Metis

1781 - 1783


50,000 displaced persons arrived in Canada from the United States.

They are given 100 acres for the head of the house and 50 acres for each woman and child.

It is noteworthy that they are given a generous land grant, free and clear, and food and supplies for the winter.

In the next century, the English would procrastinate in recognizing the Canadian Metis' right to own land.

The English demanded freedom of choice for themselves but would not allow freedom of choice to be given to the Canadians.

These are not the only evils that these ungrateful people would bring to Canada.


The Metis still use La Pointe (Wisconsin) as their major staging point for the North West Territories.

The French and English Voyagers operating beyond Grande Portage were now called Nor'westers.

Smallpox swept the North West Territories causing a drastic drop in trade.


1781

The Census of 1831 of Red River Settlement lists the following births this year in the North West: Joseph Bird, Paul Boucher, Hugh Lonklaten, and Robert Ligan. (II)-Joseph Bird is the son of (I)-James Bird of the H.B.C. at York Factory, with the mother being most likely a Cree.

Augustin Ange, a Canadian, arrived Prairie des Chiens in 1781 after living and trading among the Dakota Sioux on the Missouri.

Pierre Antaya, a Canadian trader, died shortly after 1815 married a Fox woman, arrived Prairie des Chiens in 1781.

Charles Asham b-1781 married Ann Indian b-1790 Red River Settlement

Michael Brisbois, a freetrader, is living Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, (IV)-Charles Jean Bourassa son (III)-Rene Bourassa dit LaRonde (1718-1792) and (III)-Anne Charlotte Veronica Chavalier baptised 1746 see marriage August 3, 1744.

Etienne Charles Campion obtained trade licenses 1781 to 1783 and 1787 to trade south of Michilimackinac.

Louis Dagneau Douville de Quindre is at the post of Miamis of Maumee River (Fort Wayne) and ordered to go to St. Joseph River to impress the Indians.

Mackinac, marriage, Dominique Chevery married Sauvageese

(I)-Jean Coates is listed notaire public at Mackinac.

Michel Dauphinais b-1781 Canada married Victoire Ouellette Metis b-1793 likely North West.

Paul Dorion, Metis, born about 1781 son Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow) married Zeah White Cloud. It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist and also married to a Iowa woman. See 1780.

Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) is reported on the Mississippi and Des Moines Rivers.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Archange Dube daughter (IV)-Jean Marie Dube born 1738 and (IV)-Marie Joseph Seguin born 1754.

Louis Dufault born 1781 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married December 25, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Onichi born 1795 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Catherine Ermatinger b-1781 Michigan, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin.

Thomas Favel b-1781 North West Territories son Humphrey Favel b-1725 and Jenny Indian b-1727; married Sally Trout Indian b-1780 North West Territories.

John Fielding born 1781 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Basil Gard born 1749, died 1819 Prairie du Chien married a Sac woman and had a Spanish claim of 3 square miles in McGregor, Iowa. He arrived in Prairie des Chiens in 1781.

(I)-John Harper Sr. b-1781 Scotland married Indian Woman b-1786 North West Territories.

Louise Gagard, Metis born 1781 United States daughter Joseph Gagard, listed census 1870 St. Andrews, Red River. (Possible LeGardeur)

(IV)-Joseph Nicolas Gouin born 1746 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) first married Ouilincotia (Miamis) (d-1780), second marriage September 1, 1781 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (IV)-Archange Boyer born September 1759 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) daughter (III)-Ignace Boyer (1721-1784) and (IV)-Angelique Pepin dit Descardonnets. A son is recorded British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (V)-Pierre Gouin born October 31, 1781.

Jean Baptiste Gouriou living St. Sulpice (PQ1-398) possible derivation to Gournon or Gourneau possible son see 1701. A Francois Guernon, alias Garneau, also living St. Sulpice (PQ1-385) see 1761.

Michel Klyne b-1781 Canada married Suzanne Lafrance Metis b-1790 North West Territories.

Antoine Lapierre b-1781 Canada 1st married Josephte Indian b-1795 most likely North West 2nd marriageCatherine Gagnon Metis b-1815 most likely North West 3rd marriage Bethsy Cree b-1815 most likely North West.

Louise LaJarde, Metis, born 1781 United States daughter Joseph LaJarde, listed census 1870 St. Andrews, Red River. (Possible LeGardeur)

John Lyons born 1781 North West, census 1831 Red River. The 1834 census lists birth as 1789.

Joe Manitou b-1781, living 1870 census Cedar City, Michigan.

Jean Baptiste Matel born 1781 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Mawnedonay b-1781, living 1870 census Cedar City, Michigan.

Edward Naskaw b-1781, living 1870 census Elk Rapids, Michigan.

Michilimackinac, marriage Naurice Menard b-1664 son Jacques Menard dit Lafontaine (1628-1707) and Catherine Fortier; married Madeleine Couc Lafleur.

Antoine Morriseau b-1781 married Charlotte Saulteaux Indian b-1783 North West Territories.

Mississippi, birth William Nash son Thomas Nash of North Carolina and an unknown woman.

Augustin Nolin Metis b-1781 North West Territory married Helene Cameron Metis b-1806 North West Territories. Auguste (Augustin) Nolin born 1781 North West, census 1831 Red River, census 1838 lists birth as 1784.

Hyacinth Parisien b-1781 Canada married Josephte Carriere Metis b-1825 Red River Settlement.

Charles Reaume (1743-1813) is warden of Notre Dame de l'assomption (south shore parish of British Fort Detroit (Michigan)) from 1781 to1795.

(I)-James Spence b-1781 Scotland married Mary Indian b-1795 North West Territories.

(I)-Andrew Setter b-1781 Orkney marriage Margaret Spence Metis b-1790 most likely North West.

Ludovica (Lawrence) Tavernier born 1781 died November 28, 1840 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Potan Zaikof a Russian explored Prince William Sound to Copper River using Aleut guides.

(I)-John Askin (Erskine) (1739-1815) of British Fort Detroit (Michigan) was in partnership with Robert Hamilton and Richard Cartwright of Niagria and Todd and McGill of Montreal, looking after western interests until 1784. Robert Hamilton, about this time, brought out his cousins Robert Dickson (1768-1823), William Dickson and Thomas Dickson, sons of John Dickson and Helen Wight of Scotland, to work Mackinac.

Meanwhile at Fort Paskoyac (The Pas) the smallpox epidemic of last year spread as far north as the Saskatchewan River system and this year reached the Athabasca region and the Barren Ground where ninety percent of the Chipewyan in the Barren Ground died. Very few Europeans caught the disease. They smoked every thing with flour of sulfur, though several of their country wives died. Trade dropped off as few of the survivors came to trade. David Thompson (must be a different David Thompson as he was not on site until 1784) recorded that traders exchanged new blankets for beaver robes, which are spread over dead Indian bodies.

