Metis

1790


The Fur Trader's rush into the North West
resulted, this year, in a rash of Metis births.

Thomas, who arrived 1789 Hudson Bay, would have
descendents that would marry into the Garneau clan at Red River.


Chief Peguis led his band of Ojibwa from Sault Ste Marie to Red River

and became the Saulteaux (Ojibwa) of the Prairies.

Contrary to popular opinion, archaeological evidence suggests

that European trade goods were incorporated into the Ojibwa culture

but did not alter the Ojibwa culture at this time.

The French Metis Culture, however, had been drastically altered.

 

We fail to recognize that, prior to this time, neither French nor English

were democratic, nor representative.

 

Only the Indian and Metis were.


1790

Louise Agunalier (f) Metis born 1790 Red River, one son is noted Domenick Agunalier born 1830 Red River.

Mary Andrews b-1790, living 1870 Sugar Island, Michigan.

(I)-John Askin (Erskine) (1739-1815) merchant of British Fort Detroit (Michigan), was involved in the Miami Company, land speculation, Great Lakes shipping, and supplying provisions to the North West Company and the British at Detroit.

Franciscus (Francis) Baillarger born 1790 likely Lake Superior died October 21, 1842 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

William Ballendline b-1790 North West Territories married Mary Stevens Metis b-1808 and Charlotte Bickersteth Metis b-1820 North West Territories.

Jean Baptiste Battosh (Batoche?), born 1790, North West, 1838 Red River census. see Letendre below.

Jean Baptiste Bauvier b-1790 married Marguerite Laurent b-1791 and Marguerite Metis b-1812 likely North West.

Sarah Biddle b-1790, living 1870 census, Stignace, Michigan.

Antoine Bleau is born Minnesota, no location given.

The last record of (IV)-Joseph Barthelemi Blondeau (1743-1790) is from Mackinac.

Edward Boisant b-1790 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a sailor.

Catherine Bourassaw b-1790, living 1870 census, Alanson, Michigan.

Joe Buckwheat b-1790, living 1870 census, Sagoning, Minnesota.

Peter Campaux b-1790, living 1870 census, Freesoil, Michigan.

Scott Campbell (1790-1850), Metis, son Archibald Campbell, a trader of the Upper Lakes.

Peter Campo b-1790, living 1870 census, Freesoil, Michigan.

Mrs. William Carow b-1790, living 1870 census, Cheboygan, Michigan.

Mary Casotte, born 1790 Canada, living Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan 1850 census.

Elizabeth Caubmosay b-1790, living 1870 census, Nalkerville, Michigan.

(II)-Louis Chattellain (Chatelain) (b-1742) is in charge of a fort on the south Saskatchewan River which is attacked by 150 Rapid Indians (Dakota

Sioux). All but one Englishman is killed. The North West Company Post had three Frenchmen and several children, and withstood the assault. The objective of the attack appears to be for plunder.

Prairie du Chien, birth Michel Brisbois, Metis died 1820 son Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and a Winnebago Metis woman; married Cathyn Antaya

Marcus Calder b-1790 married Margaret Indian b-1795 likely North West.

Colin Campbell b-1790 married Elizabeth McGillivray Metis b-1801 likely North West.

Jacque Cardinal b-1790 married Josephte Indian b-1792 likely North West.

James Cochrane b-1790 married Harriot Metis b-1795 likely North West.

Thomas Cochrane Indian b-1790 North West Territories married Harriet Indian b-1800 North West Territories.

Angelique Coplette, Metis, born 1790 Red River Settlement, North West daughter Joseph Caplette (b-1778), listed 1870 census St. Boniface, Red River, also see 1838 census.

Jacob Daniel, Metis born 1790 Manitoba son James Daniel, census 1790? (typo error must be 1870?) St. Clement, Red River.

Julie Dagneau de Quindre (1790-1872) daughter Francois Guillaume Dagneau de Quindre, sieur de Picanier and Therese Boyer.

