Metis

1779 - 1780


The North West Company is formed by a group of
three dozen Montreal merchants.

The Company however did not begin operating until 1784.


The Ojibwa and Metis dominated the Old North West (The Great Lakes Region)

The Europeans were basically confined to Fort's Niagara, Detroit, Mackinac, and Sault Ste. Marie

Further west they had Grande Portage and Grande Pointe.

Grande Point is more of a Ojibwa and Metis center.

The Europeans seldom venture into the interior.

The Ojibwa and Metis dominated the interior.

The new North West was the domain of the Indians and the Metis.


1779

A party of Ojibwa are trading at Sturgeon River and Hudson House on the north Saskatchewan River near the later Fort Carlton. The Ojibwa of Berens River claimed their ancestors lived west of Lake Winnipeg in the 1770's.

Michilimakinac, birth (II)-Jean Charles Askin baptised September 5, 1780 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (I)-Jean Askin (1739-1815) and Marie Archange Barthe born 1749. John Askin is from Albany, New York and some suggest he didn't settle into British Fort Detroit (Michigan) until 1780, then moved to Sandwich (Windsor, Ontario) in 1794.

Paul Boucher Metis b-1779 likely North West

Paul Boucher alias Larnalici & Lamalieu & Lounalist Metis born 1779, North West, census 1831 to 1838 Red River; married Francoise St. Germain Metis b-1770 listed as other. Two Paul Boucher listed census 1835, see 1769.

Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1743-1794) commanded the frigate Favorita to Alaska in the expedition of Ignacio de Arteaga.

Mackinac, marriage Daniel Bourassa to Margaret Bertrand

Michilimackinac, Michel Brisbois (born about 1759/60 Maska, Quebec, died June, 1837 Prairie du Chien son Joseph Dubois dit Brisbois and Catherine Therese Renou dit Lachapelle, born Yamaske, Quebec; arrived Michilimackinac this year but by 1781 was settled at Prairie de Chien on the Upper Mississippi. He married 1785 Winnebago woman and had three Metis children, Angellic, Michel and Antoine; 2nd marriage August 8, 1796 Mackinaw Domitelle (Madeline) Gautier de Verville daughter Charles Gautier de Verville.

Henry Cochrane b-1779 married Fanny b-1790 likely North West.

(I)-Mathew Cocking, the bigamist, died this year and two of his three wives survived him, named in his will as Ke-che-cho-wich and A-pis-taSqua-sish.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Louis Cote son Prisque Cote b-1730 and Marie Magdelene Lefebvre.

Antoine Daunet, Metis, b-1779, baptized July 7, 1785 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) son Antoine Daunet and Sauvagesse.

Jean Baptiste Marie Ducharme (1723/24-1807) is licensed for two canoes to Prairie du Chein.

Louis Dufau born 1779 most likely Lake Superior died April 2, 1858 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

John Flett b-1779 North West Territories married Jenny Cook b-1781 likely North West.

(I)-William Garrioch b-1779 Scotland married Nancy Cook Metis b-1785 likely North West.

Antoine Goneville b-1779 Canada married Marguerite Labine Metis b-1785 most likely North West daughter Jean Baptiste Labine b-1760 and Josephte Indian b-1764 most likely North West.

Green Bay, birth (IV)-Charles Antoine Grignon, Metis, died 1846/48, son (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago: married 1st Charlotte, 2nd Therese Rankin, 3rd Susan Larose. Note: Tanguay suggests Charles Antoine is son Louise Langlade but he didn't marry her until 1787??

(I)-John Hourie Sr. b-1779 Orkney married Margaret Indian b-1787 North West Territories.

A.S. De Peyster is commandant at Mackinaw and is accompanied by his Scottish wife.

David Saunders b-1779 North West Territories married Mary Metis b-1785 most likely North West.

Simon McKay born 1779 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Dapto Masassere born 1779 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Pierre Sayer Metis born 1779 North West (likely Leech Lake), (most likely the son of John Sayer b-1750 and Obemauunoqua), included in census 1835 Red River, his son Pierre is born 1803 Red River.

James Spence born 1779 North West, census 1835 Red River, census 1834 lists birth as 1787 and 1831 census as 1792 probably a different person.

George Sutherland of the H.B.C. wintered near a peddler post on Sturgeon Lake. He listed no less than seventeen trading posts, operated by Montreal men, and underscored the cheapness of their goods. He said the pedlars are in every hole and corner where there are any Indians to be found ,and besides that, the pedlars give away more to the Indians than what we do when we give them the most. Montreal traders gave away free rum, powder, shot, tobacco, mirrors, paint, knives, beads, ribbons, flints, steel, combs, awls, needles, gun-worms, rings, ear-rings, bracelets, armbands, hair plates and ruffed shirts.

Carolina Omiskwakwadokwe (Red Cedars Woman) born 1779 likely Lake Superior died November 4, 1841 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Minnesota River, Kaposia village or below Mt. Trempeauleau birth Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis son Joseph Renville (1754-1795) a trader of the Mississippi and Miniyuhe sister Mdewakanton Chief Little Crow - Big Thunder a Dakota of the village Petit Corbeaux; Akipa married about 1806 Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

Joseph Reaume is trading out of Michilimaclinac at Fond du Lac on Lac Superior.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth (II)-Benito Vasquez (1779-1847) son (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin; married 1814 Clarissa Lafevre.

