Metis

1786 - 1788


The Hudson Bay Company English are considered pitiful creatures.

They are unable to forage for themselves; they are near starvation.


The Hudson Bay Company had forty four men in the field as compared to the one hundred and eighty men of the North West Company

The number of Metis and free traders is not included in the count.

They likely exceeded both companies combined at this time.


1786

Gladys Aslin b-1786, living 1870 Germeask, Michigan

Basilius (Basil) Beaulieu born 1786 died Sept 9, 1838 LaPorte, Wisconsin.

Mathurin Bouvet dit La Chambre married 1770 Marie Josephte Soumande and was at Kaskaskia, Illinois this year. By 1792, he moved to St Charles on the Spanish side to manufacture salt. He was burned to death by the Indians for unknown crimes.

Pierre Boyer Metis b-1786 North West Territories married Marguerite Bonneau Metis b-1810 Red River Settlement.

William Bruce born 1779 North West, census 1835 Red River, probable son William Bruce.

Laurent Cadotte Metis b-1786 North West Territories married Betsy William Metis b-1820 Red River Settlement.

Michel Cadotte born 1786 likely Lake Superior died March 11, 1856 LaPointe, Wisconsin son Michel Cadotte and Madeleine Kwesewen (Ikwesens,

Little Girl) daughter of Wadabjidjak (Chief White Crane). Legend suggests that White Crane named Madeline Island after this daughter.

Jean Baptiste Cardinal, Metis, b-1787, Canada married Josephte Ducharme b-1805 Pembina.

Francois Courchene b-1786 Canada 1st married Francoise Beauchamp Metis b-1805 Red River Settlement, 2nd marriage Madeleine Indian b-1787

Joseph Cook born 1786 North West, census 1834 & 1838 Red River.

John Dease took charge of Indian Affairs at Michilimackanic.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Fafard dit Laframboise b March 13, 1775 Trois Rivieres is recorded at Michilimackinac.

(I)-William Fleet b-1786 Orkney married Isabella Metis b-1787 likely North West.

Louis Fleury born 1786 North West, census 1834 Red river.

Jean Francois de la Perouse a Frenchman is trading Lituya Bay, Alaska with the Tlingits and Haidas.

Jean Francois de la Perouse a Frenchman is trading Lituya Bay, Alaska with the Tlingits and Haidas.

Joseph Giron (Giroux) (1736-1786) died at mission parish Ste Famille de Fort Cahokia (Illinois) on the river Kaskaskias on route to the Mississippi River.

A Grant (possibly Robert Grant) lost 2 canoes and 5 men on the rapids of the Slave River.

Alexander Hamelin (Amelin) wintered 1786/87 Prairie du Chein.

Pier LeKendu b-1786 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Alexis LesPerauer born 1786 North West, census 1835 Red River.

John Lyons, Metis b-1786 North West Territories married Margaret Kippling Metis b-1791 North West Territories.

(I)-Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820), at IIe a la Crosse, complained there was no women to make rackets (snowshoes) and there is no stirring without them. He also noted the women are as much in power as the men. As to other articles in their property, they are always consulted, and they possess a very considerable influence in regards to the traffic with Europeans and other important concerns. This was in spite of his believing the Chipewyans treat their women more harshly than most Indians.

Joseph Mondion, with wife and children, settled up the Ottawa River near Chats Lake.

(I)-Edward Mowat b-1786 Orkney married Mary Indian b-1780 North West Territories.

John Munioick, born 1786 Manitoba claims to be white son William Munioick, listed census 1870 St. Clements, Red River.

Mary Ann Pond b-1786, living 1870 census St. Ignace, Michigan.

Joseph Reaume is with Jean Baptiste Cadotte, distributing presents to Ojibwa villages of Chequamegon, Fond du Lac and Sandy Lake.

Joan (John or Jean) Baptiste Robidoux born 1786 died August 10, 1840 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Louis Roi married a Savage Sauteux Woman.

Green Bay, birth Angelique Angeline Roy Metis daughter Joseph Roy (LeRoy) (1744-1825) and Marguerite Oskinanotame (1760-1835) daughter AhkenepawehAkeeneebaway (Standing Earth) a Menominee and Waupanokoew; Francois married Jacques Jean Vieaux Jr.

James Sandison, Metis born 1786, North West son James Sandison, living St. Andrews, Red River, 1870 census. See 1796.

(I)-Michael Smith b-1786 Ireland, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin.

James Strange (1753-1840) claimed Vancouver Island for Britain, ignoring the previous Spanish claims. He named Queen Charlotte Sound after the Queen.

James Sutherland reported that Metweash's son brought a large black bear to Lac Seul, the meat of which was distributed to all present. Sutherland said, "Such strangers are the Indians to frugality that they vye (vie) with each other who shall give most away". The English and Scottish, by contrast, were considered stingy. At Lac Seul he reported Indians feasting all day from tent to tent. They are remarkable kind to us, we being invited the same as themselves, and give us a large share.

Mary Sinclair, Metis, born 1786 North West daughter William Sinclair, living St. John, Red River 1870 census.

(I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, is appointed the first Chief Inland (Governor) for the Hudson Bay Company. The title Governor only applied to the head of the entire company in London. This year the Chief Factor of York Factory is made subordinate to the Chief Inland. Tomison also acquired an Indian wife.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth (II)-Joseph Vasquez (1786-1848) son (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin; married 1816 Marie Louise Herbert dit Lacompte.

Pierre Venne Metis b-1786 Red River Settlement married Marie Charette Metis b-1804 Red River Settlement.

Charles Vierville Gauthier, voyager and interpreter, is recorded at Mackinac this year in the birth; death and marriage records. Charles is a notorious debaucher of numerous slave women and has many Metis offspring.

Williams Williams b-1786 North West Territories married Mary b-1790.

J. Woodcock made a sketch of a three mast ship in Coal Harbour, Cook River (Port Graham) British Columbia, being approached by Nootka canoes.

He was part of the around the world, Nathaniel Portlock's, voyage (1789).

The North West Company established a trading post on the south shore of Great Slave Lake. The Hudson Bay Company would establish their post in 1815, and would name the North West Company Post, Fort Resolution, North West Territories.

The Northwest Company established trading posts this year at Lake Nipigon 1786-1787), (1789-1795), (1796-1800), Crow Nest Lake (1786-1787), (17991801), Manarague Lake (1786-1787), (1791-1792), (1796-1797), (1799-1800), all north west of Lake Superior.

Charles Patterson (d-1788) is with the General Company (General Society) of Lake Superior and the in the South with partners James Aird, Etienne Charles Campion, Charles Chaboillez and John Sayer b-1750.

(I)-James Aird (d-1819) is located at Prairie Du Chein, trading the St. Peters/Minnesota River, and is associated with Charles Paterson, Etienne Charles Champion and others in the General Company of Lake Superior and the South, a.k.a. the General Society. This firm also included Charles Chaboillez Sr. and John Sayer b-1750. This year their interpreter, Joseph Rocque, is assigned to Joseph Ainse for a peace mission to the Dakota and Ojibwa. The firm, however, only lasted until 1788.

Lord Dorchester returned to Quebec as Governor General and summarized the new Canada as being composed of gentlemen who are not adventurers and adventurers who are not gentlemen, fragmented religion; the Catholics; drawing in upon themselves, the Anglican; insisting on all sorts of privileges, and the Methodist- those horseback republican prophets. In the far west were the fur traders and those Scots, living like rough backwoods kings- knowing no law but there own, and there were the the brown creatures of the forest on both sides of the lakes. To them, there had been promises. The American refugees to Canada harvested their first crop, at which time Government rations ended.

