This season is represented by a significant influx of Coureurs des Bois, Nor'westers and Voyagers
They are wintering in the North West, on the Saskatchewan River, but especially in the Red River Metis Colony.
The Metis, Joseph Dorion, Pierre Dorion Sr. (1740-1810) and Francois Dorion, are trading out of Cahokia and the St. Louis Region (Illinois/Missouri). Pierre Dorion Sr., trading out of St. Louis, is said to have lived among the Yankton Sioux near Des Moines and James Rivers for twenty years.
Price Asham b-1789 North West Territories married Hannah b-1816 likely North West.
John Best reports that the Cat Lake Indians are starving because so much snow fell this winter, preventing them from hunting the caribou.
Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra (1743-1794) is in command of the naval department of San Blas which controlled Spanish interests in the Northwest coast, especially Vancouver Island.
Jacque Clark married Savage Sauteux Woman.
John Coon b-1789, living 1870 census, Sutton Bay, Michigan.
Henry Davenport b-1789, living 1870 census, Mackinac Island, Michigan.
Illinois, birth, Perchie Dorion, Metis born about 1789, son Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow). It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist, also married to a Iowa woman. See 1780.
British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (IV)-Francois Gamelin, Lieutenant de milice son (III)-Laurent Eust Gamelin negociant died March 11, 1774
British Fort Detroit (Michigan), and (III)-Marie Joseph Dudevoir et Bonvouloir dit Lachene born 1721 daughter (II)-Claude Dudevoir; 2nd marriage about 1789 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Joachine Faucher. 1st. marriage January 7, 1772 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), Therese Cabassier born 1752 died May 26, 1777 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Joseph Cabassier, Robert Gray (1755-1806), an American, sailing for Boston merchants in the ship Lady Washington, anchored at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island.
Green Bay birth (IV)-Marguerite Grignon, died 1823, daughter (III)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade born 1759; married 1803 Louis Corbelle.
John Kendrick, an American, in the ship Columbia, anchored at Nootka Sound.
Charles LaRoeque born 1789 North West, census 1835 Red River.
Francois (Franciscus) Lemieux born 1789 likely Lake Superior died October 26, 1842 La Pointe, Wisconsin.
John Lyons born 1789 North West, census 1834 Red River, 1831 census lists birth as 1781.
Esteban Martinex, the Spanish commandant at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, seized several British merchant ships for illegal trading in sovereign Spanish territory. England and Spain almost went to war over this incident. France was unable to support Spain due to their revolution and a compromise was reached..
Marguerite Matwein, Metis b-1789 Pembina married Jean Baptiste Matwein, Metis b-1776 Pembina, blacksmith.
William Mawcawdayoquot b-1789, living 1870 census Custer, Michigan.
Thomas Menabojo (Trickster) born 1789 likely Lake Superior died June 18, 1849 LaPointe, Wisconsin.
Stephan (Stephanus) Pachking (Looks With One Eye) born 1789 likely Lake Superior died August 9, 1849 LaPointe, Wisconsin.
Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1763-1844) traded 1789 to 1803 on the Chippewa, Minnesota, Crow Wing, and Mississippi Rivers as an employee of the Fond du Lac Department.
Antoine Pilon b-1789 married Angelique Lisette Metis b-1805 Red River Settlement.
Francois Roy b-1789 married Lisette Collin Metis b-1792 most likely North West.
George Setter b-1789 Scotland married Margaret Metis born North West Territories.
Alexander Smith Indian b-1789 North West Territories married Nancy Sanderson Indian b-1808 Red River Settlement.
Joseph Spense b-1789 married Annabella McKenzie Indian b-1792 most likely North West.
Andrew Spence b-1789 North West Territories married Margaret Indian b-1804 most likely North West, census 1838 Red River.
Thomas Stayner, Factor of Manchester House about 42 miles above Battleford, Saskatchewan on the Saskatchewan River, recorded a pathetic Christmas of a small cake, a little tea and chocolate.
John Stevenson Metis b-1789 married Mary Indian b-1790 most likely North West.
Charles Swain b-1789 married Margaret Indian b-1792 most likely North West.
Joseph Tabasash b-1789, living 1889 census Charlevoix, Michigan.
Tawbawsosh b-1781, living 1889 census Charlevoix, Michigan.
(I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, Chief Inland of York Factory, recorded trading with two Canadian freemen (Coureurs des Bois) who have been hunting all winter without the assistance of any Indian. This is considered remarkable given that most Hudson Bay Men seldom ventured far from their forts for fear of becoming lost.
Edward Umfreville, an ex-Hudson Bay Company man, joined the North West Company and is working the Saskatchewan River. He noted that the Orkney are trading among the natives in small numbers.