(I)-Philip Turnor (Turner) wrote:" Cumberland House can be called nothing but a warehouse or a halfway house for other settlements." He agreed with (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792), who in 1775 said we need a whole network of inland posts. Philip complained to London that the Canadians can chose to keep a girl, which most of them do, and the master finds her apparel so that they need not spend one farthing of their wages.

Ethan Allen (1739-1789), one of the Green Mountain Boys in the American Revolution, informed the Continental Congress that he was not fighting for the independence of the United States but of Vermont, that he wised to become a separate nation. Vermont declared its independence but it was not accepted. Allen negotiated with the British in an effort to have Vermont made part of Canada.

January 1: Machilimackinac, marriage Charles Gautier interpreter at Michilimackinac married Magdelaine Chevalier daughter Louis Paschal and Magdelaine (Rheaume) Chevalier. see below:

January 1: Prairie du Chein, Wisconsin, marriage Claude Charles Gautier (Gauthier) de Verville born February 3, 1738 died 1803 son Claude Gautier died 1757 and Marie Louise Villeneuve born 1720; Known children with his wife Magdeleine Paschal Chevalier married January 1, 1779 and births and marriages all at Prairie du Chein, Wisconsin. Magdeline Gautier born May 1779 or 1780 who married Henry Monroe Fisher

Domitille Madeline Gautier born 1781 who married 1796 Michael Brisbois (1759-1837). In 1786 they adopted Augustin Sarasin Gautier b-1782 son Augustin Sarasin and Indian woman.

Prior to his marriage Charles debauched numerous female panis (slaves) of his uncles Charles de Langlade. These include, but not limited to:

Children with Sioux panis slave who later became Mrs Dubois

Catherine Gautier who married Jean Baptiste Brunet (Brunette)

Marguerite Gautier who married Rollett

Children with Winnebago panis slave

Charles Bartelmi Gautier who married a Ojibwa panis woman named Josette Bartemi Gautier

Children with Ottawa panis slave

Joseph Gautier

Victor Gautier

Francois Gautier

Jean Baptiste Gautier

Pierre Gautier

Antoine Gautier

Children with Sac Fox panis slave

Francois Gauthier who married Rosalie LaPoint

Jean Baptiste Gautier who married Ursule LaPoint

Children with Menominee panis slave

Pierre Gautier

Antoine Gautier

 

Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve and a group of three dozen Montreal merchants agreed to form a new partnership called the North West Company with a single motto: "Perseverance." The Company, however, did not start operating until 1784. The Company is divided into 16 shares held by nine different partnerships. Some of the shareholders are: Charles Paterson (d-1788) of the Michilimackinac Company, Isaac Todd, John McGill, (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804), George McBeath (1740-1812), (I)-Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787) and (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810), John Ross (d-1787) and Peter Pond (1740-1807). The free traders out of Michilimakinac placed their goods in a common or General Store. Nine traders formed this General Company, and in 1780 renewed their agreement for three additional years. It is noteworthy that Isaac Todd & James McGill are buying merchandise from England, shipped via Montreal, for the trade.

Some say an interruption of trade goods resulted in the creation of the North West Company.

This year the Southern Department is still out producing the North West Territories. Alexander Henry Sr. (1739-1824) from Grand Pointe (Wisconsin), knowing the South West fur supply would decline, wintered at Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan with the Frobisher brothers, (I)-Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787) and (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810).

Before 1779, Le Roy's House is established by free traders 45 miles above Pembina.

By the end of the 1770's so many Orkney had fallen in love with their country women that a small college is established at St. Margaret's Hope in south Ronaldsay to school their offspring. (I)-Philip Turner (Turnor), a Hudson Bay Company surveyor, noted the Orkney are obliging, hardy and good canoe men. This is most interesting as most H.B.C. men admit the Orkney are poor canoe men, and (I)-John Thomas noted, on his return to Moose Factory, that women were paddling the canoes.

(I)-Philip Turnor (Turner) of the Hudson Bay complained that Montreal field operators paid one hundred pounds sterling, whereas the Hudson Bay Chief traders pay is ten to thirty pound sterling. He also complained that the Canadian has his feather bed carried in the canoe, his tent is exceedingly good and is pitched for him, his bed is made and his country girl is carried in and out of the canoe. When in the canoe he never touches a paddle unless for his own pleasure. (I)-John Thomas, upon returning to Moose Factory, reported many Englishmen of the Hudson Bay Company now had their own Indian women. George Sutherland wintered near a peddler's post on Sturgeon Lake and listed no less than seventeen trading posts, operated by Montreal men, and underscored the cheapness of their goods. He also noted the peddlers gave away more to the Indians than what the Hudson Bay Company did, even when they give them the most. Humphrey Marten recorded that 20 Hudson Bay Company employees, who passed the winter at Cumberland House, have to face 200 to 300 Canadians.

