Metis

1776 - 1778


The Americans declare independence from the English.

The British loyalists began streaming into the Lake Ontario Region.

As a result a Canadian is defined as an American who rejects revolution.


The Metis have little interest in the French, English or American squabbles.

The French had lost the Illinois territory because the inhabitants, mainly French Metis settlers, had little reason to remain loyal to the French culture.

The French considered the Metis as Coureurs des Bois, outlaws, and therefore savages.

The Western Metis had not really experienced the English culture. They were that foreign trader on the Northern Bay.


1776

The Red River Valley, Metis Country, experienced one of it greatest floods this year, and the settlers affected are estimated to be some 200 people in the Metis Colony of Red River.

James Cook, an Englishman, is on the Pacific Coast and Alaska 1776 to 1778. They were in contact with the Eskimos (Inuit) and Nootkas. It is known his men had sexual relations with these people, likely resulting in Metis births.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Antoine Joseph Cote son Prisque Cote b-1730 and Marie Magdelene Lefebvre.

John Daniel Metis b-1776 North West Territories married Jane Metis b-1778 likely North West.

Francisco Dominguez and Francisco de Escalante of Spain ventured Santa Fe to Wasatch Mountains, Great Salt Lake, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, using Indian guides most likely Utes and Paiutes.

Pierre Ducharme b-1776 Canada married Catherine Saulteaux Indian born 1801 likely North West.

John Easter born 1776 North West Territories married Nancy Indian b-1796 likely North West.

Louis Flfurie born 1776 North West, census 1838 Red River.

(I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788) a free trader established Fort Ile a La Crosse on Lake Ile a La Crosse.

Josephine Gauthier born 1776 likely Lake Superior died December 30, 1841 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Charles Gladu b-1776 1st married Elise Metis b-1785, 2nd marriage Marie Ross, Metis b-1788 most likely North West.

Michel Gosselin b-1776 Canada 1st married Marguerite Indian b-1796 North West Territories, 2nd marriage Josephte Deschamps b-1809 most likely North West.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jacques Janson died April 11, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Charles Dominique Janson dit Lapalme b-1733 and Jeanette Gendron.

Joseph Lafournaise b-1776 Canada married Suzanne Indian b-1780 most likely North West.

Pierre Laliberte b-1776 Canada married Josephte Gaudry Metis b-1780 most likely North West.

Francis Latour son Pierre Latour married British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Marguerite Meloche

Kaskaskia, Illinois, death Pierre Levasseur, son Stanislas Levasseur b-1732 married 1756 Quebec Francois Del'oeil.

Augus McGilles born 1776 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Jean Baptiste Matwein, Metis b-1776 Pembina, blacksmith married Marguerite Matwein, Metis b-1789 Pembina.

Julie Megweia (Unsurpassed Strength) born 1776 likely Lake Superior died December 24, 1856 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Menard is living among the Mandan of the Missouri River, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, who are reported trading from the Gulf of Mexico to the Hudson Bay.

(I)-Le Clerc Milfort lived in the Creek Nation, on the Yazoo River, county of Tallahatchie, Alabama, until 1799. He married the sister of Alexander McGillivray a French, Scottish Metis named Tustenuggee (Grand chief of wars) of the Creek Tribe.

George Moore b-1776 married Mary Truthwaite Metis b-1810 North West Territories.

Father Francisco Palou (1722-1789) at San Francisco, New Spain made note that many Indians in the area have beards. It is noteworthy that the non bearded natives even plucked their eyebrows to display a hairless face. This likely implies two cultures exist in the area. This is significant as Indians don't have facial hair. This would imply these people are of mixed blood or Metis.

Peter Pangman (1744-1819) a Dutchman, some say German married at Fort of the Prairies on the Saskatchewan a Cree Indian girl.

Joseph Parenteau b-1776 Canada married Suzanne Metis b-1780 most likely North West.

Charles Reaume (1743-1813) and Alexis Reaume take out a trade license at British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

Pierre Venne, Metis, born 1776 Red River Settlement, North West son Joseph Venne, listed 1870 census St. Norbert, Red River.

Fort Lac La Pluie (Fort Frances) is constructed in 1776 by the North West Company near Fort Saint Pierre which was constructed 1731 by La Jemerais, La Vérendrye's nephew, at the west end of Rainy Lake where it drains into the Rainy River.

Michilimackinac, marriage (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) son (II)-Pierre Grignon and Josephte Marguerite Chevalier; married 1st 1776 a Menominee/Winnebago woman, a country marriage likely occurred 1769; 2nd marriage August 8, 1787 Michilimackinac (V)-Louise Domitilde Langlade daughter of (IV)-Charles Michel Langlade and Charlotte Ambroise Bourassa

Jean Baptiste Brunet dit L'etang (Letang or Lestang) hires Jean St. Friole as a boatman.

(I)-Richard Dobie (1731-1805), a Scot, having acquired a respectable fortune, sold Fort Timiskaming (Temiscamingue) to James Grant who partnered with Tom Grant. Tom Grant would marry one of Dobie's daughters. James Grant would spend the next 20 years at this post, finally selling out to the NWC in December 1795 when he retired..

During this decade, Richard acted as a outfitter and financier of trading ventures to the Old North West (Great Lakes Region) with traders like Etienne Campion, William Grant, Jean Baptiste Tabeau, John Grant, Robert Griffin, and naturally James Grant. He also backed trading beyond Grand Portage with the likes of Etienne Wadden died 1782, and Venance Lemaire dit St. Germain. He retired, in 1790, to Montreal.

The Hudson Bay Company responded to Peter Pond (1740-1807) at the first Sturgeon River trading post at Prince Albert, Saskatchewan by building a post above him. A fort built on Homes Plains was named after a trader that had wintered there. (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788) was wintering at Ile a la Crosse this year. Both Frobisher and Peter Pond (1740-1807) pushed into the Athabasca. About this time the Pemmican trade began in earnest to support the expanding range of trade that required having caches of food available along the way. The Cree of Red River claim that the settlers started, from this date until 1860, paying annual rent.

(I)-Alexander Henry the Elder (1739-1824) referred to the buffalo near Melfort Saskatchewan as "the wild ox". (I)-Alexander Henry Sr. (1739-1824), the elder, employed an Indian woman as a guide and is surprised to learn she guided for Frobisher.

