Metis

1767 - 1769


As a result of the Eastern squabbles more trade shifted
to the Hudson Bay Company.

The first Hudson Bay Company official visits the Red River Settlement.


The British finally conclude that the interior fur trade cannot be controlled.

The fur trade is therefore declared unrestricted and open.

Free-trade is restored to Canada

The Montreal Company steps up activity to regain
control of the North West trade.


1767

Tinnewabano informed Humphrey Marten at Fort Albany, that they are obliged to trade part of his goods with the Pedlars. Most Indians refused to trade Fort Albany after this date, including the Assiniboine. The Ojibwa threatened to capture Fort Albany, but were driven away after Humphrey Marten refused to open the gate and they fired their guns. Marten believed that if they opened the gates, the tomahawks and long knives would have sent Countrymen to the other world before morning. Captain Nonosecash informed Marten that the French would again attempt to take Fort Albany later this year. Marten said the Fort will once more be destroyed by those cursed Indians (Ojibwa).

(I)-William Pink, an Englishman, reported that 16 Canadians were reported near the Pas (Manitoba).

Jean Baptiste Basinet born 1767 likely Lake Superior died November 12, 1842 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(IV)-Joseph Barthelemi Blondeau (1743-1790) of Michillimahnac is reported on the Assiniboine River this year. He would spend the next twenty years exploring and working the North West Territories.

Daniel Boone (1734-1820) settled in Kentucky 1767-1773 and would set up the first permanent white settlement in Kentucky in March 1775.

(IV)-Catherine Boyer born 1767 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Ignace Boyer (1721-1784) and (IV)-Angelique Pepin dit Descardonnets; Catherine married January 17, 1791 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Joseph Morand.

Jean Marie, Cardinal of Montreal, and wife are in Prairie du Chien.

Antoine Catin died before 1791, and was married about 1767 to Marie Anne Martin living south west of La Cote. They had 11 children baptized in British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

The Indians later kill a Mr.Clause, now living Fond du Lac.

Francois Delorme b-1767 Canada married Charlotte Indian b-1775 likely North West.

(I)-Andrew Graham (1733-1815), a bigamist who served the Hudson Bay 1749-1775 and raised from a sloop masters servant to acting Chief Factor, noted the Chief Factors table is served no less than three dishes and on occasion, 14 to 16 dishes. The officers have plenty of wine and French brandy, while the men have British spirit (raw gin) which is served at the discretion of the Chief.

Francois St. Denis b-1767 married Lisette Indian b-1770 most likely North West.

(II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) of Green Bay and Jean Baptiste Barcellou is issued a trading license.

(IV)-Louis Charles Hamelin Metis born March 1737 Michillimackinac son (III)-Charles Hamelin and his slave woman Marie Athanase a Sauteux woman (1708-1738); married, likely a country marriage Lake Superior Marie Joseph LeSable of the Sauteuse (Ojibwa) Nation born 1737 Michillimackinac baptised August 19, 1787 Michillimackinac, he appears to have a second wife Josette LaSable at same time.

Alexander Henry Sr (1739-1824), while trading at Michipicoten River at Lake Superio,r noted the existence of a post there of French establishment. Alexander Henry visited Sault Ste Marie and reported that provisions were low due too poor fishing this year.

Joseph Lisotte born 1767 likely Lake Superior married January 5, 1840 La Pointe, Wisconsin Carolina Omiskwakwadokwe born 1780 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Jean Baptiste Marcellais b-1767 Canada married Angelique Assinboine Indian b-1785 most likely North West.

Adam Mowat b-1767 Orkney married Jane Asham b-1772 most likely North West.

Anastasia Nipissing and wife of (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1723-1803) died during the winter of 1766-1767. Cadotte entered into a second marriage to Marie Mouet who sired (IV)-Joseph Marie Cadotte (1767-1773) in October 1767.

Peter Pangman (1744-1819) a Dutchman, some say a German is trading the Upper Mississippi.

Maria Pechabanokwe (Mistaken Woman) born 1767 likely Lake Superior died January 13, 1842 La Pointe, Wisconsin

Gaspar Le Portola, Governor (1768-1770) of Las California, New Spain is ordered by the Viceroy of Mexico to arrest and deport all the Roman Catholic Jesuits in colleges and missions. The Jesuits had built 14 missions since 1695 in Baja California. These missions were given to the Franciscans and Dominicans.

(I)-James Short b-1767 Orkney married Bethsy Saulteaux Indian b-1783 most likely North West.

It is noted that 700 men in 121 canoes entered the Great Lakes in trade, and that a greater number of illegal traders are not included in this count. The guarantors to a number of these traders are: (I)-Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787), Isaac Todd (1742-1819), McGill, Alexander Henry (1739-1824), Forrest Oakes and James Findlay. (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte, a Metis (1723-1803) who was with Henry when they arrived Michilimackinac, noted 100 canoes from the northwest are laden with beaver. These are likely the Metis, Indians and Coureurs des Bois.