Josette Davis Saulteaux, (Ojibwa) b-1790 Pembina married David Davis b-1773 Upper Canada. 1850 census. (Josette b-1797 & David b-1795 Europe) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Alexis Dean b-1790 married Susanne Indian b-1795 likely North West.

Joseph Dufault born 1790 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin, married August 2, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Julia Cadotte born 1798 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Mitchell Eniwesky b-1790, living 1870 census, Sutton's Bay, Michigan.

Francois Fagnant, Metis born 1790 Red River married about 1827 Red River Madeleine born 1810 Red River, 1850 census; or (Francois Fagnant, Metis, b-1796 1st married Charlotte Falardeau, Metis b-1799, 2nd marriage Madeleine Lemire, Metis, b-1803 Red River) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Louison Falardeau b-1790 married Marguerite Metis b-1793 likely North West.

John Fielding Metis b-1790 North West Territories married Nancy b-1801 likely North West.

Joseph Gauthier born 1790 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin, married August 16, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Theresia Miskwakwadokwe born 1801 likely La Courte Oreille or Lac Courte Oreille (Ottawa Lake), Sawyer County, Wisconsin.

Frederick George b-1790 married Josephte Indian b-1791 likely North West.

Maxime Genthon b-1790 Canada married Marie Jerome Metis b-1807 Red River Settlement daughter Martin Jerome b-1783 and Francoise Indian b-1785.

Jean Baptiste Gervais b-1790 married Madeleine Bonneau Metis b-1805 North West Territories daughter Jean Baptiste Bonneau b-1742 and Louise Indian b-1760.

(I)-Hugh Gibson b-1790 Orkney married Angelique Chalifoux Metis b-1810 North West Territories daughter Michel Chalifoux b-1757 Canada and Elizabeth Collin Metis b-1760 most likely North West.

Duncan Graham (?-1847) arrived to trade with the Dakota in the 1790's. He became known as Hohayteedah, or Horse Voice, and married Penichon (Penichon), Metis, the daughter of a Dakota chief who was a half-blood son of a French deserter who traded with the Dakota after Martin's left their country; about the time the British won Canada from the French.

Green Bay birth (IV)-Paul Hypolite Grignon, died 1851, son (II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade born 1759; married 1st Nanette, 2nd Listte.

John Gunn born 1790 Ruperts Land, census 1833 Red River.

Josepg High b-1790, died 1907, Michigan

Charles Houle, Metis born 1790 Red River Settlement, North West, listed 1870 census St. Agathe, Red River.

Nancy Jackson b-1790, living 1870 census, Chippewa, Michigan.

Joseph Johnson b-1790, living 1870 census, Sagoning, Michigan.

Mrs Francois Johnson b-1790, living 1870 census, Mackinaw City, Michigan.

Louis Kandananibi born 1790 likely Fond du Lac, Wisconsin married September 9, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Josepha Tchigabe Kitchiwanokwe born 1792 likely Fond du Lac, Wisconsin.

Simon Kenawekezhick b-1790, living 1870 census, Bay Shore, Michigan.

Josette Kewagaskum b-1790, living 1870 census, Sutton's Bay, Michigan.

Keygaw b-1790, living 1870 census, Wiedman, Michigan.

Josette Keywaycushcum b-1790, living 1870 census Bayshore, Michigan.

Suzanne LaPance, Metis, born 1790 North West living census 1870 Schatchng River, Red River.

Isabella La Porte Metis born 1790/1810 daughter Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) and Pimeegeeshigoqua Ojibwa woman; married Daniel Dingley a trader.

Jean Baptiste LaRance (LaFrance) born 1790 North West, census 1838 Red River.

Louis Lambert b-1790 married Angelique Belleau Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Landry b-1790 married Margaret Indian b-1794 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Laurence b-1790 Canada married Louise Indian b-1800 most likely North West.