Edward Jarvis wrote of the Canadians that when they hear an Indian is well 'gooded', they will take a sled load of goods in winter or a canoe in summer and go 100 miles or more. They are all excellent hunters and travel the woods like an Indian. These Canadians endured the hard toil of the portages, which the Indians themselves often found too much for them. They crossed these at a smart pace. I believe his pride prevented him from complaining openly. If his honor is challenged, he will undertake the most difficult task or negotiate the most challenging rapids. Many crosses mark the humble passing of comrades to the rapids. Alexander Henry (1739-1824) of New Jersey and (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) returned from the Saskatchewan to Grande Portage, leaving their merchandise in the field in the care of (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788)

Andri Giottier (Triottier?), Metis, born 1776 North West Territories married 1892 Marguerite Paguette, Metis, born Red River, listed 1870 St. Francois, Red River. Lyle Trottier has him listed as Andre Trottier Trotchie born 1791, died April 24, 1874, married 1824 all in Red River region son Andre Trottier and Louise Chippewa Indian. This sounds like Andri is the father and Andre is the son. The 15 children listed by Lyle likely represent both families???

The British-Americans declare their independence and the American war starts in earnest. Their articles of Confederation called for a census every three year. The English Loyalists began streaming into the Lake Ontario region, especially the Niagara River area. The majority of Coureurs des Bois and Metis, however, had little interest in the American rebellion between the British and French factions, and very few get involved in any fighting.

Sixty canoes are allowed, by permit, through Grande Portage, and the Canadian Peddler,William Bruce, is on Lake Winnipeg.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) went up the Saskatchewan with four canoes.

The new Canadian English refugees had many personal grudges and carried on the war with much savagery towards the American long knives.

John Johnson (1742-1830), a loyalist of Albany, N.Y. formed a battalion of American Loyalists called the King's Royal Regiment.

Humphrey Marten wrote from York that the Orkney Servants are very remiss in protecting your goods or in making themselves acquainted with the management of a canoe; by which means they hope to be kept at the fort, as unfit for inland duties. On the whole, they did not make top-class officers, though there were exceptions.

Friars Escalante and Dominguez, seeking an overland route from Santa Fe to the California Missions, traversed Colorado.

St. Louis des Illinois recorded birth, marriage and death records (1776-1800).

The Hudson Bay Company duped the Chipewyans by trading alleged drugs and nostrums in the form of sugar, grains, coffee, pepper, allspice, cloves, tea, nutmegs, gingers and others things. They claimed it could be used to avoid barrenness, difficult labor, and combat other afflictions. They would ward off evil spirits and guard against enemies, especially the white bear. By these means, many customers were secured to the company trade. The Indian trade networks were founded on honesty, integrity and fair dealings. Alexander Henry (1739-1824) recorded these despicable English trading activities.

Four Peddlers are killed on the Assiniboine River and two more as the canoes were going out.

January: Alexander Henry Sr. (1739-1824), the elder, ascended from Cumberland House to Fort La Corne (Fort des Prairies that is occupied by 50-80 men). At or near this site was Fort Mosquito, Fort Batoche, Fort Louis, Fort La Corne and Fort Carlton. However, most referred to the various houses as either Nippowee or La Corne.

January 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Medard Descomps son (II)-Pierre Descomps dit Labadie aka Fillau (1776) born 1742 and (II)-Therese Gaillard dit Lionais born 1746.

January 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Rose DeMarsac daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste (also called Benjamin) DeMarsac (1742- 1793) and (IV)-Genevieve Seguin.

January 22: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Baron, born July 1775.

January 22: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Du Devoir, born 1700.

January 28/30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (IV)-Francois et un anonyme Jeannes son (III)-Robert Jeannes et Jeanne b-1730, died April 3, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and (IV)-Catherine Reaume b-1740.

February 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Therese Grant daughter Alexander Grant and Therese Barthel.

February 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Zacharie Chiquot son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot born 1749 and (IV)-Angelique Godefroy born 1753.

March 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (II)-Gabriel Casse born 1712, death, by a wound while repairing the windmill of Grand Marais

March 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jannete Langlois, born October 1775.

April 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Joseph Gamelin son (IV)-Francois Gamelin died 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and Therese Cabassier born 1752 died May 26, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

April 12: (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788) and 6 men went to Churchill River to build a fort at portage de Traite.

April 17: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Bonvouloir, born 1773.

May 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, Charles Chesne Metis born 1770 son Antoine Chesne and Sauteuse (Ojibwa).

May 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Catherine Chesne, Metis, daughter (III)-Leopold Chesne born 1734, capitaine des interpretetes, died January 13, 1778, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and Marie d'Outaouaise.

May 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Isidore Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751.

May 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Etienne Gastinon son (III)-Pierre Jean Gastinon et Gatignon dit Duchene born 1754 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), and (III)-Marie Joseph David (1698-1793).

June: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Charles Gouin who died 1778 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (IV)-Joseph Nicolas Gouin (b-1746) and Ouilincotia (Miamis)

June: Birth, (IV)-Joachim Dumouchel, Metis, baptized July 22, 1786, Mackinac, son, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse.

June 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Angelique Gamelin died February 12, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Medard Gamelin (1733-1778) and (IV)-Angelique Chiguot (Cicotte) (1741-1777).

June 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Antoine Bernard to (IV)-Catherine Dubreuil daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Dubreuil and (III)-Catherine Drouillard.

June17: (V)-Catherine Hamelin Metis baptised August 19, 1787 Michillimackinac daughter (IV)-Louis Charles Hamelin Metis born 1737 Michillimackinac son (III)-Charles Hamelin and his slave woman Marie Athanase a Sauteux woman ( 1708- 1738) and Marie Joseph LeSable of the Sauteuse (Ojibwa) Nation born 1737 Michillimackinac.

June 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Prosper Laforest child (IV)-Guillaume Laforest b-1725 and (III)-Genevieve Amable Fauvel b-1741 veuve Gabriel Charpentier.

July 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, Joseph Godet son Joseph Godet (or Cadoret) and Veronique Fauvel, source Tanguay.

July 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Claude Francois Gastinon born April 20, 1756 son (II)-Francois Catignon also Gastinon et Gastignon dit Duchesne born 1700 and (III)-Marie Joseph David (1698-1793); married July 8, 1776 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (II)-Jeanne Billiau born 1762 died October 3, 1791 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Billiau..

July 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Angelique Bourdeau daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont; Angelique married November 25, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Francois Guay.

August 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Nicolas Chapoton son (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1721 and (III)-Felicite Cesire born 1737.

August 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage Gregor McGregor to Susan Robert.

