Metis

1773 - 1775


The Spanish discover Vancouver Island

The Hudson Bay Company establishes it's first inland trading shack.

One hundred and sixty Metis and Montreal Traders virtually surround

his little six man Hudson Bay Company shack.


The English, at this time, consider the Metis as hardy, courageous,
shrewd and a proud people.

They had conquered half a continent with little blood shed;
they had built up a commercial empire, traveling incredible distances;
they had established farms and businesses along the whole
length of the trade routes.

An incomparable feat, unequaled in recorded times.


1773

British Fort Detroit (Michigan) contained 1,367 people, excluding soldiers.

(I)-Jean Askin (b-1749), married, to Archange Barthe (b-1749) is living Fort Michilimacknic until 1779. Most likely a country marriage. He is also recorded as living in the West until after 1783.

John Bartram, an American, is in the west this year.

Travel Permit is issued to Maurice Blondeau and 22 men. Blondeau is up the Saskatchewan River, North West Territories. Barthelemi Blondeau is on the Red Deer River (Manitoba).

Jean Baptiste Bono born 1773 Canada, appears to have married Jophine b-1805 Canada, living Sault Ste. Marie, (Michigan/Ontario) 1850 census.

Carolina Boussequet born 1773, died September 22, 1838 La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

Charles Bruce is reported at Red Deer River (Manitoba). Bruce is from the Mississippi River, Louisiana district. He killed an Indian and he had to depart this region.

William Bruce and four men are at Pasquia on the Saskatchewan River, North West Territory.

The Red River census, Metis Country (Manitoba) of 1831 to 1838 lists Laurent Cadotte Jr. born 1773 and 1783 North West, son Laurent Cadotte born 1747 to 1757, which could imply more than one person, and the two Laurent Cadotte jr.'s, born 1773 and 1783, likely suggests two different persons.

Louis Cyr b-1773 Canada married Catherine Martineau Metis b-1807 Canada daughter Ambroise Martineau b-1761 Canada and Josephte Indian b-1785 or Charlotte Metis b-1787.

Jean Baptiste Marie Ducharme (1723/24-1807) is trading on the Missouri River, Viceroyalty of New Spain and is arrested by the Spaniards and taken to St. Louis, Viceroyalty of New Spain.

(I)-George Flett b-1773 Scotland married Marguerite Whitford Metis b-1796 likely North West.

(I)- Frobisher ( is on the Saskatchewan (Cumberland house), another (I)-Frobisher is at Fort Dauphin. Joseph Frobisher and Louis Primeau wintered Pine Island Lake.

Birth Pierre Francois LeBlanc son Francois Le Blanc born 1712 also known as (Franceway, Saswee and Shish), and Marie Josephe Jourdain dit Josette.

(I)-Louis de Buade Compt de Frontenac (1622-1698) forced the habitants of Montreal, Quebec, to provide labor and materials throughout the summer to construct Fort Frontenac at the eastern end of Lake Ontario. This was in direct conflict with the orders of Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619­83) of Quebec. Montreal, Quebec Governor Francois Marie Perrot was also not pleased, as this would drain off furs from Montreal, Quebec and provide a new staging point for Coureurs des Bois trading to the west.

The colony was divided into two hostile factions, both trying to dominate the fur trade.

(III)-Pierre Grignon (b-1740), married, about 1773 a D'une Mere Sauvagesse as recorded Fort Michilimachnic August 7, 1787 during his second marriage. One child is recorded as a result of this union (IV)-Amable Grignon born 1774.

Jean Baptiste Ledoux b-1773 Canada married Madeleine Saulteaux Indian b-1785 North West Territories.

Joseph Mesantego b-1773, living 1870 census St. Ignace, (Michigan).

Pabishkekezhisk b-1773, living 1870 census St. Ignace, (Michigan).

Peter Pangman (1744-1819) is trading Lake Dauphin. Later he ventured to York Factory and is arrested by Mathew Cocking for illegal trading, and his furs are confiscated.

Peter Pond (1740-1807), in partnership, traded the upper Mississippi, assigning nine agents at Praire du Chein to trade the various streams flowing into the Mississippi. Peter himself worked the mouth of the Minnesota River. At Prairie du Chien there are 130 canoes from Mackinac to trade. People from the full length of the Mississippi are here in trade, including Orleans, Viceroyalty of New Spain, some 800 leagues below.

(I)-Joseph Spence b-1773 Scotland married Sophia Indian b-1794 most likely North West Territory.

(I)-George Spence b-1773 Scotland married Catherine Indian b-1791 most likely North West Territory.

Pier Toinaeau b-1773 Canada, married Julia b-1795 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, (Wisconsin/Ontario)

Todd, James McGill and Peter Pond (1740-1807) are at Michillimackinac.

Mathew Cocking (d-1799), and Louis Primeau (Primo) are going inland to secure trade with 17 men and to winter under command of (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) near Cumberland house.

(I)-Jean Etienne Waden, d-1782, a Swiss is at Grande Portage.

The English traders were feeling the pinch of the dropping trade with Canada. In the 1663-64 trading season, they obtained 10,390 Made-Beaver and this year it dropped to 3,125. Mathew Cocking, a bigamist who died 1779, reported that he reached the Eagle Hills of the Saskatchewan and found repeated instances of Canadian influence over the Indians. He supported (I)-Andrew Graham's (1733-1815, also a bigamist), opinion that inland posts are required on the Saskatchewan if trade is to be saved. The English had to reconsider their Inland Trading policy. The letters of Jacob and (I)-Andrew Graham (1733-1815), a bigamist, had not reached London, but based on the reports of

(I)-Isaac Batt (d-1791), they agreed to establishing an inland post at The Pas under the command of (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792).

Prince of Wales Chief Factor (II)-Moses Norton, d-1773, a Metis and a bigamist and murderer, died. (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) cheerfully reported that he expired in the greatest agony that could have possibly been conceived.

The Hudson Bay Company reported that Wappenassew, who trade York Fort since 1755, has gone over to those Montreal Peddlers. He is conveying the canoes to Michillimackinac. At Rainey Lake, Francis (Buoy) Boyer and his brother Michel Boyer and wife Josette Marguerite DuLignon of Makinac reside as old standing traders to the southwest. One hundred and sixty canoes have been diverted to those Canadians. However, Bove, a Canadian who is living with the Natives, joined the Hudson Bay Company.

