Carmel: Their children, all born in British Fort Detroit (Michigan), are: Agathe, Charlotte, Joseph, Jeanne, Nicolas, Pascal, Antoine, Louise, Therese, Ann and Julie.

Marques de Robl and Nicolas de Lafora of Spain are in Northern Mexico and Texas (1766 to 1768).

Vincent Roi born 1766 likely Lake Superior married August 4, 1839 La Pointe, Wisconsin Josepha Ogiwens born 1768 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, Jean Roy son Jean Baptiste Roy and Jeanne Prudhomme.

Jean Baptiste St. Cyr b-1766 Canada married Julie Mercredi Metis b-1790 most likely North West.

Alexander Henry (1739-1824) the elder learns of a battle between 400 Ojibwa and 600 Dakota, and the Ojibwa reported losing 35 warriors. This appears to be a continuation of the war instigated by Joseph Leverendrye: the French Commander at Lapointe.

The Metis trader (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) from Sault Ste Marie, who was the only one who held his fort during the Pontiac war, Alexander Henry (1739-1824) the elder, James Finlay and Peter Pond (1740-1807) went into the Saskatchewan and Athabasca country to establish contact with the Chipewyan, Red Knives, Dog Rib, Caribous and Stone people. They participated in opening up a trading territory to Athabasca country which covered a territory equivalent to Western Europe and is the most lucrative fur farm in America. From a European perspective it was a no mans land, waiting for the taking.

There are five trading forts at Red River (Manitoba): a nine-man party headed by an Englishman and a seventeen-man party headed by a Frenchman, and on the Assiniboine there were three French parties. These trading parties were probably free traders. One group was headed by Franceway alias Saswee also Francois Le Blonc (Blanc), whom Walter Cocking described as an ignorant Frenchman born about 1712, and who has been free trading from 1742 to 1772 in the North West. He was very active on the Saskatchewan during the period 1768 to 1776 and was most likely on the Saskatchewan earlier.

(I)-Andrew Graham (1733-1815) (H.B.C. service 1749-1775) a sloop master's servant of the Hudson Bay Company at Fort York, is uneasily aware of the expanding Montreal competition, especially Francois whom the natives called Saswee. Hudson Bay Company trade fell nearly fifty percent this year, and the placid English slowly began to wake up to this changing reality. Four men were sent out to winter with and encourage the Indians to trade with the Hudson Bay Company. Edward Lutit wintered with the Assiniboine; James Allen wintered near the Saskatchewan forks; (I)-William Pink hunted buffalo west of the south branch of the Saskatchewan; and Isaac Batt d-1791 wintered near Fort Pasuia. (I)-William Pink said he saw no Frenchmen but heard that Isaac Batt d-1791, Edward Lutit, James Allen and James Dearing are living among the Indians.

(I)-William Pink of York Factory traveled the Saskatchewan, reporting that Isaac Batt (d-1791), Edward Lutit, James Allen and James Dearing are living among the Indians.

(I)-William Pink encountered 16 tents of Pw Sym a Wock, a.k.a. Syn Na Poits People, with a great many horses. They said they couldn't paddle a canoe.

The Hudson Bay Company, from 1754 to 1775, employs Isaac Batt (d-1791).

Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) reported that Isaac Batt's (d-1791) Indian wife, having lost an infant, is forced to suckle a young bear.

Forrest Oakes of Mackinac, guided by the Canadians, went to Rainy Lake, trading with the Indians of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. Forrest Oakes would continue to trade this area until 1768.

Gustavus Vassa from the Igbo Region of Nigeria, a slave who worked the Barbados, Virginia and England, bought his freedom this year.

York Factory has an inventory of 2,474 gallons of brandy.

Fort Stanwix, New York is built this year.

Jonathan Carver noted: It is not uncommon to see a Frenchman with Indian shoes and stockings, without breeches, wearing a strip of woolen cloth to cover what decency requires him to conceal. Yet at the same time he wears a fine ruffled shirt, a laced waistcoat with a fine handkerchief on his head. The Metis faction at Fort Detroit, Michigan was still distinctive by 1820 with blue pantaloons, capot and fiddle, leggings, red finger-woven sash, moccasins, hair feathers and taboos.

It is estimated that the Viceroyalty of New Spain, Louisiana Territory, contains some 7.500 people excluding Natives. The Majority are Cajuns followed by Metis.

Fort La Reine is occupied this year.

January 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Claude Reaume to (III)-Genevieve Pierre Janis born February 10, 1751 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter (II)-Nicolas Francois Janis b-1720 and (II)-Therese Meloche b-1732.

January 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Francois Drouillard son (II)-Jean Baptiste Drouillard born 1707 and (III)-Elisabeth Rapin born 1712; married (II)-Marie Anne Vilers daughter (I)-Louis Vilers.