An Ojibwa party is trading northeast of Cumberland House in the summer of 1781 and 1782. They resided in the Interlake region by the winter of 1782.

The Ojibwa ceded the Island of Michilimakinak (Mackinac), alias La Grosse Isle, located in the straits that join Lakes Huron and Michigan, to the British for 5,000 pounds.

The documents were signed by: Kitchie Negou, Pouanas, Pouanas 2nd, Kouese, Magousseihigan, and Okah. Those others present were Matthew Lessey, John MacNamara, David Rankin, Henry Bostnick, Benjamin Lyons, Etienne Champion and P. Ant. Tabeau at British Fort Detroit (Michigan). British Fort Mackinac (Michigan) moved from its Macinaw location to Mackinac Island prior to 1712. It was located on Pointe St. Ignace, on the north side of the Straits of Mackinac. (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) is in the employ of the Indian Department as an interpreter.

Assiniboine River, 21 men are building a fort when attacked by the Cree, Assiniboine and Bas de la Riviere. Eleven Peddlers hid, ten stood their ground defending the partly built fort. Three Peddlers are killed but 15 Indians lay dead and 15 more died later from their wounds.

African to be imported into Louisiana duty free.

January: Robert Longmoor wrote concerning Hudson House: The ground is all burnt, and no buffalo, the Natives burnt it as they were nigh hand in the fall and far from the Beaver Country, in purpose that they might get a great price for provisions, but great part of them has paid for it since, by Hunger and oblidged to go far off.

January 5: Lachenayat, birth (V)-Marie Charlotte Courtois daughter (IV)-Charles Denis Courtois dit Marin born 1744 and (III)-Catherine St Cosme born 1749 (living British Fort Detroit (Michigan)).

January 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Jacque Gabriel Godfroy born November 10, 1758 son (III)-Jacques Godfroy (1722-1795) and (II)-Louise Clotilde Chapoton b-1741; married to (V)-Marie Catherine Couture born March 9, 1766, died March 24, 1794 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Couture born 1735 and (IV)-Marie Campeau born 1742.

January 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VI)-Jean Baptiste Laforest son (IV)-Jacque Gabriel Godfroy b-1758 and (V)-Marie Catherine Couture (1766-1794).

January 15: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Angelique Godet, born December 21, 1780.

January 15: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Jupin, born 1732.

January 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Louis Le Duc, born January 13, 1780.

February 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Joseph Couture, son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Couture born 1735 and (IV)-Marie Campeau born 1742.

February 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Amable Biguet son (IV)-Francois Biguet a master mason (Maitre-Macon) born 1751 and (IV)-Marie Therese Robidou born 1738, see parents marriage 1778.

February 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Cecile Chauvin daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Chauvin born 1740 and (IV)-Therese Segun born 1752.

February 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marguerite Chabert daughter (III)-Francois Chabert and Marie Joseph Chesne.

February 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Francois Navarre to Marie Louis Godet daughter Rene Godet and Catherine Campeau

April 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Anne McGregor daughter Gregor McGregor and Susan Robert.

April 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Monique Bienvenu daughter (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage 1763.

April 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Michel Campeau son (IV)-Alexis Campeay (1737-1782) and (V)-Madeline Dumays (1745-1795).

April 19: Michilimackinac, marriage Thomas Stone, soldier, married Margaret Paterson daughter George Paterson.

June 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Genevieve Cardinal daughter (IV)-Pierre Cardinal born 1729 and (II)-Marie Angelique Sejourne.

July 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan) birth, (IV)-Dominique Janson died October 13, 1782 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Charles Dominique Janson dit Lapalme b-1733 and Jeanette Gendron.

June 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Antoine DaGneau de Quindre died February 26, 1843 Detroit, Michigan son (IV)-Antoine Dagneau de Quindre seur De Pontchartrain (1751-1814) and Catherine Desrivieres Lamorandiere Trottier (1757-1817); married September 7, 1809 Detroit, Michigan, Catherine Chapoton.

July 18: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, July 16, 1780, fell from a horse, as recorded by Monsieur Anthony (physician), Rev. Father Potier, Jesuit for 37 years, born April 1707

July 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Antoine Lacelle son (III)-Jacques Lacelle (1735-1791) and (III)-Therese Berthelet.

July 17: Father (I)-Pierre Potier, a Belgian, (1708-1781) died L'Assomption des Hurons (Sandwich, Ontario).

July 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Alexandre Ouellet married (IV)-Angelique Bourassa daughter (III)-Rene Bourassa dit LaRonde (1718-1792) and (III)-Anne Charlotte Ver Chavalier born 1746 see marriage August 3, 1744.

August 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Marie Borgia daughter (I)-Pierre Borgia dit Provencal (maitre forgeron) blacksmith married 1780 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Catherine Vallee.

August 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Anne Chauvin daughter (II)-Noel Chauvin born 1732 and (III)-Jeanne Meloche born 1742.

August 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Francoise Godet daughter (IV)-Francois Godet b-1720 and (III)-Jeanne Parant b-1739.

August 5: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, a young daughter of Joseph Drouillard.

August 13: Michilimackinac,. baptism, Domitille Gautier son Charles Gautier and Madelaine Pascal.

August 16: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child Jacques Parent and Catherine Baubien.

August 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Leon Gouin son (IV)-Charles Francois Gouin (b-1755) and Suzanne Boyer.

August 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Pierre Meloche to (IV)-Marie Catherine Campeau daughter (III)-Charles Campeau (1715-1785) and Marie Charlotte Montray et Julliet La Cote

September 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Madame Ste. Marie.

September 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Madame widow Laforet.

September 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Francois Xavier Drouillard son (III)-Francois Drouillard and (II)-Marie Anne Vilers daughter (I)-Louis Vilers.

September 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Genevieve Bourdeau daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont.

September 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Jeanne Latour daughter Amable Latour and (III)-Agnas Mesny b-1758.

September 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Charles Dulac son Jean Baptiste DuLac; married Catherine Jacob daughter Etienne Jacob.

September 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Pierre Girard son Pierre Girard and Marie Joseph Lajeunesse

September 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Joseph Greffard son (IV)-Laurent Greffard b-1745 and (III)-Marie Anne Casse.

October 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (V)-Joseph Douaire de Bondy son (IV)-Joseph Douaire de Bondy, and (IV)-Marie Joseph Gamelin born 1741; married Marie Jeannie Meloche.

October 8: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child Monsieur Latour.

September 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Catherine Drouillard daughter (III)-Francois Drouillard and (II)-Marie Anne Vilers.

October 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Denis Campeau son (IV)-Jacques Campeau born 1735 and (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739.

October 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Angelique Godfroy daughter (IV)-Jacques Gabriel Godfroy born 1758 and (V)-Marie Catherine Couture (1766-1794).

October 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Antoine Catin son Antoine Catin died before 1791 and was married about 1767 to Marie Anne Martin living south west of La Cote.