(I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792), Garret, Slater, five others and 2 Indians finally established the first inland trading post (a log tent shack) for the Hudson Bay Company, sixty miles beyond the Pas at Oine Island Lake (Pine Island on the Saskatchewan), just north of the Saskatchewan River. Some confusion exists as the post was moved a number of times. It was a good location, however their lack of canoes and the necessary skills in their use limited its effectiveness. The English, in their own words, possessed no equivalent of the French Assinipoval Metis, those natural water dogs, who handle the canoes with consummate skill. One hundred and fifty Montreal traders virtually surrounded the six English. The first order of business was to acquire two or three native women to stay with them. The first significant visitors at the new Cumberland house arrived October 9, seven canoes of Canadian traders. Included is Monsieur's Joseph and (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788) with six large canoes. Charles Paterson (d-1788) of the Michilimackinac Company and Franceway had left their seven canoes down river with William Holmes and came just for a visit before going up river. They also had Robert Flatt, a Bay man who has lost all the Cumberland House supplies to the Natives and would have perished had he not been picked up by the Canadians.

Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) recorded that the Canadian canoe is twenty four feet long, four feet eight inches broad and one foot eight inches high, and it was paddled by four men. The Pataroon or Steersman gets fifty pounds per season; the foreman forty pounds per year; and the rest get twenty to twenty five pounds according to their goodness.

Two men in each canoe get five extra pounds for carrying and mending. Each canoe can carry upwards of two tons. Sixty of these large canoes came into this country, this year, all from the Montreal Company.

These Canadians, mostly 'Assinipoval Metis', are hardy, courageous, shrewd and proud. They conquered half a continent and built up a commercial empire, traveling incredible distances. They held the Potties (English) in contempt; patronized the French; loved the natives, especially the women, and considered the North West their play ground.

(I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) and Louis Primeau (Primo) wintered at Pine Island Lake. Louis Primeau (Primo) worked for the Hudson Bay Company in 1764-65.

(IV)-Joseph Barthelemi Blondeau (1743-1790) of Michillimahnac and Francois Le Blanc(born 1712), also known as Franceway, Saswee and Shish, voyager of Michillimahnac, wintered on Lake Winnipeousis. (IV)-Joseph Barthelemi Blondeau (1743-1790) of Michillimahnac is reported to have worked the Saskatchewan River this year. Charles Paterson (d-1788) of the Michilimackinac Company stayed on the Saskatchewan.

Francois Le Blanc, born 1712, also known as Franceway, Saswee and Shish, voyager of Michillimahnac, dispatched 15 canoe among the various routes to pursuit Indians on their way to York Factory. (I)-William Pink of York Factory has spent the last 7 years attempting to direct trade from the Peddlers to the Hudson Bay Company, especially on the Saskatchewan. Matthew Cocking, a bigamist (d-1799), returned to York Factory having for the past two years traveled the Blackfoot Territory. He would spend the

next two years on the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. He said he finds himself practically defenseless against the Peddlers. Those Montrealers are monopolizing the fur trade on the Saskatchewan River. He had to travel to Eagle Hills, south of Battleford.

The Boston Tea Party was allegedly about the British tea tax of three pence per pound. It was actually a lower tax than the colonists had been paying. The protest, therefore, was over a tax reduction. The Dutch tea was more expensive than the English tea, including tax. John Hancock, a prominent smuggler, attacked the tax as a forerunner of many more taxes to come.

January 1, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Catherine Bourdeau daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont; Catherine married January 28, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Augustin Lafoy.

January 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Jean Baptiste Pitre to (III)-Marie Francoise Anne Cosme et St. Cosme died August 28, 1783 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (II)-Pierre Laurent Cosme et St. Cosmeborn 1721 and (III)-Catherine Barrois (1727-1790).

February 12/13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (III)-Pierre Descomps son (II)-Pierre Descomps dit Labadie aka Fillau (1776) born 1742 and (II)-Therese Gaillard dit Lionais born 1746.

February 13: Detroit, birth, (V)-Atchange Lauzon daughter (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse.

February 16: Poste de Vincennes, Knox, Indiana, birth (III)-Therese nee Grenon baptised June 26, 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Toussaint Grenon (1732-1774) and Marie Charlotte Campeau.

February 26: birth (II)Joseph Ardouin and (II)Agnas Ardouin children of (I)Alexis Ardouin and Marie Joseph Lapointe (Ojibwa).

March 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marguerite Descomps daughter (II)-Alexis Descomps and (V)-Marie Francoise Robert born 1752; married November 5, 1792 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Etienne Dubois.

March 14: Detroit, baptism, Joseph Drouet, Jean Baptiste Drouet, Charlotte Drouet, and Anne Drouet, children of Joseph Drouet, sieur de Richerville, born March 16, Detroit and Marie Sauvagesse (Miamis).

March 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Agathe Chiquot daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot born 1749 and (IV)-Angelique Godefroy born 1753.

April 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Anne Greffard daughter (IV)-Laurent Greffard b-1745 and (III)-Marie Anne Casse.

April 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Joseph Chapoton daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1721 and (III)-Felicite Cesire born 1737.

May 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (III)-Louis Casse, killed by lightning, born 1761 died May 9, 1773 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (II)-Jacques Casse and (IV)-Catherine Jean Vien died 1779.

May 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Pierre Greffard son (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse; married July 13, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Marie Louise Dupre.

May 17: Saint Ignace (Michigan) and Louis Jolliet a.k.a. Joliet (1645­1700) of Green Bay, led an expedition, including Jesuit missionary Jacques Marquette and five woodsmen, to the Messisipi (Mississippi) River. They departed Sain Ignace, crossed Lake Michigan, ascended the Fox River, and descended the Wisconsin River that Jolliet had been trading in recent years. On June 17, 1673, the expedition entered the Mississippi River. The party then followed the Mississippi southward to a point below the mouth of the Arkansas River before turning back.

May 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Augustin Landry died June 12, 1773 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (IV)-Firmin Landry dit Charlot b-1735 and Marguerite Siouse d-1773 (see parents marriage 1771).

May 24: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Therese Janson dit La Palme, born February 1773.

May 29: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Xavier Buissonnet, born April 5, 1773.

May 31: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Angelique Huyet daughter (II)-Pierre Huyet et Huguet-Huiette-Ponceley-Champagne born 1737 and (IV)-Marie Reine Trempley born 1744.

June 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Jean Baptiste (also called Benjamin) DeMarsac born March 22, 1742 died July 20, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (II)-Francois DeMarsac (1706-1777) and Therese Cecile Campeau (1714-1746): married June 28, 1773 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (IV)-Genevieve Seguin daughter (III)-Joseph Seguin.

July 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Henri Bienvenu son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage 1763; Henri died May 26,1784 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

July 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Louise Courtois died September 1, 1773 daughter (IV)-Charles Denis Courtois dit Marin born 1744 and

(III)-Catherine St Cosme born 1749.

July 26: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jacques Amable Du Metz, born July 4, 1773.

July 28: Hyacinthe Hamelin, trader, married Mackinac Marie Joseph Maingan.

July 28: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Charles Maillon, born May 1772.