January 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Claude LeBlond (IV)-Cecile Campeau born December 17, 1747 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter (III)-Nicolas Campeau (1710-1756) and (II)-Agathe Casse (1716-1808).

February 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jacques Campeau son (IV)-Jacques Campeau born 1735 and (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739.

February 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat living le Coulee des Renards near British Fort Detroit (Michigan), born May 23, 1735 Beauport, Quebec son (III)-Jean Baptiste Marie Duprat (1709-1762) and (II)-Genevieve Delage born 1711; married (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749 daughter (II)-Pierre Tremblay.

January 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (III)-Anonyme Greffard child (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse.

February 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Cecile Aide-Crequy born this year daughter (III)Jean Baptiste and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763, she later married George Cotterell.

February 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (III)-Henri Marten Chapoton died March 5, 1766 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1721 and (III)-Felicite Cesire born 1737.

March 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Genevieve Gonzague dit Pigeon daughter (II)-Hyacinthe de Gonzague and (III)-Marie Anne Pilet born 1748 daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Pilet.

March 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Therese Boyer (posthume) daughter (III)-Pierre Boyer (1707-1765) and Marie Anne Louise Pepin.

March 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Veronique Douaire de Bondy daughter (IV)-Joseph Douaire de Bondy, and (IV)-Marie Joseph Gamelin born 1741; married Bernard Campeau.

March 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Louise Courtois daughter (IV)-Charles Denis Courtois dit Marin born 1744 and (III)-Catherine St Cosme born 1749.

March 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Catherine Couture died March 24, 1794 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Couture born 1735 and (IV)-Marie Campeau born 1742; married January 8, 1781 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) Gabriel Godfroy.

April 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (V)-Anonyme Campeau child (IV)-Alexis Campeay (1737-1782) and (V)-Madeline Dumays (1745-1795).

April 15: Kaskaskia, Illinois, baptism Marie Josephe Beauvais, slave, born here in February, 1766 daughter De Joseph Beauvais and de Therese Esclaves, negres slave of sieur Raphail Beauvais. Par. Antoine de Quindre; married Marie Louise Despines Lemoine. L. Meurin Beauvais Ondoyee (baptised privately) at birth. Parents : Antoine de Quindre, and Marie Therese Lemoine Despins. L. Meurin, cure.

April 15: Kaskaskia, Illinois, baptism Theresa Beauvais slave, born here in January 1766 daughter Francois Beauvis and Marie, esclave (slave) sieur Raphael Beauvais.

May 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, (II)-Therese Brillant dit Lapierre, Metis, born May 3, 1766 on the Saginaw River, where her parents were wintering, daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Brillant dit Lapierre and Francoise Itagisse Chretienne Sauteuse (Ojibwa). Source Tanguay.

June: (I)-Andrew Graham (1733-1815), a clerk with no formal education, is acting factor at York. He noted that the Indians are not trading marten or coat beaver, as these had been traded to the English peddlers inland on the Saskatchewan. He sent out six men for the interior on separate expeditions to assess the situation.

June 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Suzanne Landry daughter (IV)-Firmin Landry dit Charlot b-1735 and Marguerite Siouse d-1773 (see parents marriage 1771).

June 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Louis Joseph Brunet dit Letang born February 15, 1738 son (II)-Louis Brunet dit Letang (1711-1789) and Louise Parant (1708-1769); Married Louise a Panis (slave girl).

June 26: Detroit, Marriage, Louis Brunet b-1738 son Louis Brunet and Louise Parent married, Louise Pawnee Indian slave belonging to Louis Cesaire Dagneau Douville Dequindre b-1735. Louise had three children (sons) between 1757 to 1764 likely from her owner and the first two remained in bondage while Antoine Cesaire b-May 11, 1757 was freed.

June 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Louis Brunet born 1738 a resident of Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) since 1757, major, son Louis Brunet, master carpenter of Ste Charles de Lachenaie and Louise Parent; married Louise Cesaire Dagneau, a Pawnee Indian, former slave of Louis Cesaire Dagneau (1704-1767) Some suggest this was Louis Cesaire Dagneau Douville Dequindre b-1735. Prior to being set free, Louise had three children- sons- from 1757 to 1764. The first two children remained in bondage, while the mother obtained freedom for Antoine Cesaire, panis Indian, born May 11, 1757, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

July: The English sued for peace and on July 23, 1766, the Great Indian Congress between Pontiac, forty native Chiefs and the English representative William Johnson at Fort Ontario in Oswego, settled on peace terms. The English confirmed the right of all North American Indian tribes to claim title to the lands they occupy. Pontiac represented the Ojibwa, Ottawa, Potawatomi and Wendat allies. Most Natives referred to the English as Snake people who were not honorable men. With peace established, a new tide of French and Assinipoval Metis traders built cabins and claimed land at, or near, most French Forts in the Indian Territories (Great Lakes) and the Metis Territories (Red River). (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) assembled 1,500 beaver and 250 otter and martin, then returned to Sault Ste Marie from La Pointe (Wisconsin). Another group of 50 canoes with 1,000 beaver follows the Cadot party.