Gregory, MacLeod and Company joined the North West Company on a 20 share basis. Red Lake trading post is established and maintained by Duncan Cameron on Post Narrows near the east end of the Lake. The Northwest Company established trading posts at Lake Nipigon, Crow Nest Lake, and Manatague Lake, all north west of Lake Superior.

(IV)-Michel Cadotte (1763-1837) is wintering on the Pukawahonaum, a short distance from the mouth of the Manetowish River. The Lac Couterelle and Lac au Flambeau bands joined him. Michel's wife, Marie Madeline, (Equaysayway) is of the Lac du Flambeau band, her uncle being Chief.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) recorded trading activities to Folle Avoine, Courtes Oreilles, Crow's Wing and L,Anse. His sons, under the name Mssrs Cadot et Compagnie, manage the first two locations. Next year, they are incorporated into the Societe Generale of Mackinac, who continue to employ his sons. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) wintered on the Chippeway River at Pukawahonaun, just above the mouth of Manetowish River. This is dangerous country because of the Dakota's. Two bands of Ojibwa, however, are camped near him, resulting in a successful season.

John Best established a Hudson Bay house on Lake St. Joseph called Osnaburgh House, and James Sutherland (1751-1797) would be his assistant in 1789. This post, a subsidiary of Fort Albany on James Bay, is the Hudson Bay Company's most important post north west of Lake Superior. The Ojibwa in the area considered the English as pitiful and unable to look after themselves. They easily became lost if they ventured beyond their posts. It is noteworthy that some of the earlier Northwest Company predecessors were also considered pitiful. James Sutherland (1751-1797), guided by a group of Ojibwa, visited Lac Seul and is amazed the Ojibwa feasted all day from tent to tent and that they are are remarkably kind. He reported: They invited us to the feasting, giving us a large share. It is noteworthy that the Hudson Bay men are normally in a state of near starvation at this time, being unable to forage for food. John Best of the Hudson Bay Company pleaded with the Indians to knit snow shoes as his men cannot travel without them to look for anything. Other items the Bay men required are sleds, tents, fat for candles, sturgeon oil for lamps, goose and duck feathers for mattresses, blankets, quills for pens, birth bark for shingles and spruce pitch to seal roof cracks and to patch canoes. It is little wonder the Ojibwa considered the English pitiful creatures. Osnaburgh Post is totally dependent on the Ojibwa for their food supplies, excluding potatoes.

Fort Lac au Serpent on the Snake River near Ill a La Crosse is established by the French. The H.B.C. established Manchester House on the North Saskatchewan River, 42 miles above Battleford, Saskatchewan.

Peter Pond (1740-1807), back in the Athabasca country, got involved in another killing- a John Ross (d-1787) of the Gregory and MacLeod Trading Company. Pond's associate is charged with murder, but not convicted. The men of Peter Pond (1740-1807) robbed John Ross of his furs and when he resisted Francois Nadeau and Eustache le Compte are accused of the killing or of ordering the killing. Peche is believed to have delivered the fatal shot.

January 2: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Gervais Godienne son Gervais Godienne of Montreal, Quebec and Marguerite Lavau; married Charlotte Minvil daughter Joseph Minvil and Charlotte Souligni (Souligny): witness Maisonville, Jacques Parent and Jacques Charon.

January 7: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Magdelene Jacob, born 1771.

January 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Jean Baptiste Campeau son (IV)-Francois Basile Campeau (1743-1795) and (IV)-Suzanne Moran born 1760.

January 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Marie Louise Valade, born September 1783, daughter Jean Baptiste Valade amd Louise Drouillard.

January 13: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Semande, born 1786.

January 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Meloche wife Andre Peltier, born 1750.

February 3: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Hyacinthe Deshetres widower Marie Anne Pilet; married Marie Petit daughter Nicolas Petit and Marie Elizabeth Charon: witness Demouchel, Alexis Labutte, Francois Gaillard and Jean Baptiste Roncout.

February 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Ann Macomb daughter William Macomb and Sarah Drinor (Dring).

January 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Gaudette, born 1783.

January 19: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Valcour, born June 1779.

January 21 Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Chrysostome Pageot, born 1782.

February 10: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jacques Berthiaume, born 1777.

February 17: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child , born 1785 of Joseph Hivons and Marguerite Sordillet.

February 20: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Joseph Pouget son Joseph Pouget and Francoise Belleperche; married Josette Bissonnette daughter late Etiene Bissonette and Catherine St. Germain.: witness Bondy, Boufford, Jacques Prud'homme and Amable Bigra.

February 25: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Catherine Therese Langlois, born 1775.

February 27: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Augustin Boulet son Louis Boulet of St. Thomas and Genevieve Boulet; married Marguerite Boulet widow Louis Brugiere : witness Jean Baptiste Tourneax, Louis Bernard Lajoie and Bazil Cousineau.

April 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Jean Baptiste Andre, born 1778.

April 24: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Joseph Maillons son Joseph Mailloux and Therese Le Duc; married Genevieve Deshetres daughter Hyacinthe Desetres and Marie Anne Pillet: witness Amable Bigra, Louis Trudel and Alexandre Fovel.

May 8: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Alexandre Foval son Amable Foval and Charlotte Dufour; married Marie Josette Cloutier daughter Rene Cloutier and Marie Josette Campau: witness Chrisostome Villers and Louis Basil Cousineau.

May 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Antoine Berthiaume, born 1785 son Joseph Berthiaume and Catherine Pilet.

May 25: Assumption (Ontario) baptism Pelagie Dequindre child Charles Stanislaus Fontenay de Quindre and Marie Catherine b-1761.

June 12: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Alexis Seguin son Alexis Seguin of Detroit and Agathe Cousineau; married Elizabeth Descomptes daughter Antoine Descomptes of Detroit and the late Angelique Campeau: witness Claude Campeau, Pierre Robert (father), Pierre Robert (son), Joseph Robert and Paul Lasaline.

July 6: Michilimackinac, baptism Pierre Carignon, born May 1786, son of a negress slave belonging to (Louis?) Carignon.

July 15: Michilimackinac, baptism Magdelaine Gauthier born May 1779, daughter Charles Gauthier and Magdelaine Pachal Chevalier.

July 15: Michilimackinac, baptism Domitille Gauther, born 1781, son Charles Gauthier and Magdelaine Pascal Chevalier.

July 16 and 19: (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) witnessed a baptism at Mackinac.

July 16: Michilimackinac, baptism Augustin Sarasin, Metis, born 1782 son Augustin Sarasin and Savage mother; adopted by Charles Gauthier, witness Louis Carignan, notary.

July 16: Michilimackinac, baptism, Daniel Bourassa, born June 22, 1780, son Daniel Bourassa and Marguerite Bertrand.

July 16: Michilimackinac, baptism, Archange Bourassa, born June 22, 1780, daughter Daniel Bourassa and Marguerite Bertrand.

July 17: Michilimackinac, baptism, Joseph Marie Mersier, Metis, born November 1, 1785, son Joseph Mersier and Savage Mother

July 17: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Mersier, Metis, born February 1, 1783, daughter Joseph Mersier and Savage Mother

July 19: Michilimackinac, baptism, Michel Labat, Metis, born July 1784, son Michel Labat and Savage Mother.