August 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Michel Gastinon, Metis, son (III)-Francois Gastinon et Gatignon dit Duchene b-1700 and (II)-Jeanne Brillant. dit Lapierre, Metis born April 9, 1775, British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

August 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Cecile Descomps died November 9, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Alexis Descomps and (V)-Marie Francoise Robert born 1752.

August 25: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Villers, born December 1753.

September 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Vital Sarrazin Depelteau to (III)-Cecile DeMarsac died March 20, 1809 Detroit, Michigan, daughter (II)-Francois DeMarsac (1706-1777) and Therese Cecile Campeau (1714-1746).

September 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Joseph Francois Fontenay dit L'Espagnol (surnoms) Dagneau de Quindre) Metis son (I)-Francois de Florence Fontenay dit L'Espagnol and Sauteuse.

October 5: Malchom Ross (1755-1799), Robert Longmoor and James Spence departed Cumberland house to trade the Saskatchewan River returning February 7, 1777.

November 11: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Dufour, born February 1775; witness Pierre Janerai and Jacques Godet..

November 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Agathe Chesne son (III)-Charles Chesne born 1732 and (II)-Marie Joseph Descomps dit Labadie born 1737; married September 28, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Alexis Campeau.

November 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (V)-Charles Crete born 1761 Bout de I'IIe, Montreal, Quebec, son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Crete born 1736 and (II)-Marie Joseph Atmond born 1741.

November 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Therese Casse died October 20, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Casse (1742-1777 and (IV)-Therese Boyer born 1755.

November 16: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Xavier Le Beau, born November 12, 1776; witness Pierre Janerai and Jaques Godet.

November 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Thomas Gatignon married (II)-Marie Jeanne Billiau born November 18, 1762 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), died October 3, 1791 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Billiau and (III)-Marie Francoise Mesnie, see parent birth 1758.

November 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Alexis Campeau died before 1779 son (IV)-Alexis Campeay (1737-1782) and (V)-Madeline Dumays (1745-1795).

November 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Pierre Drouillard, interpreter, son (II)-Jean Baptiste Drouillard born 1707 and (III)-Elisabeth Rapin born 1712; married (III)-Angelique Descomps dit Labadie born 1760 daughter (II)-Antoine Louis Descomps.

November 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Philippe DeJean to (III)-Theotiste Cosme et St. Cosme born February 8, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (II)-Pierre Laurent Cosme et St. Cosmeborn 1721 and (III)-Catherine Barrois (1727-1790).

November 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Pierre Drouillard to (III)-Marie Angelique DesComps daughter (II)- Antoine Louis DesComps dit Labadie-Bodichon (1767) and (IV)-Angelique Campeau (1742-1767).

December: Sergeant Juan Pablo Grijalva at San Francisco observed a savage that ran up and kissed Mara Angela Chumasero, on the mouth, who is the wife of Domingo Alvisa. The filthy beast had actually kissed her. I have seen soldiers take their pleasure with Indian women, but never have I heard of such a thing right before the eyes of our soldiers. The Spanish savages felt they had the right to flog the Indians for minor infractions, of Spanish rule, and to kill them if they resisted. The lash brings reason even if they don't know why they are being flogged. Father Francisco Palou (1722-1789) was saddened and he wept for the atrocities committed by the Spanish against the People.

Father Palou was unaware of his role in the atrocities by classifying them as little children, opened the door for flogging for disobedience. The Indian slaves were compelled to do excessive work, handcuffed, imprisoned, and beaten for the most trival offences. Any attempts to obtain freedom by flight, they were hunted down and punished with tenfold vigor. The women and children were used for the pleasure of the Christian soldiers.

December 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Ungarcon Bienvenu son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage 1763.

December 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Pierre Andre son, (I)-Joseph Andre the Italian married June 30, 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Marie Joseph Dumais.

December 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Anne Chauvin, born 1762; witness Pierre Janerai and Dominique Godet.

1777

The number of voyagers licensed (conges) to travel into Indian Country is 2,431, being issued out of Montreal, Quebec and British Fort Detroit (Michigan). This does not include the hivernant (wintering) voyagers, the Coureurs des Bois and the Metis. It is conservatively estimated that the actual number of men in the trade is over 5,000.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (III)-Marie Catherine Belanger daughter (II)-Philippe Belanger born 1746 and (II)-Elisabeth Vallee who married 1771 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

An old Bungee (Ojibwa) Leader and his family from east of Lake Winnipeg visited British York Fort (Manitoba) to get credit from the Hudson Bay Company after he traded his fall hunt with the Canadians.

Aeneas Cameron (1757-1822) and his nephew Angus Cameron (1782-1876) were fur traders in the Temiscamingue, District of northeastern Ontario/northwestern Quebec. They traded with the Timiskaming, Kippewa, Grand Lac, and Abitibi Bands in Quebec, and the Mattacami, Flying Post, Temagami and Nipissing Bands in Ontario.

Joseph Charbonneau b-1777 married Margaret Lamoureaux Metis b-1780, likely North West.

British Mackinac, (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Luc Chevalier, born May 22, 1735 Mackinac, New France (Michigan), son (II)-Jean Baptiste Chevalier (1677-1752); and married 1777 Sauvagesse.

Laurent Ducharme born 1723 Montreal son Louis Ducharme and Marie Picard, is trading out of Milwakee. Jean Marie Ducharme (1723/24-1807) is licensed with brother Dominique Ducharme to trade out of Michilimackinac for Jean Orillat.

Thomas Favel born 1777 North West, census 1831 Red River.

Peter Fidler b-1777 married Mary Indian b-1765 likely North West.

Joseph Gagnon b-1777 Canada is in Red River 1927 with wife and three sons under age 16 and 2 daughters under age 15 and 1 canoe.

Michael Gachkiwegiwanan (overcomes with much strength) born 1777 likely Lake Superior area died March 11, 1852 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Joseph Kabimabi (Gambimabi) (To The Interior By Canoe) born 1777 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin a respected peace chief of the St. Croix Ojibwa Bands, married March 2, 1847 La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Piness born 1787 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Charles Larocque b-1777 Canada married Catherine Lafournaise Metis b-1789 most likely North West.

Peter (Alexander) McCorrister (McCarriateau) born 1777 North West, census 1835 & (1838) Red River.

Augus McGilles born 1777 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Etienne Morin Metis b-1777 Canada married Marguerite Sarcy Metis b-1779 most likely North West.