The Sandu Lake Company is formed by Jean Baptiste Cadotte, John Sayer b-1750, Cazelai (Cazelet), Joseph Reaume, Laviolette, Perrault and Alexis Reaume a cousin of Joseph. In 1790 Alexis Reaume departed the Company, and Perrault was on his own. Andrew Todd and Alexander Henry (1739-1824) are the main, good trade suppliers out of Michilimackinac. Joseph Reaume is wintering on Upper Red Lake with John Sayer b-1750, Cadotte and Attina.
(II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) reported that the Algonquin (Ojibwa), from the country between the Red River and Lake Superior, are frequenting trading posts around Lake Winnipeg in 1789-1790. He noted they are not fixed inhabitants like Company men, but are free-traders (Metis). The Ojibwa began to dominate the trade, sending out parties from seven to forty canoes representing forty to a hundred traders. Some of these traders included the Ottawa from Lakes Michigan and Huron. The Ottawa, or Odawag, means the trading people.
Fort Fond Du Lac (St. Louis River post), on the west end of Lake Superior at St. Louis River, is built before 1790 by the North West Company. A free trader built Isaac's House on the Saskatchewan River, east of the forks. The N.W.C. and XY CO. build Fort Pic (Peck Fort) at Pic River on Lake Superior. The H.B.C. built South Branch House 65 miles above the forks on the South Saskatchewan River. The N.W.C built, before 1789, Upper Red River House near Grand Forks, North Dakota, and Bedfont House on Reindeer Lake.
Peter Grant (1764-1848), a clerk of the North West Company, helped establish a post at Pembina, North West and then went to Lac Rouge (Red Lake) with a trader named Desmarais, or more likely the DesMarchais of British Fort Detroit (Michigan). This Northwest Company, Red Lake Post, would remain in operation from (1789-1792), (1793-1797), (1799-1801) when a replacement post is established. The Northwest Company also established a trading post at Lake Seul (1789-1792), (1798-1799), (1800-1801), all north west of Lake Superior.
(II)-Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820) reported that ten to twelve French freemen are settled at Sault Ste Marie with their Indian women and Metis families. (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) didn't like the Indians or Metis and considered himself vastly superior to them. He made no efforts to understand their cultures. It is, however, noteworthy that he used two women to assist in paddling his canoes. Other Freeman Metis colonies established at this time are: Grand Pointe, Green Bay and Prairie du Chien, (Wisconsin), Red Lake, and St. Paul, (Minnesota) and Red River, (North West Territories), all of which are under Canada control. (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) noted that the Red River Valley is covered with herds of buffalo and elk and that the whole country is well wooded, level, abounding in beaver, bears, moose-deer, fallow-deer, etc. (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820), in happy ignorance, resolved to follow Peter Pond (1740-1807) on an alleged six day trek down the great river of the Athabasca to visit the Inuit and to discover what he thought would be the Pacific Ocean. Leroux went with MacKenzie to Cook's Inlet. Leroux wintered at Slave Lake. It is noteworthy that the expedition down the Mackenzie River included the voyager wives and children.
(II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) sired two Metis children: Maria Mackenzie, who married Robert Munro- a Scot, and Andrew Mackenzie who died at Fort Vermilion March 1, 1809. (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820), at age forty eight, married a 14 year old Scot. His attitude towards the Metis women changed for the worse, probably as a result of the influence of his new wife. His contempt for the Metis would grow over time. He noted the Algonquin from the country between Red River and Lake Superior are frequenting trading posts around Lake Winnipeg in the 1789-90 winter seasons, not being fixed habitants. (I)-Thomas (John) Thomas, born 1766 St. Andrews, Holborn, London, arrived at Hudson Bay in 1789 and worked York Factory until 1793, then went inland for two years. He then became the Master of Severn House in 1796.
(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818), with the Compagnie (Societe) Generale, occupied Lac Rouge (Red Lake). Other members of the Company are John Sayer b-1750, Cazelai (Cazelet) Joseph Reaume, (IV)-Gabriel Attina LaViolette- alias Ranger (d-1803), Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot), and Alexis Reaume; a cousin of Joseph Reaume.
Two Hudson Bay men, returning to Osnaburgh Post (Lake St. Joseph) from Cat Lake, lost their way after 18 miles of a 48 mile trip. They returned to Cat Lake and bribed the Ojibwa with brandy and tobacco to show them the route. The Ojibwa women and children harvested the potato crop at Osnaburgh Post. They are inclined to stuff themselves until they became sick. The Ojibwa are considered lazy by the English because they refuse to go north. The Ojibwa can't see the taking trip when there are so many Canadian Peddlers on every river and lake.