July 19: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Magdelaine Waters, Metis, born 1783, daughter Jean Walters (a stranger) and Savage Mother.

July 19: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Guillory, Metis, born 1779, daughter Antoine Guillory and Savage Mother.

July 19: Michilimackinac, baptism, Charles Langlade, Metis, born April 1785, son Charles Langlade and Savage Mother.

July 20: Michilimackinac, marriage Charles Gauthier de Vierville (Verville), lieutenant, interpreter Du Roy, married Magdelaine (Madelaine) Paschal Chevalier. They had a country marriage on January 1, 1779, but Charles was a debaucher of numerous slave women so their offspring should be questioned. See January 1, 1779 for a list of known country wives and children.

July 20: Michilimackinac, marriage Daniel Bourassa son Rene Bourassa and Ann Chevalier; married Marguerite Bertrand daughter Laurent Bertrand and Marie Dulignon.

July 20: Marie Therese DuLignon died before this date but after the birth of her son Joseph on October 8, 1778.

July 20: Michilimackinac, baptism, Joseph Chevalier, Metis, born April 17, 1785 son Luc Chevalier and Savage Mother.

July 20: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marguerite Marcotte Chevalier, Metis, born December 23, 1778 daughter Luc Chevalier and Savage Mother.

July 20: Michilimackinac, baptism, Joseph Bertrand, born October 8, 1778, son Laurent Bertrand and the late Marie Therese Dulignon.

July 20: Michilimackinac, baptism, Eustache Bertrand, born September 20, 1782, son Laurent Bertrand and Marie Dulignon.

July 22: Mackinac, birth Marguerite Chevalier Metis born 1784, baptised July 22, 1786 Mackinac daughter Barthelemi Chevalier and Sauvagesse.

July 22: Mackinac, baptism. (IV)-Joachim Dumouchel, Metis, born June 1776, son, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse

July 22: Mackinac, baptism. (IV)-Marie Joseph Dumouchel, Metis, born December 26, 1778, daughter, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse; married November 28, 1793 Cahokia, Illinois, Louis Labossiere.

July 22: Mackinac, baptism. (IV)-Madeleine Dumouchel, Metis, born August 17, 1784, daughter, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse

July 22: Michilimackinac, baptism, Rosalie Bongas daughter Joad (Jean) Bongas, negro and Marie Jeanne, Negress, living with Robertson, I think they had their freedom at this time?

July 22: Michilimackinac, baptism, Joachim Dumouchel, Metis, born June 1776, son Louis Dumouchel and Francois of the Courtes Oreille Nation.

July 22: Michilimackinac, baptism, Josephite Dumouchel, Metis, born August 7, 1784, daughter Louis Dumouchel and Francois of the Courtes Oreille Nation.

July 22: Michilimackinac, baptism, Gabriel Hattinas, Metis, born February 17, 1783 son Gabriel Hattinas dit Laviolette and Savage Mother.

July 22: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marguerite Chevalier, Metis, born March 16, 1784 daughter Barthelmi Chevalier and Savage Mother.

July 22: Michilimackinac, baptism, Genevieve Dufau, Metis, born March 1785, daughter Louis Dufau and Mariee of the Sauteaux Nation.

July 30: Kaskaskia, Illinois, marriage Joseph Desrousses son Francois Desrousses dit St. Pierre and Marie Josephte Turpin; married Marianne Roy widow Antoine Thaumur.

July 30: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, child Pierre L'Etourneau and Louise Bonvouloir.

July 30: Michilimackinac, baptism, Francois Roy, Metis, born January 1786, son Francois Roy and Savage Mother.

August: In upper Mississippi, Joseph Louis Ainse a.k.a. Hains (Hins) is dispatched by John Johnson and Byrne to distribute gifts to the Dakota and Ojibwa, thereby inviting them to council on a peace treaty.

August 1: Michillimackinac, baptism, Charles a Savage chief of the Courts Oreilles or Outanois Nation.

August 1: Michilimackinac, baptism, Francois Zavier Amelin born 1766 son unknown and Savage Woman slave of widow Hiacinte Amelin.

August 1: Michilimackinac, baptism, Therese Marcot, Metis born 1776, daughter Sieur Jean Baptiste Marcoot and Thimotee of the Outanois Nation.

August 1: Michilimackinac, baptism, Magdelaine Marcot, Metis, born 1780 daughter Sieur Jean Baptiste Marcoot and Thimote of the Outanois Mation; married Joseph La Framboise.

August 13: Michilimackinac, baptism, Magdelaine Chevare, Metis, born March 17, 1782, daughter Dominique Chevare and Savage Mother.

August 13: Michilimackinac, baptism, Etienne Chevare, Metis, born February 5, 1785, son Dominique Chevare and Savage Mother.

August 14: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Martin Nodeault son late Jean Baptiste Nodeault of St. Pierre and Marthe Fournier; married Marie Reaume daughter Jean Baptiste Reaume of Detroit and Agathe Barrois: witness Charles Reaume, Joseph Poupart, Alexander Fovel and Alexis Bienvenu.

August 15: Michilimackinac, baptiste, A Slave Barthe, born 1866 belonging to Jean Baptiste Barthe.

August 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Louis Dagneau de Quindre, died 1829 Detroit, Michigan.

Charles Meloche, born 1774.: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death,

August 15: Jean Baptiste Barthe of Sault Ste Marie had his slaves baptized Mickinac, a female Panis age 9, and a female panis age 20.

August 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Louis Dagneau de Quindre son (IV)-Antoine Dagneau de Quindre seur De Pontchartrain (1751-1814) and Catherine Desrivieres Lamorandiere Trottier (1757-1817); married November 26, 1817 Detroit, Michigan, Marie Rose Louisa DesNoyers.

August 26: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Pierre Desnoyere, born 1720.

August 28: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Alexis Pelletier son Jean Baptiste Pelletier of Detroit and Josette Cornet; marriage Agathe Reaume daughter Joseph Reaume and the late Charlotte Levassour: witness Joseph Voyer, Joseph Pouget, and Bondy.

September 5: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Francois Chortier son late Joseph Chortier of Montreal and the late Marie Lamarche; married Amable Remon daughter Jean Baptiste Remon of Detroit and Josette Desarrois: witness Louis Tremblay and Ignace Le Beau.

September 6: Rebecca C. Biggar (1786-1880) is born and is claimed to be the first white child born on the Niagara Frontier after her parents walked from New Jersey to Bender Farm.

September 26: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), death, Alexis Pare, killed by lightning in his father's house.

October 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, Hypolite Janis son late Francois Janis and Therese Meloche; marriage Angelique Langlois daughter Nicolas Langlois and Magdelene Pillet: witness Laurent Parent, Joseph Mailloux and Vital Dumouchel.

October 9: Assumption de la Pointe de Montreal du Detroit (Essex, Ontario), marriage, (II)-Pierre Foucher son (I)-Jacques Foucher of St. Sulpice, Paris and Marie Lafleur; married Francois Bleau daughter Francois Bleau of St. Joseph, Point Levy, Quebec, and Catherine Galisnau of St. Joseph, Point Levy, Quebec: witness Etienne Latour dit Ballard, Louis Gendron and Jean Baptiste Prud'homme

October 23: Guy Carleton, (1724-1808), 1st Baron Dorchester governor Canada to July 9, 1796.

