Metis

1784 - 1785


The North West Company began operating this year.

They made Grande Pointe their strategic decision center.

This company, however, is technically not a company, but a Joint Venture.


The North West Company operated under one to five year contracts.

They considered themselves as professionals with self regulation

They had very few complaints lodged, as most disputes were
settled in the field

The Beaver Club that was formed, however, stood as a
symbol of excess profit taking.


1784

Dubuque, Iowa, birth Agatha daughter of a Fox father and a Dakota mother; Agatha married about 1806 Augustin LaRocque (Rock/Roc/Rocque) (1770's-1846)

British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)Francois Auclair son Andre married Genevieve Comparet daughter Francois of Genevieve Trembley.

(IV)-Michel Cadotte (1763-1837) is wintering at Numakagun River, a branch of the Croix River, collecting 40 packs of fur.

Marie Anne Campagna epouse de Goureau.

Etienne Campion (born Montreal, died about 1790) is sent by the Society of Merchants at Mackinac to the western tribes on the lower Mississippi ,and Labatte was sent to the Minnesota River

Antoine Carron b-1784 Canada married Angelique St. Germain Metis b-1788 likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Charette b-1784 married Charlotte Sansregret Metis b-1785 likely North West.

Marguerite Chevalier, Metis, country born 1784, baptised, July 22, 1786, British Mackinac (Michigan) daughter Barthelemi Chevalier a country marriage out of British Mackinac (Michigan) to Sauvagesse.

Kaskaskia, marriage Jacques Chenier son Claude Chenier and Marie Louise Brunet; married Therese Archange Boucher de Monbreun.

Henry Cochran, alias Cockian, born 1784 North West, census 1834 & 1835 Red River. Possible son Matthew Cocking (d-1799).

Mr. Cote (1739-1794) is reported in the North West this season.

Francois Coulombre b-1784 Canada married Joseph Moreau Metis b-1786 likely North West.

Charles Cremer also Cremes and Cremon, born 1784, North West, listed 1831 to 1838 Red River census.

Jean Baptiste Davis born 1784 North West, census 1838 Red River.

Illinois, birth, Antoine Dorion, Metis born about 1785, son Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow). It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist, also married to a Iowa woman. See 1780.

James Folster b-1784 Scotland 1st married Nancy b-1790, 2nd married Josephte Patenaude Metis b-1814 North West Territories.

Joseph Foureau (Fourtreau?) born 1784 North West, census 1831 Red River.

Joseph Guilbeault b-1784 Lower Canada married Maria Indian b-1790 most likely North West.

John Hodgson born 1784 North West, census 1835 Red River. This is most likely the son of (I)-John Hodgson, an indentured Hospital Boy, see list 1799.

Prairie du Chein, Winconsin marriage. Pierre Lapointe took an Indian wife, daughter Wabasha (Red Leaf) a.k.a. Lafeuille, Ouabachas b-1700/20 and had four daughters Palazee (Pelgia) Lapointe, married Crawford, 1817 2nd marriage Antoine Lachabelle

Victoria Lapointe

Susan Lapointe

Theresa Lapointe

Francois Meyotte, Metis b-1784 Red River married Mary Meyotte b-1790 Red River. Mary b-1810 Red River living with them 1850 census.

Francois Morin Metis b-1784 married Marie Grant most likely North West.

Michel Patenaude b-1784 Canada married Marguerite Serpent Indian b-1793 North West Territories.

Joseph Reaume, son Jean Baptiste Reaume of Mackinac, is wintering at Red Lake at the mouth of Red River.

Robert Rowland b-1784 Orkney married Elizabeth Flett Metis b-1799 most likely North West.

Green Bay, birth Francois Roy Metis son Joseph Roy (LeRoy) (1744-1825) and Marguerite Oskinanotame (1760-1835) daughter AhkenepawehAkeeneebaway (Standing Earth) a Menominee and Waupanokoew; Francois married Therese Lecuyer.

Francois Savoyard b-1784 married Marguerite Metis b-1788 most likely North West.

John Sayer b-1750 was sent to the Lake Superior region this year.

William Sinclair b-1784 Scotland married Margaret Metis b-1786 most likely North West.

James Sanderson Metis b-1784 son James Sanderson b-1750 and Elizabeth Indian b-1755; 1st marriage Sally Indian b-1787; 2nd marriage Margaret Louis b-1806; 3rd marriage Nancy Ann Whitford b-1801; 4th marriage Mary Favel Metis b-1823 North West Territories.

(I)-David Thompson born April 30, 1770 London, died February 10, 1857 Longueuil, Canada, a Welsh orphan, age fourteen, entered the Hudson Bay Company and arrived at Hudson Bay this year.

Andre Trottier, Metis b-1784 Pembina, a hunter, married Marguerite Paquette, Metis b-1800 Red River. 1850 census (Andre b-1791 Red River and Marguerite b-1787 dauighter Antoine Pacquet b-1762 and Lisette Indian b-1765.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Jean Baptiste Turcotte b-1784 Canada married Susanne Duby Metis b-1780 most likely North West.

