Metis

1795 - 1797


This is the apex of the Assinipoval Metis Nation.

It has been dominated to date by Metis of French and Ojibwa ancestry.

The Hudson Bay Company finally gears up for the fur trade.

They send one hundred and thirty men into the field.

The men sent are Orkney men, as they are considered
tough enough for this demanding work.


The Metis Red River Colony and region is producing
1,200 to 1,500 bushels of wild rice each season

Their major customer is the North West Company.

The Red River Metis farmers are also cultivating corn,
squashes, pumpkins, beans and potatoes, which they
obtained from the Indians.

The Ojibwa never abandoned their agricultural base.


1795

Michilimackinac, marriage Joseph Louis Ainse aka Hains (Hins) son Joseph Hins (Hains, Hines) alias Ainse (b-1717) to Constance Chevalier daughter Jean Baptiste Chevalier and Marie Frances Alavoine epouse Francois Louis Cardin; Joseph married 1795 at St. Ignace, Michilimackinac a Marie Delia Therese Bondy. Joseph had a country marriage about 1781, or he had an earlier wife. Son Joseph Ainse was baptized 1782 and living at Vareness, Therese Ainse baptised 1784, Margaret Ainse who married John Campbell born about 1790 and Ance Ainse, who was Metis, and became chief at the Straits of Mackinac and Pelagie Ainse.

Mrs Agahio b-1795, living 1870 Lattin, Michigan.

Anowayawsemo b-1795, living 1870 Payment, Michigan.

Awnawquot b-1795, living 1870 Bay Mills, Michigan.

Samuel Awnmequom b-1795, living 1870 Cross Village, Michigan.

Awwawnashcum b-1795, living 1870 Goodheart (Good Hart), Michigan.

Theresa Awwawnawquot b-1795, living 1870 Goodheart (Good Hart), Michigan.

Sophia Bailey b-1795, living 1870 census, Custer, Michigan.

Charles Beauchamp Metis b-1795 North West Territories married Catherine Falardeau Metis.

Leon Belongea b-1795, living 1870 census, Mackinac Island, Michigan.

Paul Belongea b-1795, living 1870 census, Mackinac Island, Michigan.

Francois Bernard born 1795 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married November 15, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Margaret Awassikwe born 1787 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Alick Big b-1795, living 1870 census, Drummond, Michigan.

(I)-James Bird Sr. a.k.a. James Curtis (d-1856) is in charge of Carlton House, York until 1797.

William Bruce Metis b-1795 likely North West probable son William Bruce, listed 1834 & 1838 Red River census; married France Allary b-1797 North West Territories.

Paul Campeau died before 1795 and was married to Angelique Pepin dit DesCardonnet born 1731 who died October 5, 1795 Fort Detroit, Canada (Michigan).

Pierre Campeau married to Therese St-George died about 1795, they had one child recorded Therese Campeau who married April 13, 1795 Paul Parnier of Fort Detroit, Canada (Michigan)

Toussaint Charbonneau (Sac's man), Metis b-1758, departed Lake of the Woods for the upper Missouri. He is is living with the Hidatsa (a Siouan speaking people), others suggest with Minnetaree in their Metahara village on the Knife River, and later, in 1796, with the Mandan Indians.

Louis Chastellain rebuilt the South Branch House (La Corne) that was destroyed in 1794.

James Corrigal Metis b-1795 Scotland married 1st Sarah Sutherland Metis b-1805 Scotland, 2nd marriage Margaret Indian b-1803 likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Cottons born 1795 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married April 30, 1838, La Pointe, Wisconsin Angelica Bemachikwe born 1796 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Robert Cummings b-1795 1st married Elizabeth Indian b-1801, 2nd married Clementine Indian b-1815, 3rd marriage Jane Monkman Metis b-1822

Red River Settlement daughter James Monkman b-1771 and Mary.

Patrick Cunningham b-1795 married Ann Bruce Metis b-1797 likely North West.

Griffith Daniel b-1795 1st married Madeleine McKay Metis b-1825 Red River Settlement, 2nd marriage Madeleine b-1797.

Daoust b-1795 married Mary Indian b-1800 Red River Settlement.

Alex Daphena b-1795, living 1870 census, Mackinac Island, Michigan.

David Davis b-1795 married Josette Indian b-1797 likely North West.

John Davis b-1795 married Nancy Metis b-1804 North West Territories

Charles Dease b-1795 married Louise Demontigny Indian b-1797 Red River Settlement.

John W. Dease b-1795 married Genevieve Bendit Metis b-1797 likely North West.

Louis Delorme b-1795 married Josette Belle Metis b-1797 likely North West.

Francois Desjarlais b-1795 Red River Settlement married Madeleine Roy Metis b-1789 likely North West.