August 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Charles Campeau son (IV)-Charles Campeau, voyager, born 1746 and (II)-Marie Louise Borde dit St. Surin (ou Cambek en 1777) born December 19, 1755 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

August 17: Cahokia, (Illinois), marriage, Pierre Dorion born September 26, 1722, son Pierre Dorion and Genevieve Chappau; 1st marriage February 25, 1743 Notre Dame, Quebec to Marie Genevieve Flamand dit Deguise, 2nd marriage August 17, 1773 Cahokia, (Illinois).

September 7: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Veronique Denis, born 1685.

September 9/19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, triplets (V)-Genevieve Crete, Suzanne Crete and Marie Therese Crete all born September 9, died September 19, 1773 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughters (IV)-Jean Baptiste Crete born 1736 and (II)-Marie Joseph Atmond born 1741.

September 25: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Genevieve Saliot, born July 1772.

September 26: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Prud'homme, born 1713.

October 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Leduc born 1727 son (III)-Jean Leduc born 1684 and Marie Catherine Descary; married (IV)-Rene Francois Bourassa daughter (III)-Rene Bourassa dit LaRonde (1718-1792) and (III)-Anne Charlotte Ver Chavalier born 1746 daughter Rene Bourassa and Anne Charlotte Chevalier: see marriage August 3, 1744.

October 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Therese Campeau daughter(IV)-Alexis Campeay (1737-1782) and (V)-Madeline Dumays (1745-1795).

October 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Nicolas Amable Campeau son (IV)-Jacques Campeau born 1735 and (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739.

October 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Pierre Hambleton born August 19, 1745 son (I)-Edouard Hambleton of Ireland and (II)-Marguerite Duruau-Poitevan born 1714; marriage to Marie Joseph Petuit born 1749 daughter Jean Baptiste Petuit.

October 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Nicolas Moras to (IV)-Marie Anne Boyer daughter (III)-Pierre Boyer (1707-1765) and Marie Anne Louise Pepin.

October 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (II)-Francois Hay son (I)-Pierre Hay and Marie Julie Reaume b1749, died March 23, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

November 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Alexis Arcouet daughter (III)-Alexis Arcouet born 1736 and Marguerite Laforest see 1770.

November 8: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Toussaint Reaume, born November 2, 1773.

November 13: Detroit, birth, (II)-Louis Bufet son (I)-Louis Bufet, a merchant, and Therese DeMarsac.

November 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jean Baptiste Dube son (IV)-Jean Marie Dube born 1738 and (IV)-Marie Joseph Seguin born 1754.

November 19: Cahokia, (Illinois) marriage Jean Marie Dorion born January 18, 1736, died March 19, 1799 Cahokia, (Illinois), son Jean Marie Dorion and Marie Therese La Normand; Married November 19, 1773, Holy Family Church, Cahokia, (Illinois), a Marie Magdelaine Buteau, widow Alexis Buiette.

December 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Catherine Laforest daughter (IV)-Guillaume Laforest b-1725 and (III)-Genevieve Amable Fauvel b-1741 veuve Gabriel Charpentier.

1774

By this year the Spanish navigators had charted the Pacific rim up to the Queen Charlotte Islands, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, while the Russian fur traders are pushing southward from Alaska as they didn't support the Louisiana land deals between England, France and Spain . It had become evident that a North West Passage didn't exist.

The Spanish claimed to have discovered Vancouver Island and British Columbia, the Russians were trading in the area, the Chinese claimed to be first in 1421 and the English laid claim under threat of war the might is right philosophy. BUT what about the local residence? The Nootka People?

Who spoke for their rights as England and Spain squabbled?

The Nuu-chaf-nulth (Nootka) People have occupied the Nootka Sound for over 4,000 years and their name means the People of all along the Mountains or for short the West Coast People. The largest tribe of the Nootka are the Tla-o-qui-aht (Calayoquot) who claim to be originally from Kennedy Lake, east of Ucluelet, Vancouver Island. These Peoples are noted for their ocean going canoes and may represent some of the People who migrated up and down the Pacific coast to populate the the Americas. I have visited this area many times over the past 50 years and it is nothing short of paradise on earth, so I fully understand why these folks have stayed around for over 2,000 years.

Louis Brasseau b-1774 U.S.A. married 1st Marguerite Minville b-1780, 2nd marriage Isabelle Lagarde b-1800

Josephte Clarteau, Metis, born 1774 Red River, North West daughter Louisage Clarteau, listed 1870 census St. Francois, Red River.

Jean Baptiste Faribault (1774-1860) a trader at the mouth of the St. Peter's (Minnesota) River, where he settled in 1818.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Cecile Greffard born 1774-1776 daughter (IV)-Laurent Greffard b-1745 and (III)-Marie Anne Casse; married February 11, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Ambroise Tremblay.

(I)-James Inkster b-1774 Orkney married Mary Indian b-1790 most likely North West.

Chief Factor (I)-Ferdinard Jacobs departs the Hudson Bay Company, abandoning his wife and daughter Thucautch to the Indians. He had previously shipped his son to London.

William King Indian b-1774 North West Territories married Elizabeth b-1790 most likely North West.

Marie Letenihe, Metis, born 1774 daughter Jean Baptiste Letenihe (Lieutenant?), living 1870 census St. Boniface, Red River.

Elisi Millet, Metis, born 1774 United States daughter Andre Millet, listed St. Francois, Red River.

Juan Perez of Spain contacted the Haidas and Nootkas on the Queen Charlotte Islands of the Pacific Coast, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

Peter Pond (1740-1802/07) is trading with a band of Yankton, noting they had a great number of horses and some fire arms. Peter Pond (1740-1807) reported 130 canoes out of Mackinac are at the Praire Du Chen Colony and some are from Orleans. There are 60 canoes from Grand Portage at Lake Winnipeg.

Malchom Ross (1755-1799) joined the Hudson Bay Company and is posted to Labrador.

Ardent Schuyler de Peyster (1736-1822) arrived Michilimackinac with two companies of the Kings Regiments, relieving Vattas as the British commander.

Peter Sananaf born 1774 North West, census 1831 Red River.

Mary Shawwawnayse b-1774, living 1870 census Cross Village, Michigan.

Alexander (Alexius) Trembler senior born 1774 died November 27, 1848 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

St. Louis, Missouri, marriage (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) a Spaniard son Francisco Vasquez and Marie De La Ponte; married Marie Julie Papin daughter Pierre Papin Dit Barnot and Catherine Marguerite Madeline Guichard.

Todd, James McGill and Peter Pond (1740-1807) are acting as agent for Phyn, Ellice and Company of New York.

(I)-John Thomas is appointed second in command at Moose Fort. (I)-Eusebuis Kitchin, Chief Factor, sent (I)-John Miles back to England. Kitchin was convinced his men were trying to kill him. Frits Pannekoek noted that both Joseph Isibister, Factor at Albany, and James Duffielf (1740) of Moose post believed their surgeons were trying to kill them

Jean Baptiste Brunet dit L'etang (Letang or Lestang) is sent to the posts of the mer du Ouest for Maurice Blondeau and Jean Baptiste Adhemar for the period 1774-1775.