Peter Pond (1740-1807) and six men built a fort at Eagle Hills near Battle River ,and (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney who replaced (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792), sent (I)-Robert Longmoor upriver, twelve days paddle against the current, to build Hudson House above the Canadians. They were immediately joined by two sets of Canadian traders. (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, had arrived too late in the season and had to accept a poor unfinished house on loan from Peter Pangman (1744-1819), the German or Dutchman, who then continued to intercept all Native trade. The Indians were determined to direct the buffalo from the Hudson House region. They reasoned that the English would be unable to procure their own rations and they would acquire all the goods at famine prices. The Cree and Assiniboine set fire to the plains but this drove the buffalo so far a field that they entered into starvation and had to beg the forts for food, or so reported (I)-Robert Longmoor.

William Holmes with eighteen men, was more blatant and used threats of force to ensure that no natives traded with (I)-Robert Longmoor of the Hudson Bay Company. It is noteworthy that (I)-Robert Longmoor married an Indian woman. (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, received instructions from London to build more trading posts. He built his own house called Cumberland House, a thirty-seven by twenty-seven foot structure, including a garden of turnips and radishes.

Oswego on Lake Ontario is deserted except for Parlow. He reports that his post has been pillaged. A treaty is established between the Ojibwa and the Peddlers for access to the Lake Winnipeg route.

A free traders post on Eagle Hills (Saskatchewan) is destroyed by the Gros Ventre.

A trading post is constructed on the St. Joseph River.

January 1: Charles Gauthier de Vierville born February 3, 1738 Mackinac son Claude Gauthier dit St. Germain and Therese Villeneuve Outaquais; lieutenant, interpreter Du Roy, married Mackinac Magdeleine Chevalier.

January 8: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Therese Delille, born January 3, 1779.

January 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (IV)-Julie Gastinon died February 23, 1779 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Claude Francois Gastinon born 1756 and (II)-Jeanne Billiau (1762-1791).

February 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Agnes Latour daughter Amable Latour and (III)-Agnas Mesny b-1758.

February 7: (V)-Augustin Hamelin Metis baptised August 19, 1787 Michillimackinac Son (IV)-Louis Charles Hamelin Metis born 1737 Michillimackinac son (III)-Charles Hamelin and his slave woman Marie Athanase a Sauteux woman ( 1708- 1738) and Marie Joseph LeSable of the Sauteuse (Ojibwa) Nation born 1737 Michillimackinac.

February 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Guillaume Francois Dagneau alias DeQuinore sieur de la Picanier, officer born July 23, 1747) Montreal son (II)-Louis-Cesaire Dagneau dit Douville, Sieur de Quindre (1704-1767) and (III)-Marie Anne Picote de Belestre (1714-1756); married British Fort Detroit (Michigan), a (IV)-Therese Boyer born October 16, 1755 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) veuve (1770) Jean Baptiste Casse; Therese is daughter (III)-Ignace Boyer (1721-1784) and (IV)-Angelique Pepin dit Descardonnets.

February 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Angelique Chiquot died August 19, 1779 daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot born 1749 and (IV)-Angelique Godefroy born 1753.

February 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Dube daughter (IV)-Jean Marie Dube born 1738 and (IV)-Marie Joseph Seguin born 1754.

March 1: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Beneteau, born February 24, 1779.

April 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Louise Greffard daughter (IV)-Laurent Greffard b-1745 and (III)-Marie Anne Casse; married May 28, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Joseph Bariau.

April 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Elisabeth Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751.

April 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Louise Hay daughter (I)-Pierre Hay and Marie Julie Reaume b1749, died March 23, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

May 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Boufar, born March 1778,

May 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Elizabeth Villers, born April 24 1779.

May 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, James McGregor son Gregor McGregor and Susan Robert.

May 20-21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (IV)-Antoine Bourdeau son (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont.

May 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Charles Latour son Francis Latour and Marguerite Meloche.

June 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Joseph Campeau son (IV)-Jacques Campeau born 1735 and (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739.

June 14: Birth of (IV)-Charles Grignon (ondoye) Metis baptized August 6, 1787 Mackinac son (III)-Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee Winnebego Note: Tanguay suggests Pierre Antoine is son (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade b-1759 but he didn't marry her until 1787??

July 13: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Antoine Hoilette, born June 14, 1779.

July 18: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Goiau, born December 1778.

July 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Apolline Catin daughter Antoine Catin died before 1791 and was married about 1767 to Marie Anne Martin living south west of La Cote.

August 5: Father (I)-Charles Germain, a Belgisan, Jesuit (1707-1779) died St. Francois, Abenaki Mission.

August 18: Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) is at Prairie du Chein, Cahokia (Illinois) and St. Louis Region.

August 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Francois Biguet son (IV)-Francois Biguet a master mason (Maitre-Macon) born 1751 and (IV)-Marie Therese Robidou born 1738, see parents marriage 1778.

August 23: A.S. De Peyster, Commandant Mackinaw, wrote the Governor General Haldimand that Bennett's Canadiands and Indians had grown homesick and were desirous of turning back from certain expeditions.

September 2: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, M. Magd. Viller, born 1764.

September 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Alexis Campeau son (IV)-Alexis Campeay (1737-1782) and (V)-Madeline Dumays (1745-1795).

October 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Louis Chauvin son (III)-Jean Baptiste Chauvin born 1740 and (IV)-Therese Segun born 1752.