Antoine Vandal b-1784 Canada married Margueritte Sayer Metis b-1810 most likely North West.

St. Louis, Missouri, (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) a Spaniard is listed as a captain in the St. Louis Militia.

(I)-John Askin (Erskine) (1739-1815) of British Fort Detroit (Michigan) entered into agreement with William Robertson, a British Fort Detroit (Michigan), merchant, that lasted until 1789.

William Harris and Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1763-1844) are trading together.

The Hudson Bay Company issued a directive to send 150 copies of the Country Clergyman's advice to parishioners for distribution among the Indians. The question of who is to teach them to read English is not clear.

Peter Pangman (1744-1819), a German or Dutchman who married a Cree woman, and Peter Pond (1739-1807) quit the General Company of Michilimakinac and joined the North West Company. This year the North West Company began operations under the motto of business as usual. Sault Ste Marie, Mackinac, Green Bay and Grand Pointe are the South West Trade strategic centers. Grand Portage is the nerve center for policy, setting and strategic decisions of the North West. Montreal remained as the center for financial, the marketing of furs and the acquisition of trade goods. The North West Company is technically not a company at all but a Joint Venture composed of many trading companies to regulate the trade. The policy and strategy was determined each season by the associates and maintained by the good will of the folks involved. The Scottish influence, with their more rigid European centralist thinking, would plant the seeds for the ultimate demise of the North West Company. These unsophisticated business men spent much of the profits on their own self indulgences rather than reinvesting into the expanding trade.

The North West Company organized into five groups:

Agents - Directors

Field Owner - Operator

Masters of small posts

Clerks

Voyagers or engage

One of the first English clerks is a (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825), a nephew to (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804).

The Hudson Bay Company also organized into five groups:

Owners (all others were on salary)

Chief Factors

Chief Traders

Commissioned Officers

Servants, mostly Orkney-men (Viking descendants), Assinipoval Metis or Natives.

The Voyagers are those who worked the Great Lakes to Montreal, and the Nor'wester are those who worked from the Great Lakes to the North West Territories. The Hudson Bay Company referred to them as Canadians or French, being distinct from English. Working the Great Lakes of Huron and Michigan are a number of small vessels such as the Nancy, Speedwell, Iroquois, General Hunter, Beaver, and Athabasca. Their prime use is transporting trade goods and fur between the forts.

Within each canoe group are four basic skills:

Guides (explorer) who could eat with the partners and trading post masters and sleep in tents where as the others sheltered beneath overturned canoes.

Gouvernail (Steersman)

Avant (Bowsman)

Milieux (Paddlers)

The Nor'wester, at this time, considered themselves as the elite over their eastern brothers. Not elite as superior people, but rather elite in the skills of Voyagers.

One small, very elite Eastern group existed, being the express canoes reserved for delivery of messages and for conveying dignitaries.

The ideal Voyager is a compact five feet five inches. At the peak of trade, thirty five guides are employed and one thousand Voyagers, who are nearly all are French 'Assinipoval Metis'. Some are Native, Scot, German, Englishman and one is a West Indian named Bonga. Contracts are from one to five years. This minimized labor unrest and there was a great pride in the profession that was self regulating. Very few complaints were lodged.

The South West Traders, although less formalized, readily entered into yearly contracts and partnerships that did not confine their business necessarily to the South West.

Much of Fort La Pointe (Wisconsin) trade is from Red Lake, Pembina River, Red River and even the Saskatchewan River. Pembina is an Ojibwa name meaning summer berry: a kind of cranberry.

Pierre Bonneau guided the Edward Umfreville party to Sturgeon Lake. Edward Umfreville, Venance St. Germain, Jean Roy, Dubay and Raymond established Umfreville house on the Saskatchewan River which remained in operation until 1787.

The majority of French engagements, however, are seasonal, with only one third signing on for two or more years. For weeks before the spring break-up, agents for the North West Company invaded parishes up and down the St. Lawrence River, from La Prairie to Reviere du Loupe, seeking Voyagers. Many Voyagers elected Church Wardens, the highest lay office in the community- anything but marginal figures.

All Montreal, it seemed, moved to Lachine on the day when the first canoes set out for the North West Territories. By tradition, the first leg of their journey took only a few miles and took them to present day Saint Anne de Bellevue, on the western tip of Montreal Island. Here in a chapel, they paused to pray for aid and protection. Their primary rendezvous point was Fort William (Thunder Bay). From Montreal, the Voyagers paddled the Ottawa River for three hundred and fifty miles to its junction with the Mattawa River, making eighteen portages. The thirty-five mile Mattawa River required using poles as well as paddles against the swift currents. They followed the Mattawa to Lake Nipissing, and then made a wild dash down the French River leading to Georgian Bay. Their first major stop is Sault Ste Marie where they split into the North West and South West trade routes.

The Pangman Company is established this year by Peter Pangman (1744-1819), the German or Dutchman, Gregory, A.N. McLeod and (I)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820), and would be absorbed by the North West Company in 1787.