October 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Amable Maillou, goldsmith, married Isabelle Casse St Aubin daughter Joseph Casse St Aubin; veuve de Charles Poupart.

October 17: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Magdelene Godfroi, wife Pierre Campau.

October 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Louise Campeau daughter Pierre Campeau and Madeline Godfroy.

October 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Francois Coutant (Contant) son (I)-Pierre Contant; married (II)-Marie Angelique Brillant dit Lapierre, Metis, born April 21, 1761, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Brillant dit Lapierre and Francoise Itagisse Chretienne Sauteuse (Ojibwa). Source Tanguay.

November 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Arconette, born 1773, daughter Michel Arconee and Marie Anne La Foret.

November 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Jean Marie Arsenault to (II)-Catherine Guilbaut, born British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (I)-Jean Guilbaut b-1733 and (III)-Marie Joseph Marcheteau (1735-1765).

November 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Joseph Bergeron to (IV)-Catherine Fauvel daughter (III)-Joseph Amable Fauvel dit Bigras and (II)-Marie Charlotte Dufour born 1739.

November 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (V)-Joseph Carie married Genevieve Sicard veuve de Pierre Menard.

December 27: Baptism, Catherine Desrivieres, daughter Antoine Dagneau Pontchartrain (1751-1814) and Marie Catherine Desrivieres, the godfather was Jean Baptiste Dequindre.

1782

Joseph Adam, Metis, born 1782 (1785) Red River Settlement, North West son Jean Baptiste Adam, listed 1870 census St. Norbert Red River. He married Isabella Rivard, Metis, born 1786 (1805) Red River Settlement, North West. Also married Angelique Racette, Metis, born 1785.

Neset Agawwawnegay b-1782, living 1870 Goodheart (Good Hart), (Michigan).

Nessett Awgawwawnegay b-1782, living 1870 Cross Village, (Michigan)

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Alexis Biguet son (IV)-Francois Biguet a master mason (Maitre-Macon) born 1751 and (IV)-Marie Therese Robidou born 1738, see parents marriage 1778.

Andre Carriere b-1782 Canada married Angelique Lyons Metis b-1791 likely North West.

Etienne Campion born Montreal died about 1790 is trading for Richard Dobie for Michilimackinac.

Captain Caucaukes, an influential trader of Sturgeon Lake, had his clothing sent yearly from Machillimakinac according to John Kipling. This band (tribe) is closely related to Captain Metweash of Lac Seul.

Peter Corrigal b-1782 married Christianna Indian b-1751 likely North West.

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (no date given) (I)-George Cotterell and (IV)-Cecile Aide Crequy born 1766 daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Aide Crequy.

Therese Daunet, Metis, b-1782, baptized, July 7, 1785, British Fort Detroit (Michigan) son Antoine Daunet and Sauvagesse.

Basile David b-1782 married Therese Defond Metis b-1784 likely North West.

Illinois, birth, Louis Dorion, Metis, born about 1782, died April 29, 1890, son Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow). It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist, also married to a Iowa woman. See 1780.

Birth, Joseph Ducharme born 1782, died 1831 Green Bay son Joseph Ducharme and Marie Anne Parent or Menominee woman.

Louis Gariepy b-1782 Canada married Josephte Ducharme Metis b-1785 likely North West.

(V)-Charoltte Gouin born September 19, 1782 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

Elizabeth Kewagaskum b-1782, living 1870 census, Cross Village, Michigan.

Margaret Keywaydin b-1782, living 1870 census Rapid City, Michigan.

John Kipling, at Gloucester House on Rainy Lake, says that the Indians had informed him that the Indians near Rainy Lake are dead, and that the Assineybois Country was almost depopulated from the smallpox epidemic of the 1780-1782 season.

Mrs. David Kniffen b-1782, living 1870 census Mackinaw City, Michigan.

Antoine Lambert b-1782 Canada married Marie Saulteaux Indian b-1787 most likely North West.

Pierre Lapointe (1750-1820) arrived Prairie des Chiens.

Etienne Latour dit Balard married British Fort Detroit (Michigan) Marie Francois Langoumois.

Hugh Linklater Metis b-1782 North West Territories married Jane Indian b-1790 most likely North West.

Thomas McNab Metis b-1782 North West Territories married Marie Saulteaux Indian b-1800 North West Territories. See census 1835-1838 Red River

Joseph Marchand born 1782 likely Lac Courte Oreille (Ottawa Lake), Wisconsin married July 28, 1839 La Pointe, Wisconsin Margaret Iagig born 1821 likely Lac Courte Oreille, Wisconsin.

Nicolas Marchesseau b-1730's is also trading Michilimackinac for Richard Dobie.

Michael Nolin b-1782 Michigan, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Paul Paul b-1782 Canada 1st married Marguerite Lavallee Metis b-1797, 2nd married Marquerite Grant Metis born North West Territories.

St. Louis, Missouri, marriage Louis Resson son Louis Tesson Honore; married 1st. Marie Duchouquette, 2nd marriage 1788 St. Louis Therese Creely, 3rd marriage 1797 St. Louis Catherine Rivet, 4th marriage 1811, St. Louis, Missouri.

Francois St. Germain b-1782 Lower Canada married Louise Saucier Metis b-1810 North West Territories.

Sophia Shawnanawnauquot b-1782, living 1870 census Brutus, Michigan.

George Shaygonaybe b-1782, living 1870 census Lattin, Michigan.

(I)-John Thomas is appointed Chief Factor at Moose Fort.

Joseph Tourand b-1782 Lower Canada married Rosalie Laderoute Metis b-1816 Red River Settlement daughter Thibert Laderoute b-1778 Canada and Marguerite Sansregret Metis b-1780.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth/death (II)-Francois Xavier Vasquez son (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin;

A map of North America, published in London, depicted all lands west of the Hudson Bay as a blank and included the notation: "These parts entirely unknown". Then they have the ignorance to say they own these unknown lands.

The Smallpox epidemic (1780-1782) ravaged all the tribes on the central plains, and a large number of Mandan and Hidatses died. It is estimated that 75% of the Mandan and 50% of the Hidatsas had died. Six large Mandan cities had been reduced to two small villages. Smallpox reached York Factory this year.

The first census of Niagara shows sixteen families totaling eighty three people. Samuel Hearne of Prince of Wales Fort surrendered the invincible fortress to the French without a shot being fired. The Prince of Wales Fort, near present-day Churchill, Manitoba, was considered the strongest ever built in North America. Thirty eight men, untrained fur-trade employees, defend the Fort. Its defense was considered impossible. David Thompson (must be a different David Thompson, as he was not on site until 1784) alleged that the men of the Fort begged (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) to allow them to mow down the French troops with the heavy guns loaded with grapeshot. He absolutely refused. Chief Factor Humphrey Marten, with sixty Englishmen, twenty five cannon and a dozen swivel guns, also surrendered York Factory without firing a shot.