Antoine Desjarlais is employed by the Northwest Fur Company and worked Grand Portage, Fort Coulonge, Themiscaming, Grand River, Lac La Pluie (Rainy Lake) and the Lower Red River. In 1814 he, with his two boys and two girls, were at Lac La Biche, Alberta.

William Donald Metis b-1795 married Nancy Bollen Metis b-1800 Red River Settlement. Possible son (I)-George Donald, Hospital Boy.

Birth, Missouri, birth Jean Baptiste Dorion Metis born about 1795 likely Nemaha Territory, Missouri son Pierre Dorion Sr. (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow). It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist, also married to a Iowa woman. See 1780

Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) is in charge of the Folle Avoine Department for the John Sayer Sr. and Company.

Alexis Duval b-1795 married Francoise Metis b-1800 likely North West.

(II)-Charles O. Ermatinger (1776-1853) son of Montreal Merchant (I)-Lawrence (Laurenz) Edward Ermatinger (1736-1789) and (I)-Jemima Oakes, joined the North West Company. He married Charlotte Kalawabide.

(II)-Tom Fidler is born York Factory, son of (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary Cree, Indian.

Francois Gardipuis (Gardiphuis or Gardupuis) born 1795 North West, census 1835 Red River. Possible relative of Louis Gardupuis born Canada 1785, blacksmith, census 1834.

Jean Baptiste Gariepy b-1795 Canada married Marguerite Saulteaux Indian b-1790 likely North West.

Joseph Garneau sr., also Gournon and Gourneau, is born about 1795 Red Lake, Minnesota, married about 1811 Red Lake a Delondie of Red Lake band.

George Gladman Indian b-1795 North West Territories married Bethsy Indian b-1800 Red River Settlement.

Francois Gendron b-1795 North West Territories married Angelique Lussier Metis b-1800 likely North West.

Pierre George Metis b-1795 son Joseph George b-1785 and Josette Indian b-1787; married Marie Chatelain Metis b-1823 likely North West.

Maguerite Goodioin, Metis, born 1795 daughter Robert Goodioin (Goodwin), listed 1870 census St. Clement, Red River.

James Grant, a Metis, is born this year possible, brother is Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854); possible sisters are Josephte Grant, who married John Wills, and Mary Grant, who married Pierre Fallon, all born in the North West before 1799 when their father died, mother being a Cree or Assiniboine.

Green Bay birth (IV)-Amable Grignon, died 1845, son (II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and (V)-Louise Domitide Langlade born 1759; married 1st Ojibwa woman, 2nd Judith Bourassa.

Antoine Grouette b-1795 Lower Canada son James Groutte b-1770 and Catherine Mader b-1775; married Madeleine Nolin Metis b-1790 most likely North West.

Andre Harkness Metis b-1795 Red River Settlement married Sarah Stevenson Metis b-1809 Red River Settlement.

Peter Henderson b-1795 married Charlotte Yorkton Indian b-1806 North West Territories.

John Hodgson Metis b-1795 North West Territories likely son (I)-John Hodgson, Hospital Boy and Indian woman, married Charlotte Yorkston Metis b-1806 North West Territories.

Amable Hogue b-1795 Canada married Marguerite Taylor Metis b-1810 Red River Settlement.

James Isbister b-1795 married Mary McGillivray Metis b-1826 North West Territories.

(I)-George Johnston b-1795 Orkney married Francoise Thomas Metis b-1815 most likely North West.

Angeline Keechfbenace b-1795, living 1870 census, Payment, Michigan.

Hycinthe Keemechechawgan b-1795, living 1870 census, Petoskey, Michigan.

Sophia Kenesway b-1795, living 1870 census, Custer, Michigan.

Kewaykezhick b-1795, living 1870 census, Drummand Island, Michigan.

Peter Kesis b-1795, living 1870 census, St. Jacques, Michigan.

Charles Keyogeman b-1795, living 1870 census Cross village, Michigan.

Keywayawsenoquay b-1795, living 1870 census Pine River, Michigan.

Angelique Keywaykendo b-1795, living 1870 census South Hampton, Canada

Sarah King b-1795, living 1870 census Custer, Michigan.

John Kippling b-1795 married Marguerite Indian b-1790 North West Territories.

Kushkomawnesay b-1795, living 1870 census Carrs, Michigan.

(IV)-Gabriel Attina LaViolette son of (III)-Joseph Ranger alias LaViolette (born 1727) wintered on the Pembina.

Bazilr Laurence b-1795 Canada married Agathe Iroquoise Metis b-1825 Red River Settlement.

Jean Baptiste Lavallee Metis b-1795 married Louise Ducharme Metis b-1805 most likely North West daughter Antoine Ducharme b-1780 and Josephte Richard b-1787.