James Sutherland (1751-1797) is assigned to explore the track to Pishocoggan Lake (Lake St Joseph) and Lake St. Anns (Lake Nipigon). Thomas Richards and Abitawescum, with his wife and brother, form the party. The Lake Nipigon party included Thomas Powel, Kieweoappo, his wife and brother-in-law, five in two canoes. He recorded two old French Houses; one 45 miles from Gloucester House and one on the river which leads to Eabemit Lake. The Canadian Peddlars are trading on Lake St. Joseph. Sutherland also wanted to visit the Canadian Peddlar House on Lake Nipigon but didn't make it.

Giard, Antaya and Julien DuBuque are wintering at Prairie du Chien, a French Metis village not far from the Indian lead mines.

(IV)-Michel Cadotte (1763-1804) traded Namekagon River and wintered near the head of the Chippewa River (Lac Courte Oreilles). They had posts on the St. Croix tributaries and upper Mississippi, advancing with the Ojibwa- his mother's people. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) is trading Folle Avoine. (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) visited Point Chequamegon a gathering place of the Ojibwa and near Fond du Lac where his sons are wintering. In July, (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) is appointed to Michigan's earliest Board of Trade, established to regulate the trade of Fort Mackinac. Michel Cadotte is reported to be wintering at Kumakagun River, a short distance below Lac Courtoreille portage. They say he has great influence with the Indians and led them west against the Dakotas. He returned in the spring via LaPointe with 40 packs of beaver.

Pine Fort on the Assiniboine, 18 miles below Souris River, is established by the North West Company to trade with the Mandan.

The Russian Orthodox established a permanent settlement at Three Saints Bay, just a few miles from Old Harbor (Alaska). It is believed that some 20,000 Alutiiq live on Kodiak.

John Dillison, the sloop-master's servant at James Bay, passed the time snapping a gun, making it spark, above a barrel of gunpowder. The resulting explosion leveled the quarterdeck and her beams were broken. The other 18 barrels of gunpowder did not explode and, despite a fire, were successfully carried off the ship. Flogging was considered not sufficient enough punishment. He was sent home to Britain.

Amherstburg, Ontario is created this year on the Detroit River near Erie.

From 1766 to 1784 the population of Louisiana, New Spain had doubled to 27,500, mostly being Canadian Acadian exiles.

January 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Pinpare dit Tourangeau, born November 1783.

January 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child of Simon Drouillard.

January 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Jacques Campeau born March 30, 1735 ensign des Milices Ll etait, October 3, 1757, Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) living la Cote Nord Est, born 1735 son (III)-Louis Campeau (1702-1774) and (II)-Marie Louis Robert; 2nd marriage January 5, 1784 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (II)-Marie Francoise Navaree born 1735 veuve de George McDougall; 1st married August 17, 1761, Montreal (II)-Catherine Menard born 1739 daughter (III)-Jacques Menard;

January 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Joseph Basinet to (III)-Madeleine Huyet daughter (II)-Pierre Huyet et Huguet-Huiette-Ponceley-Champagne born 1737 and (IV)-Marie Reine Trempley born 1744.

January 13: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Louise Cousinean, born January 11, 1784.

January 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Alexis Bourdeau son (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont.

August 17: Birth, (IV)-Madeleine Dumouchel, Metis, baptized July 22, 1786, Mackinac, daughter, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse

January 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Julien Chene Labutte son Pierre Lebutte and Marie Anne Cuillerier; married Catherine Rocheleau L'Esperance daughter Joseph L'Esperance and the late Catherine Pilet: witness Alexis Labutte, Gamelin, Maisonville, Jh. L'Esperance and Joncaire.

January 26: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Jean Marie Ladouceur son late Jean Marie Ladouceur of Quebec and Angelique Le Beau; married Josette Drouin daughter Joseph Drouin and Charlotte Campau: witness Joseph Berthiaume, Pierre Charron, Joseph Pilet and Antoine Charron.

January 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Jacque Chauvin son (III)-Charles Chauvin born 1737 and (IV)-Marie Louise Boyer born 1745; married (IV)-Margarete Aide-Crequy born May 28, 1769 daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Aide-Crequy and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763.

January 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Jean Baptiste Belanger son (II)-Philippe Belanger born 1746 and (II)-Elisabeth Vallee who married 1771 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

February 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Sandusky, Hyacinthe Robidou, died December 1782.

February 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Pierre Chesne son (III)-Charles Chesne born 1732 and (II)-Marie Joseph Descomps dit Labadie born 1737 married (III)-Cecile Campeau born 1747 (veuve de Claud Leblond) daughter (III)-Nicolas Campeau.

February 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Bernard Campau son late Nicolas Campau of Detroit and Agathe St. Aubin; married Veronique Bondy daughter Joseph Bondy and Josette Gamelin: witness Chevalier Chabert, Alexis Delisle, Joseph Bondy aBazile Campau.nd

February 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Pierre Chesne born September 22, 1736 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (II)-Charles Chesne born 1694 and (II)-Catherine Sauvage (1695-1778); married February 23, 1784 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (IV)-Cecile Campeau born December 17, 1747 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), daughter (III)-Nicolas Campeau (1710-1756) and (II)-Agathe Casse (1716-1808).