October 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Louise Bienvenu daughter (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage 1763.

October 16: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Ambroise Beaubien, born 1757.

October 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Charlotte DeMarsac daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste (also called Benjamin) DeMarsac (1742- 1793) and (IV)-Genevieve Seguin.

October 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Marantet, new born.

October 25: Louis Giroux who appears to have died 1787, Cahokia (Illinois). married, Marie Louise Lemire, veuve April 16, 1787 Francois Gerome dit La Fleur des Pois.

October 29: Patt Sinclair, Lt. Governor of Mackinac, writing to Captain Brehm said, "I have given a copy of the enclosed instructions to Jean Baptiste Cadot of St. Mary's, a man who is much esteemed by William Johnson and paid for several years by the Crown. He has always maintained a good character in this country, rendered services in the Indian Commotion '63', he has great influence with the Indians and is considered by them as a great Village Orator." (V)-Charlotte Cadotte (1779-1807) is born the daughter of (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) and Saugemauga at Fond du Lac.

October 31: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)Marie Louise Aide-Crequy born this year daughter (III)Jean Baptiste and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763.

November 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Charles Francios Gouin (b-1748) 2nd marriage Suzanne Boyer at British Fort Detroit (Michigan) (first marriage 1775 Angelique Godet).

November 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, Joseph Chalou.

November 14: Kaskaskia, marriage Antoine Chenier son Claude Chenier and Marie Louise Brunet; married Therese Bauvais.

December 6: Detroit, birth, (V)-Therese Lauzon daughter (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse; married April 23, 1792 Angelique Raymond.

December 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Jos. Gignac, born November 1777.

1780

Unlike the Hudson Bay men who had many wives at the same time, a North West Company man testified he had never heard of a North West Company man having two women at one time. It was not customary, a man could have but one wife. The Coureurs des Bois dominate the Fond du Lac route up the St. Louis River to Red Lake and the Red River for the next 20 years. Pembina ,as a Metis settlement, is well established about this time, maybe earlier. The Metis are camped all long the Red and Assiniboine Rivers and use Pembina as a staging point for the Great Buffalo Hunts.

Joseph Arcand b-1780 Canada married Marie Vestreau b-1785 Metis likely North West.

Jacque Bergis b-1780 married Cecile Demond Metis born 1785 likely North West.

Toussant Berthelet b-1780 married Marguerite Indian b-1776 likely North West.

John Black, Metis b-1780 married Marguerite Indian b-1785 likely North West.

Andrew J. Blackbird b-1780, died 1908, living 1870 census, Michigan.

Josette Metis b-1780 Red River likely mother or grand mother of Joseph Charles Bottineau b-1820 or Angelique Cardinal b-1824, 1850 census.

Ones Burnard b-1780 married Suzett McLeod Metis b-1785 likely North West.

(III)-Augustin Cadotte (b-1728) claimed, in 1818, to have been continuously trading the Red River Region from 1780 to 1818. (IV)-Suzanne Cadotte born 1780 Red River near St. Boniface daughter (III)-Alexander Cadotte and Susan Sautesse.

Josephte Cadotte, Metis b-1780/81 Pembina, married Joseph Beaupre, Metis b-1778/79 Canada.

Duncan Campbell b-1780 married Catherine Metis b-1785 likely North West.

Until 1780, (III)-Charles Chaboillez (1736-1808) wintered in the areas of Grand Portage and Grande Riviere, spending his summers in Montreal. After this date, he spent winters in Montreal and summers trading. He was born in Michilimackinac.

Antoine Collin b-1780 married Mishah Wayers b-1783 likely North West.

(II)- Joseph Couvret born 1695 and Marie Charlotte Demeurant (Ojibwa) are living in Sault Ste Marie, making their living trading furs, selling fish to British Forts Mackinac, Detroit (Michigan) and other settlements.

Louis Dagneau Douville de Quindre is at the post of the Miamis of the Maumee River (Fort Wayne) but received instructions to go to the St. Joseph River to make an impression on the Indians.

(I)-William Dennet b-1780 Orkney married Sophia Ballendine Indian b-1791 likely North West.

Pierre Dorion Sr. is issued 240 acres of land in St. Louis, Missouri by the Spanish Government.

Illinois River, marriage, Pierre Dorion, born January 17, 1740, died September 10, 1810 Fort Osaga, Missouri likely son Jean Marie Dorion and Marie Therese LeNormand; married, on the Lower Illinois River this year, a Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow). Their son, Pierre Dorion, Metis, born 1780/82 Yankton village in the Dakotas died 1814; who married Marie Aioe Laguivoise (L'auguvoise)(Wi-hmunke-wakan) an Iowa Indian woman born 1786/89 near Scott, Illinois, died September 3, 1850 Willamette Valley, Salem Oregon. She is also known as Marie Aioe Dorion Venier Toupin. Marie Aioe 2nd marriage Joseph Venier a French Canadian at Fort on Okanogon. It is noteworthy that Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) was a polygamist who was married to a Iowa woman and Yankton woman at the same time. Rarihokwats (suggests there is no evidence that either of the two Pierres were polygamists. He suggests Pierre Jr. who died January 1814 likely Oregon, married Iowa woman aka Marie Ioway or Marie Loway and Madonna of the Oregon Pass.) Pierre Sr. has about 12 children attributed to him. Pierre Jr 1780, Charles & Paul 1781, Louis 1782, Antoine 1785, Thomas 1787, Marie 1791, Jean Baptiste 1795, Elen 1796, Margaret 1800 (she claimed a Sioux mother), Comanaka/Comanna 1807, a baby 1811. It would appear that the lives of Sr. & Jr. are being confused (commingled) and/or there is a third Pierre? see 1808 2nd marriage. It is beyond my scope to untangle this mess but caution is advised when using this data.