Charles Laviolette b-1795 Canada 1st married Lisette Indian b-1806, 2nd marriage Therese Moreau Metis b-1829 North West Territories daughter Jean Baptiste Moreau Metis b-1824 Red River Settlement (more likely his father b-1795 Canada and Charlotte Lafeville b-1802) and Marie Venne Metis b-1824 Red River Settlement?

Gabriel Lavierge (Thierge) born 1795 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married December 2, 1838 La Pointe, Wisconsin Josepha Neganigijigokwe born 1813 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Etienne Lambert b-1795 Canada 1st married Catherine Gaddy Metis b-1799 North West Territories daughter James Gaddy b-1772 and Mary Metis b-1775, 2nd married Betsy Hondre Metis b-1795 most likely North West.

Louis Landry Metis b-1795 Red River Settlement married Marie Anne Martin Metis b-1811 most likely North West.

Antoine Langevin b-1795 married Genevieve Sutherland Metis b-1801 Red River Settlement.

William Leask, Metis b-1795 Red River Settlement married Mary Cook Metis b-1810 most likely North West.

Duncan M'Gillivray of the N.W.C. is stationed at Fort George on the North Saskatchewan River.

Margaret Mashaqueto b-1795, died 1795, living 1870, Michigan.

Margaret Massey b-1795, living 1870 census Manistique, Michigan.

Joe Mawby b-1795, living 1870 census Carrs, Michigan.

Mesquawnawquot b-1795, living 1870 census Custer, Michigan.

Moyses Medweigwan born 1795 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married December 25, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin

Madeline Mewadanakwedokwe born 1815 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Margaret Mosier b-1795, living 1870 census Manistique, Michigan.

Theresa Musco b-1795, living 1870 census Pte Aux Chene, Michigan.

Josette Nanegus b-1795, living 1870 census Cross Village, Michigan.

Theresa Petose b-1795, living 1870 census Goodhart, Michigan.

Louis Pne b-1795, living 1870 census L'Ance, Michigan.

Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846), halfbreed of the Dakota Nation, was educated in Quebec, and he returned to live with the Gens du Large (Sioux of the Prairies) and later married Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

Luther Rice b-1795, living 1870 Michigan census living Odanah, Minnesota

Margaret Robinson b-1795, living 1870 census St. Ignace, Michigan.

Mrs George Robinson b-1795, living 1870 census Grand Haven, Michigan.

Margaret Robinson b-1795, living 1870 census St. Ignace, Michigan.

Eustache Roussain (b-1770/80) is a clerk of Simon Chaurette in John Sayer Sr. and Company, Lac du Flambeau Department, where he worked until 1804.

Charles Saboo b-1795, living 1870 census Bay Mills, Michigan.

Alex Sailor b-1795, living 1870 census Drummond Island, Michigan.

Peter Soyard, Metis, of Pembina Ojibwa Band, applied March 29, 1865 Lake Superior Treaty, rejected received 1854 La Pointe Script, living Hennepin County.

Francois St. Pierre b-1795 married Marguerite Houle Metis b-1797 most likely North West.

Peter Smith Indian b-1795 married Susan Peysonette Metis b-1805 North West Territories.

William Smith b-1795 England married Mary Anne Swain Metis b-1805 most likely North West.

Socco b-1795, living 1870 census Petoskey, Michigan.

Jacob Sogot b-1795, living 1870 census Kewadin, Michigan.

Peter Soyard, Metis born about this time Pembina Ojibwa Band, applied March 29, 1865 half-breed script, rejected as he received 1854 La Pointe treaty.

Abraham Stead b-1795 married Sarah Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Donald Sutherland b-1795 1st married Indian woman b-1800, 2nd marriage Anne Livingston b-1815 most likely North West.

Tahbedah b-1795, living 1870 census Custer, Michigan.

William Tait b-1795 Orkney married Mary Auld Metis b-1804 most likely North West.

Thomas b-1795 married Sarah Indian b-1800 Red River Settlement.

Jeffery Thomas b-1795 marriage Anne Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

William Thomas b-1795 married Catherine Bess Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), HBC, reports that the Piegan Indians, who live near the source of the Saskatchewan River, made a 1,500 mile journey on foot in a direct line, stole horses and mules from the Spaniards, and then rode back.

Antoine Vandal b-1795 married Charlotte Zastre Metis b-1799 most likely North West.

William Waishkey b-1795, living 1870 census Bay Mills, Michigan.

Amos Wakefield b-1795, living 1870 census Custer, Michigan.

George Whitford Metis b-1795 Red River Settlement married Catherine Joke b-1800 most likely North West.

Peter Whitford Metis b-1795 North West Territories married Christy Spence Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth (II)-Catherine Eulalie Vasquez (1795-1876) daughter (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin; 1st married 1829 John or James Stotts, 2nd marriage Jacques Martin.

Only 10 people claimed to be born at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year. This, however, would suggest a Settlement population of about 183 people, not including those away in trade, freighting or the buffalo hunt.