(I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) visits Grand Portage while Louis Primeau (Primo) and company intercepts Indians on their way to Churchill.

Travel passport issued for James McGill (1744-1813), Charles Patterson d-1788 and 34 men, for Grande Portage and beyond.

Charles Patterson d-1788 is trading and wintering out of Cumberland House with Frobisher, William Holmes, Peter Pond (1740-1807), Alexander Henry and Samuel Hearne..

Travel passport issued for Jos. Le Clair and 13 men to Grand Portage and to winter in the north.

Travel passport issued for (I)-Lawrence Ermatinger (1736-1789) and 32 men, of whom 17 were white men.

Travel passport issued for Edward Chinn and 5 men.

Travel passport issued for Gautiot and Durand with 18 men.

Travel passport issued for Charles Sanguinet with 18 men, of which 11 will winter.

Travel passport issued for Henry Bourdignon, Romant Sanacrainte (Sanscrainte or Sancrainte), Joseph Duchesneau and 17 men.

Travel passport issued for James McGill, (I)-Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787), Maurice Blondeau, 3 guides and 75 men.

Travel passport issued for (I)-Lawrence Ermatinger (1736-1789) and 38 men.

The Pedlars are so numerous that they are indifferent as to whether they please the Chiefs at the factories or not. Forty canoes are on Lake Winnipeg. Many peddlers are dispersed in very small numbers among the Indians. Red River Fort (Fort Frobisher) is built on the Red River, two or three leagues above Riviere Aux Morts near later Selkirk, by the Free Traders. This is a very cold, bad winter with reports that (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) had even eaten the few seeds he had brought to plant a garden. One of Frobisher's men stands accused of cannibalism. The Free Traders also established Fort La Traite (Frog Portage Fort) some time prior to 1774 on the Churchill River near Frog Portage.

Matthew Cocking (1743-1799), a bigamist and Chief Factor of York Fort, is astounded that the Canadian Francois LeBlanc, born 1712 (Franceway), of Michillimahnac, took no precautions, even at night, against the Indians who gathered in great numbers around the Fort. Unlike the English, those Canadian's welcomed the Savages to their tables; entertained them in their posts; offered them lodgings, as they would to one of their own people. Those Canadians did not worry about the consequences that might follow if an Indian got drunk, nor did they take offence at his indiscretions. The Anglo-Saxons haughtily disapproved of this Canadian attitude.

(I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) wrote in 1792 that, before this time, none of the servants at the factories had ventured to winter with the natives. (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) of the Hudson Bay Company, with two men and an Indian Chief, established their first inland trading post called Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan River, west of present day The Pas, at Pine Island. This is the site of La Veredrye's Fort Paskoyac, built some forty years earlier. This Fort replaced their temporary structures of last year. Only periodic food supplies from the Natives kept the Hudson Bay men alive. John Thomas of the Hudson Bay Company traveled from Moose Factory to Lake Abitibi, Ontario to spy and report on the activities of the Canadians. On August 6, John Thomas, who is second in command at Moose Factory, ascended Abitibi River to Abitibi Lake, visiting the Peddlar Settlement near the River Woo-pa-che-won, belonging to Pono- the Frenchman. The Canadians have departed the Saskatchewan with more than forty canoes of furs, all much larger than the one canoe of Samuel Hearne (1745-1792). The Quebec Act of 1774 set the western limit of Quebec at the forks of the Saskatchewan and the head waters of the Mississippi.

Guy Carleton, Captain General and Governor of Canada, believed he commanded the North West Territories including Ontario, southern Manitoba, Wisconsin, Michigan,

Illinois, Ohio, Indiana and parts of Pennsylvania and New York. He had the responsibility of enforcing the Quebec Act, much to the displeasure of the Americans. British

Fort Detroit (Michigan) had a few hundred Canadians. About one thousand Canadians occupied the Mississippi and most are of mixed blood or have Native wives.

Southern Manitoba was commanded by the Metis and every thing west of the Mississippi by the Spanish but in reality by the Metis.

It is estimated that 180 boats are employed out of British Fort Detroit (Michigan), engaged in the Indian trade. On June 22, the Quebec Act is passed proclaiming the Quebec boundaries to include the Great Lakes and Ohio territory. This angered the Americans and led to the American Revolution.

While out hunting game, (I)-Robert Longmoor, working out of Cumberland House, froze both his big toes. (I)-Longmoor is one of nine Orkney men working with (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) in this post. Longmoor is known to have taken an Indian woman as wife. Some 150 rival traders are set up nearby. Cumberland House would be moved a mile upstream in 1789. The Prince of Wales Fort recorded 600 made beaver, 9,651 pounds of deer, 800 deer tongues, 24 hares, and one great shaggy musk ox. The Orkney daily fare is much superior to any expected at home as few farmers could afford to slaughter domestic animals and the sheep, which fed on mostly seaweed, were most unpalatable.

A smallpox epidemic, believed to have erupted near Boston, cut down Indians from Mexico to Alaska.

Labrador administration is attached to Quebec. The Inuit a.k.a. Eskimo and the Metis continue to be largely ignored.

(I)-Rene Robert Cavelier and Sieur de La Salle (1643­87), with the help of Frontenac, obtained the right to establish fur trade posts in the Mississippi Valley. He was to explore the Mississippi River to its mouth within five years, entirely at his own expense. The objective was to monopolize the fur trade of central North America and eventually bypass New France in the trade by routing the furs through the Gulf of Mexico.

January 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Joseph Laperle to a (II)-Catherine Brillant dit Lapierre, Metis born April 11, 1757 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Brillant dit Lapierre and Francoise Itagisse Chretienne Sauteuse (Ojibwa). Source Tanguay.

January 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Magd. Langlois, born October 5, 1772.

January 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Pierre Jean Gastinon et Gatignon dit Duchene born April 18, 1754 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son

(II)-Francois Catignon also Gastinon et Gastignon dit Duchesne born 1700 and (III)-Marie Joseph David (1698-1793); married January 17, 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Joseph Laselle born 1757 daughter (II)-Nicolas Laselle.

January 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Genevieve Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751; married January 7, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Gabrial Chesne.

January 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Pierre Gatignon to (III)-Marie Joseph Lacelle born April 25, 1757 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (II)-Nicolas Lacelle et Laselle (1715-1779) and (II)-Marie Joseph Cardinal (1733-1763).

January 24: (V)-Jean Baptiste Hamelin Metis baptised August 19, 1787 Michillimackinac son (IV)-Louis Charles Hamelin Metis born 1737 Michillimackinac son

(III)-Charles Hamelin and his slave woman Marie Athanase a Sauteux woman ( 1708- 1738) and Marie Joseph LeSable of the Sauteuse (Ojibwa) Nation born 1737 Michillimackinac.