Edward Umfreville is alleged to have discharged a firearm but is rebuked by the Chief Factor. John Irvine is alleged to have assisted the French but later received full back pay. French sailor Jean Francois de Galaup, Conte de La Perouse, destroyed and burnt York Factory and blew up the Prince of Wales Fort; the chief posts of the Hudson Bay Company, as a gesture of support to the Americans. No supplies would reach the inland posts this year. Mary Norton, wife of (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792,) bolted into the Barren Ground and soon starved to death among her Indian relatives. A smallpox epidemic depopulated the Barren Ground in 1783; so reported (I)-William Walker of the H.B.C. (I)-William Walker married an Indian woman. (I)-William Walker noted that when the Indians (Cree) contacted smallpox, the sick were abandoned. They are abandoned due to the belief that there is no hope of recovery. But this abandonment causes some to perish by starvation. This is a very interesting cultural change as they were previously noted as caring for their sick and aged. The numbers of sick likely overwhelmed them. The death rate is believed higher among males than females because, during high fevers, the men would throw themselves into lakes and rivers, attempting to cool themselves.

The Montreal Traders reported a disaster year because of the smallpox epidemic in the North West.

Over the next five years, fifty thousand displaced persons left the United States for a new life under their beloved British flag to the north. They brought with them a blind hatred of the United States and a blind worship of British superiority, which would cause much suffering in Canada. This attitude would persist into the present age.

(IV)-Michael Cadotte (1764-1837) of Makinac, son (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) became Chief Factor La Pointe (Wisconsin) for the Alexander Henry Sr. (1739-1824) and (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) partnership. (IV)-Michel Cadotte married Equaysayway daughter Waubojeeg (The White Fisher) hereditary Chief of the La Pointe Chippewa. Some list (IV)-Michael Cadotte as (1763-1804) married to the daughter of White Crane the Ojibwa. Grandson of Ke-che-ne-zuh-yauh a famed orator chief of the Western Ojibwa. The English Middle Fort on Madeleine Island lay destroyed. It is believed Cadotte spent much time at Lac Court Oreilles and Lac de Flambeau: Ojibwa villages. Lac du Flambeau is about 45 miles from Lake Superior. Lac du Flambeau, or Torch Lake (Wauswagning), occupied by the Ojibwa from La Pointe, is named after the custom of spearing fish by torchlight. There are three Michael Cadottes in the field this year.

I have received a lot of e-mail concerning the three Michael Cadottes. I have no personal incentive to verify who is who.

Jean Loehde, however, noted: William W. Warren suggests Michael took as wife the daughter of White Crane (waub-ij-e-jauk the son of A-ke-gui-ow) (Ke-che-ne-zuh-yauh, head of the Crane family is father to A-ke-gui-ow). However, (Waubijeeg is Reindeer or Caribou). He went on to say it is difficult to trust Warren because of lack of dates for anything. I also have problems with the fact that this historical data isn't time frame related.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) and (IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) are both employed by their father. Cazelet is employed by (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) at his post L'Anse, and one of his sons was posted to Fond du Lac at the western end of Lake Superior.

Jean Francois of Galaup, Count of Laperouse (1741-1783), captured the Fort Prince of Wales (Fort Churchill), destroying the walls defended by Chief Factor (I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) on August 9. On August 24, De Galaup captured York Factory and completely burnt down the palisades. Edward Umfreville, a prisoner of war, is taken by La Perouse and deported to France for ransom. His wife and daughter, Louise, is abandoned on Ruperts Land.

A large band of Ojibwa took possession of Leech Lake. They became known as Mukimduawininewug (Pillager); meaning men who take by force. Many are former Bear and Catfish clans of the Lake Superior people. The Pillager are distinct from the Red, Cass and Winnipeg Ojibwa. George Sutherland of the Hudson Bay Company, at Sturgeon Lake, listed no less than 17 Canadian outposts northwest of Lake Superior.

Fort York, Hudson Bay is captured and destroyed by the French.

The Sandy Lake village of Ojibwa is nearly depopulated by smallpox.

January 28: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Paul Campau son Paul Campau; married Genevieve Amable Bigra widow of Guillaume Laforest: Charlotte Des Moulins (Essex, Ontario), Joseph Pouget, Jacques Belleperche, Jean Baptiste Drouillard and Nicolas Drouillard.

February 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Joseph Cote son Charles Cote of Ancienne Lorette, Quebec and Marguerite Fiset; married Marie Magdaline Martin, widow Jean Baptiste Bertrand: witness Joseph Pouget, Antoine Boufard and Etienne Fahan.

February 4: Kaskaskia, Illinois, marriage Jerome Danis (Dany) son Michel Danis (Dany) and Marie Barbe Pillet; married Prlagie Doza. One child is noted Michel Dany, census 1787.

February 5: Kaskaskia, Illinois, marriage Michel Danis (Dany) son Michel Danis (Dany) and Marie Barbe Pillet; married Elizabeth Bienvenu.

February 11: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Le Sieur Antoine Soumande son Francois Soumande of Varenne, Quebec and the late Charlotte de Varenne; married Reine Angelique Guiet dit Tourangeau daughter Jean Baptiste Guyet dit Tourangeau and Marie Josephine Pilotte: witness Joseph Brouillard, Joseph Bondy, Jean Baptiste Guyet, Georges Nexe and Baptiste Dufour.

February 11: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Louis Revau son Jean Baptiste Revau and Josephine Saint Etienne; married Marie Jeanne Campeau daughter Charles Campeau and Charlotte Montri: Witness Jean Baptiste Tourangeau, Antoine Meloche, Pierre Amable Girard and Joseph La Jeunesse.

March: (I)-Jean Etienne Waddens (Wadin and Waden), a Swiss Protestant Nor'wester from Montreal, is shot and killed by either Peter Pond (1740-1807) or his associate Toussaint Le Sueur at Lac La Ronge (Saskatchewan). This is not the first death attributed to Peter Pond and his associates. Peter Pond (1740-1807) escaped retribution and fled the North West Territories.

March 17: Mackinac, birth, Madeleine Chevery, Metis, baptised, August 13, 1786, British Fort Detroit (Michigan) daughter Dominique Chevery and Sauvageese.

April 7, 6 P.M.: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, JH Labreque, born 1752 St. Jean, Isle d'Orlean, a helper in Fs. Beneteau's harness shop, was drowned returning from the fort Hubert, Pt., Vic. Gen.

April 8: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Joseph Meny son Antoine Meny of Fort Detroit (Michigan) and the late Jeanne Seguin; married Archange Dussault daughter Joseph Dussault and the Late Lomae Desbutes: witness Antoine Meny, Charles La Marche and Jh Dussault.