Thanks to Rarihokwats for bringing this to my attention.

A trader named Jean Baptiste Marie Ducharme (1723/24-1807), who traded Michilimackinac, Missouri, Illinois and Wisconsin, was involved in a British expedition against the Spanish at St. Louis.

Joseph Durand b-1780 married Josephte Metis b-1785 likely North West.

Charles Jacques Freniere (Lafreniere) married Sisseton daughter Tokokotipexni (He Who Fears Nothing), Their children are Francois died before 1851, Narcisse and Louison. Charles is trading on the Riviere St. Pierre (Minnesota River)

Joseph Gaudry b-1780 married Kakorwaste Metis b-1819 likely North West.

Joseph George b-1785 married Josette Indian b-1787 likely North West.

John Hughes b-1780 married Indian Woman b-1785 most likely North West.

Thomas Ishim born 1780 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Mary Kinnesheway b-1780, living 1870 census Kewadin, Michigan.

Louis Lacerte Metis b-1780 North West Territories married Marie Martin Metis b-1797 most likely North West daughter Simon Martin b-1775 and Lisette Indian b-1777 most likely North West.

Louis LaEerhe (LacErie?) born 1780 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Antoine Lafreniere Metis b-1780 Canada married Marguerite Houle b-1785 most likely North West.

Mary Letour b-1780 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin,

Baptiste Lonais, Metis b-1780 Canada, a hunter married Marguerite b-1790 Red River.

John McNab b-1780 married Jane Cook Metis b-1784 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Malaterre Metis b-1780 North West Territories married Angelique Adam Metis b-1796 most likely North West.

Benjamin Marchand b-1780 Canada married Marguerite Nadeau Metis b-1795 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Masse b-1780 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin.

Angus Mathison born 1780 North West, census 1831 Red River.

Jean Baptiste Minnie b-1780 married Marguerite Pelletier Metis b-1785 most likely North West.

Michel Monette b-1780 married Marguerite Grant Metis b-1790 most likely North West.

Neswawsobe b-1780, living 1870 census Hubbald Lake, Michigan.

Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) and wife Angelique Demeurant, Ojibwa, are settled at Sault Ste Marie, dealing primarily in furs and providing fish for British Forts Mackinac, Detroit (Michigan) and other settlements.

Catherine Okenotego b-1780, living 1870 census Good Hart, Michigan.

Angeline Osawoquam b-1780, living 1870 census Sugar Islasnd, Michigan.

Charles Patterson d-1788 is found returning to Michilimackinac with a load of furs. He is in partnership with James McGill.

Petawsegay b-1780, living 1870 census Petoskey, Michigan.

Frances Petoskey b-1780, living 1870 census Petoskey, Michigan.

Joseph Pocha b-1780 married Margaret Indian b-1780 most likely North West.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (V)-Pierre Reaume son (IV)-Pierre Reaume dit Thamur (Themus) and Marie Josephe Pilot; married 1780 Marie Jeanne Campeau.

Green Bay, Joseph Roy (LeRoy) (1744-1825) a resident of Green Bay this year is married to Marguerite Oskinanotame (1760-1835) daughter AhkenepawehAkeeneebaway (Standing Earth) a Menominee and Waupanokoew. Their Metis children include Susan Sowankien who married Domanick Brunette and Marie Roy who married Jean Marie Ducharme.

John Sayer born 1780, died September 23, 1838 La Pointe, Wisconsin..

Alexander Smith born 1780 North West, census 1835 Red River.

(I)-James Tait b-1780 Orkney 1st married Catherine Tait b-1780, 2nd marriage Sarah Indian b-1782 North West Territories.

Mary Ann Taybyant b-1780, living 1870 census Harbor Springs, Michigan.

Joseph Tourand b-1780 married Charlotte Gladu Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Louis Villebrune b-1780 Lower Canada married Marian Indian b-1785 North West Territories.

Francois Viviere b-1780 married Suzanne Indian b-1785 North West Territories.

Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois is built this year then Fort St. Louis and Foert Prud-homme on the Mississippi below the Ohio. These posts are to control the trade, and anyone not authorized had their goods and furs seized. It is noteworthy that La Salle's men traveled north to trade with the Ottawa and Assiniboine, despite the fact that he was specifically forbidden to trade with these Montreal fur suppliers. The Coureurs des Bois and Metis watched this strategy with growing alarm. They concluded that Royal Edicts had little or no authority. They focused their attention on Michilimackinac as their main secure base of operations. Some, however, remarked that the Metis and Coureurs des Bois had their little cabins everywhere from Lake Winnipeg, south to the Ohio and north to Hudson Bay, not to mention into the far west. At some locations scores of traders gathered, while at others only two or three men and their families resided.