July 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Joseph Toussaint Chauvin son (II)-Charles Chauvin (1702-1772) and (II)-Marie Anne Casse born 1710; .married February 3, 1794 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Catherine Mesny.

July 14: Lac des deux Montagnes birth (III)-Marie Amable Hery Metis daughter (II)-Louis Hery (Duplanty-Kil8abe) born July 16, 1711 son (I)-Jacques Hery (1664-1746) and (II)-Jeanne Vanier b-1685; married Marie Anastasie Missalim8k8e of the Sauteux Nation.

July 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Louise Marguerite Genevieve Baudry dit Desbuttes daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Desbuttes, Baudry Desbuttes dit St. Martin (1684-1755) of La Cote south West of British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and (III)-Marie Louise Doyan (1703-1778); 1st marriage Jacques Godet, 2nd marriage Joseph Dussault.

August 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Francois Chauvin son (II)-Noel Chauvin born 1732 and (III)-Jeanne Meloche born 1742.

August 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Elisabeth Chesne son (III)-Charles Chesne born 1732 and (II)-Marie Joseph Descomps dit Labadie born 1737.

August: Jonathan Carver of Connecticut (d-1780) arrived at Mackinaw to explore the Northwest and went as far as St Paul to visit among the Dakota. He would rely on the Metis, Coureurs des Bois and Havernant Voyagers to do all his exploration activities. A trading party left Mackinaw to trade Kamanistigoya, thirty miles east of Grande Portage. Thomas Curry ventured to the valley of Saskatchewan. He entered into partnership with a James Finlay who persuaded him to build a trading post.

September: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, (V)-Joseph Godet son (IV)-Francois Godet alias Marantay (b-1720 and (III)-Jeanne Parent (b-1739). September baptism British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Aron Godit daughter Joseph Godit and Marie Petitte. Marriage Fort Detroit, Joseph Godet and Jeanette Touingori.

September: Montreal: A petition, with 57 names of merchants, that was sent to Guy Carleton said: We think that the trade with the Indians should be free and open, to all subjects, without exception.

September 17: Robert Rogers, who commanded Michilimackinac, ordered the discovery of the North West Passage. James Tute born 1738 Mass, died 1782/82, James Stanley Goddard, Jonathan Carver (d-1780), Andrew Stewart and William Bruce died 1781/82. Joseph Reaume of Green Bay, Charles Gauthier de Verville b-1738, Augustin Ange, Gabriel Loring and Lorange and their Ojibwa guide, Acopewine, departed Green Bay on the quest. They went to the Mississippi and north to the St. Anthony, and they wintered some distance up the Minnesota River. They returned to Mackinac via Lake Superior.

September 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (III)-Anonyme Desnoyers child (II)-Pierre Desnoyer born 1721 and (IV)-Marie Louise Leduc (1734-1766).

September 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Michel Cosme et St. Cosme died October 17, 1766 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (II)-Pierre Laurent Cosme et St. Cosme born 1721 and (III)-Catherine Barrois (1727-1790).

October 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jean Baptiste Duprat died October 10, 1766 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

October 11: Fox Wisconsin portage Jonathan Carver met Pinchon who talked about a man of the Menomonie Nation (Claude Pierre Pecaudy, sieur de Contrecoeur (1706-1775))??, with whom he lost a wager.

November 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Archange Laforest, daughter (IV)-Guillaume Laforest b-1725 and (IV)-Marie Marguerite Tremblay (1725-1768).

November 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (III)-Marie Charlotte Gloria born April 3, 1721 Montreal, died November 14, 1766, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (II)-Antoine Gloria: wife of (I)-Pierre Dufour dit Bonvivant born 1714.

November 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Ambroise Riopel to (IV)-Therese Campeau born October 27, 1774 daughter (III)-Antoine Campeau (1702-1759 and (V)-Marie Anne Pelletier.

November 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Joseph Antoine Gamelin born June 12, 1746 Montreal son (III)-Ignace Gamelin and (II)-Marie Louise Dufrost (1705-1789); married (IV)-Marie Catherine Gamelin born 1744 died June 30, 1768 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Laurent Eust Gamelin, negociant, died March 11, 1774, British Fort Detroit (Michigan) and (III)-Marie Joseph Dudevoir et Bonvouloir dit Lachene daughter (II)-Claude Dudevoir.

December 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Catherine Fauvel daughter (III)-Joseph Amable Fauvel dit Bigras and (II)-Marie Charlotte Dufour born 1739; married November 27, 1781 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Joseph Bergeron.