As the Voyager trading evolved, so did their most prized possession- the canoe. Some were painted with a flag, horse, Indian head or a pipe. The most common colors were red, white and green. The canoe men were of three types: the Gouvernail (Steerman), the Milieux (Middlemen) and the Avant de Canot, Devant or Ducent (Bowsman). Sails were often carried in the canoes. Often, on the great lakes, the canoe was degraded. A canoe was called degraded when it was wind bound and they were forced to camp.

Three canoes were employed in the trade:

Canot du Maitre (Montreal Canoe) 35-40 feet long for use on the Great Lakes.

Canot du Nord (North Canoe) 25 feet for use on small streams and lakes.

Light Canot, half canoe or Indian canoe 10-15 feet long, although some light canoes were merely ones dispatched without freight. Some called them Canot du Batard (Bastard Canoe). This is likely because they didn't carry much merchandise.

In the spring, one hundred and fifty six canoes with thirty one thousand, six hundred and forty pelts reached the Hudson Bay. The Bay men also met Francois Le Blanc, born about 1712, also known as (Franceway, Saswee and Shish), Voyager of Michillimahnac and his native wife Marie Josephe Jourdain dit Josette, daughter of a Chief, on the river Blanc. The English called him Franceway. He had 15 canoes and is wintering at Finlay's House. Isaac Todd (1742-1819) and James McGill (1744-1813) of Montreal backed him this season. (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, noted that Francois Le Blanc, with his squaw and his child in the middle of a canoe, was proceeded by a native guide who is also transporting his wife and child in the craft. It is noteworthy that (I)-William Tomison, an Orkney, would also acquire his own squaw. (I)-William Tomison was sent inland to discover why trade had dropped off at Fort Severn. He was on the east shore of Lake Winnipeg when he met a large number of traders on their way to Basquea (The Pas). During the winter, he met many Indians but couldn't persuade them to go to Fort Severn, as they are trading with the Montreal men on the Misquagamaw River (The Bloodvein River). Some Ojibwa, called Bungee, continued to trade Severn, as they are hunting the caribou near Fort Severn.

Louis Primeau, a free-trader that deserted the Hudson Bay Company, brought in 36 packets of fur.

Isaac Batt (d-1791), (I)-William Pink, James Dearing and James Allen returned to the interior with a fleet of 156 canoes to winter.

Thomas Curry (Corry) is at Kaministikwia and on to Lake Winnipeg, wintering on the Assiniboine River and some suggest he is the only Englishman in the field, the rest being Frenchmen.

Thomas Curry and James Finlay, free traders, re-established Fort Nipawee on the Saskatchewan, built on the opposite shore from old Fort Nipawi.

Carver, employed by Major Robert Rogers, reported a large village of Ojibwa at Lac La Pluye (Rainy Lake). He also reported that Cree and Assiniboine from Lake of the Woods, Red River of the North, Lake Winnipeg and other locations much further west, are down, on trade to Grand Portage.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803), the Metis, is credited with maintaining the peace between the English, Ojibwa and Dakota. Cadotte conducted Henry Bostwick, an associate of John Chinn and Alexander Henry, to Copper Rock on the Ontonagon to assess the mining potential of the area. Jonathan Carver, in late summer, visited (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) at St. Marie falls, noting that Cadotte is still permitted to keep possession of his property (given he is Metis).

(I)-Andrew Graham (1733-1815), a bigamist, upon returning to his own post at Severn, sent (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, inland to Lake Winnipeg. Tomison returned in 1768 to report that the English and French traders are, daily, taking what furs the natives catch. The Indians say it is a long way to the Bay, whereas the French are near at hand.

Jonathan Carver claimed all the credit for an expedition up the Mississippi to Grande Portage, but James Tute was the leader and James Stanley Goddard was second in command.

Meanwhile the Metis (Acadiens-Cajuns) were established at two Forts at the Mouth of the Missouri River by the Spanish to secure Indian trade loyalty and to act as a buffer to the British. The Spanish had no understanding of mixed-blood culture. This is like putting the fox in the hen house. These Metis would shortly dominate the region. It is noteworthy that in 1754 the Spanish tried to stop those Coureurs des Bois, those vagabonds and vagrants, from trading with the savages.

January 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Bonaventure Reaume son (III)- Pierre Reaume dit Thamur (Themus) (1709-1766) and Suzanne Hubert Lacroix b-1709; married to (II)-Marie Jeanne nee Deshetres born September 27, 1749 daughter (I)-Antoine Deshetres and (III)-Marie Charlotte Chevallier born 1710.

January 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Jean Marie Philippe Legras and (IV)-Marie Jeanne Gamelin died August 12, 1769 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Laurent Eust Gamelin negociant died March 11, 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) and (III)-Marie Joseph Dudevoir et Bonvouloir dit Lachene daughter (II)-Claude Dudevoir.

January 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Marie Drouillard born 1766 daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Drouillard and (III)-Marie Charlotte Fauvel dit Bigras.

January 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (I)-Louis Bufet, a merchant, married (III)-Therese DeMarsac born October 18, 1737 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter (II)-Francois DeMarsac (1706-1777) and Therese Cecile Campeau (1714-1746).

January 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth (V)-Antoine Nicolas Lauzon son (IV)-Antoine Nicolas Lauzon (1727-1770) and (III)-Angelique Chevalier b-1733.

January 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Alexis Bienvenu son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage 1763.