John Turner, alias the Falcon (about 1780-1846), son of a clergyman in Kentucky, is captured in southern Ohio by the Shawnee and sold to the
Ottawa. He ended up living his next thirty years with the Ottawa of Lake Huron. Others suggest he grew up west of Lake Superior. He came to the Red River Settlement in the 1790's and ,after learning English, became a scout and interpreter. He visited the Mandan villages and eventually became an Indian Agent at Sault Ste Marie. He married a Chippewas Indian girl, and is not identified as European. In 1805, John Turner's wife lost her father and mother to a Yankon raid.
About 1789, British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Benoit Chapoton son (II)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton; married (IV)-Therese Meloche daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Meloche.
Peter Pond, with his assistant (I)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820), built Fort Chipewyan. He then discovered that the MacKenzie River emptied into the Arctic, not the Pacific as Peter Pond believed.
LA POINTE, CHAGOUAMIGON BAY, LAKE SUPERIOR (Wisconsin)
Monsieur Garneau of Montmagny, the stray born before 1769- possibly La Pointe, Chagouamigon Bay, Lake Superior; married about 1789 La Pointe, Madeleine Island Lake Superior (Wisconsin) to a Dakota Sioux who is the mother of (Louis Gurnoe born 1790. Mother Sioux (Se Gaunaux So-Way-Guay) is still receiving Indian allotment at Sault Ste Marie in1846, and is listed as the Mother of Louis. Family tradition suggests she was a Dakota Sioux captured by the Ojibwa and sold to Garneau. There is a high possibility he had another country wife at Red Lake, Minnesota and another on the Red River of the North. The other possibility is that he is a second generation in the West.
The most intriguing possibility is Oliver Garneau who was in the Lake Superior area from 1747 to 1752. He was listed in the travel permits of 1639-1752 and is the only Oliver listed, except forOliver Lafleur de Lavaltrie who went to Kamanisigoka.
1739 May 8 permit Garaheau dit Coline from De Carillon to Poste de Temiscaminge (Ontario).
1747 July 9 permit Olive Garneau from Tous du Bout de L'Lle to Poste de La Pointe de Chagouamigon (Lake Superior, Wisconsin).
1748 June 16 permit Oliver Ganahau from Tous de Sainte Anne to Poste La Pointe Chagouamigon (Lake Superior, Wisconsin).
1749 May 26 permit Oliver Gaspe (?) from Du Sault au Recollet to Poste de Chagouamigon (Lake Superior, Wisconsin).
1751 June 1, permit Oliver Garahan (?) from De Sainte Anne to Poste de la Baie des Paunts (Green Bay, Wisconsin)
In 1775 a Francois Giroux is recorded on the Saskatchewan River with a Michel Cadot.
In 1794 a Gareau is recorded on the Red and Assiniboine Rivers.
In 1795 a Gareau is recorded on the Assiniboine River, attempting to buy an Indian wife; daughter of Foutreau.
FIVE CHILDREN ARE POSSIBLE ?
Louis Gournon, Gornow and Gurnoe is born 1790 Wisconsin son of Se Gaunaux So Way Guay; married about 1815 La Pointe, Wisconsin a Se-Ranze Say-Shaw-Ne-Nie born 1800 Canada daughter Se Ranze. A second marriage about 1828 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan a (V)-Archange Cadotte.
Joseph Garneau Sr. also Gournon is born about 1795 Red Lake, Minnesota, married about 1811 Red Lake, Minnesota to a Delondie of the Red Lake Band. Most likely same Joseph Gournon listed as living before 1801 in Ontario (MB7-4).
Margaret Gounon also Gournon born 1800-1801 Ontario daughter Joseph Gounon; married about 1830 Alexis Lesperance (L'Esperance alias Magnon) born 1797 Quebec son Pierre Lesperance (L'Esperance alias Magnon), living about 1833 to 1870 St. Boniface, Red River. (MB-7-4).
Marie Garneau born 1817 married North Dakota Antoine Azure also Labelle born, October 1852, died, February 1889, North Dakota
Louis Goudreau (he also used Garaneau, Gredreau, Godreau, Gaudron) born 1815-1816, Red River, North West, listed as native also listed French Canadian Families in North Central States - St. Paul Minnesota 1981 by Paul J. Lareau and Elmer Courteau. Louis Godreau born 1816 Red River
Land with wife and no children listed 1835 census Red River.
Louis Goudreau born 1816 Native Lands (Red River Region) married probably to a Parenteau as living 1835 census Red River, North West with the Parenteau family.
Joseph Geroux of Mackinac is working out of La Pointe, Wisconsin in 1795.
Baptiste Colin born 1775 North West see 1750 a possible Garneau alias, census 1831 Red River, North West.
(*) A high possibility these people belong to one clan and may not have a common father with Louis Gurnoe.