Angelic Laverdure (Montour), b-1790 Pembina, 1850 census. (Angelique Montour, Metis b-1800 married to Alexis Laverdure b-1756 Canada) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Jean Baptiste Letendre dit Batoche, Metis b-1790 Red River, a hunter, married Marguerite Lionais dit Delaunay, Metis b-1810 Red River. 1850 census. (Jean b-1819 & Marguerite Lyonnais b-1822) Genealogy First Metis Nation. First child born 1828, 2nd marriage or different person?

(I)-Daniel Lillie b-1790 England Mary Anne Richard Metis b-1812 most likely North West.

Marguerite Lonais b-1790 Red River married Baptiste Lonais, Metis b-1780 Canada, a hunter.

Simon McKay b-1790 married Francoise Indian b-1800 most likely North West.

(I)-John McKay arrived Albany H.B.C. and is posted to St. Annes 1790-1793, posted Lac La Pluie 1793-1797. Married about 1791 Mary Favell. He was previously employed out of Montreal by A. Shaw. Some believe he is the brother of Mad Donald McKay

(II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820), at the annual gathering of the traders at Grand Portage, were not impressed with his recent venture as it did not provide a trading route to the Pacific.

James McMillan b-1790 married Josephte Bellisle Metis b-1795 North West Territories.

Lora Marion, Metis, born 1790 Manitoba daughter Marion, listed census 1870 St. Pierre Red River.

Archange Marow (Mirow) b-1790, living 1870 census Bay Mills, Michigan.

Irvine Martin born 1790 North West, census 1835 Red River.

Francois Martin b-1790 married Madeleine Racette Metis b-1787 most likely North West.

Mary Mawtance b-1790, living 1870 census Bay Shore, Michigan.

Mary Meyotte b-1790 Red River married Francois Meyotte, Metis b-1784 Red River. Mary b-1810 Red River living with them 1850 census.

Susan Miscogeon b-1790, living 1870 census Bay Mills, Michigan.

Mrs Mary Joe Mitchell) b-1790, living 1870 census Namah, Michigan.

Mokechewawnoquay b-1790, living 1870 census Alanson, Michigan.

Francois Monjeunier b-1790 Morth West Territories 1st married Mary Charlays b-1800; 2nd married Teresa Lardcque most likely North West.

James Monkinan jr. born 1790 North West, census 1835 Red River.

John Nabinega b-1790, living 1870 census Sutton's Bay, Michigan.

Nebenegwawnaybe b-1790, living 1870 census Sutton's Bay, Michigan.

Negawnequay b-1790, living 1870 census Mt. Pleasant, Michigan.

Odishquay b-1790, living 1870 census Sugar Island, Michigan.

Theresa Oga b-1790, living 1870 census Gould City, Michigan.

Joseph Ouellet (Ouellette), Metis born (1780 or 1790?) Red River Settlement, North West and his wife Thirse (Therese) Houle, Metis born 1795 Red River Settlement, North West daughter Antoine Houle, listed 1870 census Red River.

Jacque Ouellet, Metis, born 1790 Red River Settlement, North West son Joseph Ouellet. His wife Mari Marcellaid, Metis, Born 1792 Red River, North West daughter Jean Baptiste Marcellaid, census 1870 Red River.

Victoria Ouellet, Metis born 1790 Red River Settlement, North West living 1870 census St. Norbert, Red River.

Peter Pangman (1744-1819), the German or Dutchman, is trading Rocky Mountain House, Alberta.

Pawmesaway b-1790, living 1870 census Freesoil, Michigan.

Francois Perreault b-1790 married Marie Grant Metis b-1794 most likely North West.

Manvil Plante, Metis b-1790 Red River, a hunter, married Josette, Metis b-1810 Red River.

Jean Baptiste Pombrainte (Pomerainte) a.k.a. Fontaine, b-1790 Upper-Canada, married about 1827 Red River Isabella Rivard, Metis b-1810, Red River. 1850 census. (Jean b-1798 & Isabel b-1818) Genealogy First Metis Nation. This is likely an error as Isabel would only be age 9 when married.