January 31: I'Islet, Quebec, death Jean Baptiste Dagneau dit Labrie, a voyager.

February 10: Michilimakinac, birth (II)Therese Askin baptised September 20, 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) daughter (I)Jean Askin and Marie Archange Barthe, see 1773.

February 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Angelique Gamelin died August 5, 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Francois Gamelin died 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and Therese Cabassier born 1752 died May 26, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

February 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Angelique Chauvin daughter (II)-Noel Chauvin born 1732 and (III)-Jeanne Meloche born 1742.

February 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Therese Askin daughter John Askin and Archange Barthel.

March 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Robert DeMarsac son (III)-Francois DeMarsac sieur de L'Homme Trou and (IV)-Marie Charlotte Bourassa;

March 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Agnes Jeannes daughter (III)-Robert Jeannes et Jeanne b-1730, died April 3, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and (IV)-Catherine Reaume b-1740; married January 12, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Michel Comparet.

March 18: Fort St. Clair, birth Marie Madeleine Trottier died September 11, 1803 Fort Detroit, Michigan, daughter Francois Xavier Trottier Bellecour b-1743 and Marie anne Madeleine Delusignan Dexemard (1741-1816); married November 15, 1802 Fort Detroit, Michigan, Francois Xavier Moreau Francoeur and married Louis Theophile Barthe.

March 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Alexis Descomps son (II)-Pierre Descomps dit Labadie aka Fillau (1776) born 1742 and (II)-Therese Gaillard dit Lionais born 1746.

March 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Louis Duprat son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

April 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Catherine Chiquot daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot born 1749 and (IV)-Angelique Godefroy born 1753.

May: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Rouiller, born February 1774.

May: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Valade, born August 1772.

May 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Archange Casse daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Casse (1742-1777 and (IV)-Therese Boyer born 1755.

May 12: Mackinac, birth, (IV)-Francoise Dumouchel, Metis, baptized, July 9, 1775, Mackinac, daughter, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse; 1st married Pierre Ducheneau; 2nd marriage November 16, 1795, Cahokia, Illinois Antoine Grandbois.

May 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Archange DeMarsac daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste (also called Benjamin) DeMarsac (1742-1793) and (IV)-Genevieve Seguin; married February 21, 1791 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Jean Baptiste Prudhomme.

June 18: The Quebec Act extended the boundaries of Canada southward to the Ohio, westward to the Mississippi and northward to the Hudson Bay.

June 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Anne Langeron, born June 7, 1774.

June 30: (I)-Joseph Andre the Italian married British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Marie Joseph Dumais.

June 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Joseph Andre to (V)-Marie Joseph Dumay daughter (IV)-Jacques Dumay (1719-1760) and (III)-Marie Madeleine Chevalier born 1724.

July 2: Isaac Batt d-1791 and (II)-Charles Price Isham, Metis son of (I)-James Isham d-1761, a bigamist and the late Chief Factor at York Factory, and Cree Girl, departed for the interior.

July 4: Matthew Cocking (1743-1799) Chief Factor of Fort York, set out to help (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) establish Cumberland House. Cocking failed to rendezvous with Hearne, and Hearne chose a site at Pine Island Lake (Cumberland Lale, Saskatchewan).

July 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)Francoise Aide-Crequy born this year daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763, she married February 17, 1794 Francois Meloche see 1775.

July 15: Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) of Spain visited Alaska and sighted the Queen Charlotte Islands off the coast of northern B.C. He traded the Noutka and the Haida Indians, and named the northwestern point of the islands Santa Margarita. He then sailed south to Vancouver Island and discovered Nootla Sound on August 8, 1774. The Spanish believed they owned the Pacific coast of America.

August 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Joseph daughter (III)-Charles Chesne born 1732 and (II)-Marie Joseph Descomps dit Labadie born 1737.

September 2: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Toussaint Vari, born 1750.

September 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Charles Bienvenu dit Delisle born 1745 son Alex Bienvenu; married (IV)-Therese Campeau daughter (III)-Charles Campeau (1715-1785) and Marie Charlotte Montray et Julliet La Cote.

September 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Alexander Grant to Therese Barthel. The following children are listed but no birth dates are given Therese Feb 13, 1776, Archange, Phillis, Arabella, Anne, Elizabeth, Nelly, Alexander and Maria. They usually list 1st born to last born.

September 27: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Charlotte Le Duc, born August 27, 1774.

October 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), tous deux excommunies, (II)-Louis de Gonzague dit Pigeon and (IV)-Louise Beaulin aka Beaulieu born December 9, 1745 Sault au Recollet, epouse de (I)-Labatterie, soldat of France, daughter (III)-Jean Beaulieu and (III)-Marie Anne Turcot born 1718.

October 9: The Frobisher brothers with 6 canoes passed Cumberland House.

October 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Judith Cuillerier, born 1714.

October 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Francoise Descomps daughter (III)-Alexis Descomps and (V)-Marie Francoise Robert born 1752; married June 18, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Isidore Navarre.

November 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Agnes Chauvin daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Chauvin born 1740 and (IV)-Therese Segun born 1752.

November 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Felicite Parent.

November 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Catherine L'Antailla, born October 28, 1774.

November 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Rose Crete died May 17, 1776 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Crete born 1736 and (II)-Marie Joseph Atmond born 1741.

November 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Ignace Huyet son (II)-Pierre Huyet et Huguet-Huiette-Ponceley-Champagne born 1737 and (IV)-Marie Reine Trempley born 1744.

November 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Sylvie Bourdeau daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont.

November 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (III)-Charles Casse son (II)-Charles Casse dit St. Aubin and (II)-Marie Joseph Mettay (1729-1759).

November 29: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Saint Aubin, killed by an Indian, born 1708; witness Pierre Janerai and Dominique Godet.

December 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), died on the River Miami, Francois Rochelot dit L'Esperance, born 1758.

December 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Madeleine Campeau daughter (IV)-Alexis Campeay (1737-1782) and (V)-Madeline Dumays (1745-1795).

December 16: Five Frenchmen coming from Frobisher House passed Cumberland House on their way to Paterson, Holmes and Francois House, being in great stress for want of provisions.

December 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Zacharie Ignace Gamelin died January 16, 1775 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (IV)-Medard Gamelin

(1733-1778) and (IV)-Angelique Chiguot (Cicotte) (1741-1777).

1775

(I)-James Anderson b-1775 Orkney married Mary Demoran Indian b-1780 likely North West.

Joseph Beriault Metis born 1775 married Marianne Beaupre b-1777 likely North West.