Josephine Odichkweiajabigokwe (Algonquian Cliff Woman) born 1777 likely Lake Superior died June 13, 1847 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Catherine Ogimakwe (Chief Woman) born 1777 likely Lake Superior died La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Elisabeth Ominwewedjiwanok (Companions Were Taken Away) born 1777 likely Lake Superior died June 28, 1847 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Joseph Page born 1777 North West, census 1835 Red River, Metis Country.

Pierre Parrant (Parent or Parant) Metis is born about 1777 Sault Ste Marie (Michigan/Ontario)

Prair du Rocher, Illinois marriage Jean Baptiste Saucier to Marie Josephte Belcourt born February 4, 1762 daughter Joseph Trottier Bellecour b-1705 and Marie Anne Mercier.

(I)-Ardent Schuyler de Peyster (1736-1822) commanded British Fort Detroit (Michigan) until 1784 when he returned to Scotland.

(I)-James Slater b-1777 Orkney married Mary Metis b-1780 most likely North West.

(I)-James Sutherland b-1777 Orkney married Jane Flett Indian b-1785 North West Territories.

George Sutherland of the H.B.C. wintered with a family of six Ojibwa near Lake Winnipeg (Manitoba). At Cat Lake he met a family of 27; 8 men, 20 women, and seven children. At Lake Pekangikum he met another family of 31; 7 men, 9 women and 15 children. He met two more families of 7 members and 15 members.

John Thomas of Hudson Bay built Missinaibi House on the east side of Missinaibi Lake, two miles south of its outlet.

St. Louis, Missouri, Viceroyalty of New Spain, birth, (II)-Julie Vasquez (1777-1832) daughter (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin; married Louis Chatillon Coignard.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois (d-1777) moved his family to British Fort Detroit (Michigan). February 21, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth (V)-Claude Couture

John Lang (Langlade), the Metis, with twenty other Canadians, ventured north of Lake Superior, working the area for the next two seasons.

Travel passport issued for Venant Lemer St. Germain and Charles Paterson to Grand Portage. St. Germain and J.B. Nolin are in partnership in the North West in 1778.

Travel passport issued for (I)-Jean Etienne Waden, d-1782, a Swiss, C. Chaboillez, George McBeath, Alexander Ellice Guaranter and 32 men to Grand Portage.

Travel passport issued for F. Oakes and (I)-Lawrence Ermatinger (1736-1789), guarantor with 49 men, to Grand Portage.

Travel passport issued for William Kay, John Kay, guarantor with 49 men, to Grand Portage.

Travel passport issued for Jean Baptiste Adhemar, James McGill, guarantor with 94 men, to Grand Portage.

The number of trade and travel passports issued this year for the fur trade numbers 2,431, but twice that number were engaged in the fur trade without a license. Some of these traders called themselves 'Gen de Libre' or freemen.

Joseph Gabimabi (to the interior by canoe) born 1777 died March 13, 1854 LaPointe, Wisconsin. He is a contemporary and friend of Chief Great Buffalo, Kabamappa who was a respected peace Chief of the St. Croix Ojibwa Bands.

Gloucester House built this year on Washi Lake, some three hundred miles up the Albany River. George Sutherland surveyed the situation further inland, and he wintered with a family of Ojibwa near Lake Winnipeg. George Sutherland was a great drunkard and, when in his cup, a perfect mad-man. He married Icany, an Indian woman who could speak English, Cree and Ojibwa, and is also reported able to read and write. Frobisher built a Fort on the English River (Churchill River), 190 miles from Cumberland House. He also built on Isle a La Crosse Lake.

(I)-Lawrence Ermatinger Italian (1736-1789) and (I)-Jemima Oakes, arrived Montreal in 1760 where he established himself as a significant trading merchant. Lawrence financed such traders as Charles Larche, William Shaw, James Finlay, John Gregory, Isaac Taylor and Forrest Oakes, sending over 100 men to British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Niagra, Michilimackinac, and Grand Portage. His brother-in-law, Forrest Oakes, was entrusted with managing 50 men trading out of Michilimackinac and Grande Portage. .

The British and Canadians briefly reoccupied Fort Ticonderoga a.k.a. Fort Carillon on the George River and Lake Champlain, but withdrew later this year after the surrender of General John Burgoyne at Sartoga, New York.

Francois LeBlanc born 1712 died October 8, 1794, also known as (Franceway, Saswee and Shish), voyager, who married July 24, 1764 Mackinac Marie Josephe Jourdain dit Josette died about 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter John Jourdain and Mary Reaume (daughter Qoua gua bouk Que) of Green Bay. Franceway retired to Sandwich, Ontario, now Windsor, across the Detroit River from Ecorse, Michigan. He was a free-trader from 1742 to 1772 and traded the Saskatchewan from 1768 to 1776.

He retired with two children: Pierre Francois born 1773 who settled Ecorse, Michigan, and Susanne born 1777. Family tradition suggests Pierre went to live with the Indians and married. They got tired of fighting wars or being unsettled by the events of the times and that is why they left Canada and paddled across the Detroit River to Ecorse Michigan. Source Dan LeBlanc.

Spring: Robert Michel Aird issued license to trade out of Michilimackinac with one canoe and nine men, backed by William Aird.

Gloucester House is built on Washi Lake some 300 miles up the Albany River (Ontario). This was not sufficient to recover the lost trade.

Fort Sturgeon also called the Lower Settlement and later called Fort Saskatchewan contained Booty Graves, Charles McCormick, William Bruse, Peter Pond, (1740-1807), Peter Pangeman (1744-1819), Nicholes, Mature (Montour) Bartw, and (IV)-Joseph Barthelemi Blondeau (1743-1790). Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810) had departed for supplies. Three peddlers working out of Fort Sturgeon are killed by the Indians because of bad treatment at the fort. Fort Sturgeon or more correctly Sturgeon Creek Post aka Fort Saskatchewan was down river from Fort Edmonton.

About 700 Spanards (Islenos) migrated from the Canary Islands to Louisiana, New Spain.

January 7: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Lisette La Violette born December 28, 1776; witness Pierre Janerai and Jaques Godet.

January 13: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Anne Knggas (Nexe) born January 11, 1777; witness Pierre Janerai and Jean Baptiste Touranjeau.

January 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie D'Arragon born 1695: witness Pierre Janerai and Francois Godet.

January 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)Agnes Aide-Crequy born this year daughter (III)Jean Baptiste and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763, she married August 17, 1795 Jean Baptiste Comparet.

January 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Amable Latour son Pierre Latour married to (III)-Agnus Mesney b-1758 daughter (II)-Antoine Mesny; 1st marriage (III)-Jeanne Suzanne Casse died August 24, 1771 daughter (II)-Noel Casse and (II)-Suzanne Esteve; epouse August 13, 1765 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Pierre Parent.