November 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, James Askin son John Askin to Archange Barthel.

1787

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Bazile Alary and Jean Baptiste Alary.

Henry Bailey Sr. b-1787, living 1870 census, Custer, Michigan.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Joseph Baugy Sr., father, married 1788 Kaskaskia, Illinois Marie Plasy aka Duplasy, one child is known Joseph Baugy Jr. married 1805 Marie Bauvais; also listed is Charles Baugy.

Mary Bausier (Boursier?), Metis, is born 1787 in North West daughter Batish Bausier, is living St. Andrew, Red River in 1870 census.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, St. James Bauvais, father aka Beauvais dit St. Jeme or St. Gemme; also Raphael Bauvais, Vital Bauvais, Barthy Bauvais, Joseph Marie Bauvais, and Antoine Bauvais.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Jean Baptiste Bienvenu de Lisle (Delisle) Sr., father and Jean Baptiste Bienvenu de Lisle (Delisle) Jr., son. Also listed are Andre Delisle, Louis Delisle Sr., father and Louis Delisle Jr. son, and Etienne Delisle.

Joseph Brown b-1787 married Elizabeth Metis b-1789 likely North West.

Laurent Cadotte born 1787 North West son Laurent Cadotte born 1758 Canada census 1838 Red River; marriage about 1834 a Betsy Thomas, Metis, born 1810 Red River daughter of Thomas. Could be (I)-John George Thomas alias Thomas Thomas (1) born 1766, (I)-Thomas Thomas (2) born 1781 or (I)-Thomas Thomas (3) born 1894 all are in Red River, North West at this time.

Theresa Caubmosay b-1787, living 1870 census, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Jean Baptiste Charleville and Louis Charleville.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Jean Baptiste Creilly Jr. son Jean Baptiste Creilly Sr. and Marie Agette (widow). One other child of Jean Sr. is noted but no first name is given.

Louis Deshetres son Antoine Deshetres and Marie Charlotte Chevalier was an interpreter on the Illinois River about this time.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Francois Desrousses, Philipe Desrousses, and Jerome Desrousses.

Jacques Devignais married to Marianne Seguin dit Laderoute is listed 1787 census Kaskaskia, Illinois. Their daughter Therese Devignais married February 11, 1787 Michel Derousse.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Joseph Devignais.

(I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) from Mackinac is taking his first canoe load of goods up the Minnesota. He eventually (likely about 1797) made his home at Lake Traverse, a favorite Dakota camping site, and married Helen or Totowin, daughter of Wanoti and a sister of Nakota Red Thunder, a Yankton Dakota Chief.

Illinois, birth, Thomas Dorion, Metis born about 1787, son Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow). It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist, also married to a Iowa woman. See 1780.

Charlotte Ferth, Metis, born 1787 Manitoba (Red River) daughter Thomas Ferth, listed 1870 census Red River.

Joseph Giro alias Giroux (1747-1787) died August 24, at Fort Cahokia aux Illinois.

(III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) son (II)-Pierre Grignon born 1709 and Josephte Marguerite Chevalier; married 1st 1769 likely Green Bay or in the field Menominee/Winnebago, 2 married 1787 Machilimackinac (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade born 1759 daughter (IV)-Charles Michel Langlade and Charlotte Ambroiseine Bourassa.

Machilimackinac, baptism (IV)-Pierre Antoine Grignon, Metis born 1777, likely Green Bay, died 1823 Green Bay, son (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago woman. (see birth October 21, 1777).

Mr. Gordon, a Scot (1787-1852, 1st married Agnas Landry, Metis, Ojibwa, Drummond Island (Michigan), 2nd marriage the Metis, daughter of Charles Langlade.

Marie Gwesikwe born 1787 most likely Lake Superior died November 28, 1857 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(I)-Thomas Halcrow b-1787 Orkney married Mary Sutherland Indian b-1775 most likely North West.

James Hanna sailed the Clayoquot Sound near Tofino, Vancouver Island which has been occupied by the Nootka (Nuu-Chaf-Nulth) people since about 2000 B.C. The sound is named after the Clayoquot (Tia-o-qui-aht) people. He also sailed Nootka Sound to China for trade.

Governor (I)-Samual Hearne (1745-1792), at the dingy Churchill House, is blamed for the slack trade. He requests home leave and departs the Hudson Bay for the last time. He is criticized for his timidity and spent the last few years writing about his wonderful adventure.

Antoine Houle b-1787 1st married Josephte Louzon b-1787, 2nd marriage J. Chartrand Metis b-1790 Red River Settlement.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Nicholas Janis, father and Francois Janis and Antoine Janis.

Ephraim Johnson b-1787 Connecticut, married Samantha b-1798 New York, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Nicolas Caillot dit Lachanse, father and Antoine Lachanse, Gabriel Lachanse, Francois Lachanse, Joseph Lachanse, Michel Lachanse, Charles Lachanse and Benjamin Lachanse.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Bazile Lachapelle Jr. son Bazile Janot dit Lachapelle b-1741 who married 1767 Marie Elizabeth Choquet; and Antoine Lachapelle, Jean Baptiste Lachapelle, Joseph Lachapelle, and Louis Lachapelle.

Amable Lafond Metis b-1787 North West Territories married Marie Racette b-1801 most likely North West.

Margaret Lesia b-1787 Wisconsin, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Louis Lonval Sr., father, Louis Lonval, Jr. son, Joseph Lonval and Joseph Lonval. Family name Fafard dit Longval.

Edward Mowat b-1787 Orkney married Margaret b-1800 North West Territories.

John Norton (1760-1826), a Scottish/Cherokee Metis, came to Ontario this year and was a good friend of Joseph Brant.

Payquay b-1787, living 1870 census Custer, Michigan.

Joseph Pelletier Metis b-1787 North West Territories married Genevieve Cree Indian b-1816 North West Territories, census 1835 Red River.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Charles Robin. Son? A Charles Robin, born St. Thomas 1738, died June 8, 1779 Kaskaskia, Illinois married Marie Anne Roy.

Green Bay, birth Catherine Sonbird Roy Metis daughter Joseph Roy (LeRoy) (1744-1825) and Marguerite Oskinanotame (1760-1835) daughter AhkenepawehAkeeneebaway (Standing Earth) a Menominee and Waupanokoew; 1st married Alexis Gardapier and 2nd marriage Joseph H. Rioux.

Francois St. Denis Metis b-1787 Red River Settlement married Sophia Lyons Metis b-1807 Red River Settlement.

Franciscus (Francis) St. Jean born 1787 died April 2, 1847 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

James Spence Metis b-1787 North West Territories married Margaret Indian b-1800 most likely North West.

John Stevens Metis b-1787 married Mary Metis b-1789 most likely North West.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Jean Baptiste Tomur Sr., father, Jean Baptiste Tomur Jr. son, and three unnamed children. Also listed Jean Baptiste Lasource Tomur. Possible family name is Thaumer or Taumer dit Lasource.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Blaize Toulouze, father, Noel Toulouze, Francis Toulouze, Henry Toulouze and an unnamed child. Possible family name is Damours.

Kaskaskia, Illinois, census of 1787, Jean Baptiste Trottier dit Desruisseaux, Francis Trottier dit Desruisseaux, and Joseph Trottier des Desruisseaux.