Travel passport issued for George McBeath St. Germain.

Travel passport issued for W. and J. Kay.

Travel passport issued for McTavish and Bannerman.

Travel passport issued for Porteous, Southerland and Company.

Travel passport issued for John Ross.

Travel passport issued for (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810).

Travel passport issued for F. Oakes.

Travel passport issued for Paterson and Frobisher

Travel passport issued for J. Lecuyer

Travel passport issued for Holmes and Grant

Travel passport issued for Warden and St. Germain

Travel passport issued for Peter Pond (1739-1807), he wintered 1780/81 at Michilimackinac.

Travel passport issued for Ross and Peter Pangman (1744-1819)

Travel passport issued for F Oakes

Travel passport issued for (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804)

Travel passport issued for W and J Kay

Travel passport issued for (I)-Benjamin Frobisher (1742-1787) and (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810)

When Peter Pond (1740-1807) of the General Store Company of Michilimakinac returned to Athabasca to his winter hut, it still contained over one hundred and forty packs of fur. Not fully appreciating the basic honesty of the Natives, he recorded his surprise that they are still intact .

The use of the term Half Breed first appeared in the southern United States this year. The first person to use of this term in America was Father Vivier in 1750. The success of the numerous French companies, such as the General Company and the North West Company, is leaving the French owner/operator profit sharing process of the Montreal Company in tact. They also retained their inclusion of a strong voice in the formulation of policy. This evolving Metis process is a blending of European and Native beliefs, so entrenched that it would have been impossible to stop, although the Scottish would try. The Scottish voyager, being less civilized, most often used the country women as concubines, selling them upon their departure or simply abandoning them and their children to their own fate. The French were more inclined to forming permanent and deeply felt relationships. There were exceptions to the general country rule in both cultures.

Sinclair, the commander of Mackinac, sends Emanuel Hesse, a trader of Prairie du Chien, in the spring, to gather the Indians at the Wisconsin/Fox portage for an attack on the Spanish St. Louis.

(I)-John Askin (Erskine) (1739-1815) moved his store from British Fort Michilimackinac (Michigan) to British Fort Detroit (Michigan) this season, likely because Patrick Sinclair moved the Fort to Mackinac Island.

Georges Rogers Clark is commander of the troops of Virginia and eastern Illinois.

Fort Alexandria on the Assiniboine River, 5 miles above Fort Pelly, is established by the North West Company. It is originally called Fort Tremblant and is also known as Popular Fort.

The Hudson Bay Company establishes Buckingham House on the North Saskatchewan, 350 miles above Cumberland House.

Red Lake House is established at the north end of Red Lake, Ontario.

George Sutherland who is near Sturgeon Lake, north east of Thunder Bay, is near starvation when he wrote: In dire straits for food and being obliged at times to eat shoes, mittens and snow-strings. Duncan Cameron said that the natives considered the North West traders as poor, pitiful creatures that could supply neither themselves nor the Indians. During this period most Nor'westers relied upon the Indian guides for food and canoes, and their country women for clothing and snow-shoes.

John Cole is at Fort Montagne d'Aigle (Eagle Hills), which is about nine miles below Battle River, Saskatchewan. Near Eagle Hills, Saskatchewan, an Irish trader named (I)-Charles McCormick an Irishman from Montreal put an extra dose of opium (laudanum) into some rum causing the death of some Indians. The Natives fought back, and in the ensuing rumble there are serious casualties on both sides. John Cole was one of the casualties. The traders sued for peace and paid retribution in the amount of two hundred gallons of rum. Philip Turnor (Turner), surveyor for the Hudson Bay Company, concluded that the fault was with McCormick, who refused to smoke the pipe of peace, who told the natives to put on petticoats because they are old women and that he would cut out their tongue. Some Natives, not satisfied with the Eagle Hills settlement, burned a Canadian Fort at Sturgeon River and made an abortive attack on Hudson House. At Le Fort Des Trembles, also called Popular Fort, three leagues above Portage La Prairie, the Indians pillaged traders William Bruce and Boyar. Two French and seven Indians were killed before the party returned to the Forks. Most traders are driven out of the Saskatchewan River region.

A smallpox epidemic during the period 1780 to 1782 swept through northern Ontario, Rainy Lake and Red River, sweeping away three fourths of the Ojibwa, and compelling those on the prairies to lay aside their intention of cutting off all white men to the interior of the country. Ninety percent of the Chipewyan are wiped out. David Thompson wrote that this disease was caught by the Ojibwa and the Dakota Sioux at about the same time. It spread to the northward extremities and crossed the Rocky Mountains.

The Dakota attacked the trading post at the confluence of the Patridge or Pena River, with the Crow Wing. The post is defended by a French trader and several Coureurs des Bois totaling some twenty men and their families. The Dakota retreated when 40 new hunters appeared, apparently responding to the noise.

Eshkebugecoshe, a future chief of the Pillagers and son of Wasonaunequa (Yellow Hair), is among the defenders. Yellow Hair had a Dakota wife and four of their children had been brutally killed by the Dakota. Yellow Hair had savagely retaliated against the Dakota and this could have been their response.