April 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Claude Gastinon son (III)-Claude Francois Gastinon born 1756 and (II)-Jeanne Billiau (1762-1791).

April 17: British Mackinac, (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Joseph Chevalier, Metis, baptised, July 20, 1786 British Mackinac (Michigan), daughter (III)-Luc Chevalier born May 22, 1735 Mackinac New France (Michigan); and Sauvagesse.

April 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VI)-Marie Angelique Dumay daughter (V)-Pierre Dumay et Demers born 1752 and Marie Angelique Menard.

April 25: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Jean Baptiste des Compte Labadie son Antoine Des Compte Labadie and Angelique Campeau; married Cecile Chene Labute daughter Pierre Chene Labute and Marianne Cuillerier: witness Antoine Des Compte Labadie, Alexis Maisonville Capitaine de Milice and Pierre Chene Labute.

May 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, John Macomb son William Macomb and Sarah Drinor (Dring).

May 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-George Alard is born son (IV)Jacques Alard son (III)Pierre Alard and Genevieve Madeleine Laforest, see 1780.

May 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VII)-Marie Louise Gagne daughter (VI)-Isaac Gagne born 1751 and (II)-Marie Louise Vallee born 1759.

May 13: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Gabriel La Violette born 1757.

April 17: Mackinac, birth (IV)-Joseph Chevalier Metis baptised July 20, 1786 Mackinac son (III)-Luc Chevalier born 1735 son (II)-Jean Baptiste Chevalier; and Sauvagesse.

May 13: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Francois Godet son Francois Godet and Jeanette Parent; married Marguerite Bernier daughter Charles Bernier and Marie Louise Godet: witness Francois Godet, Jacques Parent, and Francoise Pratt.

May 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Francois Leanord Greffard son (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse.

May 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Catherine Dagneau daughter (III)-Guillaume Dagneau born 1747 and (IV)-Therese Boyer born 1755.

May 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Mathieu Chiquot daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot born 1749 and (IV)-Angelique Godefroy born 1753.

June 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste DeMarsac son (III)-Jean Baptiste (also called Benjamin) DeMarsac (1742- 1793) and (IV)-Genevieve Seguin.

June 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Angelique Le Duc born 1778, daughter Jean Baptiate Le Duc and Catherine Beurassa.

June 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Renault, born 1722.

June 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Marie Anne Dubord daughter Paul Dubord dit Clermont, carpenter in service of the King and Marie Anne Deguise.

July 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Francois Godet, born December 1781 son Joseph Godet and Jeanne Pilette.

July 22: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Pierre Foncran son late Andre Foncran of St. Philippe, Montreal Quebec and late M. Josephine D'agneau; married Elizabeth Revau daughter Jean Louis Revau dit Lajeunnesse and Joseph St. Etienne: witness Pierre Prud'homme, Etienne Le Beau, Jean Louis Revau, and Amable Girard.

August 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Gaillard, born December 1778 son Louis Gaillard and Marie Ange Gaillard.

Auguat 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Simon Druillard son Simon Drouillard and Marguerite St. Martin; married Archange Laforet daughter late Guillaume Laforet and Marguerite Tremblai: witness Simon Drouillard, Jean Baptiste and Joseph Drouillard and Joseph Laforet.

August 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Francois Coutant (Contant) Metis, died October 2, 1782, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (I)-Pierre Francois Constant (Contant) and (II)-Marie Angelique Brilland (Brillant) dit Lapierre. Metis, born April 21, 1761, British Fort Detroit (Michigan) .

August 24: Detroit, birth, (V)-Cecile Lauzon daughter (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse; married April 23, 1792 Angelique Raymond.

August 26: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Francois Trudel son Francois Trudel Batiscan, Quebec and Suzanne Le Febure; married Josette Fovel dit Bigra, widow Andre Boismenu; witness Joseph Harnois, Pierre Demers, Amable Fovel, Jean Baptiste Drouillard and Alexandre Fovel.

October 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VI)-Marie Amable Carie daughter (V)-Joseph Carie and Genevieve Sicard veuve de Parre Menard.

October 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph St. Etienne, born 1728.

October 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Julie Duprat daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

October 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Pierre Solo married (IV)-Marie Joseph Bourdeau daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont.

October 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Pierre Descomps son (III)-Alexis Descomps and (V)-Marie Francoise Robert born 1752.

September 2: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Louis Bourassa son Rene Bourassa and the late Anne Chevalier; married Therese Meloche daughter Pierre Meloche and Catherine St. Etienne: witness Antoine Meloche, Francois Meloche and Jean Baptiste and Philippe La Duc.

September 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Antoine Ignace Dufresne son late Nicolas Dufresne Montreal, Quebec and Agathe Le Duc; married Louise Gaudet widow Berthelet daughter Francois Gaudet and Jeanne Parent: witness Pierre Beaubien, Antoine Beaubien, Francois Gaudet and Dmominique La Brosse.

September 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marrage, (III)-Joseph Cadet born 1751 son (II)-Augustin Cadet; married Sept 30, 1782 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (V) Cecile Campeau born August 22, 1765 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1737 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), and Catherine Boyer.

October 28: St Louis Mo. marriage (IV)-Joseph Marie Langlois born April 22, 1739 Cap Sante; son (III)-Jean Francis Langlois b-1711 and (III)-Therese Bertrand (1708-1753); married Lisette Sauvagesse

November 5: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Jean Baptiste Valade son Charles Valade Soulauge, Quebec and Anne Pilon; married Marie Louise Drouillard daughter Simon Drouillard and Marguente St. Jean: witness Alexandre Fovel, Joseph Revau, Simon Drouillard and Jean Baptiste Doouillard.

December 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Antoine Goulet son (IV)-Antoine Goulet (1730-1793) and (V)-Madeleine Laforest.

December 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Genevieve Amable Campeau, born December 8, 1782.

December 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Philippe Labomberde, born December 1, 1780 son Philippe Labombarde and Margnente Briette.

December 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Charles DuLac son Charles Dulac son Jean Baptiste DuLac and Catherine Jacob daughter Etienne Jacob.

December 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, (V)-Catherine Dequindre (Dagneau) died May 2, 1792 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Antoine Dagneau alias DeQuindre De Pontchartrain (1751-1814) and Catherine DesRivieres alias LaMorandiere Trottier (1757-1814/1817).

December 27: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Agathe Sousseran, born 1746, wife Etienne Robidou.

December 30: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Charles Baubien son Hubert Baubien of Rochefort and M. Cath. Roy; married Catherine Bissonnet: witness Mr. Monforton Cap. de Milice, Michel Roy, Etienne Cloutier, Joseph Pouget, Antoine Bouffar and Joseph Bissonnet.

December 31: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Latour, born October 15, 1782 son Francois Latour and Marguerite Meloche..