(I)-James Bird born 1775 Britain, and 1st married Elizabeth Indian born 1789, and 2nd marriage Mary Kelly Indian born 1777 North West territories, listed St. Andrews, Red

River census 1870. This could be in error as James Bird Sr arrived HBC 1788 but had children from 1781, making his birth day closer to 1760, or we are dealing with two James Birds?

James Bird born 1775 North West, census 1835 Red River. This is likely an error, either James Bird born 1785 or (I)-James Bird born England?

Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra baptized Lima, Peru June 3, 1743 and died Mexico City March 26, 1794, journeyed from San Blas, Mexico to Bucareli Sound, Alaska.

Louis Le de Bouche b-1775 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Benjamin Bruce b-1775 married Mathilda Metis b-1778 likely North West.

Charles Bruce born 1775 North West, census 1831 Red River probable son William Bruce.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1723-1803) is at Fort des Praires.

John Campell b-1775 married Catherine Demontigny Indian b-1778 likely North West.

George Cartwright established a trading post at Sandwich Bay, Labrador.

Baptiste Colin born 1775 North West, census 1831 Red River. See 1739-1751, Baptiste Colin, of Boucherville (alias Garneau, see May 8, 1739 or could be two different men?)

Juan Francisco de la Bodegay Cuadra of Spain is in southern Alaska among the Haidas, he sailed down the coast of B.C. to California..

General Hospital, Montreal death Charlotte Cote (1762-1775) age 13, slave M. Cote, voyageur. Could be his daughter or country wife?

Birth (IV)-Catherine Dagneau de Quindre, Metis, daughter (III)-Charles Stanislaus Dagneau de Quindre dit Fontenay (1746-1822+) and unknown, most likely Shawnee Indian.

Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) is reported on the James River (South Dakota).

Francois Dubois b-1775 married Angelique Lativiere Metis b-1775 Red River Settlement.

Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie man) born 1750/60 in Canada arrived in the area of Minnesota.

Jean Baptiste Dumont b-1775 married Josette Carey Indian b-1780 likely North West.

Louison Fleury b-1775 Canada married Josephte Grosventre Indian b-1800 likely North West.

Gibson b-1775 married Christina b-1788 North West Territories

(I)-Andrew Graham, a bigamist born about 1733 Edinburgh, Scotland, died September 8, 1815 Prestonpas, Scotland, worked for the Hudson Bay Company in Canada at Churchill, York Factory and Fort Severn (1749-1775). He fathered at least two children in Hudson Bay and also had a wife in Britain. He raised from a sloop master's servant to Chief Factor with little formal education.

(I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) married sixteen year old (III)-Mary Norton, Metis, the polygamous Chief Factor (II)-Moses Norton's young daughter.

Bruno de Heceta a Portuguese sailing for Spain is on the Pacific Coast, charting the coast from Mexico to Oregon Territory.

(I)-John Holmes b-1775 England married Elizabeth Metis b-1790 most likely North West.

(II)-Charles Price Isham, a Metis, son (I)-James Isham d-1761 a bigamist and late Chief Factor, York Factory, is accused of instigating the Indians to kill three traders on the Saskatchewan River.

Francois Jonnett, Metis b-1775 Pembina, a voyager, married Angelic b-1828 Pembina

John Lin Kippling born 1771 or 1775 North West, census 1831-1838 Red River, 1831 census lists birth date as 1771 others as 1775.

Angelique LaRiviere, Metis, born Red River, North West, listed 1870 census St. Agathe, Red River.

John Lesivvere, born 1775 Canada, living Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan 1850 census, listed as a pauper.

Angus McGillis b-1775 married Margaret Metis b-1779 most likely North West.

(I)-William McKay b-1775 Scotland married Susette Indian b-1780 North West Territory.

Simon Martin b-1775 married Lisette Indian b-1777 most likely North West.

Shawn Mindosking b-1775, living 1870 census Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.

Mackinac, marriage William Montforton to Mary Louisa Delorme.

Robert Bonhomme (Bonom) Montour, Metis b-1775 Red River, hunter

Josephine Nandobanikwe (Makes War Woman) born 1775 likely Lake Superior died August 13, 1842 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Nawwekezhegoquay b-1775, d-1907, living 1870 census, Michigan.

Charles Patterson d-1788 is trading and wintering out of the Assiniboine with Alexander Henry and Holmes. The native traders told Henry of the Peace River.

Peter Pond (1740-1807) is at Fort Dauphin and 130 plus traders are reported on the Saskatchewan River.

Green Bay, marriage Joseph Renville (1754-1795) son Jean Baptiste Rainville and Marie Francoise Haines/Hains; married Miniyuhe sister Chief Little Crow son of Big

Thunder of the Mdawakton, Dakota. Two Metis sons are noted Victor (Ohiya) Renville and Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846). Mona Andree Rainville says "Miniyuhe is the sister of Bing Thunder and the aunt of Taoyataduta Little Crow. She is also the aunt of Little Fawn (a.k.a. Sarah) who married Dodipher Richards.

Joseph Roe married Savage Woman in North West, see August 8, 1787 baptism their children.

Alexis Roy dit Portelance, son Louis Paul Roy Portelance and Angelique Allaire, is hired by Charles Paterson d-1788 and Kay for Michilimackinac and is to winter at the Mississippi River 1775/76.

St. Louis, (Missouri), Viceroyalty of New Spain, birth, (II)-Felicite Vasquez daughter (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin; married 1792 Antoine Roy.

(I)-Jean Etienne Waden, d-1782, a Swiss is at Grande Portage.

Joe Whiteloon b-1775, living 1870 census, Sugar Island, Michigan.

Only 2 people claimed to be born at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year.

Fort Beaver Lake is built by free traders on Beaver Lake on the route to the Churchill River.

Travel passport is issued to James McGill (1744-1813), (I)-Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787), his brothers and (III)-Maurice Regis Blondeau (b-1706) for 12 canoe and 78 men for Grand Portage and beyond. Alexander Henry (1739-1824), the elder, reported that 4 different interests on the Saskatchewan joined forces this year. Peter Pond (1740-1807) entered the North West with the backing of Simon McTavish (1750-1804) who would engineer the formation of the North West Company.

Some sixty canoes a year is going West from Lake Superior and this probably excluded many free traders. Peter Pond (1740-1807), who is born Melford, Connecticut, left the Mississippi fur trade after killing a fellow in a duel, and with two canoes and seven men went to Saskatchewan River near Prince Albert (Saskatchewan). On the way he teamed up with (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803), (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788), (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810), William Paterson, and (I)-Alexander Henry (1739-1824) the elder, making a company of one hundred and thirty men in thirty canoes. The permit dated April 10 lists a Michel Cadot, likely (III)-Michel Cadotte (1729-1784), and Francois Giroux among the crew. The group had bought sufficient wild rice in Red River to last until they reached the Saskatchewan. (I)-Alexander Henry

(1739-1824), the elder, wrote that without the wild rice obtained at the Lake of the Woods, the voyage beyond the Saskatchewan River would have been impossible to complete. He had purchased 100 bushels of rice from the previous year's crop from an Ojibwa village of only 100 people at the Lake of the Woods. He also noted 50 lodges of Ojibwa at Rainy Lake. This is interesting in that most traders believed the woods Indians didn't store their harvests. They also processed and stored fish and fish oil.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) separated at the forks and he went to Fort des Prairies in October.