January 31: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (II)-Louise Lafoy b-1746 daughter (I)-Antoine Lafoy and Elisabeth Moreau; she was married to Louis Vessiere.

February 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (II)-Louis Cesaire d'Ouville Dagneau, squire, sieur de Quindre dit Fontenay born October 8, 1704 Sorel, Quebec, engage west 1727, son sieur d'Ouville, married December 4, 1736 Montreal, Marie Anne Picote de Belestre (1717-1756).

February 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Francois Xavier Freton dit Nantais son (I)-Julien Freton dit Nantais born 1727 and (III)-Marie Joseph Gatignon born 1744.

February 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Anonyme Greffard child (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse.

February 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Pierre Dumay son Ambroise Dumay, merchant voyager and Marie Joseph Emard.

February 28: Mackinac, birth (VI)-Marie Anne Cote baptised July 25, 1767 Mackinac daughter (V)-Gabriel Cote (1742-1794) and Agathe Roy Desjaroins. Agathe Cote also listed but no date of birth but after Marie Anne.

March 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Charles Dupuis son (IV)- Charles Dupuis dit Moise (1728-1767) and (III)-Catherine Casse.

March 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Catherine Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1737 and Catherine Boyer; married, November 26, 1794, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Louis Morand.

April 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage Antoine Meloche to (IV)-Marie Louise Campeau daughter (III)-Charles Campeau (1715-1785) and (IV)-Marie Catherine St. Aubin dit Casse.

May 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Marriage, (IV)-Medard Gamelin; merchant; 1st lieutenant et major, neveu de mme Youville; born 1733 died October 11, 1778 son (III)-Ignace Gamelin; married (IV)-Angelique Chiquot (Cicotte) born 1741 died April 18,1777 daughter (III)-Zacharie Chiquot (Cicotte) (1708-1775) and (III)-Marie Angelique Godfroy (1720-1791).

May 10: Those associated with Oakes include: Pierre Bonssel, St Sulpice, Gouvernal Mickilimkina, Andre Bouthillier, St. Sulpice, Mittel, Mickilimkina, Pierre Parrent, Terrebonne, to winter Mickilimkina, Antoine La Lande, guide to Grand Portage and return, Aimable Rouillard Feauybourg de Ricollet to go Grand Portage, devant (front) de cannote, Jean Baptiste Eltaing Brunnet, St. Genevieve to Grand Portage, milieu (middle) de cannot, Jean Baptiste Bigras, Isle Jesus, to Grand Portage, bout (back) de cannote, to go to Micilimakinac, Robert Geanne to Grand Portage and return to M (Micilimakinac? or Montreal?), Louis Meinard from Chambly to Winter.

May 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage (III)-Jean Baptiste Chauvin born March 25, 1740 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) now living Grand Maris son (II)-Charles Chauvin (1702-1772) and ((II)-Marie Anne Casse born 1710) or second marriage step mother? (III)-Marie Madeleine Cauchon born 1655; veuve d'Oliver Michel; and Marie Louise Boyer; married Therese Seguin born 1752 daughter (III)--Joseph Seguin.

May 12: James Tute born 1738 Mass, died 1782/82, James Stanley Goddard, Jonathan Carver (d-1780), Andrew Stewart, William Bruce died 1781/82, Joseph Reaume of Green Bay, Charles Gauthier de Verville, Augustin Ange, Gabriel Loring and Lorange and their Ojibwa guide- Acopewine, departed Prairie du Chien up the Mississippi on their quest for the North West Passage. Charles Gauthier de Verville was hired to trade Prairie du Chien, and it is said that he had children with women of different tribes.

May 29: The Acopewine expedition reached the mouth of the Chippewa River, and Goddard believed the Dakota and Ojibwa were at perpetual war, but they passed through the Dakota region safely.

June 22-29: the Acopewine expedition visited Lac Court Oreilles village consisting of 60 warriors, Andickweas, Megose and Ochick. Goddard believed these Ojibwa lived in constant fear of being attacked by the Dakota.

June 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Felicite Chapoton died June 24, 1767 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1721 and (III)-Felicite Cesire born 1737.

July 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VI)-Charles Cloutier son (V)-Rene Cloutier born 1734 and (IV)-Marie Joseph Campeau born 1745;

July 19-August 8: The Acopewine expedition reached Grand Portage.

July 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Louis Campeau son (IV)-Jacques Campeau born 1735 and (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739.

July 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Francois DeMarsac son (II)-Francois DeMarsac (1706-1777) and Therese Cecile Campeau (1714-1746); married (IV)-Marie Charlotte Bourassa daughter (III)-Rene Bourassa dit LaRonde (1718-1792) and (III)-Anne Charlotte Ver Chavalier born 1746. See marriage August 3, 1744.

August 2: Francois La Blanc arrived at Grand Portage from Michilimackinac, enroute to Forts Dauphin and Des Prairies. He delivered a letter from commander Rogers of Michilimackinac to the Acopewine expedition, informing them that no supplies were to arrive but ordering them to continue west. The team decided to quit the expedition and return to Michilimackinac. They arrived back at Michilimackinac on August 29, 1767.