January 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Francois Amable Latour son Francis Latour and Marguerite Meloche.

January 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Jean Baptiste Casse dit St. Aubin died January 27, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (I)-Jean Casse and (II)-Suzanne Esteve dit Lajeunesse born 1721; married October 8, 1770 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Therese Boyer.

January 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Joseph et Suzanne Chiquot child (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot born 1749 and (IV)-Angelique Godefroy born 1753.

February: Birth Susanne LeBlanc daughter Francois Le Blanc born 1712 also known as (Franceway, Saswee and Shish), and Marie Josephe Jourdain dit Josette.

February 18: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, La Petite Saint Remi, born 1767 witness Pierre Janerai and Laurent Godet.

February 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child of Lajoye born January 25, 1777: witness Pierre Janerai and Dominique Godet.

February 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Claude Couture, son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Couture born 1735 and (IV)-Marie Campeau born 1742.

February 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Joseph Dube son (IV)-Jean Marie Dube born 1738 and (IV)-Marie Joseph Seguin born 1754.

February 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Hyacinthe Lacelle died June 18, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), child (III)-Jacques Lacelle (1735-1791) and (III)-Therese Berthelet.

February 26: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Charlotte Belair born 1760.

March 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (V)-Joseph Douaire de Bondy son (IV)-Joseph Douaire de Bondy, and (IV)-Marie Joseph Gamelin born 1741; married Joseph Beaubien.

March 11: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Charles Touranjeau born January 25, 1777.

March 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Joseph Chauvin daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Chauvin born 1740 and (IV)-Therese Segun born 1752.

April 8: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child of Noel Chauvin born 1776.

May 2: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Zacharie Cloutier born April 26, 1777.

May 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Louise Gamelin died June 5, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Francois Gamelin died 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and Therese Cabassier born 1752 died May 26, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

May 20: Dominique Brunet dit Letang (Lestang) Sr. is licensed to trade Machilimackinac with one canoe and nine men for Jean Orillet.

May 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Le Beau born May 6, 1777.

May 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Le Duc born May 12, 1777.

May 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Antoine Catin son Antoine Catin died before 1791 and was married about 1767 to Marie Anne Martin living south west of La Cote.

May 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Louise Greffard daughter (IV)-Laurent Greffard b-1745 and (III)-Marie Anne Casse; married May 28, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Joseph Bariau.

June 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Jean Baptiste Lacelle (Il etait June 18, 1777, British Fort Detroit (Michigan)) 1st married most likely British Fort Detroit (Michigan) a Marguerite Meloche died November 20, 1790, 2nd marriage November 20 1790 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) Catherine Rivard daughter Jean Baptiste Rivard.

June 27-28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (V)-Marie Louise Campeau daughter (IV)-Charles Campeau, voyager, born 1746 and (II)-Marie Louise Borde dit St. Surin (ou Cambek en 1777) born December 19, 1755 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

June 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Angelique Huyet daughter (II)-Pierre Huyet et Huguet-Huiette-Ponceley-Champagne born 1737 and (IV)-Marie Reine Trempley born 1744.

June 28: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Maisonville born 1772.

July 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Godet born June 21, 1777.

July 21: Kamouraska, Quebec, marriage, Francois Janot 1st to Genevieve 2nd to (III)-Marie Agathe Gueret b-1745.

July 31: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (IV)-Nicolas Gastinon died August 13, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Pierre Jean Gastinon et Gatignon dit Duchene born 1754 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) and (III)-Marie Joseph David (1698-1793).

August 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (IV)-Anonyme Drouillard child (III)-Francois Drouillard and (II)-Marie Anne Vilers daughter (I)-Louis Vilers.

August 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Louise Bernier born August 2, 1777.

August 13: Father (I)-Sebastin Louis Meurin (1707-1777) died Prairie Du Rocher (Rock Prairie) (Randilph Co., Illinois).

August 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (IV)-Anonyme Gastinon child (III)-Claude Francois Gastinon born 1756 and (II)-Jeanne Billiau (1762-1791).

August 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Rene DeMarsac son (III)-Francois DeMarsac sieur de L'Homme Trou and (IV)-Marie Charlotte Bourassa;

September 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, (IV)-Angelique Cauchois born April 1776 Michillimakinac daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois (died before 1777), voyager and (II)-Angelique Sejourne dit Sanschagrin.

September 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, (IV)-Alexis Cauchois born June 1777 Michillimakinac son (III)-Jean Baptiste Cauchois (died before 1777), voyager and (II)-Angelique Sejourne dit Sanschagrin.

September 4: Detroit, birth, (V)-Basile Lauzon son (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse.

September 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Marie Suzanne Gaillard daughter (I)-Louis Gaillard born 1737 and Marguerite Salazar et Channazard born 1747.

September 14: (I)- James Sutherland (1751-1797) of Orkney returned to the employ of the Hudson Bay Company after a two year absence in London. He arrived at Moose Factory September 14. According to the terms of his contract, signed in February, he was to travel from the Factory to any parts inland in order to better discover the Indian Country and improve the trade. He made two packet runs between Albany and Moose factory, being led by two unidentified Indians, delivering the mail in December. His brother (I)- Andrew Sutherland is also employed with the company this year, having previously served at York Factory.

September 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Louise Catin born January 1777.

September 28: (I)-James Southerland (1751-1797) arrived at Albany, or so recorded Thomas Hutchins, Chief at Albany.

September 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Therese Casse daughter Antoine Casse and Marie Jeanne dit Robert Jeanne who died October 1, 1777.

September 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Reine Jeannes son (III)-Robert Jeannes et Jeanne b-1730, died April 3, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and (IV)-Catherine Reaume b-1740.

October 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, Antoine Casse who married (IV)-Marie Jeannas daughter (III)-Robert Jeannes (1730-1793) and (IV)-Vatherine Reaume b-1740.

October 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Antoine Langlois born January 1777.

October 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Campeau born November 26, 1776.

October 16: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Julienne Cuillerier born 1712.

October 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jean Baptiste Duprat died November 7, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

October 21: Green Bay, birth (IV)-Pierre Antoine (Fanfan) Grignon, Metis baptised Mackinac August 6, 1787, died 1823 Green Bay (son espouse), son (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago, 2nd marriage August 8, 1787 (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade b-1759; married 1st 1801 Charlotte Pemonica, 2nd 1811 Marie Chellefoux. Note: Tanguay suggests Pierre Antoine is son Louise Langlade, but he didn't marry her until 1787??