1783

(I)-James Aird born Ayrshire, Scotland died February 27, 1819 Prairie du Chein. (I)-James was trading the Upper Mississippi (Wabashs's Dakota Village) this year and married Marpiyarotowin (Grey Cloud) daughter Wabasha (Red Leaf) aka Lafeuille, Ouabachas b-1700/20

James Bird b-1783 married Mary Metis likely North West.

(I)-William Cadwell (1750-1822) married Suzanne Baby, Metis daughter Duperon Baby; they had 5 sons and 3 daughters. Cadwell was also married to a Mohawk woman, sister of Blue Jacket and daughter Rising Sun and had two children Billie Cadwell born March 17, 1780, died 1841 Youngstown, New York and an un-named daughter whom he abandoned.

Barthelemi Chevalier a country marriage out of British Mackinac (Michigan) to Sauvagesse.

Birth, Charles Martin Dorion, Metis, born, about 1781, likely Illinois son Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow). It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist, also married to a Iowa woman. See 1780

Birth, Dominique Ducharme born 1783, son Joseph Ducharme and Marie Anne Parent or Menominee woman. Another son Louis Ducharme (Okamawsah) no birth date given.

Fort Esperance is built on the Qu'Appelle River.

Martin Jerome b-1783 married Francoise Indian b-1785 most likely North West.

Joseph Kichkitawag (Cut Ears) born 1783 likely Lake Superior died July 10, 1843 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(I)-James Knight b-1783 Orkney married Sophia Hallet Metis b-1792 North West Territories daughter Henry Hallet Jr. Metis b-1799 North West Territories and Catherine Parenteau Metis b-1799 (must be an error likely Hallet Sr.).

Jean Larocque b-1783 Canada married Josette Metis b-1790 most likely North West.

(I)-Robert Logan b-1783 Scotland 1st married Mary Indian b-1800 North West Territories, 2nd marriage Sarah Ingram b-1818 England

Alex McCorrister b-1783 North West Territories married Catherine Indian b-1795 most likely North West.

McKenzie b-1783 married Marie Metis b-1787 most likely North West.

Francis Machard born 1783 likely Lake Superior died May 28, 1853 LaPointe, Wisconsin

Nicolas Marchesseau b-1730's built a house on Mackinac Island that he sold in 1806.

Joseph Page b-1783 Canada 1st married Marguerite Poitras Metis b-1785, 2nd married Agathe Letendre Metis b-1790 most likely North West.

Charles Patterson d-1788 established a trading post on the Upper Minnesota River having apparently quit the NWC and James McGill.

James Peebles b-1783 married Mary Indian b-1789 most likely North West.

John Peron, Metis, b-1783 Red River, a hunter

Joseph Reaume 1783 to 1785 is wintering on Red Lake.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth Joseph Robidoux (1783-1868) son Joseph Robidoux and Marie Catherine Rollet; 1st married 1800 Eugene de Lisle, 2nd married 1813 Angelique Vaudry

Jean Baptiste Roy b-1783 married Marguerite Indian b-1788 most likely North West.

Gregor Ivanovich Shelikov a Russian built the settlement of Three Saints on Kodiak Island trading with the Aleuts and Tlingits Peoples.

(I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney ,reported that the Ojibwa are again trading Hudson House, but the Hudson Bay supply ship failed to arrive this season.

Prairie des Chiens one league above the mouth of the Ouisconsin (Wisconsin) River, a Metis Settlement, is claimed by some to be established this year. Others say it is much more ancient than this. Others claim it dates to 1727/28.

George Washington, who some label as the killer of women and children, said of the Indian People: They have nothing human except the shape and deserve total ruin.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth (II)-Antoine Francois (Baronet) Vasquez (1783-1828) son (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin; married 1814 Emilie Faustin dit Parent. Antoine was an interpreter for the Zebulon Pike expedition.

The North West Company established a post at Michipicoten River at Lake Superior as an extension of the Post at Sault Ste Marie which the Montreal men had established.

Red River census of 1831 to 1838 lists Laurent Cadotte Jr. born 1773 and 1783 North West son Laurent Cadotte born 1747 to 1757 that could imply more than one person and the two Laurent Cadotte jr. born 1773 and 1783 may suggest two different persons.

Antoine Caron born 1783 North West, census 1831 Red River, possible son Claude Caron (b-1731).

Angus Mathison born 1783 North West, census 1831 Red River.

Pierre Pangman born 1782-1783, census 1835 Red River, possible son Peter Pangman (1744-1819) the German or Dutchman of the General Company of Michilimakinac.

Jane Pickett b-1783 Michigan, living Sault Ste. Marie, 1850 census

Louis Robinson b-1783, living 1870 census Pt St. Ignace, Michigan.

Antoine Shawwawnawnawquot b-1783, living 1870 census Brutus, Michigan.

Edward Umfreville joined New France in April as a result of disagreement with the Hudson Bay Company over salary. He departed New France for the Falls of St. Mary in 1784.

(I)-Samuel Hearne (1745-1792) has returned to the Hudson Bay by the fall of this year having been previously driven off by the French. He learns for the first time that his wife, Mary Norton, had died. The Indians no longer ventured to the Hudson Bay to trade. The Hudson Bay posts are still being raided by the French, and a directive is issued that all servants are to be outfitted in regimental uniforms (This order is never carried out).

Trade increased by 20% in the 1783-84 seasons through Lake Superior. Some towns beyond Montreal are Kingston and Niagara, with about four hundred people in each.

In and about British Fort Detroit (Michigan) there lived about two thousand people, mostly Metis. Sault Ste Marie, an old establishment on the Canadian side of St. Mary River, also includes the American side and its portage road. Grand Pointe and Red River also contained settlements. By the Treaty of Versailles, Britain and the United States agreed to an international boundary that ran through the upper St. Lawrence, through the Great Lakes, down to the lands claimed by Spain in the Mississippi and Missouri river Basins. Benjamin Franklin, at the Paris peace talks, had held for a boundary line between Canada and the United States which would expose the life line to the North West Territories. The Americans failed to honor their promise to allow Loyalists to return to their homes to collect legitimate debts and receive compensation for property. Britain, therefore, refused to vacate the Western post of Oswego, Niagara, Detroit and Mackinac. The Montreal, Quebec trading stage point shifted from British controlled Fort Detroit and Fort Mackinac to beyond Lake Superior at Grand Pointe and Grand Portage, in Indian Territory where Voyagers operating beyond this point became known as Nor'westers. La Pointe, Indian Territory (Wisconsin) still serves the South West trade, but is rapidly expanding to the North West. Most of the fur trade on Lake Superior is still coming from the South West. Jean Baptiste Cadotte, Alexander Kay, Harris, Default, Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1763-1844) and others operate trading posts in Northern Minnesota this season. Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1763-1844), however, departed in order to trade on the Illinois on behalf of Nicolas Marchesseau, a trader of the Upper Mississippi who sold all his trade goods in the trade to Chouteau of St Louis. Perrault went with Sacharite of Quebec, St Germain, Robert and Dupuis of Maskinonge, Antoine and Francois Beauchemin, Menard, L. Lavallee of Sorel and Yamaska.