Michel Richard b-1790 North West Territories married Isabelle Collin Metis b-1789 most likely North West.

Guillaume Rocheleau b-1790 Canada married Marie Adam Metis b-1792 most likely North West.

Sara Ross, born Oregon Territory 1790, listed Winnipeg census 1870 as a white person, and widow.

John Ross, born 1790, a Cherokee Metis is living among the eastern Cherokee.

Malchom Ross took his wife and two children on his Athabaska expedition with Peter Fidler.

Jane Saboo b-1790, living 1870 census Bay Mills, Michigan.

George Sanderson Metis b-1790 married Lisette Lagemonier Metis b-1803 most likely North West.

Francois (Saroyard) LaNoyard (Noyer?), Metis, born 1790 United States son Lt. Ceureuil LaOsyard (Saroyard?), listed 1870 census Red River.

Francois Saroyard, Metis, born 1790 United States son Laurent Saroyard, listed 1870 census Kildoan, Red River.

Sophia Shagonaybe b-1790, living 1870 census Bay Mills, Michigan.

Simon b-1790, living 1870 census Pellston, Michigan.

Peter Sinclair Metis b-1790 married Marguerite Roussin Metis b-1795 most likely North West.

William Spence, Metis, born 1790 Manitoba son Iscgues Spence, listed 1870 census St. Pierre Red River.

George Spence Metis b-1790 North West Territories married Nancy Ward Metis b-1800 North West Territories.

John Spencer b-1790 married Ann Sinclair Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Francoise St. Germain born 1790 Rabasca (Athabasca?) daughter Pierre St. Germain, listed 1870 St. Boniface, Red River census.

Marie Sutherland, Metis born 1790 Red River Settlement daughter Peter Sutherland listed census 1870 St. Boniface, Red River.

William Tait born 1790 North West, census 1838 Red River.

Red River region, marriage Andre Trottier b-1757 Montreal and Louise Chippewa Indian; 4 children are noted.

Joseph Trottier, Metis b-1790 Pembina, a hunter, married Marie Saulteaux b-1790 Pembina

Jacob Truthwaite Metis b-1790 North West Territories son Matthew Truthwaite b-1768 and Elizabeth Indian b-1770 North West Territories, married Elizabeth Vincent Metis b-1802 North West Territories.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth (II)-Marie Antoinette Vasquez (1790-1791) daughter (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin;

Alexis Vivier b-1790 Canada married Maria Indian b-1791 North West Territories.

Nancy Ward b-1790, living 1870 census Mt. Pleasant, Michigan.

Angelique Wawbegaykake b-1790, living 1870 census Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.

John Waywaysemaw b-1790, living 1870 census Provemont, Michigan.

Madeline Whiteloon b-1790, living 1870 census Sugar Island, Michigan.

Only 12 people claimed to be born at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year. This would imply a settlement population of about 219 people.

This year a number of Sault Ste Marie Ojibwa and Metis migrated to the Red River community.

Contrary to popular opinion, archaeological evidence suggests that European trade goods are incorporated into the Ojibwa culture but had not altered the Ojibwa culture at this time. The French Culture, however, had been drastically altered. The Ojibwa exerted a great deal of pressure on the French to share. Hoarding, or refusing to share, is regarded as shameful. The concept of gift giving and credit is adopted early by the French and only much later by the English. The French fraternized, danced and generally made merry, whereas the English traded through holes in their forts. The rules of trading and economical transportation via canoe altered the French Canadian culture forever. Rich dress, a display of richly decorated clothing, is the mark of a successful hunter. One just has to observe the Metis Culture or a Voyager to see this cultural change.

John Best of Cat Lake wrote Robert Goodwin of Osnaburgh that there will be a poor trade from inland this year, as there is so many traders, and everyone will get but a little. David Ramsey, the notorious trader who killed eight Ojibwa twenty years ago; allegedly in self-defense, has gone to live with the Ojibwa speaking Mississauga on the northwest shore of Lake Ontario, in the so called American Old Northwest, which includes the Great Lakes region west of Pittsburgh and north of the Ohio River.