August 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau, merchant, born June 24, 1743 son (III)-Louis Campeau (1702-1774) and (II)-Marie Louise Robert died April 2, 1176 married (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751 (born April 26, 1747 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) (according to Tanguay) daughter (IV)-Jacques Godet (1699-1760) and (IV)-Marie Louise St. Martin dit Baudry Desbuttes.

August 26: Detroit, birth, (V)-Therese Lauzon daughter (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse.

September 8: Kaskaskia, (Illinois), marriage, Poutpart of Cahokia (Illinois) to Marie Louise Chenier daughter Claude Chenier and Marie Louise Brunet.

October: (IV)-Marie Renee Cadotte (1756-1780) and (IV)-Charlotte Cadotte (1759-1768) are sent in October to Montreal to attend Notre Dame school.

October 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Pierre Chauvin son (II)-Charles Chauvin (1702-1772) and (II)-Marie Anne Casse born 1710.

October 26: Michillimackinac, Marriage Antoine Clemenceau to (III)-Michill Genevieve Landrouche daughter (II)-Andre Landrouche dit Skayanisse a voyager and Amme Parant (1723-1768).

November 10: Kaskaskias, Illinois, birth Genevieve Desruisseaux daughter Paul Trottier Bellecour b-1736 Batiscan, and Marie St Gemme Beauvais; married November 24, 1788 Kaskaskias, Illinois Rene Hazeur Soumande.

November 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Antoine Douaire de Bondy son (IV)-Joseph Douaire de Bondy, and (IV)-Marie Joseph Gamelin born 1741.

November 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Aide-Crequy born this year son (III)Jean Baptiste and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763, He married February 4, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Cecile Menny.

November 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Elisabeth DesComps daughter (II)- Antoine Louis DesComps dit Labadie-Bodichon (1767) and (IV)-Angelique Campeau ( 1742 -1767)

November 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Louis Michel Comparet son (II)-Francois Comparet and (IV)-Marie Judith Tremblay (1738-1768); married January 12, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Agnes Jeanne born 1774.

December: Likely Au Bout de I'IIe, Montreal, birth Jean Baptiste Lalonde Metis son Jean Baptiste Lalonde and Cecile Hery en sauvage (Kil8abe).

1768

Only 1 person claimed to be born at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year.

Alexis Bauvier b-1768 married Josephte Saulteaux b-1770 likely North West.

Marie Anne Catin born 1768 daughter Antoine Catin died before 1791 and was married about 1767 to Marie Anne Martin living south west of La Cote; married December 31, 1783 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Joseph Mallet.

Raphael Faygnaut (Faygnant) born 1768 North West, census 1835 Red River. William Wales, a British astronomer and mathematician, visited (1768-69) Prince of Wales Fort, meeting with Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) who desired to improve his knowledge of surveying and chart making. William Wales, a visiting astronomer at Churchill on the Bay, remarked that dandelions make a most excellent salad to our roast geese. Dandelions are not native to North America.

James Finlay wintered 1768/69 on the Saskatchewan River.

Marriage (III)-Jean Baptiste Grignon born 1743 son (II)- Pierre Grignon (1709-1736?) and (III)- Josephe Marguerite Chevalier born 1723; married Marie Renee Moreau.

Thomas Harrison Sr. b-1768 Red River Settlement married Sarah Indian b-1776 most likely North West.

John Long, a trader from 1768 to 1782, visiting Sault Ste Marie, reported the Chippewa had built a small fort and about ten log houses, which existed for the French and English traders.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Joseph Normand to (IV)-Agathe Gamelin born 1745 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), died April 4, 1747 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (III)-Laurent Eustache Gamelin born 1695 negociant died March 11, 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and (III)-Marie Joseph Dudevoir et Bonvouloir dit Lachene daughter (II)-Claude Dudevoir dit Bonvouloir and Barbara Elisabeth Cardinal.

Jean Pere is on Lake Superior, searching for copper mines.

Gaspar le Portola of Spain established a settlement at San Diego and ordered the establishment at Monterey Bay, Las California.

Francois St. Pierre b-1768 married Angelique b-1770 most likely North West.

(I)-John Sutherland b-1768 Scotland married Christiana McBeath b-1770 most likely North West.

(I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, recorded the first Hudson Bay Company official visit to the Red River settlement this year.

Matthew Truthwaite b-1768 married Elizabeth Indian b-1770 North West Territories

(I)-William Pink reported that Shish, the Indian name for Francois Le Blanc born 1712 of Michillimahnac (or Franceway, also Saswee or Shish), is planning to build a fort at Pemmican Point, about a hundred and seventy miles up river from the Pasquia. Another canoe with eleven French traders, engaged by Shish, is observed on the river. Francois Le Blanc (Franceway) of Michillimahnac and ten Canadians wintered at Paskoyac, Fort Dauphin and Fort La Prairie near Nipawin.

(I)-William Pink, an Englishman of York Factory, said the reason they are here is that the English didn't know the way. Ferdinand Jacob, Chief Factor York Factory, wrote to London that James Finlay states the right to trade within fifty leagues of the Companies Forts, and says if you don't like it, write direct to James Finlay, Merchant in Montreal, to the care of Monsieur's Hunter and Bailey, Merchants in London. A direct and bold challenge to the Hudson Bay Company's stated rights. With Franceway and James Finlay on the Saskatchewan, the Hudson Bay Company's return of beaver dropped by a third.