March 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Nicolas Chauvin son (III)-Jean Baptiste Chauvin born 1740 and (IV)-Therese Segun born 1752.

March 11: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Elizabeth Pratte, born March 10, 1784.

March 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Josee Makons wife Joseph Valcour born 1748.

March 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Francois Xavier Drouillard son (III)-Francois Drouillard and (II)-Marie Anne Vilers.

March 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Genevieve Dube died March 14, 1784 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Jean Marie Dube born 1738 and (IV)-Marie Joseph Seguin born 1754.

March 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Amable Cosme et St. Cosme born October 30, 1751 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) son (II)-Pierre Laurent Cosme et St. Cosme born 1721 and (III)-Catherine Barrois (1727-1790); married March 30, 1785 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (IV)-Genevieve Bourdeau born 1763 daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau.

April 16: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Marie Catherine Chauvin daughter (II)-Charles Chauvin (1702-1772) and (II)-Marie Anne Casse born 1710.

April 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (III)-Antoine Cesaire Dagneau (DeQuindre) (1743-1784) died Fort Detroit son (II)-Louis-Cesaire Dagneau (1704-1767) squire, who died Fort Detroit and (Lady Catherine Bellestre) (III)-Marie Anne Picote de Belestre (1714-1756).

April 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Felicite Chapoton daughter (III)-Louis Alexis Chapoton born 1764 and (IV)-Catherine Meloche born 1765.

April 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, Pierre Louis Dagneau de Quindre born July 7, 1740 Montreal died April 18, 1784 British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

April 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Julien Parent son late Julien Parent and the late Jeanne Cardinal; married Suzanne Meloche daughter Francois Meloche and Francoise Lauzon: witness Father Marantet, Father Meloche and Pierre Reaume.

April 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Judith Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751.

August 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Jean Baptiste Fovel dit Bigra son late Jacques Fovel and Angelique Clement; married Magdelene Meloche daughter Pierre Meloche and Catherine St. Etienne: witness Amable Bigra, Joseph Pouget, Antoine Meloche and Louise Meloche.

April 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Louis Campeau son (IV)-Charles Campeau, voyager, born 1746 and (II)-Marie Louise Borde dit St. Surin (ou Cambek en 1777) born December 19, 1755 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan).

April 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Pierre Goulet son (IV)-Antoine Goulet (1730-1793) and (V)-Madeleine Laforest.

May 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (VII)-Pierre Gagne son (VI)-Isaac Gagne born 1751 and (II)-Marie Louise Vallee born 1759.

May 15: Paspebiac, Quebec, marriage Rene Duguay to Francoise Gathien (Gallien, Galien), Metis daughter Pierre Gallien and Angelique Giraud daughter Gabriel Giraud dit St. Jean and unknown Indian Woman (could be Abenakis?), Angelique 1st marriage 1740 Caraquet, Nova Scotia (now New Brunswick) a Joseph le Bouthillier possibly from Jersey Island but could be born in Quebec.

May 26: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Henri Bienvenu born July 6, 1773 son (II)-Alexis Bienvenu and (IV)-Marie Anne Campeau born 1745, see parent marriage 1763.

June 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Guist dit Tourangeau, born 1724.

June 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Josette Valcour, born April 1784 daughter Joseph Valcour and the late Josette Makons who died March 12, 1784.

June 26: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Genevieve Rivard, born June 6, 1784 daughter Francois Rivard and Josee Godefroy.

July 2: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Charles Arconet, born November 1783 son Alexis Arconet and Marguerite Laforet.

July 6: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Elisabeth Gagne daughter Jacques Gagne and Marie Joseph Larcheveque.

July 12: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, John Louis Bazinet married Mary Louisa Meloche.

July 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Prud'homme, born September 1783 son Jean Baptiste Prud'homme and Marie Delard..

July 15: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Philippe Le Duc, born 1729.

August 2: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Deschenes, born May 1784 son Joseph Deschenes and Charlotte Souligny.

August 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (III)-Antoine Desgagnes born January 7, 1722 Bout De I'lie, Montreal son (II)-Jacques Desgagnes born 1691 and (II)-Marguerite Jousset born 1692.

August 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Antoine Dagneau son (III)-Guillaume Dagneau born 1747 and (IV)-Therese Boyer born 1755; married October 25, 1808, Winsor, Ontario Marie Jeanne Pilet..

August 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jerome Delisle, born July 1784 son Jean Delisle and Angelique Boiscler of British Detroit (Michigan).

August 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Angelique Labombarde, born June 1784 daughter Philippe Lebombarde and Marguerite Briette.

August 27: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Dominique Parent, 1782 son Laurent Parent and Marie Magdelene Janis.

August 31: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Parent, born 1782 son Jacques Parent and Catherine Cuillerier.

September 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Josette Bernier, born May 1784 daughter Charles Bernier and Marie Louise Godet.