The Hudson Bay Company was chronically short of cloth trade goods this decade.

The Metis Nor'westers were firmly in control of the fur trade about the Great Lakes and deep into the Illinois country. The Hudson Bay men despised what they called the pedlars and packmen, who were over running the north west, which they considered their south west department. Those Voyageurs considered fifty miles a day only a fair days travel. On a good day they could paddle a hundred miles.

Robert Goodwin at Osnaburgh House reported Indians from Lake Winnipeg, Lake of the Woods, Eagle Lake, Nipigon River and Trout Lake had arrived to trade. Even strange Indians from the great north (North west of Winnipeg Lake) also arrived. It would appear the natives are shopping around for the best trade or are exploiting the massive influx of traders into the Northwest over the past few years. It is noteworthy that the Ojibwa from the Lake of the Woods are growing Indian corn and potatoes to supply the passing traders. There are also four or five families of Ottawa, who settled six miles up the Dead River from it's junction with the Red River, who also raised Indian corn, potatoes and other garden stuff for the fur traders. The harvesting of wild rice for the fur trade has been long established.

Saginaw Ojibwa captures John Tanner (1780-1846?), who is called the white Indian. He grew up on the Red River, raising a Metis family. He is recorded visiting Mackinac 1820 to 1823, then lived Sault Ste Marie until 1846. He noted one trading company is called 'The Chippeway Frenchman' which symbolizes the close relationship between these peoples. It is noteworthy that the Ojibwa loved the French but despised the Black Robes; who are not allowed on Lake Superior until 1834.

Peter Turner of the Hudson Bay Company visited Athabasca, and he contends the local Natives complained that the peddlers and pack men of Montreal (Nor'wester) had a practice of seizing and selling their women for non payment. And if the husbands or fathers resisted, the only satisfaction they get is a beating. This does not appear in character and could be Hudson Bay Company propaganda. It conflicts with other accounts. They also report that the Athabascan speaking, Beaver Indian consistently shunned any sexual contact with Hudson Bay personnel. This is an exception to the practices of other tribes. Edward Umfreville noted that English money is nearly everything and scarcely anything else will induce them to risk their lives. He noted the Orkney, because of their cautious nature have not lost a man in the past fifteen years. The Canadians delight in the dangers, caring little for their lives or cargo, and with little thought of gain. He went on to say that the success of the Canadians is attributed to the superior efforts of their servants and not to superior goods. Not surprisingly, Edward Umfreville deserted the Hudson Bay Company.

Chief Peguis led his band of Ojibwa from Sault Ste Marie to Red River and hence became the Saulteaux (Ojibwa) of the Prairies. This move is to ensure their presence in the expanding Red River trade and the expanding settlement of that area. Other Ojibwa had preceded Chief Peguis. Peter Grant (1764-1848), the merchant, wintered at the junction of the Red and Pembina Rivers, trading mostly with the Ojibwa traders of the area. The Red River colony is growing as the Metis Canadians; mostly French, and some few Scottish mixed with Chippewa, Cree and Assiniboine, are claiming settlement locations. The prevailing language is French and Chippewa (Ojibwa). The Ojibwa introduce the Metis in Red River to the Seneca root; which was used as a remedy for colds, pneumonia, croup, whooping cough and rheumatism. The Metis would turn this into a cash crop, which they exported to many countries.

Alexis Reaume, a cousin of Joseph Reaume and Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot), left the Compagnie Generale, returning to independent trading. The new Campagnie Generale included (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818), John Sayer b-1750, Cazelai (Cazelet) Joseph Reaume, (IV)-Gabriel Attina LaViolette; alias Ranger (d-1803). Joseph Reaume and Cadotte wintered at Leech Lake.