It is interesting to note that documents from this period refer to Detroit, Canada (Michigan), as being in the Western District of Upper Canada.

A group of Saulteaux Metis settlers established the Netley Creek area of Red River. The British would settle in the same area next century. It is estimated that 1,000 Ojibwa and Ojibwa Metis are living along the Red River.

Pierre Bonga (Mukdaweos), Negro, born 1780's, is employed by John Sayer Sr. and Company at Fond du Lac and later by the North West Company, South West Company and American Fur Company, all at Fond du Lac Departments.

The North West Company agents: McTavish, Frobisher and Company, acquired Fort Timiskaming (Temiscamingue), which they held until 1821.

Dominique Brunet dit Letang (Lestang), from 1795 to 1796, is in competition with Jean Baptist Perrault's trade expedition in northern Minnesota, operated by Roy and Cadotte. Dominique operated in opposition to the North West Company in Red Lake until 1804, maintaining a trading post at the confluence of the Clearwater and Red Lake Rivers.

The Missouri Company sent a second expedition to the Dakota's this year. A third expedition, headed by James Mackay, with 33 men, departed later in the year.

Joseph Geroux is employed by JS & Co. (John Sayer Sr) as a winterer in Pierre Bayerge's La Pointe Dept ,1795, outfit at 500L.

At Green Bay (Wisconsin), 81% of trader households are married to Metis or Indian women.

The Hudson Bay Company sent one hundred and thirty-two men into the field from York Factory, and one hundred and nineteen are Orkney men; as they are considered tough enough for this demanding work. The Orkney men could not work with the English whom they considered as inferior, but they would take direction; so recorded the English.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the Hudson Bay Company remarked that he would rather have 50 drunken Indians in the fort than 5 drunken (Metis) Canadians. In a few short years he would become a English Canadian.

The North West Company purchased about 1,200 to 1,500 bushels of wild rice each season from the Indians and Metis between Lake Superior and Lake Winnipeg. Wild rice is the principle food of the posts in this area. Rice has the advantage over corn of not going sour during the heat of summer. The Hudson Bay Company imports oatmeal for the same purpose, not having access to the rice supply. The second most important article of food is pemmican. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the HBC said that even the gluttonous French Canadians, who devour 8 pounds fresh meat every day, are content with a pound and a half of pemmican. Pemmican will keep indefinitely. Pemmican is made by taking 50 pounds of lean, beaten buffalo meat and adding 40 pounds of melted buffalo fat with some dried berries for flavor, making 90 pounds of pemmican. This is considered the optimum size for canoe transportation. The Hudson Bay Company also reports the planting of corn, squashes, pumpkins, beans and potatoes, obtained from the Indians, most being planted in the Metis settlements along the Red, Assiniboine and Rainy rivers.

At Fort Greenville, 1,100 chiefs and warriors who were forced to treaty, ceded Indians Lands amounting to all of present day Ohio and a good part of Indiana. Rene Jusseaume (Jussome) and a Mandan free trader returned from the Missouri River. The Mandan are all well provided with guns, pistols and swords, according to one trader's report. Two years later, (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), now working for the N.W.C., said they had few guns. In reality, they saved their guns for war and used arrows for hunting. In 1804 Lewis and Clark believed that a great portion of the men had guns. Likely the Mandan did not trust (I)-David Thompson, being an Englishman. It is noteworthy that the Mandan are trading from the Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico and, likely, to the west coast.

James Southerland (1751-1797) at Osnaburgh House recorded that the winter of 1795-96 was so severe, the potatoes in the cellar froze.

Simon McTavish is determined to stop the free traders in the North West by buying them out or combining them into a large company. The acquisition of the trading companies into Temiskaming, Michipicoten and the Nipigon country were quickly arranged, but the opposition of Peter Grant, Beaubein and Laviolette could not be dealt with until those traders had come out of of the country to Grand Portage.

A fort is built on the Saskatchewan River near Duck Lake, near future Fort Carlton.

Monday, January 5: John MacDonnell reported, according to Masson (1960 I: 292-93 ), that St. James, St. Pierre, Bedard, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Couture (b-1735) (LaCouture), Pierre Alain and Monsieur Gareau had arrived from River Le Souris (about one hundred and twenty five miles up the Assiniboine River) with pieces (furs). The latter Monsieur( Gareau) stayed behind at the Foutreau's lodge. He gave them a keg of one gallon of rum he had of his own. And because this did not suffice in getting the Foutreau's daughter as he had expected, he pierced the keg of high-wines he was in charge of and gave it to the Indians in pure form. In short, there are six quarts missing off the keg and six large knives wanting in his load.