Louis Versailles born 1787 North West, census 1838 Red River.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth (II)-Victorire Vasquez (1787-1867) daughter (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin; married 1814 Isaac Septlivres.

John Vincent born 1787 North West, census 1835 Red River. Possible son Jean Vincent?

Theresa Walker b-1787, living 1870 census Mt Pleasant, Michigan.

The fur trading Company Finley, Gregory and MacLeod joined forces with the North West Company, and (I)-Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820) became a partner of the larger firm. He was assigned to the Athabasca River under Peter Pond.

(I)-Daniel Robertson (1733-1810), former commandant at Mackinac, is operating a tavern on Mackinac Island and, about this time, freed his slaves Jean and Marie Jeanne Bonga whose descendents married into the Ojibwa Nation.

Robert Gray (1755-1806), under command of John Kendrick, are sent by the Boston Merchants to trade the American Northwest coast using china for trade goods and for the sea-otter fur sales. They are given two ships: the Columbia Redivia and the Lady Washington commanded by Gray. This first voyage of 1787-90 marks the first Americans to sail around the world. The sailed the Queen Charlotte Islands and Vancouver Island. Gray's second voyage was 1790-93 when he captained the Columbia.

The Hudson Bay Company established a post across the Michipicoten River from the French establishment on Lake Superior.

Three or four rival Montreal and Quebec trading companies on the north coast of Lake Superior, about at the mouth of the Pigeon River, are trading with the Muskego Ojibwa, and others are trading to the Kenisteno and Assineboines of Red River. The rivalry between these groups ended with the murder of trader Waddon at Grande Portage. This outrage so shocked the French trading community, that they resolved to join their interests and thereby formed the North West Company.

The Hudson Bay Company began establishing posts up the Saskatchewan River, often setting down cheek-by-jowl with the North West Posts. The Hudson Bay had forty four men in the field, compared to the one hundred and eighty of the North West Company.

The firm of McTavish, Frobisher and company, at this time dominated the North West Company by repeatedly crowding out the smaller French Montreal partners. (I)-Simon McTavish's (1750-1804) policy was to use force to ensure monopoly against free trade. This policy would set the stage for future bloody encounters with the Hudson Bay Company. The Assiniboine advised Peter Pond (1740-1807) that the journey to the northern sea is a 'many season's trip', and that the Inuit are not a friendly people. Peter Pond (1740-1807) would inspire (I)-Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820) and the North West Company to make the trip. Eventually, Peter Pond (1740-1807) would retire to Boston. The North West Company is employing the Ojibwa at Red River colony and some contend that this infuriated the Hudson Bay aligned Cree. Little evidence supports this English contention.

Drought struck the upper St. Lawrence valley which resulted in a hungry year for this area.

(I)-Alexander Henry Sr. (1739-1824) and (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) form a partnership out of Sault Ste Marie and Fort La Pointe and join the North West Company. (IV)-Michael Cadotte (1764-1837) of Makinac became a Master in the upper Wisconsin area. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) is reported wintering at the mouth of Jump River. Michel Nicolas Cadot born September 6, 1787 (died 1856) is baptized July 10, 1799 Mackinac son Michel Cadot (1764-1837) and Sauteuse.

The Northwest Company established trading posts this year at Lake St. Joseph (1787-1788) (1792-1795), (1797-1798), Cat Lake (1787-1791), (1792-1797), (1798-1801) and Sturgeon Lake (1787-1792), (1795-1798), all north west of Lake Superior.

(IV)-Michael Cadotte (1764-1837 lost two Coureurs des Bois on the Chippeway River. Michael led the Ojibwa to a meeting with the Dakota. The Dakota had their trader, La Roque, in their company. The two groups established peace under the encouragement of their traders.

Wisconsin officially became part of the U.S.A. North West Territories in 1787, but the Canadian Fur Traders effectively controlled the Region until

1816.

February 11: Kaskaskia, Illinois, marriage Michel Desrousses son Francois Desrousses dit St. Pierre and Marie Josephte Turpin; married Therese Deveignat.

February 13: Nicolet, marriage (IV)-Pierre Chauvet, Metis, died May 31, 1789 Nicolet, son (III)-Pierre Chauvet dit Lagerne, Metis, b-1737 and (IV)-Marie Jeanne Terrien.b-1739; married February 13, 1787 Nicolet Marie Morissett..

March 20: birth at Mackinac (IV)-Domitilde Grignon and died August 3, 1787 Mackinac son (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago Note: Tanguay suggests Domitilde is son (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade b-1759 but he didn't marry her until 1787?? It is more likely that Meniminee Winnebago died in child birth.

May 10: Michilimackinac, marriage William Aiken to (II)-Elizabeth McDonald of Dumfries, Scotland, daughter (I)-John McDonald, deceased.

May 17: (I)-George Taylor (1759-1838), an English orphan, arrived at Hudson Bay having joined the company. He was assigned as a mate of a sloop (a one mast vessel). It is believed he sired nine children with Jane Bruce.

July: Mackinac: Charles Patterson (d-1788) is at council at Mackinac with John Dease, where western tribes mutually agree to maintain peace and acknowledge the King of England as their father. Later this year he signed a petition accusing Joseph Louis Ainse of selling Indian Department goods for profit while on a peace mission in the Upper Mississippi Region.

July: Micilimackinac, birth registry contains these people as witness; Pierre Thierry, Felicate Filet Carignan James Rives and Genevieve Beaubien Cueillier.

July 7: Charles Barkley, captain of the Imperial Beagle, who is married to Frances, is believed to be the first European woman to arrive in British Columbia.

July 25: George Dixon d-1800 of the King George's Sound Company named the Queen Charlotte Islannds.

July 26: Michilimackinac, baptism, Pierre Dufaux, Metis, born January, 1787, son Louis Dufaux and Marie Louise Sauteurs.

July 31: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Barthe, Metis-slave, born May, 1787, son Louis Dufaux and his females slave.

August: Micilimackinac, birth registry contains these people as witness; Paul Tenier, Gabriel Cotte, Nicolas Marchessau, Felicite Pilet, Felicate Filet Carignan, Felicate Carignan, Marie Suligni (Suligny), Hyppolite Deriviere, Antoine Barthe, Louis Chaboiller, Pierre Thierry, Joseph Louis Ainse aka Hains & Hins, Jean Alexis Campion, Antoine Tabeau, Etienne Charles Campion, and Charles Courtois,

August 3: Baptism at Michilimackinac (IV)-Domitille Grignon, Metis born March 20, 1787, died 1847 daughter (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Louise Domitille Langlade (Menominee/Winnebago); married 1811 Dominique (Masca) Brunette.

August 5: Mackinac, baptism, (IV)-Pierre (Fanfan) Grignon, Metis. (the younger) born October 21, 1777, died March 4, 1823 son (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee Winnebago. (IV)-Pierre Grignon (1777-1823) became head of the family upon the death of his father and lived in Green Bay.

August 5: Michilimackinac, baptism, (IV)-Pierre Antoine Grignon, Metis, born October 21, 1777, son (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and 1st wife Menominee Winnebago, 2nd wife (V)-Louise Domitille Langlade b-1749. Possible duplication of above?

August 5: Michilimackinac, baptism, (IV)-Charles Grignon, Metis, born June 14, 1779, son (III)- Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and 1st wife 1776 Menominee Winnebago, 2nd wife August 8, 1787 (V)- Louise Domitille Langlade b-1749.