September 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (II)-Monique Billiau died September 10, 1784 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (I)-Jean Baptiste Billiau and (III)-Marie Francoise Mesnie, see parent birth 1758.

September 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Pierre L'Etourneau son late Joseph L'Etourneau of Longueuil and late Angelique Boutheiller; married Louise Deslieres dit Bonvouloir daughter Joseph Deslieres dit Bonvouloir and the late Veronique Denis: witness Andre Peltier, Charles Beneteau, Jean Baptiste Laponite, Vital Dumouchelle and Louis Goyau.

September 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Antoine Rousseau dit Lafond, born 1716.

September 13: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Suzanne Patelle wife Jean Baptiste Oualet, born 1749.

September 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Nicolas Latour son Etienne Latour dit Balard and Marie Francois Langoumois.

September 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Joseph Guiet dit Tourangeau son late Jean Baptiste Tourangeau and Marie Josette Pilotte; marriage Marguerite Drouillard daughter Simon Drouillard and Marguerite St. Jean: witness Pierre Desnoyers, Baptiste Dufour, Francois Rivard, Antoine Soumande and Jean Baptiste Tourangeau.

October 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Campau, born August 1784 son Francois Campau and Marie Catherine Ro.

October 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Julie DaGneau daughter (IV)-Antoine DaGneau alias DeQuinore (1751-1814) and Catherine DesRivieres alias LaMorandiere (1757-1817).

October 13: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Brugieres, born about 1744.

October 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Francois Chabert son (III)-Francois Chabert and Marie Joseph Chesne.

October 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Elisabeth Gorin daughter Francois Gorin and Lucy

October 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (II)- Antoine Louis DesComps dit Labadie-Bodichon (1767) son (I)-Pierre DesComps: married (III)-Charlotte Barthe born 1768 veuve de Louis Reaume daughter (II)-Pierre Barthe. 1st marriage (IV)-Angelique Campeau born September 17, 1742 died December 11, 1767 daughter (III)-Nicolas Campeau (1710-1756) and (II)-Agathe Casse (1716-1808).

November 1: Alexander Kay, a proud, impulsive, arrogant, enthusiastic man who takes counsel from no one is, in short, hare-brained. The party includes his squaw mistress, Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1763-1844) and fourteen engages. They arrived at Grand Pointe (La Pointe, Wisconsin) on their way to Fon du Lac (Leech Lake, Minnesota). (IV)-Gabriel Attina LaViolette, alias Ranger (d-1803), Caillarge (Caillabe?), and Graverot are wintering here, and everyone is drunk as it is a holiday. At St. Louis River they met ill-tempered DeFault, and at the portage a Mr. William Harris with three men and a savage named le Grosse Martre (an Indian named Big Martin).

William Harris and company joined the party. Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1763-1844) noted that the Lake Superior Men (Coureurs des Bois) who worked the upper Mississippi formed annual trading Companies to minimize conflict. Alexander Henry Sr. (1739-1824) had made this same observation in 1775 on the Saskatchewan River.

Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1763-1844) noted that John Sayer b-1750 is in the Fond du Lac region.

November 15: Henry Hamilton interim Governor of Canada to November 1, 1785.

December 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Helene DeMarsac daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste (also called Benjamin) DeMarsac (1742- 1793) and (IV)-Genevieve Seguin.

December 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Louise Brault daughter Joseph Brault dit Pominville and Louise Chauvin.

December 13: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Francois Auclair to (III)-Francois Marie Comparet born August 10, 1765 daughter (II)-Francois Comparet and (IV)-Marie Judith Tremblay (1738-1768).

December 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Catherine Duprat daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Duprat born 1735 and (III)-Agnes Tremblay born 1749.

1785

Only 1 person claimed to be born at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year.

James Hanna traded the North West Coast of America (1785-1787) and sold his furs in China. He was followed by James Strange and John Meares (1756-1809) trip (1788-1789), English Traders out of Bombay and Calcutta.

Angus Beuton b-1785 married Louise Assinboine Indian b-1787 likely North West.

James (Jimmy Jock) Bird (1785-1892), Metis, is born most likely York Factory son of (I)-James Bird and most likely a Cree woman.

Pierre Bruce Metis b-1785 North West Territories probable son William Bruce, listed 1838 Red River census; married Marguerite Desrosiers Metis b-1785

Prairie de Chien, marriage Michel Brisbois born about 1759/60 Maska, Quebec, died June, 1837 Prairie du Chien son Joseph Dubois dit Brisbois and Catherine Therese Renou dit Lachapelle, born Yamaske, Quebec; arrived Michilimackinac 1779 but by 1781 was settled at Prairie de Chien on the Upper Mississippi; 1st marriage 1785

Winnebago Metis woman, 2nd marriage August 8, 1796 St. Ignace, Michilimackinac Domitelle Madeline Gauthier de Verville born 1781 daughter Charles Gauthier de Verville and Madelaine Chevalier. First child born is Antoine Brisbois, Metis but no date listed (likely 1786) and likely at Prairie de Chien.