The whole keg would have been taken from him by the Fourtreau and his band, who get enraged with drinking pure high-wines, had it not been for the Gendre (son-in-law) du Fourtreau, a good Indian, who hurried Monsieur Gareau and Pierre Alain, the gambler de Goblets, off in the night, en fuyards (fugitives), leaving the girl, as well as rum and knives, in quiet possession of the Indians. John MacDonnell (McDonell) also reported a vast number of buffaloes are quite near the Fort (at the Assiniboine and Red Rivers). He reported that the men kill some everyday. There is a high probability that this Monsieur Gareau could be the father of Louis Gurnoe of La Pointe and Joseph Garneau of Red Lake. Evidence, however, is presently circumstantial.

January 8: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Marie Louise Chapoton daughter (III)-Benoit Chapoton and (IV)-Therese Meloche.

January 12: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Louis Michel Comparet son (II)-Francois Comparet and (IV)-Marie Judith Tremblay (1738-1768); married January 12, 1795 Detroit, Canada (Michigan), (IV)-Agnes Jeanne born 1774 daughter (III)-Robert Jeannes et Jeanne b-1730, died April 3, 1793 Detroit, Canada (Michigan), and (IV)-Catherine Reaume b-1740.

January 14: Le Frene, the second, reluctantly sold a young slave girl to Monsieur Poitras, of McDonell's party, at Red River. (II)-James Brady contends that Monsieur Gaunaux (Garneau), the stray of Ste Pierre de Montmagny, born about 1769, married a young Dakota Sioux girl who is taken prisoner by the Ojibwa and sold to him. The Joseph Garneau Sr. clan would establish themselves in the Red Lake area of what is to become Minnesota, whereas Louis Gurnoe would establish his clan at the Fort La Pointe area, which is to become Wisconsin, both among the Ojibwa. A number of Garneau strays would also appear in Red River.

January 25: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), birth, Elizabeth Macomb daughter William Macomb and Sarah Drinor (Dring).

January 25: Niagara on the Lake, death, an infant child of the Atty. General's servant.

February 1: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), birth, William Roe son Walter Roe to Ann Laughton daughter John Laughton.

February 16: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, (V)-Simon Campeau born 1769 son (IV)-Simon; married (V)-Catherine Gamelin born November 17,1772 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (IV)-Francois Gamelin died 1774 Fort Detroit and (IV)-Therese Cabassier (1752-1777).

March 2: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, Allen Bellingham to Monica Baby, spinster.

March 17: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), birth, Isabella Mackintosh daughter Angus Mackintosh and Archange St. Martin.

March 22,: Niagara on the Lake, death, Widow Chrysler; Mary Cain, wife of John Cain; and James Robinson.

April 18: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), birth, Francis Hand son William Hand to Mary Abbott.

April 20: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, (III)-Jean Baptiste Dufour son (II)-Jean Baptiste Mathieu Dufour born 1743 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), and (II)-Catherine Durand born 1753; married Marie Jeanne Lebeau daughter Jean Baptiste Lebeau.

April 20: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, Pierre Hunault et Hunaut born 1767 son Joseph Hunault; married Archange Jones daughter Benjamin Jones.

April 22: John Hay departed Souris mouth on this date.

April 23: Jean Baptiste Cadotte and Beaubein passed Brandon House, leaving Laviolette to tend the trading post. Cadotte and Company returned to Michilimackinac via Grand Portage, avoiding the more dangerous southern route through Dakota Sioux country.

April 28: Le Frene, a Coureurs des Bois, made a trip to Mountain a la Bosse and discovered 7,360 drowned buffalo in the river, some lay from three to five files deep. Between Red River and la Souris River, five different parties had built trading posts this year. Joseph Dube deserted the McDonell party to stay with the Indians of the Missouri. Rene Jusseaume (Jussome) returned to Fort La Souris with the peltries, leaving four men at their Fort on the Missouri in North Dakota who raised the English flag.

May: Fournier arrived on the Assiniboine. Pichet is reported at Nipawin on the Saskatchewan. Beaubien, a long time free-trader, brought three canoes to the Saskatchewan. He got 9 packs of furs at Nipawin and 3 at Fort Edmonton, facing opposition from the two large companies as well as from Peter Grant' men at both places. LaViolette's clerk, DeJadon, at Swan River, got 9 packs of fur with 2 canoe loads of goods, opposed by both major companies. Joseph Reaume and (IV)-Gabriel Attina LaViolette, alias Ranger (d-1803), wintered near the narrows of Lake Manitoba. Joseph Reaume from 1795-1798 is in the Lake Manitoba and Fort Sauphin (Red River District) of the Northwest Company. Simon McTavish established a policy to eliminate the free traders, one way or another. Jean Baptiste Cadotte arrived at Red Cedar (Cass Lake) to trade with the Pillager Ojibwa and Northern Ojibwa. Jean Baptiste Cadotte talked the Pillager out of a general war against the Dakota.