The Montreal Merchants are pushed from the southern trade out of Detroit and the southwestern trade out of Michilimackinac. This also pushed the traders from Fon du Lac on Lake Superior, known as the Southern Men, into Red River and Assiniboine.

The Hudson Bay Company paid no dividends 1783-1785 as small pox had depopulated the Praries and Upper regions.

The Peddlers (Coureurs des Bois) are reported to be in control of the Nipigon River, St. Joseph Lake and Cat Lake. Competition among the Metis peddlers is most fierce and all believed that more organization is required to compete with the English.

The refugees from America received land script: head of the family received 100 acres; members of the family received 50 acres each; single men received 50 acres, and non commissioned officers, 200 acres. To provide territory for the displaced Americans, the government acquired a section of the north eastern shore of Lake Ontario, Quebec from the Ojibwa, or as some called them the Mississauga Natives, who had been living there since the seventeenth century.

The supply ship for the Hudson Bay arrived too late to help the inland posts, and proud (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, had to face the ignominy of begging the Nor'wester for ammunition, having no food or trade goods to obtain food.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) wrote Monsieur Gautier, Kings Interpreter at Mackinac, that smallpox had devastated the Ojibwa at Fond du Lac, Sandy Lake, Rainy Lake, Sandy Lake and surrounding areas. The survivors likely temporarily abandoned the area. In September, when the Chippewa (Ojibwa) are at war with the Fox and Dakota, Captain (I)-Daniel Robertson (1733-1810), commandant at Mackinac, sent messages to the Indians by (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) and Matchekewis; a Chippewa (Ojibwa) chief of note.

The Mackinaw Fur Company is formed and later the Southwestern Fur Company, both under British control. John Jacob Astor of New York acquired and merged the new companies into the American Fur Company (1814-1834).

The Virginian homesteaders flooded into the Metis towns of Cahokia and Kaskaskia of the Mississippi River, (Illinois). They refused to accept French authority and established rule by sword and pistol. Anarchy and barbarism ruled and one Metis settler wrote: Our horses, horned cattle, and corn are stolen and destroyed, our houses are in ruin and decay, our lands uncultivated, all commerce is destroyed. We are in misery and distress. We fear an untimely death at the hands of the American Savages.

Politically correct writers call it 'Social Chaos'. As a result of this invasion of criminals, over the next 7 years, the population of this region is depopulated by 77%. Where these people relocated to might be of interest.

During the period of 1778 to 1783 over 1,000 Spanish(Islenos) migrated into Louisiana, New Spain from the Canary Islands.

January 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Charles Latour son Amable Latour and (III)-Agnas Mesny b-1758.

January 5: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Alexis Beaubien, born June 1782, son Jean Baptiste Beaubien and Genevieve Parent.

January 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Charles Barteau dit Lamarche born May 26, 1743 Loungueuil died September 24, 1810 Sandwich, Ontario; married Jane Bernard.

January 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Marie Bourdeau son (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont.

January 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (II)-Jene (Julien) Ferton born July 13, 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (I)-Julien Freton born 1727 and Marie Joseph Gatignon born 1744; married (II)-Therese Billiau born Fort Detroit daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Billiau and (III)-Marie Francoise Mesnie, see parent birth 1758.

January 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (V)-Francois Campeau died June 15, 1783 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (IV)-Alexis Campeay (1737-1782) and (V)-Madeline Dumays (1745-1795).

January 27: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Drouillard, born 1740.

January 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Catherine Chabert daughter (III)-Francois Chabert and Marie Joseph Chesne.

February 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Elisabeth Drouillard died May 31, 1783 daughter (III)-Francois Drouillard and (II)-Marie Anne Vilers.

February 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Francois Janis son late Francois Janis and Theresse Meloche; married Genevieve Deslieres dit Bonvouloir daughter Joseph Deslieres and Veronique Denis: witness Pierre Beaugrand, Jean Baptiste Tourneax, Louis and Guillaume Goyau and Joseph Mailloux.

February 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Marguerite Phillippe Daniel Chabert de Joncaire, chevalier born December 2, 1752 Montreal, Quebec, died April 30, 1793, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (II)-Daniel Chabert (1716-1771) and (III)-Marguerite Rocbert de la Morandiere (1730-1773); married February 12, 1783 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (IV)-Judith Gouin born 1763 died July 21, 1790 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Claude Thomas Gouin.

February 17: Gabriel Attina dit Laviolette, Metis, born February 17, 1783, died July 22, 1786, Mackinac son Gabriel Attina dit Laviolette and Marie Sauvagesse.

February 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Louis Alexis Chapoton born 1764 son (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1721 and (III)-Felicite Cesire born 1737; married February 26, 1783 Catherine Meloche born.

March 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage Jacques Belle Perche (V)-Cecile Lauzon daughter (IV)-Antoine Nicolas Lauzon (1727-1770) and (III)-Angelique Chevalier b-1733.

March 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (I)-Lareole a European b-1711

March 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, (V)-Nicolas Campeau died August 19, 1783 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751.

April 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Genevieve Montmeni, born 1780 daughter Louis Montmenie and Agathe Prud'homme.

April 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Chauserrau, born March 1783 son Antoine Chasserau and Catherine Perrier.

April 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Le Duc, born September 1782 son Jean Baptiste Le Duc and Catherine Bourassa..

April 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VI)-Andre Laforest son (IV)-Jacque Gabriel Godfroy b-1758 and (V)-Marie Catherine Couture (1766-1794).

April 7: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Joseph Gamelin, Cap'ne de Milice son late Laurent Gamelin Detroit (Michigan) and Josette Dudevoir; married Marie Anne Chene (Labute) widow Paul Marsac, daughter Pierre Chene Labute and Marie Anne Cuillerier: witness Chevalier De Celoson, Chevalier Chabert and Pierre Labute.

April 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Belaire son Pierre Belaire.

April 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Elisabeth Descomps daughter (II)-Pierre Descomps dit Labadie a.k.a. Fillau (1776) born 1742 and (II)-Therese Gaillard dit Lionais born 1746.

April 24: Dominique Brunet dit Letang (Lestang) son Jean Baptiste Brunet dit Letang and Marguerite Dubois is licensed at Fort Culonge with 1 canoe and 5 men for James Finlay and Alexander Henry (1739-1824).

April 25: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot born 1749 and (IV)-Angelique Godefroy born 1753.

April 28: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Louis Pradet to (IV)-Charlotte Campeau son (III)-Charles Campeau (1715-1785) and Marie Charlotte Montray et Julliet La Cote

April 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Cecile Leonard Greffard daughter (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse.