The Chief of Fort Albany called the attention of Major Rogers, the Commandant of Mackinac, to the new methods of the Pedlers whose encroachment excelled the past 18 years of his experience. The whole country is being traversed from the Prairie to the Barren Ground.

(I)-Andrew Graham (1733-1815), the bigamist, of Hudson Bay Company, presented a plan to London for the occupation on the interior. The first Inland post, however, would not be built until 1774. (I)-Andrew Graham (1733-1815), the bigamist, of Hudson Bay Company, wrote: No person is allowed to have correspondence with the natives without the chief's orders, not even to go into an Indian tent. The natives are not permitted to come within the forts but when their business requires. (I)-Andrew Graham (1733-1815), the bigamist, admitted that numerous half breed progeny already existed in every fort, including his own. It is noteworthy that Graham was one of the few Hudson Bay men to be allowed to bring his Metis daughter to England. Graham had another wife in Britain.

The Imperial Government repealed the restrictions imposed on trade with the savages. (I)-Alexander Henry Sr's (1739-1824) franchise expired, leaving the Superior Country open to other traders. This year Grande Portage began to assume more prestige as a major access to the North West.

Father (I)-Sebastien Louis Meurin (1707-1777), the Jesuit, recorded that it is the Canadian custom, since the English took control, to be married by the magistrate or the commandant who fills his office. The Jesuits are not allowed to marry Roman Catholics unless licensed to do so is obtained.

Father (I)-Sebastien Louis Meurin (1707-1777), the Jesuit, wrote: the property of the Jesuit in Kaskias (Kaskaskia, Illinois) was seized, confiscated and sold by the French Government. Jean Baptiste Bauvais purchased the property and rented it to the English. He is being denied the sacrements.

Francisco Garces of Spain explores California, the Great Basin, the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon using Mojave guides, from 1768 to 1776. Gaspar de Portola and Junipero Serra of Spain traveled with the native Peoples on the California Coast.

Fernando de Rivera y Moncada of Spain used Natives as bearers and soldiers from Mexico to San Diego

The (I)-Richard Dobie (1731-1805) party voyage to Michilimackinac.

January 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Marriage, Alexander Heler to (III)-Marie Joseph Gastinon daughter (II)-Francois Catignon also Gastinon et Gastignon dit Duchesne born 1700 and (III)-Marie Joseph David (1698-1793); Marie married 1st February 12, 1759 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Julien Freton.

January 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (I)-Etienne Langeron dit Lafontaine married (III)-Catherine Casse daughter (II)-Pierre Casse (1709-1794) and (II)-Marguerite Fourneau (1711-1791); Catherine 1st marriage November 7, 1762 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Charles Dupuis.

January 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Madeleine Huyet daughter (II)-Pierre Huyet et Huguet-Huiette-Ponceley-Champagne born 1737 and (IV)-Marie Reine Trempley born 1744; married January 12, 1784 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Joseph Basinet.

March 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Pierre Couture, son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Couture born 1735 and (IV)-Marie Campeau born 1742.

March 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jean Baptiste Duprat died June 24, 1768 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

March 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Charlotte Chevalier, born 1706.

April 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Hypolite Campeau (Il etait, en 1775, a Mackinac) born 1741 son (III)-Jean Baptiste Campeau (1711-1783) and (III)-Catherine Perthus (1718-1763); married (IV)-Marie Anne Pepin-DesCardonnets born 1726; veuve de Pierre Boyer.

April 15: The British, Lord Hillsborough, Secretary of State, concluded that the interior Indian fur trade could not be regulated. The fur trade was therefore declared unrestricted and open.

April 15: Michilimackinac, Louis Reaume is hired by Amable Desriviere for Michilimackinac.

April 24: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Le Duc, born 1698.

April 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Therese Bufet daughter (I)-Louis Bufet, a merchant, and Therese DeMarsac.

May 6: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Goiau, born 1494.

May 6: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Belle Amour (drowned), born 1714.

May 28: Kaskaskia, Illinois, marriage Joseph Creilly (Crely) son Jean Baptiste Creilly and Marie Agette; married Marie Louis Marquis.

May 31: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jacques Chauvin son (II)-Noel Chauvin born 1732 and (III)-Jeanne Meloche born 1742.

July: Between Oswego and Niagara Lees met Gamelin of British Fort Detroit (Michigan) with 2 canoe fur, 1 canoe for Cazeau, 1 canoe for Mouton, 2 canoe for Rameau, 2 canoe for Berthelot of Montreal and 2 batteaus (boat or ship) for Phyn of Schenectady.

July 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Cecile DeMarsac daughter (III)-Francois DeMarsac sieur de L'Homme Trou and (IV)-Marie Charlotte Bourassa.

July 24: Michillimackinac, baptism Angelique Gardin (Cardin) born August 29, 1767 slave M. Gardin (Cardin).

July 24 and 27: (II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) witnessed a baptism at Mickinac.

July 24: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Louise Kakigignum, born November 1767, daughter Joseph Kakigiguam and Marie Nanjoiquoy.