Jacques d'Eglise, a Frenchman from St. Louis, is trading with the Mandan in North Dakota and reports that the British traders from Assiniboine are among them. Jacques lived among the Missouris 1790 to 1792. Americans are along the Mississippi, Americans and British are in Oregon, and the Russians are in California. The Spanish occupied Vancouver Island about this time.

The year 1789 is represented by a significant influx of Coureurs des Bois and Voyagers, who wintered in the North West; especially in the Red River Metis colony. It is noteworthy that at this time, British Fort Detroit (Michigan) is the largest settlement of Upper Canada, containing some two thousand people, mostly Metis, French Canadians and a few Loyalists. The first brick house in western Ontario was built near British Fort Detroit (Michigan), by Francis Baby.

This decade saw an influx of Iroquois into the north west fur trade. There were several hundred engaged with the North West Company as trappers, hunters and traders. They were mainly from the St. Lawrence River, especially from Caughnawaga. Most accounts ignore the Metis and free traders that descended on the Red River and North West region.

This sketch represents one persons view of the interior of a Metis house in Red River.

Philadelphia was not a healthy place to live. Dr Benjamin Rush compiled data on 100 people and concluded that one-third died before age six and only one-quarter lived beyond the age of twenty-six.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), a Hospital Boy wrote: "The last winter I passed ... with Mr. Turner, of whom I have learned the Theory and Practice of Practical Astronomy, my improvement in that Science, I hope my works will show."

The Nootka Sound Convention is signed in Madrid. England agreed that both Britain and Spain had equal rights of trade, navigation and settlement of unoccupied parts of the West Coast of America.

February 4: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Henry McGuien and Christiana Simmon.

February 14: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, William Hand son William Hand to Mary Abbott.

March 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Walter Roe to Ann Laughton daughter John Laughton.

March 1: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Andrew Rusk and Elizabeth Cook.

March 2: Sophiasburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Daniel Young and Dorcas Conger.

April: Robert Goodwin of Osnaburgh recorded that he was supporting a young lad, his wife, mother, two sisters and a brother-in-law, as the young man is not able to maintain them all.

April 1: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Anne Mackintosh daughter Angus Mackintosh and Archange St. Martin.

April 8: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Pierre Jean Baptiste Dagneau de Quindre, died in Detroit, Michigan, son (IV)-Antoine Dagneau de Quindre seur De Pontchartrain (1751-1814) and Catherine Desrivieres Lamorandiere Trottier (1757-1817); married 1st August 31, 1819 Detroit, Michigan, Susanne Robert, 2nd marriage June 19, 1827 Detroit, Michigan, Marie Desanges Drouillard.

April 10: Francisco de Eliza y Reventa (1759-1825) took possession of Nootka, British Columbia to secure Spanish sovereignty to the region..

May: Robert Goodwin reports there are many Canadians nearby and goods is slow in arriving. The Hudson Bay Company lost 50% of their trade to the peddlers. Two sloops are working full time, conveying provisions to Grande Portage. The actual births of Metis in the North West this season must run into the hundreds. Fort Lac Des Boeufs (Bullalo House) on Buffalo Lake, also called Peter Pond Lake near Methye Portage, is built by the N.W.C. Swan Lake House at Swan Lake is built by the H.B.C. Rat Portage (Kenora) is built by the N.W.C. on old Fort Island on the Lake of the Woods. It was noted that spirit distribution to Indians has not been curtailed by laws, passports or bonds.

June 9: (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) departed Cumberland House to survey the Saskatchewan River system. He had learned surveying and mapmaking while recovering from a broken leg. Some time between 1789 and 1792, Cumberland House was relocated about a mile and a quarter to it's present location. The North West Company also maintained a post nearby.

June 18: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Jean Baptiate Binet to (IV)-Marie Madeline Lacoste daughter (III)-Francois Lacoste dit Lang-Languedoc (1720-1762) and (II)-Madeline Bourbon b-1722.