James Calder b-1785 married Nancy Metis b-1786 likely North West.

John Calder b-1785 married Sarah Humphrey Metis b-1786 likely North West.

William Calder b-1785 married Sarah Pamareau Metis b-1788 likely North West.

Mary David b-1785, living 1870 census, Hamilton, Michigan.

Joseph Descoleaux b-1785 married Madeleine Dumille Metis b-1787 likely North West.

Laurent Ducharme born 1723 Montreal son Louis Ducharme and Marie Picard, from 1785 to 1787 is trading near the Winnebago village of Sarrochau.

Mary Foster b-1785 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin.

(IV)-Alexis Gaudreau married April 12, Manannah, Wisconsin a Marie Anne B. Morin.

Louis Giuboche (Guibocho) born 1785 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Thomas Iris b-1785 married Marie Nepissing Metis b-1790 most likely North West.

George Iissee born 1785 North West, census 1835 Red River.

John Irvine Metis b-1785 North West Territories son John Irvine, listed 1870 census St. Andrew, Red River; married Louise Lagarde Metis b-1781 U.S.A.

Thomas Johnston Indian b-1785 North West Territories married Jane Metis b-1787.

Jean Baptiste Lawrence, b-1785 Lower Canada Marguritte Indian b-1800 Pembina.

Joseph Laverdure Metis b-1785 North West Territories son Joseph Laverdure b-1760 and Lisette b-1765; married Nancy Duck Metis b-1806 North West Territories.

Alexis McKay b-1785 married Marguerite Saulteaux Indian b-1788 North West Territories, and listed census 1835 Red River.

(II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) is appointed to Ile-La-Crosse until 1787 for the trading firm of Finley and Gregory, later called Gregory, McLeod and Company.

McMillan b-1785 North West Territory married Marie Letendre b-1790 Red River Settlement.

Antoine Martin b-1785, living 1870 census Michigan but home is Bessemir, Mi..

William Morrison (Morison) (White Bear or Shagahnansheenee/Little Englashman) (1785-1866) Metis son Alan Morison (abt 1745-abt1815) and Josepha (Jane) Wadden; 1st married Ojibwa (Pillager) woman d-1813+, 2nd Julia Roussain d-1826+, 3rd Elizabeth Kittson d-1864.

Osawwawnawmequay b-1785, living 1870 census Elk Rapids, Michigan.

Jean Baptiste Parisien b-1785 Canada married Lisette Bercier Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Peter Pound labeled Great Slave Lake as Slave Lake after the Cree name for the Awonak (Slave) people who lived on it's shore. By 1790 it was being called Great Slave Lake, likely by the Metis, because they loved to name things 'Great' or 'Grand'.

Paterson b-1785 married Marie Sutherland Metis b-1790 Red River Settlement.

Mary Prout b-1785 Canada. living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie.

Joseph A. Ritchot b-1785 Canada married Josephte Amiotte Metis b-1797 most likely North West.

(I)-Alexander Ross b-1785 Scotland married Sarah Indian b-1790 North West Territories.

Green Bay, birth Charlotte Roy Metis daughter Joseph Roy (LeRoy) (1744-1825) and Marguerite Oskinanotame (1760-1835) daughter AhkenepawehAkeeneebaway (Standing Earth) a Menominee and Waupanokoew; Francois married 1807 Joseph Campinne (Camanne).

Robert Saudison born 1785 North West, census 1835 Red River.

George Setter (Settee) born 1785 North West, census 1835 Red River.

William Sinclair b-1785 married Charlotte Indian b-1790 North West Territories.

Mary Solomon b-1785, living 1870 census Hamilton, Michigan.

Jean Baptiste Wells b-1785 Canada married Marie Cree b-1791 most likely North West.

(I)-Alexander Work B-1785 Orkney married Isabella Indian b-1786 North West Territories.

Pierre Vandal Metis b-1785 North West Territories married Charlotte Hughes Metis b-1790 Red River Settlement.

Louisant Vaudrie (Vaudreuil?) born 1785 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Peter Whitford born 1785 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Charles Patterson d-1788 organized the Sioux Outfit, being financed by Patterson & Mason Company for the Mackinac Company, to build a stockade on the Minnesota River to trade with the Sisseton & Wahpeton. Murdoch Cameron & Joseph Renville had brigades above Patterson trading with the Teton & Yankton. Alexander Laframboise & Jean Baptiste Perrault (1763-1844) were on the Chippewa River. James Aird & Joseph Larocque traded the Wabasha's, some being north of the Minnesota River. Joseph Larocque married a daughter of Wabasha (Red Leaf) a.k.a. Lafeuille, Ouabachas b-1700/20.

(III)-Charles Chaboillez (1736-1808) entered into partnership under the name General Company of Lake Superior with Jean Orillat, Etienne Charles Campion, John Askins, the Frobisher's and the McGill's.

The North West Company sent 25 canoes with 260 men to British Fort Detroit (Michigan) and Grand Portage, Indian Territory, this season.

(I)-James Aird (d-1819) and Jean Perrault (1763-1844) operated a post on the Leaf River with Roch.