May 5: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Pierre Demers son Jacques Damers of Detroit and Marie Chevalier; married Marie Angelique Le May daughter Theophile Le May and Angelique Peltier: witness Jean Baptiste Reaume, Charles Reaume, Theophile Le May and Rene Cloutier.

May 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Adelaide Askin daughter (I)Jean Askin and Marie Archange Barthe born 1749.

May 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)Agath Andre daughter, (I)Joseph Andre the Italian married June 30, 1774 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Marie Joseph Dumais.

May 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Alice Askin daughter John Askin to Archange Barthel.

June 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Angus Mackintosh to Archange St. Martin.

June 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Pierre Yax to (II)-Marie Joseph Freton dit Nantais born December 20, 1764 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (I)-Julien Freton dit Nantais born 1727 and (III)-Marie Joseph Gatignon born 1744.

June 2: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Francois Campau son Paul Campau and Charlotte Desmoulins; married Marie Catherine Ro daughter late Jean Baptiste Ro and Jeanne Prud'homme: witness Paul Campau, Jean Baptiste Drouillard, Etienne Le Violette and Francois Prud'Homme.

June 5: Ardent Schuyler de Peyster (1736-1822), commander of British Fort Detroit (Michigan), writes about the expedition to clear the Rebels from the Illinois Country.

Most of the prisoners are brought to British Fort Detroit (Michigan). They numbered 492 being sent to Montreal for ransom and returned via Lake Champlain. Of the few remaining is Mrs Polkie, all her little family and a small party who escaped from the remote part of the Wabash or elsewhere, unknown to us. Major Walls of Kentucke is warned not to retaliate.

June 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Jean Baptiste Beauparlant son late Jean Baptiste Beauparlant from Maskinonge and Marie Joseph Moreau of Detroit; married Jeanne Roy, widow Jean Binau: witness Nicolas Frerot, Andre Lafleur and Amable Bigra.

June 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth/death, Veronique Catin born 19, died July 10, 1783 British Fort Detroit (Michigan) daughter Michel Catin dit Baron; maitre couvreur (master protection) and Louise Goyau

June 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Jean Paul Dubord son Paul Dubord dit Clermont, charpentier in service of the King and Marie Anne Deguise.

July 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Anne Aide-Crequy born this year daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763.

July 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Gabriel Godfroy son (IV)-Jacques Gabriel Godfroy born 1758 and (V)-Marie Catherine Couture (1766-1794).

July 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Amable Huyet daughter (II)-Pierre Huyet et Huguet-Huiette-Ponceley-Champagne born 1737 and (IV)-Marie Reine Trempley born 1744.

July 23: Assumption (Ontario) baptism Marie Catherine de Quindre daughter sieur Charles Stanislaus Dequindre and Marie Catherine b-1761.

April 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Cecile Pare born July 18, 1784.

August 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Cecile Cadet daughter (III)-Joseph Cadet born 1751 and (VI) Cecile Campeau born 1765.

August 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Marie Anne Borgia daughter (I)-Pierre Borgia dit Provencal (maitre forgeron) blacksmith married 1780 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Catherine Vallee.

August 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Archange Cardinal daughter (IV)-Pierre Cardinal born 1729 and (II)-Marie Angelique Sejourne.

August 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Francois Rivard son Antoine Rivard of Batiscan and Genevieve Brisson; married Josette Godefroi, widow Joseph Drouillard: witness Charles Reaume, Pierre Barron, Amable Bigra and Alexandre Fovel.

August 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Louis Gastinon son (III)-Claude Francois Gastinon born 1756 and (II)-Jeanne Billiau (1762-1791).

September: In St. Louis, Missouri, (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810), a Spaniard, is given a land grant in St. Louis by the Spanish Governor Piernas.

September 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Genevieve Latour daughter Etienne Latour dit Balard and Marie Francois Langoumois.

September 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Suzanne Alard is born daughter (IV)Jacques Alard son (III)Pierre Alard and Genevieve Madeleine Laforest, see 1780.

September 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Medard Gouin the son (IV)-Charles Francois Gouin (b-1755 and Suzanne Boyer.

September 23: Green Bay birth (IV)-Louis Grignon, Metis baptized August 6, 1787 Mackinac , died 1839/1848, son (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago: married Caticle (Catiche) Cardin. Note: Tanguay suggests Augustin is son (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade b-1759 but he didn't marry her until 1787??

October 6: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Reine Trottier wife of Joseph Cecire.

October 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Joseph Janson son (III)-Charles Dominique Janson dit Lapalme b-1733 and Jeanette Gendron.

October 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Simon Coutant Contant) Metis, son (I)-Pierre Constant (Contant) and (II)-Marie Angelique Brillant dit Lapierre. Metis, born April 21, 1761 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

August 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)- Francois Coutant (Contant) Metis, died October 2, 1782, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (I)-Pierre Francois Constant (Contant) and (II)-Marie Angelique Brilland ( Brillant) dit Lapierre. Metis, born April 21, 1761, British Fort Detroit (Michigan) .

September 29: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Joseph Ivon son Joseph Ivon of Batiscan and Francois Du Jurean; married Marguerite Sordillet daughter Francois Sordillet and Marie Jeanne Gendron: witness Francois Sordillet, Joseph Deschene and Charles Le Palme.

October 5: Detroit, birth, (V)-Marie Louise Lauzon daughter (IV)-Jacques Lauzon b-1737 and (II)-Marie Anne Casse; married April 23, 1792 Angelique Raymond.

October 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Antoine Degaunes born July 1783 son Joseph Degaunes and Magdelene Prud'homme.

October 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Jean Baptiste Tourneux son Jean Baptiste Tourneux of St. Laurent, Montreal, Quebec and Marie Anne Fleuri; married Agathe Parent daughter Laurent Parent: witness Marantet, Laurent and Jacques Parant and Vital Desmouchelles.

October 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Louis Duprat son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

October 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Basile Bienvenu born October 13, 1783 son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage 1763.

November 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Jean Francois Dusault son Joseph Dusault and Louise Des Butes; married Marie Jeanne Ro daughter Jean Baptiste Ro and Jeanne Prud'Homme: witness Jh. Dussault, Etienne Le Violette, Louis Montmeni and Amable Bigra.

November: Dominique Brunet dit Letang (Lestang) arrived Cass Lake (northern Minnesota) with Alexander Henry (1739-1824) in opposition to John Sayer b-1750 and the North West Company.

November 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Francois Greffard son (IV)-Laurent Greffard b-1745 and (III)-Marie Anne Casse.

November 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Anne Lemieux, born January 1768.

November 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Judith Chabert daughter (III)-Philippe Chabert (1752-1793) and (IV)-Judith Gouin (1763-1790).

November 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Bertrand born 1775.

December 31: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Joseph Mallet to Marie Anne Catin born 1768 daughter Antoine Catin died before 1791 and was married about 1767 to Marie Anne Martin living south west of La Cote.