May 18: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, Joseph Lamirande son Michel Lamirande and Marie Joseph Benoit; married Angeliques Saliot daughter Jean Baptiste Saliot.

May 28: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, Joseph Bariau to (V)-Marie Louise Greffard daughter (IV)-Laurent Greffard b-1745 and (III)-Marie Anne Casse.

June 1: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marrage, (IV)-Joseph Berthiaume born 1735 son (III)-Joseph Berthiaume; married Marguerite Bonhomme daughter Jean Baptiste Bonhomme.

June 18: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, Isidore Navarre to (III)-Marie Francoise Descomps daughter (III)-Alexis Descomps and (V)-Marie Francoise Robert born 1752.

July 11: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), death, Toussaint Cesire born 1767 died British Fort Detroit (Michigan).

July 13: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, (V)-Pierre Greffard born October 18, 1732 Fort Detroit, New France (Michigan), son (IV)-Louis Greffard and (III)-Marguerite Casse; married July 13, 1795 Detroit, Canada (Michigan), Marie Louise Dupre daughter Francois Dupre.

July 21: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), birth/death, (IV)-Isidore Chapoton daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Chapoton born 1758 and (VI)-Therese Pelletier (1759-1795).

August: John Gregory of the North West Company approached Jean Baptiste Cadotte at Sault Ste Marie offering a three year contract at 1200 livres per year ($25,000). (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803) entered into a three year contract with (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) and Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) with the intention of turning his business over to his son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) the next year. The contract required that (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) winter in the field for the next three years. This contract, witnessed by Cuthbert Grant (Sr.?), guaranteed wheat and flour at Detroit, Canada (Michigan), prices for his father and his father's family.

August: A group of Ottawa (likely from among the Lake Superior Ojibwa), as traders, are reported at Edmonton House, and many more came to Red River Settlement last year with the new Company.

August 3: The Treaty of Greeville forced the People to give up the Ohio and a good part of Indianna because the Jay treaty caused Britain to withdraw all support for the Peoples land claims, and they say this as a no win situation. The treaty was with the Wyandot (Huron), Delawares, Shawanoes, Ottawas, Chipewas (Ojibwa), Putawatimes, Miamis, Ell-River, Weea's, Kickapoos, Piankashawa and Kaskaskias.

Signing for the United States of America are:

H De Butts

Wm H. Harrison

T Lewis

James O'Hara

John Mills

Caleb Swan

Geo Demter

Vigo

P. Frs La Fontaine

Ant Lasselle

H. Lasselle

Jn Beau Bien

David Jones, Chaplin

Lewis Beaufait

R. Lachambre

Jas Depen

Baites Coutien

P. Navarre

Interpreters, most likely Metis, are:

Wm Wells

Jacques Lasselle

M. Morins

Bt Sans Crainte

Christopher Miller

Robert Wilson

Abraham Williams

Isaac Zane

Signing for the Indians, also most likely Metis, are:

J. Williams, Jun, Wyandot

Anderson (Kikthawenaund), Wyandot

Thomas Adams (Peekeetelemund), Peekeelund

Billy Siscomb (Weywinquis), Peekeelund

La Malice, Ottawas

La Chasse, Pattawatimas of the River St. Joseph

Le Blanc (Thawme), Pattawatimas of the River St. Joseph

Le Gris, of the Miamis

Richard Ville, (Peejeewa) of the Miamis and Eel Rivers

Francis of the Weas and Piankeshaws

Josey Renard of the Kickapoos and Kaskashias

 

August 17: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, Jean Baptiste Companet son (II)-Jean Baptiste Comparet married (IV)Agnes Aide-Crequy born January 14, 1777 daughter (III)-Jean Baptiste Aide-Crequy and Marie Madeleine Gatignon Duchesne see 1763.

September: Niagara on the Lake, death, Robert McNabb, an infant of Allen McNabb.

September 21: Michilimackinac, marriage, Joseph Laurent Bertrand widower of Marie Therese Dulignon; married Felicite Carignant widow Jean Louis Carignant who drowned December 13, 1791 Michilimackinac.

September 23: Michilimackinac, baptism, Angelique Vaillancourt daughter Joseph Vaillancourt and Marie Elizabeth Bourgoin.

September 28: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), marriage, (V)-Alexis Campeau son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Campeau born 1743 and (V)-Genevieve Godet born 1751; married (IV)-Agathe Chesne born November 11, 1776 British Fort Detroit (Michigan), daughter (III)-Charles Chesne born 1732 and (II)-Marie Joseph Descamp dit Labadie born 1737.

October 11: Niagara on the Lake, death, Mary Louth, an infant child, of the 5th Regt.

October 20: Niagara on the Lake, death, R.B. Tickel. Alas, he was starved.

October 21: Detroit, Canada (Michigan), birth, (IV)-Philippe Chabert son (III)-Francois Chabert and Marie Joseph Chesne.