August 5: Michilimackinac, baptism, Antoine Guillory, Metis, born April, 1781, son Antoine Guillory and a Savage Woman.

August 6: Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Guillory, Metis, born November 25, 1783, son Antoine Guillory and a Savage Woman.

August 6: Michilimackinac, baptism, Augustin Grignon, Metis, born September 23, 1783, son (III)- Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and 1st wife 1776 Menominee Winnebago, 2nd wife August 8, 1787 (V)- Louise Domitille Langlade b-1749.

August 6: Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Grignon, Metis, born July 23, 1785, son son (III)- Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and 1st wife 1776 Menominee Winnebago, 2nd wife August 8, 1787 (V)- Louise Domitille Langlade b-1749.

August 6: Mackinac, baptism, (IV)-Charles Grignon born June 14, 1779, & (IV)-Augustin Grignon born June 27, 1780, & (IV)-Louis Grignon born September 23, 1783 died 1839, & (IV)-Jean Baptiste Grignon born July 23, 1785 all Metis sons (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee Winnebego and a 2nd married of Pierre August 8, 1787 Mackinac to a (V)-Louise Domitilde Langlade (b-1749). It is noteworthy that Tanguay records all the children by (V)-Louise Domitilde Langlade b-1749, which is in error as they were not married until 1787. Charles Langlade is the brother of Louise Langlade.

(IV)-Augustin Grignon (b-1780), Metis, engaged in the Northwest fur trade as well as being a freighter on the Fox-Wisconsin portage. see (b-September 23, 1783, baptised August 6, 1787 Machilimackinac)

(IV)-Charles Grignon (b-1779), Metis, lived in Canada, then Oshkosh. see (b-June 14, 1779, baptised August 6, 1787 Machilimackinac)

(IV)-Louis Grignon (1783-1839), Metis, lived in Green Bay. Being a patron of schools, he had his children educated, making his home a center of hospitality and culture.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Grignon (b-1785), Metis, also lived in Green Bay as a farmer. see (b-July 23, 1785, baptised August 6, 1787 Machilimackinac)

August 7: Michilimackinac, death (IV)-Jean Baptiste Gaudry dit Bourbonniere born 1738 L'Assumption, Montreal died August 7, 1787 Mackinac son (III)-Francois Gaudry and (IV)-Catherine Goulet b-1719; Jean was the husband of Marie Anne Drouin.

August 7, Michilimackinac, baptism, Magdelaine Larrivee, Metis, born 1781, daughter Hypolite Larrivee and a Savage Woman.

August 8: Michilimackinac, marriage (III)-Pierre Grignon born November 16, (1740-1795) Deschambault son (II)-Pierre Gignon b-1709 and (IV)-Marguerite Chevalier b-1723 of Grondines, Quebec; married August 8, 1787, (V)-Louise Domitilde Langlade b-1759 daughter (IV)-Charles Michel Langlade and Charlotte Bourrassa; 1st marriage was 1776 to Menominee Winnebego.

August 8, Michilimackinac, baptism, Paul Bouche, Metis, born 1776, daughter Joseph Bouche and a Savage Woman.

August 8, Michilimackinac, baptism, Louise Roe, Metis, born 1776, daughter Joseph Roe and a Savage Woman.

August 8, Michilimackinac, baptism, Angelique Roe, Metis, born 1778, daughter Joseph Roe and a Savage Woman.

August 8, Michilimackinac, baptism, Augustin Roe, Metis, born 1780, daughter Joseph Roe and a Savage Woman.

August 8, Michilimackinac, baptism, Charlotte Roe, Metis, born 1781, daughter Joseph Roe and a Savage Woman.

August 9: Michilimackinac baptized Antoine Guigere, Metis, born 1785 son Antoine Guigere and a savage mother.

August 10: (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) is still at Michilimackinac as a godfather.

August 10: (I)-James Aird (d-1819) and Charles Paterson, along with other traders, wrote a petition to Thomas Scott accusing Joseph Louis Ainse of selling Indian Department presents for profit.

August 12: Michilimackinac, baptism, Pierre Vale, Metis, born 1784 son Charles Vale and a Savage Woman.

August 15: British Mackinac (Michigan), (IV)-Amable Grignon, Metis, born 1774 died Montreal son (III)-Pierre Grignon (b-1709) and a savage mother (D'une Mere Sauvagesse) (another son Amable is born 1795).

August 15: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Chevalier, Metis, born February 1783 daughter Amable Chevalier and Savage of the Outauasis, his wife was Catherine Kimiouenan of the Outauais Nation.

August 15: Michilimackinac, baptism, Amable Grignon, Metis, born 1774 son Pierre Grignon and a Savage Woman.

August 19: baptism, Michilimackinac (V)- (Marie Joseph) Josette Hamelin born August 4, 1769 (married 1797 Andre Charlebois), (V)-Charlotte Hamelin born October 15, 1771, (V)-Jean Baptiste Hamelin born January 24, 1774, (V)-Catherine Hamelin born June 17, 1776 and (V)-Augustin Hamelin born February 7, 1779 all Metis are baptized Machinac children of (IV)-Louis Hamelin Metis b-1737 and Josephete LaSable, born 1737, father and mother are savages of the Sauteurs (Ojibwa) Nation, godfather of Josette is Pierre Grignon and godmother of Jean is Madam Grignon.

(IV)-Louis Charles Hamelin Metis born March 1737 Michillimackinac son (III)-Charles Hamelin and his slave woman Marie Athanase a Sauteux woman (1708-1738); married, 1768, likely a country marriage Lake Superior, Marie Joseph LeSable of the Sauteuse (Ojibwa) Nation born 1737 Michillimackinac baptised August 19, 1787 Michillimackinac, he appears to have a second wife Josette LaSable at same time. They are likely sisters.

August 19: Machilimackinac, baptism, Josephete Lesable (LaSable), Metis, born 1737, daughter Savage Sauteaux Woman and the wife of (IV)-Louis Hamelin

August 19: Machilimackinac, baptism, (V)-Josette Hamelin, Metis, born August 4, 1769 daughter (IV)-Louis Hamelin and Joawphete LaSable, Savage of the Sauterus Nation.

August 19: Machilimackinac, baptism, (V)-Charlotte Hamelin, Metis, born August 4, 1769 daughter (IV)-Louis Hamelin and Josephte LaSable, Metis.

August 19: Machilimackinac, baptism, (V)-Jean Baptiste Hamelin, Metis, born January 24, 1774 son (IV)-Louis Hamelin and Josephte LaSable, Metis.

August 19: Machilimackinac, baptism, (V)-Catherine Hamelin, Metis, born June 17, 1776 daughter (V)-Louis Hamelin and Josephte LaSable, Metis.

August 19: Machilimackinac, baptism, (V)-Augustin Hamelin, Metis, born January 1787 son (IV)-Louis Hamelin and Josephte LaSable, Metis, Louis 1st wife Joawphete LaSableSavage of the Sauterus Nation.

August 20: Louis Hamelin son Charles Hamlin and dArvaci of Montreal; married Mackinac Josephte Le Sable (Legable), savage, des Sauteux, of ancient resident of Michilimackinac.

August 20: Michilimackinac, marriage (IV)-Louis Charles Hamelin, Metis born 1737 Michillimackinac son (III)-Charles Hamelin and his slave woman Marie Athanase (Arvaci), a Sauteux woman (1708- 1738) of Montreal; married Marie Josephte LeSable (Legable), savage, of the Sauteuse (Ojibwa) Nation born 1737 Michilimackinac.