(I)-Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787), (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) and (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788) joined with James McGill and Maurice Regis Blondeau (1734-1809) in outfitting an expedition that reached Grand Portage in Minnesota.

This year Chatique Cha Chukew, the Pelican, a Chief of the Swampy Cree near Pasquia, demanded and received tribute for use of their water ways. (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804) is a partner in the fur trade with James Bannerman until 1779. London rejected the Hudson Bay proposal to expand into the interior as this would encourage free trade, relations with the Native women, and indiscriminate use of alcohol among the staff. This is an interesting attitude given the mixed blood nature of the British Isles who have a love of the bottle themselves. British Loyalists began to trickle into the Indian Territory (Ontario) and into Montreal from America's thirteen states. This year (or 1976) Matthew Cocking (d-1799), a bigamist, had replaced (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) at Pine Island Post, which was later moved and called Cumberland House.

Matthew Cocking (d-1799), a bigamist, believed the chief reason why the English did not get on well with the Natives was because, when wintering with the Indians, the English expected to have nothing to do. They frequently seemed unwilling to help their hosts in any way at all. Fort Pond is built on the North West corner of Lake Dauphin. Alexander Henry (1739-1824) and (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788) built a 43 man fort on Beaver Lake (Lake Aux Castors).

Charles Paterson (d-1788) of the Michilimackinac Company, (IV)-Joseph Barthelemi Blondeau (1743-1790) of Michillimahnac, William Holmes, Peter Pangman (1744-1819)- the German some say Dutch, and many other employees occupy Fort La Corne (Fort des Prairies) and are working the Saskatchewan. Franceway on the Saskatchewan acquires two Blackfoot women slaves whom he takes to Montreal and sells. He also took out 170 bundles of fur which were 90 pounds each. (I)-Robert Longmoor of the Hudson Bay Company is robbed of his trade goods and roughly handled by Indian's who accompanied him. He is abandoned without provisions on the trail to Cumberland House.

The American Revolution (1775-1783) won independence from Britain.

Juan Jose Josee Perez Hernandez (1725-1775) of Spain died on his second trip to British Columbia with Bruno de Hezeta and Juan Francisco de la Bodega Y Quadra (1743-1794). The charted the coast from Alaska to California. There is little doubt they landed Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island.

January 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Maurice Pineau they had civil marriage to (II)-Marie Joseph Bertrand daughter (II)-Rene Bertrand. First marriage of Marie to Jean Crepi dit Vivesac.

January 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Therese Gamelin died November 18, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Francois Gamelin died 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and Therese Cabassier born 1752 died May 26, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

February 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Antoine Campeau son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751.

March 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Simon Bergeron, born 1725.

March 5: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Noel Etienne Chauvin, born February 27, 1775.

March 6: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Catherine dit Lajeunesse, born September 1772.

March 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Joseph Laforest daughter (IV)-Guillaume Laforest b-1725 and (III)-Genevieve Amable Fauvel b-1741 veuve Gabriel Charpentier.

March 30: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Antoine Montmeni, born March 12, 1775.

April 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Suzanne Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1737 and Catherine Boyer

April 10: A permit is issued to Alexander Henry (1739-1824) and (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) for 4 canoe to Sault Ste Marie and Grand Portage which included a crew of 31 men. Included in the crew is Michel Cadott, a possible relative of (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803), and a Francois Giroux. This historic voyage covered Lake of the Woods, Winnipeg River, Lake Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan. They encountered Peter Pond (1740-1807) and the Frobisher brothers, (I)-Joseph (1740-1810) and (I)-Thomas (1744-1788). Some of the party reached the Rockies. It is noteworthy that they had to pay a toll on Rainy River to the Ojibwa who possessed the ability to stop all trade to the interior. The Ojibwa have villages at Lac La Croix, Rainy Lake and Rainy River.

St. Jean LaVigne - Pierre LaVigne - Jacques Primake - Michel Cadott -Lafrance Laborde - Francois Valtige - Joseph Montmmois - Pierre Camsse - Pierre Gouiltan - Nicolas Demars - Louis Lapointe - Charles Boulteau - Albert Donaus - Francois Demit - Fabien Robert - Louis La Poretin - Etisne La Carter - Michel Content - Jacques La Gameya - Joseph Potorin - Joseph Gaul - Pierre Pilette - Charles Deneau - - Emett - Charles Nutier - Joseph Denieu - Faweaiger - Joseph Maloux - Francois Giroux

April 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Georges Hamelin (Gueniere) Metis, son (III)-Charles Francois Hamelin dit LaGunnier also La Gueniere, Gueniere and LaGuenier born July 8, 1714 Grondines died 1760, called an ancient voyager and his wife's slave woman Marie (Catherine) Anastasie a Sauteux woman born 1725/1728 died February 1, 1748 daughter de M8us (Mouus), sauteux infidele, filleule de Daillebout de Coulonage et de Mme Langlade.

April 22: Detroit, birth, (V)-Gabriel Lauzon son (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse.

May: Fort Ticonderoga a.k.a. Fort Carillon was taken by the New England rebels.

May 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (VI)-Isaac Gagne born January 12, 1751 St. Thomas also recorded St. Pierre du sud (maitre tonnelier) son (V)-Pierre Gagne born 1701 and (III)-Angelique Bouchard born 1706; married (II)-Marie Louise Vallee born 1759.

May 15: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Ursule Belanger, born February 5, 1775.

May 16: The five Frenchmen who had come down from Frobisher house last December again passed Cumberland House on their way to Frobisher House.

May 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jaques Pelletier.

May 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage Louis Casse to (III)-Angelique Chevalier b-1733 epouse February 22, 1759 Fort Detroit, New France.

May 24: (I)-Samuel Hearne wrote that the Indians promised to make 6 canoes but left to have a drink with the peddlers after only making one. Even having canoes, the English were unable to manage them without Indian help. He wrote: We are surrounded by 150 Canadian traders without sufficient provisions nor the means to procure them.

May 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Louis Casse son (II)-Pierre Casse (1709-1794) and (II)-Marguerite Fourneau (1711-1791); married (III)-Angelique Chevalier born 1733 daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Chevalier, veuve d'Antoine Lauzon

May 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Antoine Vaudry married (IV)-Anne Agnes Bourassa daughter (III)-Rene Bourassa dit LaRonde (1718-1792) and (III)-Anne Charlotte Ver Chavalier born 1746 see marriage August 3, 1744.