November 6: River St. Clair, Western District of Canada birth Peter Laughton son Peter Laughton and Catharine Harson.

December 16: Duncan Cameron wrote to the Hudson Bay trader , John Best, on Lake Winnipeg, that Reieume and La Violette, who are about 30 miles from here, send people continually with goods and liquor to the Indians tents where they trade their 3 pound Blankets for 3 beaver, and one fathom of Cloth for 3 Beaver. These Gentlemen are too ignorant to know what their goods cost them, therefore they squander them away like dust.

The assumption is that the goods originated from Montreal through normal suppliers rather than free market or, say, New York?

November 16: Cahokia, Illinois, marriage, Antoine Grandbois to (IV)-Francoise Dumouchel, Metis, born May 12, 1774, baptized, July 9, 1775, Mackinac, daughter, (III)- Louis Pascal (Paschal) Dumouchel b-1725, and Francoise Sauvagesse; 1st marriage Pierre Ducheneau.

November 22: Niagara on the Lake, death, J. Smith, Colonel of the 5th Regt.

1796

David Agosa b-1796, living 1870 Omena, Michigan

(I)-John Askin (Erskine) (1739-1815), a long time merchant of Detroit, Michigan, relocated across the river, preferring to remain a Canadian.

Battise Bailey b-1796, living 1870 Custer, Michigan.

Louis Bernard b-1796 Red River Settlement son Pierre Berand; married Catherine Hughes (Hayhes) Metis b-1810 Red River Settlement daughter James Hayhes, listed 1870 census Red River.

James Bird of the H.B.C. is stationed at Fort Carlton, and says he is being out traded by the Canadian Traders.

Pierre Bonga (Mukdaweos) Negro, born 1780's married about this time an Ojibwa woman in Lake Superior region.

Amable Braconnier b-1796 married Betsy Stevenson Metis b-1830 Red River Settlement daughter Edmund Stevenson Metis b-1810 and Sussette Cadotte Metis b-1820 Red River settlement. It would appear that Edmund must have had a first wife or Sussette birth date is in error?

Michilimackinac, marriage Michel Brisbois born about 1759/60 Quebec, died June, 1837 Prairie du Chien son Joseph Dubois dit Brisbois and Catherine Therese Renou dit Lachapelle, born Yamaske, Quebec; arrived Michilimackinac 1779 but by 1781 was settled at Prairie de Chien on the Upper Mississippi; 1st marriage 1785 Prairie de Chien a Winnebago Metis woman, 2nd marriage August 8, 1796 St. Ignace, Michilimackinac Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 daughter Charles Gauthier de Verville and Madelaine Chevalier. Charles is a notorious debaucher of slave women and has many Metis offspring.

Ambose R. Davenport born about 1771 is at Fort Mackinac.

Missouri, birth Ellen Dorion Metis born about 1796 likely Nemaha Territory, Missouri daughter Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow); married Charles Tackett. It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist also married to a Iowa woman. See 1780.

Toussaint Charbonneau, Metis b-1758, is living with the Mandan People on the Missouri River.

Antoine Dejarlais (Desjarlais) b-1796 Canada married about 1821 Red River, Susanna, b-1792 Red River.

Francois Dorion was a post commander for the Missouri Fur Company with Otes from 1796-1797.

Marguerite Dufort, Metis b-1797 Red River married Alexis Bellgard, Metis b-1800 Canada.

Francois Fagnant Metis b-1796 Red River Settlement 1st married Madeleine Lemire, Metis b-1803 Red River Settlement, 2nd marriage Charlotte Falardeau Metis b-1799 likely North West. Genealogy First Metis Nation. or (Francois Fagnant, Metis born 1790 Red River married about 1827 Red River Madeleine born 1810 Red River, 1850 census)

Vancouver, birth Emelie Finlay died 1848 daughter Francois Finlay who is working the region and Josephte Cree of the Prairies; 1st marriage Pierre Bercier, 2nd marriage 1830 Simon Plamondon and had 5 children by each husband. They eventually moved to Cowlitz Prairie, north of Fort Vancouver.

Peter Flett, Indian b-1796 married Mary Indian b-1809 likely North West.

Francois Fournier, Metis b-1796, Red River, a hunter, married before 1825 Red River Angelique Methot, Metis b-1800 Red River. 1850 census. (Francois b-1793) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Marguerite Gingras (Trottier), Metis b-1796 Pembina

Cuthbert Grant, Metis b-1796 North West Territories 1st married Elizabeth McKay b-1800, 2nd marriage Marie Desmarais b-1806, 3rd marriage Marie McGillis b-1806.

Michel Henrie, Metis b-1796, born Red River, a hunter, married before 1821 Red River Marguerite b-1794 Red River.

George Johnson b-1796 Michigan, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin.