October 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Marie Joseph Fontenay dit L'Espagnol (surnoms) Dagneau de Quindre) Metis daughter (I)-Francois de Florence Fontenay dit L'Espagnol and Sauteuse.

November 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Genevieve DeMarsac daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste (also called Benjamin) DeMarsac (1742- 1793) and (IV)-Genevieve Seguin.

November 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Seraphine Greffard daughter (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse; married January 7, 1794 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Ignace Sene.

December 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Joseph Campeau son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1737 and Catherine Boyer.

December 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Louise Crete daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Crete born 1736 and (II)-Marie Joseph Atmond born 1741.

December 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Therses Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751.

December 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Dufour born 1738.

December 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Francois Latour son Amable Latour and (III)-Agnas Mesny b-1758.

1778

The following known traders are on the Saskatchewan River, North West Territories: Blondeau with 6 canoes, (I)-Charles McCormick of Ireland with 6 canoes, Gibush (Waden) with 3 canoes, Peter Pangman (1744-1819), a German some say Dutch, with 5 canoes, Booty Graves of Britain with 5 canoes, Homes of Ireland and Robert Grant of North Briton with 5 canoes between them. This represents some 120-150 men, women and children. (I)-Jean Etienne Waden, d-1782, a Swiss wintered 1778/79 on the Saskatchewan River, he was also reported on Lac la Ronge this season..

Robert Michel Aird is trading out of Prairie du Chein.

(I)-William Cadwell (1750-1822), a Butler Ranger, and 50 men are posted to British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

Joseph Caplette born 1778 North West, census 1838 Red River, Metis Country.

Charles Jean Baptiste Cuillerier Beaubien (aka Black Ribbon) (1748-1749), an interpreter to the Miami Indians, son Jean Baptiste Beaubien (1709-1793) and Marie Anne Lootman Barrois (1726-1805), married to Catherine Pocanne Roy Metis.

Andre Beauchemin b-1778 Europe married Charlotte Pelletier Metis b-1785 and 2nd marriage Madeleine Ducharme Metis b-1801 Red River Settlement daughter Pierre Ducharme b-1776 Canada and 1st marriage unknown and 2nd marriage Catherine Saulteaux Indian b-1801

Joseph Beaupre, Metis b-1778/79 Canada married Josephte Cadotte, Metis b-1780/81 Pembina,

(IV)-Joseph Barthelemi Blondeau (1743-1790) of British Michillimahnac (Michigan) is reported to be wintering near Prince Albert, (Saskatchewan).

John Brown b-1778 married Elizabeth Metis b-1780 likely North West Territories.

Carolina Ikwemigen (Among Them Women) born 1778 likely Lake Superior died April 5, 1843 La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin).

Louise La Debauche born 1778 likely La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin), married August 9, 1835 La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Wisconsin), Marie Kimissikwe born 1802 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Dominique Lacroix (Hubert?) is living on the upper Mississippi River, in the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

Thibert Laderoute b-1778 Canada married Marguerite Sansregret Metis b-1780 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Lagemonier b-1778 Canada married Martin Gaboury b-1775.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, Stanislas Levasseur b-1732 married 1756 Quebec Francois Del'oeil arrived before 1778 Kaskaskia, Illinois. Children recorded are: Nicolas Simeon Levasseur b-160 Quebec married January 18, 1784 likely Kaskaskia, Illinois Therese Bienvenu. Charlotte Levasseur b-1762 Quebec, Jean Baptiste Levasseur (1771-1778) Kaskaskia, Pierre Levasseur d-1776 Kaskaskia, Noel Levasseur b-1757 Kaskaskia.

Charles McKenzie b-1778 married Mary McKay Metis b-1795 North West Territories.

(I)-James Morwick b-1778 Orkney married Sarah Metis b-1783 most likely North West Territories.

Bastonnais Pangman, a Metis, is born on the Saskatchewan River, North West Territories, son Peter Pangman (1744-1819)- a German some say Dutch and a Cree mother.

James Piggot, a privateer, settled Grand Ruisseau (near Columbia, Illinois).

John Pritchard b-1778, married, Marie Sauvage Indian b-1790 most likely North West Territories.

(I)-John Peter Pruden b-1778 England 1st married Nancy Ann, Metis b-1787, 2nd marriage Ann Armstrong b-1795 most likely North West.

Charles Reaume (1743-1813) works for his brother-in-law, Jehu Hay- Deputy Superintendent of Indian Department.

John Sayer Sr b-1750 likely Montreal, Quebec, (retired 1805/07 to Montreal, Quebec) married 1st about 1778 Obemauunoqua daughter Mamongazida (Big Foot), 2nd marriage Elizabeth McPherson; children appear to be Pierre Guillaume b-1779, John Charles, Henry, Margaret and James.

William Shaygonaybe b-1778, living 1870 census Hart, Michigan.

Thomas Smith b-1778 married Susanne Dumont Metis b-1783 most likely North West.

John Ward Metis b-1778 North West Territories married Angelique Bruyere Metis b-1780 North West Territories.

John Webber (1752-1793) made a sketch of Nootka artifacts at Nootka Sound, British Columbia. He also made a sketch of a large Nootka Ceremonial Lodge, also at Nootka Sound. Another sketch shows a Nootka Village engaged in trade with a small single sail boat. He was part of the James Cook's Voyage to the Pacific (1773-1784). Webber noted that the Nootka People practiced weaving.

Eustache Vallie (Vallette) born 1778 North West, census 1835 Red River, possible son Alexis Valle?.

Travel passport issued for Charles Chaboillez, Guarantors (I)-Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787) and T. Cory to Grand Portage.

Travel passport issued for W. and J. Kay, D. Rankin guarantors G. Phyn and Jas McGill for Grande Portage.

Travel passport issued for (I)-Jean Etienne Waden d-1782, a Swiss, guaranteed by Richard Dobie a Scot and J. McKindley for Grand Portage.

Travel passport issued for Homes and Grant guaranteed by R. Grant and Porteous for Grand Portage.

Travel passport issued for McBeath and Wright guarantors G. Phyn and Jas McGill for Grand Portage.

Travel passport issued for Forest Oakes guarantors Oakes and (I)-Lawrence Ermatinger (1736-1789) for Grand Portage.

Travel passport issued for McTavish and Bannerman, guarantors McTavish and J. B. Durocher for Grand Portage. Simon McTavish (1750-1804) himself is not believed to have traveled west of Lake Superior.