August 23: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Alexander Mackintosh son Angus Mackintosh and Archange St. Martin.

August 25: Michilimackinac baptism Francois Louis Sou-Ligni (Soulihni) born January 1786 son Francois Sou-Ligni (Souligni) and a Savage Woman.

August 25: Michilimackinac, baptism, Antoine Guillory, Metis, born April 1781, son Antoine Guillory and a Savage Woman.

August 25: Michilimackinac, baptism, Louise Levasseur, Metis, born February 1787 daughter Jacques Levasseur and Savage Woman.

August 27: Louis Gagnon (1741-1787), a volunteer of Saint Pierre, is buried by Pierre Trogue Bedeau (Badeau) at mission parish Ste Famille de Fort Cahokia (Illinois) on the river Kaskaskias on route to the Mississippi. Raphael Gagne (1737-1787), husband of Marie Francois Pitre, died Ste Famille de Fort Cahokia (Illinois). Louis Giroux is living, on August 27, at Fort de La Prairie Du Pont (Cahos aux Illinois). Joseph Giroux and Jean Baptiste Cadeau are recorded, on August 27, at Fort Cahokias aux Illinois.

September 5: Captain James Colnett, with his ship Prince of Wales out of China, met the Tsimshian People in Calamity Bay, Banks Island, British Columbia to trade furs. Their Chief, Seax, was very friendly, but his people began to pilfer anything made of metal.

October 1: The disbanded troops and loyalists were to be settled on the north side of Lake Erie, from a creek 4 miles from the mouth of the Detroit River to small creek about a mile and half beyond Cedar River. This was to include 4 acres in front and 48 acres behind, which was to be settled immediately. 128 lots were assigned including many for Butlers Rangers. Only a few lots went to the French, notably the four de Quindre brothers:

Lot #3 Antoine de Quindre; Lot #4 Francois de Quindre; lot #5 Charles de Quindre; lot #6 Dage de Quindre, Simon Girty, Joseph Blond, Nichs Guin (Gouin) Jean Baptiste Chicott etc. Many, however, never settled on the allotted land.

October 15: Captain James Colnett, still in Calamity Bay making repairs to his ship, fired upon the Tsimshian People for stealing. For the next three days any Indian sighted was fired upon.

October 19: The Tsimshian People returned fire (arrows) against the Prince of Wales.

October 25: The English crew of the Prince of Wales, in Calamity Bay, Banks Island, British Columbia, killed a Tsimshian man and woman and captured a woman slave. It would appear she was used as a sex slave.

October 25: (I)-James Aird (d-1819) is trading on St. Peters River (Minnesota), and Etienne Charles Campion arrived at the post.

November 1: Captain James Colnett, still in Calamity Bay, returned the slave girl to Chief Seax of the Tsimshian People.

November 22: Ernestown, Catarakwee, Upper Canada, marriage, John Davy, widower, of Ernesttown, Upper Canada married Sophy Hoffnel.

December 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, John Sparkman to Susannah Stedman.

December 22: Ernest Town, Catarakwee, Upper Canada, marriage, Andrew Buis, married Betsey Hortman.

1788

Mary Ann Annemequoulm b-1788, living 1870 Hessell, Michigan

(I)-James Bird Sr., a.k.a. James Curtis (d-1856), arrived York Factory with the Hudson Bay Company from Middlesex County, England. He worked here until 1792. It would appear this was his second tour of duty as children attributed to him were born 1781 and 1785, or there was another James Bird in the employ of HBC. It is known that he had at least two Indian wives. He would spend most of his assignment in the Saskatchewan River District, mostly at Fort Edmonton and neighboring posts. He retired in 1824 to Red River. Bird, being English, is likely the brunt of an often told Scottish story: A Cree Indian woman, when asked why there were so many French and Scottish Halfbreeds and so few English Halfbreeds, replied, "A Squaw must draw the line somewhere."

Kaskaskia, Illinois, marriage Joseph Baugy to Marie Plasy or Duplasy. He operated the Baugy Trading Post in Arkansas.

Daniel Boone (1734-1819), in later life, said, "I shun white men and seek the Indian. I am but a common man ...I am sorry for any Indian I ever killed, for they were kinder to me than any white man."

George Rogers Clark marched into Cahokia and the French Metis inhabitants gave allegiance to the Virginian because when the English wrested the northwest Territories from the French in 1764, the colonists were deeply resentful.

Julien Dubuque (d-1810), a fur trapper from Quebec, obtained permission from the Sack and Fox to operate a lead mine on the west bank of the Mississippi River near Duguque, Iowa. This mine operated from 1788 to 1810.

Robert Funtu? made a map of Friendly Cove, British Columbia, showing a Nootka Village and an English trading shack. He also mapped Clayoquot Village at Port Cox (Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia. He is part of the John Meare voyage from China (1788-1789). It is noteworthy that Meare lost 1/2 his crew this winter.

Robert Goodwin of Osnaburgh reported the arrival of Tinnawabino with three women and 17 children.

Marguerite Grant Metis born 1788 North West Territories, listed 1870 census St. Francois, Red River. Possible daughter Peter Grant (1764-1848) of the North West Company and Free Trader. Or Robert Grant d-1799 who built Grant House in 1791.

Joseph Huppe b-1788 Canada married Marguerite Marcellais Metis b-1793 most likely North West.

Michel Isaac (b-1788), listed as other, married Magdeleine Roy Metis b-1810 Red River Settlement daughter Jean Baptiste Roy b-1783 and Marguerite Indian b-1788.

Roderick MacKenzie (1761-1844) is sent by the North West Company to build Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca.

Mazasagia M'Dawakontonwan Dakota married Azayamankawan (1788-1863) and are noted as early inhabitants of Mendota, St. Paul, Minnesota. It is noteworthy that the settlement of St. Paul was originally known as Little Canada.

Mary Keywayquoun b-1788, living 1870 census Harbor Springs, Canada.

Mary Namega b-1788, living 1870 census Beaver Island, Michigan.

Peter Pangman (1744-1819) wintered near Fort Augustus (Edmonton). He was considered as short-tempered, vigorous and cantankerous.

Jean Baptiste Paul, Metis, born 1788 North West Territories son Joseph Paul. He married Angelique Goddan, Metis born 1800 Red River Settlement, both living St. Francois, Red River.

St. Louis, Missouri, marriage Louis Resson son Louis Tesson Honore; married 1st. Marie Duchouquette, 2nd marriage 1788 St. Louis Therese Creely, 3rd marriage 1797 St. Louis Catherine Rivet, 4th marriage 1811, St. Louis, Missouri.

Joseph Roy married in the woods a Savage Woman of the Courtes Oreille Nation.

William Sinclair b-1788 married Elizabeth Anderson Metis b-1802 North West Territories.

T. Stothard made a sketch of seven Nootka canoes filled with men encircling a small, two sail boat, flying a British flag in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, British Columbia. He was part of the John Meare's Voyage (1788-1789) that lost 1/2 its crew this winter.

Joseph Vermette b-1788 married Josephte Plouf Metis b-1790 most likely North West.

(I)-John Wells b-1788 England married Josephte Grant Metis b-1790 North West Territories.

Whitehead b-1788 married Jane Indian b-1790 Red River Settlement.