Bruce and Boyer established a trading post and other shelter buildings on the original Fort Rouge site (Winnipeg).

Charles Grant reports that 90 to 100 canoes annually clear Montreal to trade with the uncivilized savages. This, he says, accounts for about 50% of the total trade. Transport crews normally are 8 men, whereas wintering crews are 10 men. At this time few Europeans lived in the southern Ontario peninsula. The Metis and Coureurs des Bois are considered Canadian, not European in nature. The Algonquian, Ojibwa and Metis dominated the area, and the Europeans confined themselves to Fort Niagara, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Sault Ste Marie, Grand Pointe, Grande Portage and Mackinac, and were seldom in the interior. Sault Ste Marie is a favorite provisioning and stopping place for the Voyageurs who would spend two or three days in continual feasting, dancing and general merrymaking before proceeding on their grueling trips. At this ancient (Ontario-Michigan) cross roads, they split north west to Grand Portage, south west to Grand Pointe (Wisconsin) and south to Mackinac and then on to Green Bay (Michigan). It is reported that a fort is built on Red Lake this year.

John Sayer b-1750 is at Mackinac as agent for Joseph Howard d-1797 of Michilimackinac and in 1781 he presented claims for goods seized for the St. Louis expedition.

Howard, during the 1780's and 1790's, is trading out of Fort Mackinac and Prairie du Chien with John Sayer b-1750 and James Dyer White. Howard retired in 1796.

The Mandan of North Dakota are trading primarily with Metis free-traders, Cree and Assiniboine Peoples. Later they would trade with the Hudson Bay Company, the North West Company and the Missouri Company. Many traders stayed with the Mandan; taking Indian wives.

Jean Baptiste Hamelin led a Spanish force from Cohokia against St. Joseph (Niles, Michigan) in retaliation for the Canadian attack on St. Louis earlier this year. The Spanish captured the settlement, taking prisoners and furs. Upon their return, DeQuindre and a force attacked the Hamelin Spanish group, killing or capturing most of the invading force.

Between 1780 and 1805 Captain Shewequenap, son Nonosecash, led a band of 35 people to trade at Gloucester House, then later Osnaburgh. They usually arrived in twelve to fourteen canoes. What made this band unique is that it's membership, in terms of numbers, did not change over 25 years.

Moose Factory on James Bay began to record a few mixed blood employees, but mostly confines itself to European employees.

January 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Basile Cousineau to (III)-Francoise Davignon daughter (II)-Alexis Davignon died 1780 and Marie Louise Crete, the wife, the late, Louis Bernard Lajoire.

January 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Louis Basile son (III)-Jacques Cousineau (1721-1780) and Marie Joseph Letang died 1780; married Marie Francoise Davignon daughter Alexis Davignon.

February 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Jean Baptiste Chapotom born May 22, 1758 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1721 and (III)-Felicite Cesire born 1737 married (VI)-Therese Pelletier born 1759 died July 17, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (V)-Jean Baptiste Pelletier.

February 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (V)-Jean Baptiste Antoine Laforest born May 10, 1746 Baie St. Paul son (IV)-Guillaume Laforest b-1725 and (IV)-Marie Marguerite Tremblay (1725-1768); married (III)-Louise Charlotte Casse b-1746.

February 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Jean Baptiste Laforest to (III)-Louise Casse daughter (II)-Charles Casse dit St. Aubin and (II)-Marie Joseph Mettay (1729-1759).

February 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Therese Chiquot daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot born 1749 and (IV)-Angelique Godefroy born 1753.

February 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Langlois, born 1740.

February 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jacques Alard son (III)-Pierre Alard married Genevieve Madeleine Laforest.

February 24: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Laurent Drouillar, born February 22, 1780.

February 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VII)-Issaac Gagne son (VI)-Isaac Gagne born 1751 and (II)-Marie Louise Vallee born 1759.

March 17: Birth (II)-Billie Cadwell, Metis, died 1841 Youngstown, New York and an un-named daughter children of (I)-William Cadwell (1750-1822) and a Mohawk woman, sister of Blue Jacket and daughter Rising Sun. Cadwell abandoned his first family. A second marriage in 1783 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), a Suzanne Baby, Metis, daughter Duperon Baby; they had 5 sons and 3 daughters.

March 22: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Choisi, born 1735.

March 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, M. Magd. La Palme, born February 1780.

April 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Judith Latour, died June 14, 1780 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter Amable Latour and (III)-Agnas Mesny b-1758.

April 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Francois Chabert son (II)-Daniel Chabert (1716-1771) and (III)-Marguerite Rocbert de la Morandiere (1730-1773); married Marie Joseph Chesne daughter Charles Chesne and Marie Anne Becquet.

April 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Nicolas Langlois, born October 1779.

April 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Charles Campeau son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1737 and Catherine Boyer.

April 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Joseph Leonard Greffard son (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse.

April 25: In Quebec an agreement was reached which resulted the issue of the following shares:

Todd and McGill 2 shares

McGill and Peterson 2 shares

McTavish and Co. 2 shares

Holmes and Grant 2 shares

Wadden and Co. 2 shares (Jean William Wadden (Wadin) was killed at English River 1780)

McBeath and Co. 1 share

Ross and Co. 1 share

Oakes and Co. 1 share

 

A TRADING POST FOR THIS PERIOD

A model example of a trading post in 1780.