June 22: British Fort Detroit (Michigan): The sale of Indian lands only had one Ojibwa signer: Rou-nia-hy-ra.

July 6: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Abraham Lorraway and Catreen Dies.

July 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), death, (IV)-Philippe Chabert Gouin.

June 23: Patrick Small from Ile a la Crosse, Alexander Mackenzie from Fort Chipewyan, Angus Shaw from Moose Hill Lake on the upper waters of Beaver River and William McKillivray from Churchhill River or Lac La Ronge, are observed returning to Grand Portage.

June 29: River St. Clair, Western District of Canada birth John Betton Laughton son Peter Laughton and Catharine Harson.

June 30: St. Louis, Missouri, 2nd marriage Michel Quesnel South West, birth (IV)-Marie Louise Jourdain Metis about 1760 south west of Michillimackinac daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Jourdain b-1718 and Marie Joseph Reaume; 1st married Jean Baptiste Lebeau.

August: James Sutherland (1751-1797), with 13 men, established a Hudson Bay house on Red Lake, north of the Lake of the woods. The H.B.C. also built at Lac Seul.

August 1: Alferez Manuel Quimper sailed the Juan de Fuca (B.C.) claiming it for Spain.

August 31: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Cornelius Brass and Hannah Devy.

September: George Washington, the invader, ordered Brigadier General Josiah Harmar to pacify the Indians. His army consists of 1,100 Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky Militia, plus three hundred Federal Regulars. In September, the Indians routed the invading enemy, killing 183 and wounding 31 more. Some contend that during the period 1783 to 1790, about 1,500 Europeans, who had invaded into Indian Territory, died in isolated Indian Attacks. This likely represents the American experience. The Canadian history was relatively bloodless, thanks to the peaceful penetration of the Metis.

September 1: Fredericksburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Jacobus De Morset and Anna Bowen.

September 15: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, John Longwill and Margaret Lake.

September 28: Robert Gray (1755-1806) sailed on his second voyage 1790-1793, commanding the Columbia from Boston to Vancouver Island.

September 28: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Johannes Stover and Jemima Hicks.

October 6: Cameron, a rival trader with many years experience, built a trading post next to Southerland's Red Lake Post. Sutherland considered Cameron to be of genteel behavior and obliging nature. Cameron's mode of living was on a grander scale than anything Sutherland had been accustomed to in the Hudson Bay Service. He was mortified to think that he had neither forks nor knives and only one plate. Their Indian uniforms are grander than ours, this coming from a tailor. Two of the Canadians, however, died that winter.

August 13: James Southerland (1751-1797) selected and built Red Lake Trading Post, but complained that his men were poor carpenters, poor hunters, and knew little about net-making.

August 15: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Joseph Benoit Chapoton son (III)-Benoit Chapoton and (IV)-Therese Meloche.

August 31: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Veronique Campeau daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751.

September: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Louis Raphaels Huyet born January 10, 1762 son (II)-Pierre Huyet et Huguet-Huiette-Ponceley-Champagne born 1737 and (IV)-Marie Reine Trempley born 1744; married Marie Croisette Laperle daughter Pierre Laperle.

October 27: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Archange Campeau daughter Bernard Campeau , brother, married to (V)-Veronique Douaire born 1766 daughter (IV)-Joseph Douaire.

November 9: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage (V)-Seraphin Lauzon born June 5, 1763, baptism September 17, 1763 Detroit son (IV)-Antoine Nicolas Lauzon (1727-1770) and (III)-Angelique Chevalier b-1733: married (IV)-Marie Louise Morand b-1799 daughter (III)-Claude Charles Morand.

November 20: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), marriage, Jean Baptiste Lacelle (Il etait June 18, 1777, British Fort Detroit (Michigan)), 1st married lost likely Detroit a Marguerite Meloche died November 20, 1790, 2nd marriage November 20 1790 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), (a country divorce and marriage likely preceded this church wedding, see birth November 21 below) Catherine Rivard daughter Jean Baptiste Rivard.