July 25: Michilimackinac, churched marriage (V)-Gabriel Cote (1742-1794) trader son (III)-Nicolas Cotte (1696/1720-after 1762) and Marie Claude Levaseur born Camouraka (Kamouraska, Quebec); 1st married country style August 17, 1765 Agathe Desjardins Roy; 2nd marriage 1783 Montreal, Angelique Blondeau daughter Jean Baptiste Blondeau and Genevieve Anger. Witnesses include: Catin, Pierre Chaboiller, Jacques Gaisson and Therese Campion, wife of Pierre Ignace DuBois.

July 25: Michilimackinac, baptism, (VI)-Marianne Cotte, born February 28, 1768 daughter (V)-Gabriel Cote (1742-1794) trader and Agathe Desjardins Roy

July 25: (I)-William Pink returned to Pemmican Point (established by Shash in 1758) but Shash (Francois or Franceway) and Company had already relocated up river at Nipowin. He also reported that another Canadian House is located at Mithquag Me, the Indian name for Red River.

July 26: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Joseph Kakigiguam daughter Joseph Kakigiguam and Marie Najoiquory.

July 26: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Kakigiguam daughter Joseph Kakigiguam and Marie Najoiquory.

July 27: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Louise Pacoacona daughter Jean Baptiste Pacoacona and Francois Marie Megonojan.

July 28: Michilimackinac, marriage Hyacinthe Hamelin and Marie Josephe Maingans.

July 28: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Josephe born 1767, witness Charles Chaboillez.

July 29: Mackinac baptism Joseph Marie Cadotte born October 1767 (1767-1773) son (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadot (1723-1803) and Marie Mouet (Monet) his wife who is present but unable to write. Godfather is Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboillez (1736-1808), trader.

August 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Jean Baptiste Brillant dit Lapierre, Metis, son (I)-Jean Baptiste Brillant dit Lapierre and Francoise Itagisse Chretienne Sauteuse (Ojibwa). Souerce Tanguay.

August 31: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Ignace Casse died November 17, 1770 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (II)-Jacques Casse and (IV)-Catherine Jean Vien died 1779.

September 29: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Louise Godefroi, born 1752.

Octobrer 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Charles Courtois son (IV)-Charles Denis Courtois dit Marin born 1744 and (III)-Catherine St Cosme born 1749.

October 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth (V)-Marie Joseph Lauzon daughter (IV)-Antoine Nicolas Lauzon (1727-1770) and (III)-Angelique Chevalier b-1733, died May 21, 1794: married November 13, 1790 Detroit Michel Tremblay.

October 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Louis Campeau son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751.

November 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Toussaint Chesne son (III)-Charles Chesne born 1732 and (II)-Marie Joseph Descomps dit Labadie born 1737.

November 14: Kaskaskia, Illinois, Jacques Laderoute is killed by the Indians.

December 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Ignace Tibaut to (III)-Catherine Casse daughter (II)-Jacques Casse and (IV)-Catherine Jean Vien died 1779.

December 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chauvin son (III)-Jean Baptiste Chauvin born 1740 and (IV)-Therese Segun born 1752; married January 13, 1794 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Elisabeth Campeau.

December 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (V)-Anonyme Campeau child (IV)-Alexis Campeay (1737-1782) and (V)-Madeline Dumays (1745-1795).

December: Moose factory: (I)-John Kipling entered the cabin of (I)-William Cooley with a cocked gun and claimed it accidentally discharged killing (I)-Christopher Hull.

Fights were not uncommon, as the John Levach and Richard Lovegrove encounter resulted in a broken arm and collar bone for Lovegrove that didn't heal, leaving him permanently crippled. (I)-David Hatt had threatened to crush the head of chief factor- Kitchin.

1769

James Dearing and Thomas Haddle are on the Saskatchewan River this year.

Ambroise Allard born 1768-1769 North West census 1831-1835 Red River. Possible son Gabriel Allard.

Magnus Birston b-1769 Orkney but claims to be a Metis? who married a Widowed Metis b-1775 North West Territories.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadot (1723-1803) sent his second native wife Marie Mouet (Monet) and his three sons (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818), (IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) and (IV)-Joseph Marie Cadotte (1767-1773) to Montreal to join his one surviving daughter (IV)-Marie Renee Cadotte (1756-1780) to get an education.

(II)-Pierre Descomps dit Labadie (Fillau in 1778) born 1742 son (I)-Pierre Descomps; married likely British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (II)-Therese Gaillard dit Lionais born

1746.

Francois Dorion is hired by Maurice Blondeau for la Mer de l'Ouest, to winter.

Mackinac, marriage (III)-Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel born March 31, 1725 Quebec, Quebec son (II)-Bernard Dumouchel (1687-1744) and (III)-Marie Anne Tessier b-1694: married 1769 Mackinac Francoise Sauvagesse.

Martin Miloney Duralade appreciated the value of the Indian lead mines on the Fever (Galena) River in the upper Mississippi region. The French had been aware of the Indian lead mines since 1634.

James Finley of Montreal and 12 Frenchmen are at Nipowin.