This, however, is not the average North West trading shack.

April 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Louis Catin son Michel Catin dit Baron; maitre couvreur (master protection) and Louise Goyau

May: George Washington lost one-quarter of his army (5,400 men) at Charleston, South Carolina- the worst defeat of the Revolutionary War.

May 18: DePeyster wrote Sinclair saying that Mons. Du Quindre was taken into service and sent to Fort St. Joseph.

May 31: Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) moved from St. Louis (Missouri) across the Mississippi River to Cahos (Cahokia, Illinois). He was involved with Pierre Chouteau, a St. Louis, (Missouri) trader who worked many years with the Yankton Dakota on the Des Moines and James Rivers.

June 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Alexis Descomps son (III)-Alexis Descomps and (V)-Marie Francoise Robert born 1752.

June 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Cecile Drouillard daughter (III)-Francois Drouillard and (II)-Marie Anne Vilers.

June 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Francois Dagneau son (III)-Guillaume Dagneau born 1747 and (IV)-Therese Boyer born 1755.

June 27: Green Bay, birth (III)-Augustin Grignon Metis at La Baie Verte (Green Bay) when the two Grignon brothers are conducting treaty with the Natives. (S'etanlit a la Baie Vetre, avec ses deujx freres...pour la traite) Baptised August 6, 1787 L'Assomption, Mackinac, died 1860 son (II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago. Augustin would marry a Marie Sauvagesse. Note: Tanguay suggests Augustin is son (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade b-1759 but he didn't marry her until 1787??

July: Patt Sinclair, Lt. Governor of Mackinac, in July, 1780, wrote to Governor General Haldimand that there is not the least necessity for an officer or troops at St. Mary's, as the Indians are under the absolute authority of Mr. Cadot who is a very honest man.

July 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, William Macomb a British Fort Detroit (Michigan), merchant, married Sarah Drinor (Dring).

July 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, daughter Philippe Le Duc, born 1764.

September 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Zacharie Campeau son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751.

September 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (I)-Pierre Borgia dit Provencal (maitre forgeron) blacksmith married Catherine Vallee.

September 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child of Bernier, born August 25, 1780.

September 16: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Campeau, born August 8, 1780.

September 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child of Madame Choisi, born February 1780.

October 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, daughter Laviolette, born 1769.

October 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Anne Cousineau daughter (III)-Jocques Cousineau (1721-1780) and Marie Joseph Letang died 1780.

October 17: Michillimackinac, marriage Gabriel Metode of St. Louis, MO. to (IV)-Marie Charlotte L'Archeveque et L'Arche daughter (III)-Augustin L/Archeveque et L'Arche b-1702 and Marie Madeleine Reaume.

October 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Joseph Duprat son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

October 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (I)-Antoine Caderan married Catherine Parnier who died August 12, 1793 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter Joseph Parnier.

November 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jeanne Cardinal, born 1717.

November 6: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Charlotte Campeau, born 1755.

November 15: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Viller dit St. Louis, born November 12, 1780.

November 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Pierre Descomps son (II)-Pierre Descomps dit Labadie aka Fillau (1776) born 1742 and (II)-Therese Gaillard dit Lionais born 1746.

November 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (V)-Pierre Dumay et Demers born 1752 son (IV)-Pierre Dumay et Demers born 1727 and (V)-Marie Francise Hayot born 1732; married Marie Angelique Menard daughter Pierre Menard.

November 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Archange Gastinon daughter (III)-Claude Francois Gastinon born 1756 and (II)-Jeanne Billiau (1762-1791).

November 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan) marriage, Andre Boismenu to (IV)-Mary Joseph Fauvel born April 30, 1763 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (III)-Joseph Amable Fauvel dit Bigras and (II)-Marie Charlotte Dufour born 1739.

November 22: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Bertrand, born 1730.

November 24: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Vige dit La Perle, born 1738.

November 28: Assumption church of Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Windsor, Ontario), marriage Charles de Fontenay de Quindre son Antoine Cesaire de Quindre and Francoise Marie Anne Picote Bellestre; married Marie Catherine Chene dit Labutte (1761-1787) daughter Pierre Chene and Marie Anne Cuillerier. Those who signed the register are: Jean Baptiste Leduc, Francois Dequindre, Charles Stanislaus, de Quindre, Catherine Lamorandiere de Quindre, Antoine Dequindre, Charles Gouin, Magdele Trottier, Marie Catherine Chene and Judith Gouin. Some suggest he is/was married to an Indian woman.

December 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Julien Duhamel born February 1, 1759 I'Islet son (I)-Julian Duhamel and Marie Angelique Duval epouse July 4, 1780 Joseph Bauche, Quebec; married (V)-Marie Joseph Crete born May 5, 1763, Bout de I'IIe, Montreal daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Crete born 1736 and (II)-Marie Joseph Atmond born 1741.

December 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VI)-Pierre Dumay son (V)-Pierre Dumay et Demers born 1752 and Marie Angelique Menard.

December 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Gautier dit La Bonte, birth 1725.