John McGill and (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788) for Grand Portage.

Jean Baptiste DeRocho, Joseph Faygnant and David Sanderi (Sanders or Sandison?) all born 1778 North West, 1838 census Red River.

Nancy Kennedy Indian, a child slave, is sold by William Kennedy of Abingdon, Virginia to Fulton.

Fort Haldimand, located on the west side of Carleton Island, at the east end of Lake Ontario, about 16 km offshore from Kingston, Ontario, is built by the British. Three veterans surrendered the abandoned fort to the American troops in the first months of the war of 1812.

Canada lost the Illinois territory because the inhabitants, mainly French and Illinois Metis settlers, had little reason to remain loyal to Quebec, and within six weeks George Roger Clark and his Kentucky riflemen occupied the territory. Colonel Henry Hamilton, the commander at British Fort Detroit (Michigan), recaptured Fort Vincennes, Knox, Indiana, in December but two months later saw his own capture, the result of the Natives deserting him.

The Rebel American Army had to abandon its planned attack of the British at Newport. Rhode Island when over 5,000 militiamen deserted and returned to their homes.

Throughout the Revolutionary War, George Washington's rebel army were short-term enlistees at best. The army was constantly on the point of disintegration.

Henry Hamilton is Governor of British Fort Detroit (Michigan) and Richard Berringer Lernoult is in charge.

British Fort's Mackinac, (Michigan), Fort Detroit (Michigan), Niagara, (Ontario) and other fortified posts along the Great Lakes remained in British hands throughout the war. The Lake Superior to Montreal, Quebec trade route employs about five hundred people. John Lang (Langlade), the Metis, is reported wintering at Tide Lake. Red Lake, Indian Territory (Minnesota), according to John Long, contains fish in great abundance and much wild rice, being harvested by the Ojibwa. John Lang at Pays Plat on the North Shore of Lake Superior traded with 150 Indians, mostly Ojibwa, but also some Wasses. On a trip north he traded with 300 Ojibwa while at Sturgeon Lake lived the Musquash tribe. At Lac La Mort, north Lake Nipigon, he traded with 80 in February for dried meat, oats, bears grease and 8 packs of beaver. A short time later another large band of Ojibwa arrived to trade. The Ojibwa reported that between Red Lake to Lake Le Sel (Salt Lake) there are 14 portages and 22 creeks. Long reported that a French trader had settled at Lake Caribou many years ago, and James Clark lost five out of eight men to starvation at Lake Savan which is north west of Lake Nipigon. The Free-traders stayed to the south shore of Lake Superior, stopping at Grand Pointe and using the Grande Portage route to the North West. Grand Pointe is also known as Fort Chagouamigon or simply La Pointe.

Seven free-trading partners, including Alexander Henry Sr. (1739-1824) and (I)-Thomas Frobisher (1744-1788), at the mouth of the Sturgeon River, pooled their resources and hired Peter Pond (1740-1807), who is to become one of the founding members of the North West Company, to fund a venture to Athabasca. Peter Pond (1740-1807), with a 5 man canoe crew, near Athabasca, is shown oil in pools, a black pitch-like substance which burns and is used in caulking canoes. On this trip, which lasted until 1779, Peter Pond (1740-1807) virtually traded the shirt off his back and collected so many fine black beaver skins that he had to leave half his load behind. Peter Pond established the Old Establishment, 30 miles south of Lake Athabasca in September. This Athabasca to Lachine trip stretched the French supply line to three thousand miles.

(I)-James Sutherland (1751-1797) and seven men journeyed up the Albany River with provisions for Gloucester House, established in 1777 by John Kipling. They arrived on August 18. Southerland reported that no less than seven Canadian trading posts are inland from Gloucester House. Kipling, the Master of Gloucester and Southerland, would work together for the next ten years. Southerland, besides being a tailor, would acquire the skills of a canoe-man, net-maker, hunter, carpenter, trader and linguist.

(IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) attended the College of St. Raphael, Montreal this year. Jean Baptiste Barthe, employed by (I)-John Askin (b-1749), commissaire at Mackinac, settled next to (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) at Sault Ste Marie. They entered into a partnership in the fur trade. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) took Saugemauga, an Indian woman of uncertain lineage, as his country wife in Fond du Lac, probably at LaPointe.

Jean Baptiste Garneau and Jeanne Campeau (possible daughter Michel Campeau and Josette Dutu de cette paraisse) were listed as godparents about 1778, L'Assomption de La Pointe de Montreal 1761-1783 du Detroit (Ontario) #1026604 page #207. Baptism Jeanette Langlois daughter Antoine Langlois and Marie D'Onges Bouchelot.

Other La Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario) witnesses listed are Francise Sabourin, Michel Colin, Guillaume Gorau (Goiau), Jean Baptiste Farereau (Farmeau), Francois Leduc, Louis Jaryuemoisis, Micheal Racicau, Jean Baptiste Racicau son Charles Racicau and Polacis Beatman LaPointe. Colin has been associated with a Garneau alias.

Jean Baptiste Gous-Homme, alias Gagnon, baptized British Fort Detroit (Michigan) son Jean Baptiste Boush-Homme alias Gagnon and Elisabeth DuMillar also daughter Marguerite Bout-Homme baptized British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

Thomas Bennett took a force to Grand Portage to protect the British traders.

The expedition to recapture Fort Vincennes, Knox, Indiana included the three Dagneau brothers: Charles Stanislaus Dagneau Fontenay (1746-after 1823), Francois Guillaume Dagneau Picanier (1747-1823) and Antoine Dagneau Pontchartrain (1751-1814), all working for the Indian Department. A number of Metis children are attributed to the Dagneau brothers, especially Charles Stanislaus in the area of Fort Vincennes, Knox, Indiana.

The Spanish Governor of Louisiana contracted out the whole of the Missouri River fur trade to three Metis: M.M. Choteau, Labaddie, and Cerre. Louisiana had become Metis territory for all practical purposes without the need to go to arms.

Cook and company, at the harbor at Nootka (B.C.), were surprised the natives had iron, brass and copper tools, clearly indicating prior European contact. Further north at Prince William Sound, the Eskimo like peoples had European swords, beads and other trade items. He assumed they were traded between tribes, not wanting to speculate that the Metis had reached this far. He was very disappointed and sailed around the Alaska Peninsula into the Bearing Strait. He then sailed to the Aleutian Islands were the Russian traders were long established. He then sailed on to Hawaii where he died.