Monsieur Gaunaux (Garneau), the stray of Ste Pierre de Montmagny, is born about 1769 at an unknown location, (most likely (V)-Jean Baptiste Garneau born November 6, 1762 Pte Aux Trembles, Quebec) and his first known child is born 1790 Fort La Pointe, Madeleine Island, Wisconsin. His second known child is born about 1795 Red Lake, Minnesota.

Margaret Papakine (Cricket) born 1769 likely Lake Superior died July 22, 1843 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) son (I)-Pierre Grignon born 1709 and Josephte Marguerite Chevalier; married 1st 1769 likely Green Bay or in the field Menominee/Winnebago, It appears they were not churched until 1776; 2nd married 1787 Machilimackinac (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade born 1759 daughter (IV)-Charles Michel Langlade and Charlotte Ambroiseine Bourassa.

Houle b-1768 Lower Canada married Elise Indian b-1774 most likely North West.

Samuel Scheidegan b-1769 listed born other, married Nelly Indian b-1802 most likely North West.

(I)-William Wales, a Hospital Boy, is in Hudson Bay, being chosen by the Royal Society to take observations of the Transit of Venus at the Bay Post.

St. Louis, Missouri, (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810), a Spaniard, arrived St. Louis.

Adrien Jolliet joined Jean Pere on Lake Superior, searching for copper mines.

Two Sulpican priests, Francois Dollier de Casson (1636-1701)- onetime captain in Turenne's calvery and Renee de Brehaut de Galinee, with seven Canadians, voyaged to Lake Erie by way of Lake Ontario, claiming both lakes and surrounding lands for France. Galinee, in 1670, would venture on to Sault Ste Marie and make a map of the region.

Isaac Todd (1742-1819) is in partnership with James McGill (1744-1813), Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787) and Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810). They sent their voyagers to Rainy Lake and the Northwest Country. Benjamin Frobisher and Joseph Frobisher, with 5 canoes, are stopped and turned back by the Indians at Rainy Lake (Ontario). Others suggested this happened in 1765 and again in 1766. This partnership is still controlled by (I)-Richard Dobie (1731-1805) until 1770 when he sent his men to Grande Portage and the partnership was dissolved.

Jean Baptiste Brunet dit L'etang (Letang or Lestang) is hired for la mer de L'Ouest by Maurice Blondeau for 1769-1770.

The Hudson Bay Company allowed Chief Factor (I)-Ferdinand Jacobs to send 6 men per season into the interior. They could only have a small quantity of trade goods for a temporary summer post. Jacobs sent his Metis son Samuel to England for his education and his daughter Thucautch to the Indians for her education.

(I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) is assigned as mate to Joseph Stephens and the hundred ton whaling brig Charlotte. He promptly appealed to London for a more senior assignment. The Prince of Wales, Chief Factor, (II)-Moses Norton, a Metis, d-1773, a bigamist and murderer, despised (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792). So he approved the assignment hoping to rid himself of the fellow.

The Hudson Bay Company refused to accept the necessity of sending men into the field and ordered York Factory to discontinue this practice. Inland posts have greater problems in private trade and trapping, relations with Indian women and indiscriminate use of alcohol than the more closely supervised Bayside factories- so argued those who appose inland trading.

(I)-Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787) and his brothers (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) and (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788), who are trading in Lake Michigan area, joined the Company of Isaac Todd (1742-1819) and James McGill (1744-1813) of Montreal in order to establish a trading post on the Red River of the north.

The Mantawapowa people encountered by (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney at Dauphin Lake, are believed to be a tribe of Ojibwa. Reports say some Ojibwa are pillaging canoes on their way to Lake Winnipeg during the 1769-1770 season.

Forest Oakes, (II)-Charles Boyer (b-1735), (III)-Maurice Blondeau (b-1706) and (III)-Jean Baptiste Adhemar (b-1736) are on the Assiniboine River. The Cree near Lake Manitoba conducted a ritual dance and invocations to hasten the arrival of the Canadians.

The population of St. Louis is 891 excluding slaves.

January 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Joseph Bienvenu son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745. See parent marriage 1763.

January 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Laurent Greffard born August 11, 1745 son (III)-Louis Greffard (1713-1756) and (III)-Catherine Garand d-1748; married (III)-Marie Anne Casse daughter (II)-Pierre Casse (1709-1794) and (II)-Marguerite Fourneau (1711-1791.

February 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, Louis Cesaire d'Ouville Dagneau, Squire, Sieur de Quindre, son of Sieur d'Ouville, officer. Husband Marie Anne Piquotte de Bellestre who died December 31, 1770.

February 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Medard Couture, son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Couture born 1735 and (IV)-Marie Campeau born 1742.

February 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Joseph Campeau son (IV)-Jacques Campeau born 1735 and (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739.

February 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Antoine Nicolas Lauzon to Angelique Chevalier daughter Jean Baptiste Chevalier deceased and Francoise Alavoine also deceased (see 1705).

March 14: Detroit, birth/death, (V)-Marie Francois Lauzon, died March 17, 1769 Detroit daughter (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse.

March 15: Kaskaskias, Illinois, birth Francois Xavier Desruisseaux son Paul Trottier Bellecour b-1736 Batiscan, and Marie St Gemme Beauvais.