*Joseph Gourneau married 1819 La Pointe, Wisconsin to Angelique, of Green Bay, Wisconsin, source Metis script listing C-11878 #2110 and records of St. Joseph Mission, La Pointe, Wisconsin
*Francois Gourneau, Geurnou, Guernoe born 1800 Red Lake, Minnesota, died about 1870, married about 1825 Pembina, North Dakota a Marguerite Martineau born 1805-1809 Red Lake, Minnesota daughter Ambroise Martineau born Canada and Josephte Indian born 1785, died 1806. Possible brother John and Elisha.
*John Geurnou, Geurnoe 1854 script application No. 344 dated June 5, 1869 Pembina, North Dakota, rejected. Possible same person as Quebesausick Geneaux and possible brother Francois and Elisa.
*Elisha Geurnou, Geurnoe 1854 treaty script application No. 345 dated June 5, 1869, Pembina, North Dakota, rejected. Possible sister Francois and John.
*Jean Baptiste Goarneau is born 1803 Canada as are both parents, according to census of 1880 Rosebud Agency, Meyer county, Dakota Territory, #377879 P-3.
Life expectancy under the regime of George Washington was 34.5 years for males and 36.5 years for females.
January 2: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Gottlep Maigal and Elizabeth Lott.
February 16: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Charles Barnhart and Catherine Fosyuar.
February 16: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Sheldon Hawley and Hannah Johnson.
February 16: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, William Rombough and Margaret Schmitt.
February 19: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, James Gerolamary and Elizabeth Dulmadge.
March 3: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, George Shriver and Catherine Pickle.
March 29: River St. Clair, Western District of Canada birth Mary Laughton daughter Peter Laughton and Catharine Harson.
April 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Sarah Macomb daughter William Macomb and Sarah Drinor (Dring).
April 23: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Augustus Wright and Margaret Dulmadge.
April 28: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Paul Comer and Phebe Buis.
May 2: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Catherine McGregor daughter Gregor McGregor and Susan Robert.
May 5: The Spanish warship Princeasa under command of Estaban Jose Martinez (1742-1798) arrived Nootka, to enforce Spanish claims to the Pacific coast (British Columbia).
May 5: Sydney Town, Ontario, marriage, George Walden meters and Aleday Van Alstine of Marysburgh, Ontario.
May 19: Adolphus Town, Ontario, marriage, Jacob Hover and Milleson Fergusson of Adolphus Town, Ontario.
June 3: A native party under the leadership of English Chief and Nor'wester- Francois Barreau (Barrieu, Beriault, Beaulieu), Charles Steinbruck, Charles Ducette (Doucette) , Joseph Landry, Pierre de Lorme (Delorme) and two Native wives, all under the overall leadership of (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) set off for the Beaufort Sea. The six day journey turned into a three thousand mile trip. They learned from the Inuit that some bands are trading with white- men, in ships to the northwest, probably the Russian traders. Philip Turnor (Turner), Hudson Bay Company surveyor, claimed that (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) said that he is deficient in the sciences of astronomy and navigation. Turnor (Turner) suggests (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) is not well convinced that he reached the Hyperborean Sea in the Arctic.
June 9: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Frederick Swardfager, widower, and Margaret Harmens, widow.
June 18: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, James Mordoff and Lois Charters.
June 21: Marysburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, John cummins and Eliziana Allen of Adolphus, Ontario.
July 4: Estaban Jose Martinez (1742-1798) of Spain seized a number of British ships including the Princess Royal and Argonaut for infringing upon Spanish lands.
July 14: Paris France, a crowd stormed the Bastille and the French Revolution began. Members of the Revolutionary committee attempted to instigate rebellion among the Acadians in Louisiana against the Spanish overlords. The French however had not really help the Acadians during their exile. The Spanish, on the other hand, had given them a chance to build a New Acadia, going as far as to pay for their voyage. Acadians by nature were pacifists.
There is no evidence that Acadians took part in any actives caused by the French Revolution.
July 8: Kingston Town, Ontario, marriage, James O'Connor, widower, and Elizabeth Howard.
September 1: British Mackinac (Michigan), birth, Marie Louise Chevalier, Metis, daughter Amable Chevalier, sauvage, (Metis) and Catherine Kinii8ena. see below, sounds like an interpretation difference of opinion.
September 1: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Louise Chevalier, Metis, born February 1789 daughter unknown and Amable Chevalier a Savage of the Outauais Nation. see above
November 2: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Daniel Johnson and Zebiah Shorey.
November 3: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, John Mitz and Yanosha Garnie of Ernest.
December 10: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, William Hand to Mary Abbott.
December 31: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Robert Williams and Elizabeth Charters.
December 31: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, James Williams and Amy Perry.
December 31: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Owen Richards and Dianah Spencer.