January: (I)-James Sutherland (1751-1797), led by two Indians, traveled to Severn, delivering the Mail also to York Factory and Prince of Wales's Fort. They returned by April.

January 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Antoine Boyer born June 25, 1748 son (III)-Pierre Boyer (1707-1765) and Marie Anne Louise Pepin; married (IV)-Angelique Gibault daughter (III)-Etienne Gibaut born 1709 and (III)-Marie Catherine Dubois born 1714 epouse August 22, 1763 Pierre Reaume.

January 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, daughter Nicolas Langlois born 1777

January 20: It is noteworthy that only one out of every 7 to 8 French canoe men return for a second trip to the same destination. Some abandon their debt to their engagers and go to other traders, some are lured away by offers of higher wages, some go into business for themselves and some become Coureurs des Bois.

January 22: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Josee Delittle born December 9, 1777.

January 22: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Elizabeth Drouillar born January 1, 1778.

February 1: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Toussaint Cochon dit Chauvin born January 10, 1778.

February 1: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Alexander Hoilette born October 1777.

February 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Andre Landroche dit Skayanisse son (II)-Andre Landroche dit Skayanisse and Anne Parant (1723-1768); married (III)-Madeleine Casse b-1759 daughter (II)-Charles Casse.

February 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Andre Scayanis to (III)-Madeleine Casse daughter (II)-Charles Casse dit St. Aubin and (II)-Marie Joseph Mettay (1729-1759).

February 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Cecile Descomps daughter (III)-Alexis Descomps and (V)-Marie Francoise Robert born 1752.

February 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Charlotte Janson dit La Palme born February 5, 1778.

February 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Hoilette born 1772.

March 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VII)-Angelique Gagne daughter (VI)-Isaac Gagne born 1751 and (II)-Marie Louise Vallee born 1759.

March 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Le Beau (died suddenly), born 1730.

March 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Guillaume Hay son (I)-Pierre Hay and Marie Julie Reaume b1749, died March 23, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

March 29: James Cook landed Resolution Cove, Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island along with George Vancouver (1757-1798). It is noteworthy to remember that the Spanish had previously discovered Vancouver Island.

April: (I)-William Tomison, an Orkney, took charge of Cumberson House, Johnson Hanson was his second.

June 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Jean Baptiste Chauvin son (II)-Charles Chauvin (1702-1772) and (II)-Marie Anne Casse born 1710.

June 27: (I)-Frederick Haldimand (1718-1791) the military commander of Trois Rivieres, Quebec is made Governor of Quebec June 27, 1778 to November 15, 1784.

March 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (II)-Francois born September 10, 1753, died March 8, 1778 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) son (I)-Jean Capelet born 1710 and (II)-Joseph Rose LaRoche daughter (II)-Pierre LaRoche.

April 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Joseph Bourdeau died May 15, 1778 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont.

April 6: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Paul Campeau, born 1715.

April 15: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Godet (drowned), born 1775.

April 22: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Charlotte Charron, born January 1778.

May 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, Elisabeth Catin daughter Antoine Catin died before 1791 and was married about 1767 to Marie Anne Martin living south west of La Cote.

June 9: David Zeisberger wrote to George Morgan that an army of 150 to 200 French men is being led by Lamot (Guillaume LaMothe) toward Red Stone. Daniel Boone (1734-1820) was captured by the Shawnee and adopted into their tribe, but escaped. Daniel Boone (1734-1820) wrote Arthur Campbell that Hancock said 400 French and Indian are coming against us.

June 18: Michilimackinac, birth, Male Le Fantasie, son Francois Morisse Le Fantasie and Marianne Cardin, boy baptised by uncle Joseph Ainse.

June 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Pierre Cardinal born August 30, 1729 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (III)-Jacques Cardinal (1685-1763) and (II)-Jeanne Duguay (1691-1778); married (II)-Marie Angelique Sejourne dit Sanschagrin veuve de (III)-Jean Baptiste Cauchopis died before 1777, daughter (I)-Alexis Sejourne.

August 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Catherine Le Beau, born 1736.

September 2: Antoine Cuillerier Beaubien (1697-1793) voyager west.

September 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth twins, (III)-Marie Joseph Descomps & (III)-Margerite Descomps daughters (II)-Pierre Descomps dit Labadie aka Fillau (1776) born 1742 and (II)-Therese Gaillard dit Lionais born 1746.

September 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Pommeville (died suddenly), born 1730.

September 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Goiau, born 1730.

September 28: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Anne Pare, born February 1778.

September 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Francois Biguet a master mason (Maitre-Macon) born 1751 son (III)-Francois Biguet; married (IV)-Marie Therese Robidou born 1738 daughter (III)-Joseph Robidou.

October 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Agnas Duprat daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

October 22: Mackinac, birth, Joseph Gladu alias Gladis, baptized 1780 L'Lle DuPas.

October 26: Ardent Schuyler de Peyster (1736-1822) commanded Langlade and Gauthier to arouse the Nations to assist Hamilton in dislodging the rebels from Illinois. Langlade traveled from the Great River as far as St. Joseph where the Short Ears and the Ganteaux are causing them to assemble at St. Joseph. Gautier goes straight to St Joseph to get Louison Chevalier who is to assist Ainse in assembling the Pottawattamies. The Warriors are to use humanity towards the prisoners, as they will be held for ransom.

November 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Suzanne Landroche daughter (III)-Andre Landroche dit Skayanisse and (III)-Madeleine Casse b-1759.

December 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Elisabeth Bufet daughter (I)-Louis Bufet, a merchant, and Therese DeMarsac.

December 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Louise Drouillard daughter (III)-Francois Drouillard and (II)-Marie Anne Vilers daughter (I)-Louis Vilers.

December 23: Mackinac, birth (IV)-Marguerite Chevalier, Metis, baptised, July 20, 1786 Mackinac daughter (III)-Luc Chevalier born May 22, 1735 Mackinac New France (Michigan); and Sauvagesse.

December 26: Birth, (IV)-Marie Joseph Dumouchel, Metis, baptized July 22, 1786, Mackinac, daughter, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse; married November 28, 1793 Cahokia, Illinois Louis Labossiere. .

December 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Jean Baptiste Barthe born May 4, 1753, died June 22, 1827 Sandwich, Ontario son Charles Andre Barthe and Marie Teresa Campeau; married Genevieve Cuillerier Beaubien born May 1, 1761 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), died July 14, 1847 Peck River, Ontario daughter Jean Baptiste Cuillerier Beaubien and Marie Anne Lootman Barrois.