John Askin of the North West Company at Michilimackinac requested Monsieur Beausoleille, at Grand Portage, to send two pretty slave girls 9 to 16 years old for himself.

Two French arrived at Sault Ste Marie: Jean Baptiste Piquette, settling east of the Cadot establishment, and Jean Baptiste Nolin for whom Simon McTavish (1750-1804) purchased Jean Baptiste Barthe's trading house on the other side of the Cadot establishment. Marguerite Cadot born December 15, 1788 (died 1858) recorded Mackinac daughter Michel Cadot (1764-1837) and a Sauteuse woman.

The Hudson Bay Company began reconstruction of York Factory after the French had destroyed the Fort in 1782.

(IV)-Michel Cadotte (1763-1804) again traded Namekagon River and wintered near the head of the Chippewa River (Lac Courte Oreilles). Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) is wintering on Red Cedar River near Red Lake. He is trading rum for furs with members of Wabasha's village on a tributary of the Wisconsin River. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) served Joseph Louis Ainse in the Chippewa country as interpreter and is paid by the Indian Department. He is reported to be wintering with hunters on the outskirts of Prairie on Chippeway River, very near the Dakotas. He is reported to have patched up a peace that lasted all winter, but hostilities again break out next summer. (V)-Joseph Cadotte is born Fond du Lac son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818).

Charles Patterson d-1788 is granted a trading license to trade at Mackinac with Allen Paterson, being financed by Joseph Frobisher and Isaac Todd.

Frobisher received three shares in the N.W.C. this year.

The first Chinese settlement of 50 artisans was between Canton and Nootka Sound, B.C., where they built a trading post for Captain John Meares (1756-1809). The Spanish drove Meares people away, as they were infringing on there trading monopoly and thereby abandoning the Chinese. Some of these Chinese married Native women and settled in the area.

Captain John Meares (1756-1809) an English trader of Vancouver Island to China had established a trading post, a house and a ship building facility at Nootka Sound. He built the first ship in British Columbia called the North West America. He was a noted liar and a great exaggerator and nearly brought England and Spain to war over Nootka Sound. He had previously sailed to Alaska losing most of his crew to scurvy.

Boyer's Trading Post is established on the Peace River at present day Fort Vermillion. This Fort was relocated in 1831 to its present site. Fort Vermillion is named after the red ochre deposits nearby which the natives used. Fort Chipewyan was also establish this year by North West Company's Roderick MacKenzie, a cousin of (II)-Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820). It was located at the hub of the Athabasca, Peace and Slave Rivers. This was a scene of a fierce struggle between the dominate North West Company, the XL Company and the Hudson Bay Company, for this strategic trading location.

The Hudson Bay Osnaburgh Post on Lake St. Joseph reported trading 4,330 beaver for the 1787-88 season, despite much competition from the Canadians. Joseph Colen, Chief Factor York Factory, nearly lost the post to flooding and therefore relocated the post to higher ground.

A drought struck the Niagara area causing a hungry year for the Loyalists. Charles Paterson (d-1788), of the Michilimackinac Company in the old Northwest, drowned in Lake Michigan. When found, he is still holding the hand of his Panise (Indian woman) whom he had apparently striven to save. His dog survived and is guarding the bodies.

Marietta is founded this year among the ancient mound builder's earthworks in southeast Ohio. Mariette is named after Marie Antoinette, the Hedonistic Queen of France who was later convicted of treason and guillotined.

Barbell, Hatch and Bulfinch reached Nootka, Vancouver Island having sailed from Boston.

January 1, Mackinac, birth Peter Warren Dease died January 17, 1863, Montreal, joined XY company in 1801, then the North West Company, then Hudson Bay Company. He served primarily in the Athabasca and Mackenzie Districts.

January 15: Fredericksburgh, Ontario, marriage, James Bradshaw and Peggy Bowen.

January 21,Cahokia (*), marriage (IV)-Francois Hamelin son (II)-Laurent Hamelin b-1724 and (III)-Marie Anne Richer b-1726; married (V)-Julienne Girox sa mere est Marie-Joseph Simov-Leonard daughter (IV)-Antoine Giroux

(*)-Cahokia is located at the forks of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers and is an important Metis/Indian trading center.

January 22: Ernest, Ontario, marriage, Christopher Fralick and Catherine Smith of Fredericksburgh Town.

February 12: Fredericksburgh, Ontario, marriage, Michael Bartley and Mary Peters.

February 12: Ernest, Ontario, marriage, Christian Abrams and Evah Amie.

March 11: Sydney, Ontario, marriage, Timothy Porter and Nancy Simmon.

March 11: Ernest, Ontario, marriage, John Caldwell and Juliana Miller.

March 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, William Macomb son William Macomb and Sarah Drinor (Dring).

April 1: Batiscan, Quebec marriage (III)-Jean Gaudin et Godin son (II)-Felix Gaudin (1728-1784) and Marie Rose Roy; married to Claire Sauvage daughter Michel Sauvage of Acadienne.

April 17: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Phillis Eleanor Askin daughter John Askin to Archange Barthel.

May 25: Ernest, Ontario, marriage, Henry Finkle and Lucretia Henderson.

June 2: Captain James Colnett, with his ship the Prince of Wales, out of China, is still trading the North West Coast when the Tsimshian People, in retaliation of his crew having killed a man and woman last year, killed some of Colnett's crew.

June 24: Joseph Louis Ainse a.k.a. Hains (Hins) is attending an inquiry to answer accusations about his dealings with traders on the Upper Mississippi. The Traders questioned included: Joseph Roque, (I)-James Aird, Joseph Rainville, Timothe Plumodon, Jacques Freniere, Hypolite Caselest, Michel Cadot and Gabriel Attina.

July 6: Kingston Town, Ontario, marriage, William Ashley and Margaret Buck.

July 22: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Lambert Van Alstine and Anne Bell..

July 23: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, John Diamond and Kathreen Garnire.

August 3: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Jacob Schmitt and Elizabeth Frez.

August 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Adelaide Dagneau de Quindre died June 2, 1862 Detroit, Michigan, daughter (IV)-Antoine Dagneau de Quindre seur De Pontchartrain (1751-1814) and Catherine Desrivieres Lamorandiere Trottier (1757-1817); married May 18, 1808 Detroit, Michigan, Joseph Campeau.

August 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Louis Dagneau de Quindre, died June 2, 1862 Detroit, Michigan.

September: Lake Michigan: Charles Patterson (d-1788) was drowned off Patterson Pointe, Lake Michigan.

September 14: River St. Clair, Western District of Canada marriage Peter Laughton to Catharine Harson.

October 2: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, John Howard and Anne Jackson.

October 7: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, John Blacker and Catherine Walden.

October 23: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Richard Cotter and Experience Rose.

November 18: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Abraham Snider and Rachel Amey.

November 24: Kaskaskias, Illinois, marriage Rene Hazeur Soumande to Genevieve Desruisseaux daughter Paul Trottier Bellecour b-1736 Batiscan, and Marie St Gemme Beauvais.

December: The Canadian exiled Acadian migration to Louisiana basically ended this year with 19 Acadians arriving New Orleans.

December 11: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, William Cottier and Mary Williams.

December 19: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Elizabeth Sparkman daughter John Sparkman to Susannah Stedman.

December 24: across Catarakwee Bay, Ontario, marriage, Daniel Morden and Elizabeth Lawson.

December 30: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, David Harris and Catherine Palmer.