June: The Hudson Bay Company reported that Isaac Batt (d-1791) deserted to join the Canadian Peddlers, working for Charles Paterson (d-1788) of the Michilimackinac Company. Isaac would return to the H.B.C. in May 24, 1777 and later go as an independent trader.

June 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Antoine Chauvin son (II)-Charles Chauvin (1702-1772) and (II)-Marie Anne Casse born 1710.

June 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Barnabe Campeau son (IV)-Jacques Campeau born 1735 and (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739.

June 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, Jean Baptiste Cottenay son Louis Cottenay and Isabelle Vagenet.

June 23: Michilimackinac, marriage Francois Maurice dit La Fantaise (Lafontaine) married Marie Anne Cardin.

June 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Antoine Goulet born December 22, 1730 Pte aux Trembles, Quebec died May 16, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Joseph Goulet born 1698 and (III)-Genevieve Rate (1701-1754); married (V)-Madeleine Laforest (elle epouse January 20, 1794 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Ignace Tibaut) daughter (IV)-Guillaume Laforest b-1725 and (IV)-Marie Marguerite Tremblay (1725-1768).

June 27: Mackinac, baptism, Laurent Bertrand born June 8, 1771 son Joseph Laurent Bertrand and Marie Therese Du Lignon.

June 27: Michilimackinac, baptism Jean Baptiste Bertrand born June 24, 1774 sons Joseph Laurent Bertrand and Marie Therese DuLignon.

June 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Francois Gastinon (Gatignon) son (II)-Francois Catignon also Gastinon et Gastignon dit Duchesne born 1700 and (III)-Marie Joseph David ( 1698-1793) living Grosse Pointe, British Fort Detroit (Michigan); married (II)-Jeanne Brillant dit Lapierre, Metis born April 9, 1759, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Brillant dit Lapierre and Francoise Itagisse Chretienne Sauteuse.

June 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)- Francois Gatignon (Gastinon) to (II)-Jeanne Brillant dit Lapierre, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Brillant dit Lapierre and Francoise Itagisse Chretienne Sauteuse (Ojibwa). Source Tanguay.

July: Green Bay, Baptism, Felicite Gagnon born 1754 and Pascal Gagnon born 1770.

July 9: Mackinac, baptism, (IV)-Jean Dumouchel, Metis, birth January 12, 1772, son, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse.

July 9: Mackinac, baptism, (IV)-Bernard Dumouchel, Metis, birth March 22, 1770, son, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel (Demouchelle) b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse.

July 9: Mackinac, baptism, (IV)-Francois Dumouchel, (Dumonchelle) Metis, birth May 12, 1774, son, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel (Demouchelle) b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse; 1st married Pierre Ducheneau; 2nd marriage November 16, 1795 Cahokia, Illinois Antoine Grandbois.

July 10: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marianne Marcotte, Metis, born August 1771, daughter Jean Baptiste Marcotte and Savage Marianne Neskeek

July 10: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marguerite Marcotte, Metis, born September 1769, daughter Jean Baptiste Marcotte and Savage Marianne Neskeek

July 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Pierre born April 16, 1746 St. Laurent Married Francoise Meloche of British Fort Detroit (Michigan), see 1774.

July 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Pierre Berthelet, a physician, born 1746 son Francois Berthelot; married (IV)-Francoise Meloche (1756-1776) daughter Francois Henri Meloche.

July 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Charles Francios Gouin (b-1748) or (b-1755) a merchant to (V)-Angelique Godet born February 12, 1759 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter (IV)-Jacques Godet (1699-1760) and (IV)-Marie Louise St. Martin dit Baudry Desbuttes, 2nd marriage November 9, 1779, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (IV)-Suzanne Boyer daughter (III)-Pierre Boyer (1707-1765) and Marie Anne Louise Pepin.

July 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Francois Casse daughter (III)-Louis Casse and (III)-Angelique Chevalier born 1733 veuve d'Antoine Lauzon.

July 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Therese Catin daughter Antoine Catin died before 1791 and was married about 1767 to Marie Anne Martin living south west of La Cote; married May 16, 1791, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Jean Baptiste Leclair.

July 31: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Archange Robertin, born 1743.

August 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Francois Cadoret born 1745 son (III)-Francois Cadoret; married (IV)-Ursule Fauvel born November 1, 1759 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (III)-Joseph Amable dit Bigras and (II)-Marie Charlotte Dufour born 1739.

August 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Michel Catin son Michel Catin dit Baron; maitre couvreur (master protection) and Louise Goyau

September 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Therese Dube daughter (IV)-Jean Marie Dube born 1738 and (IV)-Marie Joseph Seguin born 1754.

September 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Arcouet daughter (III)Alexis Arcouet born 1736 and Marguerite Laforest see 1770.

September 27: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Meloche, born, July 1769.

September 29: Anza and 177 men, women and children set out for San Francisco, New Spain.

October 3: Michilimakinac, birth (II)-Archange Askin daughter (I)-Jean (John) Askin and Marie Archange Barthe, see 1773.

October 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Agnas Greffard daughter (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse.

October 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Archange Askin daughter John Askin to Archange Barthel.

October 6: Michilimackinac, marrage Joseph Hains Ainsse, natif (native or inborn), married Therese Bondy Douaire of Fort Detroit (Michigan) daughter Joseph Douaire de Bondy (1700-1760) and Marie Anne (Cecile) Campeau b-1707 of Fort Detroit (Michigan). See May 1744.

October 14: (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte, Metis (1723-1803), Charles Paterson d-1788, (IV)-Joseph Barthelemi Blondeau (1743-1790) and Peter Pangman (1744-1819) were on the Saskatchewan River this season. Twenty three canoes were reported with James Finlay, Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788), Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) as was Alexander Henry (1739-1824) with 10 canoes.

October 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, David Hay, born October 5, 1775.

October 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Charles Chesne, Metis, son (III)-Leopold Chesne born 1734, capitaine des interpretetes, died January 13, 1778, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and Marie d'Outaouaise.

November 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Michel Vaudri, born 1717.

November 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, of (II)Marie Louise Andre daughter, (I)Joseph Andre the Italian married June 30, 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Marie Joseph Dumais.

November 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Cajetan DeMarsac son (III)-Francois DeMarsac sieur de L'Homme Trou and (IV)-Marie Charlotte Bourassa;

November 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Louis Bienvenu born October 7, 1775 son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage 1763.

December 4: San Francisco, New Spain is established.

December 5: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Therese Le Beau, born December 4, 1775.

December 11: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Louise Le Beau, born November 28, 1775.

December 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marguerite Langlois, born December 9, 1775.

December 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Therese Duprat daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

December 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Duroseau, born 1772.