November 21: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Felicite Lacelle son Jean Baptiste Lacelle and Catherine Rivard.

December 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, Francois Xavier Campeau son Antoine Jacques Campeau and Suzzanne Cuillerier.

December 3: British Fort Detroit (Michigan), birth, (V)-Marie Gamelin daughter (IV)-Francois Gamelin died 1774 and Joachine Faucher.

December 5: Adolphus Town, Ontario, marriage, Peter Ruttan and Jemina Sloat.

December 16: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Bruine Hough and Mary Walker.

December 23: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Robert Perry and Anne Rogers.

December 28: Ernest Town, Ontario, marriage, Jacob Comar and Debrah Hicks.

December 28: Sophiasburgh Town, Ontario, marriage, Richard Morden and Anne Williams of Ernest Town, Ontario.

1790

HUDSON BAY, NORTH WEST TERRITORIES

(I)-John George Thomas of Vaudreuil of St. Michael, Seignior of Vaudreuil, County of York, District of Montreal born 1766 St. Andrews, Holborn, London, England, alias Thomas Thomas-(1), arrived 1789 died 1824, and is not to be confused with (I)-Thomas Thomas-(2) who joined Hudson Bay Company 1791 and defected to North West Company 1804.

January 1, 1833: George Simpson wrote to William Smith that, apparently, John Thomas jr. was really Thomas Thomas jr. but no mention was made of any error. So maybe the error was made in the copy book only. Anyway, it appears Thomas jr. died in 1824 and his widow Neenish born 1781 had administered the estate )She had remarried Richard Steven's) (Neenish told Thomas Simpson at Red River, May 31, 1832, when she married Richard Steven's that daughter (II)-Eleanor Thomas and (II)-Richard Thomas lives at Rupert River and their son (II)-Charles Thomas is at Red River) (I)-John Thomas through his last will dated, January 19, 1822, by notary H. Griffin:

CLAIMED THE FOLLOWING NATURAL CHILDREN:

(II)-Charles Thomas

(II)-Charlotte Thomas who married Peter Spense and had a son John Spense.

(II)-Eleanor Thomas born about 1805 presently (1822) married to Peter Foy also married about 1823 a (II)-Richard Thomas.

(II)-Margaret Thomas, spinster, is living in London, England.

(II)-Francois Thomas married to Andrew Stewart also married May 20, 1828 Red River a Henry Buxton.

(II)-Anne Thomas born 1804 Moose Factory married about 1815 Moose Factory, church wedding, February 10, 1835, Red River to (former) Chief Factor Moose Factory Alexander Christie now (1835) living Red River, and who retired to Aberdeen Scotland 1852.

(II)-Elizabeth (Betsy) Thomas married Richard Stony Robins and had a son; Henry Stony Robins. Richard Stony Robins, who is presently (1822) living with James Russell also married March 13, 1820 Red River a (II)-Joseph Bird son (I)-James Bird Sr. a.k.a. James Curtis (d-1856), of Red River District.

(II)-Another Daughter ,who is cast off by her father after she smothered her two children, by John George McTavish whom deserted her. Probably Catherine Thomas who married July 23, 1829 Red River a John Bunn? John George McTavish was one of those Scots who practiced serial marriages, casting off wives and children a bastardizer.

Louis Gaunaux alias Gournon, Gornow and Gurnoe is born 1790 Fort La Pointe (Madeleine Island) Lake Superior (Wisconsin) son Monsieur Gaunaux (Garneau) the stray originally of Ste Pierre de Montmagny? a French Canadian trader and Mother Sioux (Se Gaunaux So-Way-Guay).

Monsieur Gaunaux (Garneau) the stray originally of Ste Pierre de Montmagny? is reported to have purchased So-Way-Guay, a young captured Sioux, from the Ojibwa.

Peter Pond (1740-1807), forced to retire from the North West Company, sold his share to (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) because of his implications in two murders.