Robert Michel Aird took Joseph Boucher of Leprairie to court, accusing him of taking 78 livres to winter on the Mississippi while being hired by Joseph Howard at the same time. Robert Michel Aird and (I)-James Aird (d-1819) are licensed to trade out of Michilimackinac this year.

The Beaver Club, formed this year by the North West Company, is for senior agents as an outlet for their depravity and a symbol of their excess profit taking, which at times exceeded two hundred percent. Membership is restricted to those who had spent a winter in the North West. The field personnel did not appreciate this profit skimming and

continuously pointed at it, especially during years of poor trade. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), at age 15, is sent on foot from Churchill to York. He is impressed with the Indian's ability to guide himself through the darkest pine forests to exactly the place he intended to go. The Indians instructed him in these guiding skills and (I)- David Thompson (1770-1857) later prided himself on becoming almost equal to some of the Indians, which was put to great use in later years. Philip Turnor (Turner) also claimed to have trained (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) in the skills of surveying. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) would later write: Bodies are being eaten by dogs and wolves, who mostly died or lost their fur, which gives some credibility to reports that some European diseases may have passed to animals, as was speculated by early writers.

The Richard Cadman Etches and Company is founded in London to trade for furs on the Northwest Coast of America. Nathaniel Portlock and George Dixon. veterans of James Cook's third voyage, commanded the company's first two vessels, which were leased by the South Sea Company and the East Indian Company. This company merged in 1789 with that of the John Meares Company.

Jean Francois de Galaup comte de La Perouse (1741-1788) a Frenchman is commissioned to explore the Pacific and to search for a North West Passage. He sailed up the coast to Alaska and must have visited Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island and the Straits of Juan de Fuca and Georgis. He sailed to Atlaska, Korea, Japan, explored the sea of Japan, Hawaii, Macao, Philippines and Australia. His two ships sunk off the Vanikoro Island north of the New Hebrides.

The Hudson Bay Company has not paid a dividend since 1782 due to the smallpox epidemic that spread throughout the North West Territories.

Canadian exiled Acadians shipped to England and then France started to arrive in Louisiana, New Spain. Spain paid for 1,600 exiled Canadian Acadians in France to migrate to Louisiana, New Spain. The Acadians at this time no longer considered themselves as French.

January 1, 8:00 A.M.: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Menard, wife of Belair, was drowned with Demers' little girl while crossing the river in a cutter. Demers' wife, who held her one-year-old child in her arms, was rescued, and also the child, by her husband. Were rescued also, Belair and Duroseau, who hung on to Dumers, cape. Hubert, Pt., Vic-Gen.

January 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child Louis Suzor and Josette Le Beau, born yesterday.

January 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Paul Drouillard, born July 1783 son Jean Baptiste Drouillard and Marie Louise Drouin.

January 26: Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1763-1844) wintered Lac de la Puise on the portage with Lauzon, Kay, le Petit Mort.

January 29: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jacques Chiquot son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chiquot born 1749 and (IV)-Angelique Godefroy born 1753.

January 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Antoine Bonaventure Campeau born December 7, 1752 son (III)-Antoine Campeau (1702-1759); married (II)-Angelique L'Enfant daughter (I)-Joseph L'Enfant.

February 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (III)-Monique Freton daughter (II)- Jene (Julien) Ferton born July 13, 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and (II)-Therese Billiau born Fort Detroit

February 4: British Mackinac, (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Chevalier, Metis, baptised July 20, 1786 British Mackinac (Michigan) son (III)-Luc Chevalier born 1735, Mackinac, New France (Michigan) and Sauvagesse.

February 5: British Fort Mackinac, (Michigan), birth, Etienne Chevery, Metis, baptised, August 13, 1786, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son Dominique Chevery and Sauvageese, see 1782

February 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Francois Basile Campeau born December 2, 1743 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan) died October 16, 1795 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son (III)-Jean Baptiste Campeau (1711-1783) and (III)-Catherine Perthus (1718-1763); married (IV)-Suzanne Moran born 1760 daughter (III)-Claude Charles Moran.

February 7: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Pierre Villers dit St. Louis son late Louis Villers and Josette Morin; married Charlotte Mouton daughter Francois Mouton and Charlotte Duroseau: witness Thomas Pageot, Louis St. Louis, Francois Drouillard and Mochel Roy.

February 8: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Chrysostome Villers dit St. Louis son late Louis Villers and Josette Morin; married Josette Sozor daughter Louis Sozor and Josette La Beau: witness Louis St. Louis, Pierre St. Louis, Thomas Pageot, Amable Bigra and Baptiste Bigra.

February 11: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Claude Campeau son Bernard Campeau , brother, married to (V)-Veronique Douaire born 1766 daughter (IV)-Joseph Douaire.

February 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Louise Alard is born daughter (IV)Jacques Alard son (III)Pierre Alard and Genevieve Madeleine Laforest, see 1780.

March 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Valcour, born 1782 child Joseph Valcour and Josette Makons.