March 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Therese Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1737 and Catherine Boyer

April: The British ship Seahorse set sail for Canada, a three month trip, with (I)-John Miles born 1752 and (I)-John Thomas who became chief factor Moose Fort in 1782.

April 4: (V)-Marie Joseph Hamelin, Metis baptised August 19, 1787 Michillimackinac daughter (IV)-Louis Charles Hamelin Metis born 1737 Michillimackinac son (III)-Charles Hamelin and his slave woman Marie Athanase a Sauteux woman ( 1708- 1738) and Marie Joseph LeSable of the Sauteuse (Ojibwa) Nation born 1737 Michillimackinac. Marie married 1797 Andrew Charlebois.

May 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Margarete Aide-Crequy born this year daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763, she married January 29, 1784 Jacque Chauvin.

June: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Rochelot, born 1769.

June 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Catherine Chapoton daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1721 and (III)-Felicite Cesire born 1737; married (no date listed) George Maldrum.

July: The British ship Seahorse, under command of Captain Horner, encountered the whalers Duke and Mary out of Boston, off the coast of Labrador. The British were always fearful of an attack by the French or other rovers. They had been ordered to keep as low a profile as possible. The Seahorse traded with the Esquimaux (Inuit) but were ordered not to sound their cannon for trade. They encountered the ships King George and Prince Rupert on their way to York, and Prince of Wales while the Seahorse was on it's way to James Bay.

July: The San Carlos with 63 men sailed north to Los Angeles and returned to San Diego.

August 2, reached Los Angelas

September 13, reached San Simeon/Ragged Point

October 1, reached Salinas River

October 31, reached San Francisco Bay

 

August 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Nicolas Michel married (III)-Marie Charlotte Cesire born July 10, 1727 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter (II)-Jean Cesire (1698-1767) and (II)-Marguerite Charlotte Girard (born 1703).

September: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Le Beau, born January 1768.

September: Moose Factory, (I)-Joseph Stevens, (I)-John Miles born August 1752 and (I)-John Thomas, who is appointed chief factor Moose Fort in 1782, arrived at the Fort. The current chief factor is (I)-Christopher Goston and the second in command is (I)-Eusebuis Kitchin. The rustic fort is actually a small trading post containing 23 men in all. Miles replaced (I)-William Cooley, who had served since 1766. Trolio, an Eskimo living with the Cree, also worked at the Post.

September 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marguerite Greffard daughter (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse.

September 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (III)-Joseph Larrive b-1727 married to (IV)-Brigitte Petit dit Lalumiere.

October: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Elizabeth Andre, born April 1769.

November 6: (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) departed Fort Prince of Wales to explore the interior for five weeks. (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792), on his next expedition, employed Matonabbee, an unknown, and was unauthorized by (II)-Moses Norton, a Metis, d-1773,a bigamist and murderer. Matonabbee, with his seven wives, effectively became the leader of the expedition. (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) admitted his travels brought no material advantage to the Hudson Bay Company. A young and most comely wife of Matonabbee elopes with another man. Another wife of Matonabbee would have been taken from him by force had he not bargained for her.

During the period 1769 to 1772, Matonabbe, a Chipewyan guide and a skilled leader of great prestige, with a small group of natives, led Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) of the Hudson Bay Company for five thousand miles. They covered two hundred and fifty thousand square miles of the Northern Prairies. They visited Churchill River, Copper mine River, Great Slave Lake, Slave River and the Arctic Ocean, contacting Indian and Inuit natives before returning in 1772. Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) would later write of Hearne's journey to the North Sea where, according to what I have learned, he never went. This is a very interesting comment because Mackenzie never went anywhere without his Metis, Coureurs des Bois and Hivernant Voyagers to show him the way. The 1769 Hearne expedition nearly ended in disaster when the Chipewyan Chawchinahaw plundered the food stocks and deserted (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) to find his own way home. (II)-Moses Norton, a Metis, d-1773, a bigamist and murderer, is likely behind this deception. The next expedition employed the incompetent Conneequese as guide, also selected by (II)-Moses Norton, a Metis, d-1773. These Chipewyan also plundered his goods and abandoned him, leaving him to his fate. Matonabbee, a Chipewuyan chief, chanced upon and saved Samuel Hearne. The two men became fast friends. Matonabbee was born at Prince of Wales Fort, son of a Chipewyan hunter and Cree slave girl, and (I)-Richard Norton adopted him. Richard is the father of (II)-Moses Norton, a Metis, also born Prince of Wales Fort, d-1773. It is noteworthy that both Moses and Matinabbee would become bigamists.

(I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) wrote, from first hand experience, that the Cree girls are very frisky when young, well shaped, their eyes large and gray- yet lively and sparkling and very bewitching.

(I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) had obtained his Indian slave by requesting a war party to steal one for him. The Ojibwa girls possessed pretty black eyes which humored in a languishing and engaging manner.

December 10: Five men deserted the Spanish expedition at the Monterey Peninsula, California and are presumed to have joined the natives.

December 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Joseph Landry daughter (IV)-Firmin Landry dit Charlot b-1735 and Marguerite Siouse d-1773 (see parents marriage 1771).