March 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Cecile Dube daughter (IV)-Jean Marie Dube born 1738 and (IV)-Marie Joseph Seguin born 1754.

March 17: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Le Sueur of De Boucherville, Quebec, born 1784.

March 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Thomas Cox.

March 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Amable St. Come married (IV)-Genevieve Bourdeau daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont.

March 31: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Julie Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1737 and Catherine Boyer

March 30: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Amable Cosme married (IV)-Genevieve Bourdeau daughter (III)-Joseph Bourdeau dit L'Lle-Ronde, habitant de la Cote Nord-est, born 1730, died 1793 married 1760 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (III)-Marie Louise Clermont et Dvbord born 1645 daughter Louis Clermont.

April 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Joseph Catin son Antoine Catin died before 1791 and was married about 1767 to Marie Anne Martin living south west of La Cote.

April 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Benjamin Chapu son late Jacques Chapu and Genevieve Laframboise; married Josette Rocheleau dit L'Esperance daughter Francois Rocheleau dit L'Esperance and the late Josette Meloche: witness Jacques Prud'Homme, Antoine Meloche and Michel Rocheleau.

April 6: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, two twin children of Michel Arconet and Marie Anne Laforet.

April 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jeanne Cardinal daughter (IV)-Pierre Cardinal born 1729 and (II)-Marie Angelique Sejourne.

April 18: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Etienne Johan dit Laviolette widower Judith Prud'homme; married Angelique Descomptes dit Lebadie widow Martin Levrier: witness Maisonville, Laferte, Rene Cloutier and Amable Bigra.

April 23: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Charlotte Oualette, born 1782 daughter Alexandre Gualee and Angelique Bourassa.

April 24: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Marie Catherine Dulac daughter Jean Baptiste DuLac, son Jean Baptiste DuLac and Catherine Jacob daughter Etienne Jacob.

April 27: Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1763-1844) is trading Lac des Sables near la Puisse, and le Bras Casse, chief of Lac des Sables, with some men, were making canoes. They traded with the savages until May 2. William Harris and Pineau arrived later.

May 5: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Catherine Greffard daughter (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse.

May 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Eulalie Gouin daughter (IV)-Charles Francois Gouin (b-1755) and Suzanne Boyer.

May 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Judith Latour daughter Amable Latour and (III)-Agnas Mesny b-1758.

May 24: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois Godet (Marantet) husband Jeanne Parent.

June 5: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Lisette Campau and child, wife Antoine Meloche, born 1749.

June 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Charles Askin son John Askin to Archange Barthel.

July 6: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Louis Desauniers son late Joseph Desauniers of Yamachiche and Josette La Course; married Charlotte Bourassa widow Francois Marsac: witness Joseph Berthiaume, Jean Baptiste Belleperche and Amable Bigra.

July 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, Antoine Daunet, Metis, born 1779, interior, baptized July 7, 1785, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), son Antoine Daunet and Sauvagesse.

July 7: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), baptism, Therese Daunet, Metis, born 1782, interior, baptized July 7, 1785 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter Antoine Daunet and Sauvagesse.

July 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Michel Roy husband Jeanne Villers, born 1752.

July 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child Francois Sourdillet and Josette Gendron.

July 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Josette Gendron wife Francois Sourdillet, born 1745.

July 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Francois, born October 1, 1784, son Charlets Fontaine and Elizabeth Godfroi.

July 23: Green Bay, birth (IV)-Jean Baptiste Grignon, Metis baptized August 6, 1787 Mackinac, died 1832/1848, son (II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago. Note: Tanguay suggests Jean Baptiste is son (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade b-1759 but he didn't marry her until 1787??

July 24: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, celeste born June 1785 daughter Pierre Labombarde and Marguerite Brouillet.

August 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child of Pierre L'Etourneau and Louise Bonvouloir.

August 17: Kaskaskia, Illinois, marriage Jean Baptiste Desrousses son Francois Desrousses dit St. Pierre and Marie Josephte Turpin; married Angelique Royer. A daughter of Francois and Marie married Joseph Tibault.

September 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Duncan Mackintosh son Angus Mackintosh and Archange St. Martin.

September 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Charoltte Campau wife Drouin.

September 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Reaume of Detroit, born 1708.

September 24: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Beneteau, born 1780.

September 27: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Beneteau, born July 1784.

October 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Joseph Drouillard son Simon Drouillard and Margueritte St. Jean; marriage Catherine Dufour daughter Jean Baptiste Dufour and Catherine Durand: witness Simon Drouillard, Jean Baptiste Dufour and Jean Baptiste Montmirel.

October 4: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Susan McGregor daughter Gregor McGregor and Susan Robert.

October 4: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Archange Lajoie, born July 1784.

October 17: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Louis Drouillard, born 1782.

October 21: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Vital Gaillard, born June 1783.

November 2: Henry Hope interim Governor Canada to October 23, 1786.

November 30: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Etienne Ripus born 1681.

December 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Meloche, born June 1784 son Pierre Meloche.

December 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Joseph Picotte, born 1727.