Ambel (Abram) Keweykenso b-1796, living 1870 census, Petroskey, Michigan.

Louis George Labatte, Metis, is at Sault Ste Marie (Michigan).

Louis Laronde b-1796 Canada married Madeleine Boucher Metis b-1810 most likely North West daughter Paul Boucher Metis b-1779 and Francoise St. Germain Metis b-1770.

Joseph Leclair b-1796 Canada married Therese Huppe Metis b-1815 Red River Settlement.

Isadore LeCoy b-1796 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin.

Francis LeLondu b-1796 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a farmer.

Kenneth McDonald Indian b-1796 Scotland married Elizabeth Calder Metis b-1808 North West Territories daughter William Calder b-1785 and Sarah Pamareau Metis b-1788.

Peter McFarlane b-1796 Minnesota, married Mary b-1796 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Joe Memberto b-1796, living 1870 census Walkerville, Michigan.

Theresa Mwawkewenaw b-1796, living 1870 census Harbor Springs, Michigan.

Mary Nebenayquay b-1796, living 1870 census Sutton Bay, Michigan.

Peter Nindibens born 1796 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married September 27, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Osawamik (Kadjidji) born 1805 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Joseph Nodin (Wind) born 1796 likely Lake Superior died November 4, 1842 La Pointe, Wisconsin married August 28, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin

Angelia Ogagwedakwadokwe born 1798 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin

Michael Petit born 1796 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married July 24, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Margarite Bongat born 1814 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin

Henry Poitras Metis b-1796 North West Territories married Marie George Metis b-1807 most likely North West.

Augustin Racette b-1796 Canada married Susanne Gouin Metis b-1826 Red River Settlement.

Paul Rivet born 1796 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married November 1, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Josepha Tchekwegijigokwe born 1812 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Peter Robillard b-1796 Canada married Margaret Indian b-1800 most likely North West.

Francois Roi born 1796 likely Fon du Lac, Wisconsin died October 24, 1842 La Pointe, Wisconsin married June 5, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin

Margerite Penchinanikwe born 1806 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Joseph St. Germain b-1796 Canada married Marie Cadotte Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Robert Sandison born North West, census 1834 Red River. Mary Bunn born 1796 North West daughter Thomas Bunn listed St. Andrews, Red River 1870 census.

William Sayer b- 1796 North West Territories married Josephte Forbisher Metis b-1795 most likely North West.

Robert Sanderson b-1796 North West Territories married Linnecafso Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Andrew Stuart b-1796 married France Thomas Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Pierre Sutherland b-1796 married Angelique Assiniboine Indian b-1800 most likely North West.

James Sutherland (1751-1797), Factor at Osnaburgh, reported the arrival of Captain Utchechagu with 15 members of his clan, some suggest his full clan was 23.

Red River Region, birth Marguerite Madeleine Trottier Trotchie Metis died May 8, 1879 Walhalla, North Dakota daughter Andre Trottier b-1757 Montreal and Louise Chippewa Indian; married November 15, 1822 Rigaud, Quebec Antoine Cuthbert Gingras.

John Vincent Metis b-1796 North West Territories son Thomas Vincent b-1771 and Jean Metis b-1776; married Charlotte Thomas Metis b- 1805 North West Territories.

Joseph Vivina Metis b-1816 Red River and both his parents were born Red River which would be about 1796; he married Mary Metis b-1821 N.W.T., living Fort Edmonton 1901.

Joseph Wakazoo b-1796, living 1870 Michigan census at Ebro, Minnesota.

Francois Whitford b-1796 married Marie Gladu Metis b-1805 North West Territories.

Frank Williams b-1796, living 1870 census Petoskey, Michigan.

Fort Malden is built by the British on the east side of the Detroit River at Amherstburg, Ontario. It was, however, not completed until 1799.

Todd, McGill and Company hire Jean Baptiste Houle for the trade.

Only 3 people claimed to be born at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year.

The Roman Catholic Church, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) as a burial ground from 1796 to 1846.

(IV)-Charles Chaboiller (1772-1812) of the NWC is assigned to Assiniboine and the Red River Department. He kept a journal until 1798 that lists his voyageurs as Dubois, Chaurette, Roy, Bercier, Desjarlaix, Sauve, Bourret, Francois Delorme, Richards- a HBC man who defected to NWC, Mineclier, Le Duc, Bertrand, Chevalier, Allard, Bibeau, Pouilliot, Foumas, Lambert, Cadotte, and Hyversoit.

The Canadians abandoned the Forts according to the Jay treaty, and the refugees came to Sanwich (Windsor) and Amherstburg. Some Settled in the lower Thames river valley (below present day Chatham). The long point peninsula of Lake Erie was the last major center of White Loyalist settlements. The Americans began to interfere with the North West Company posts in the Illinois country, and many are forced to join the American Company or go to Red River to continue their trade. The Red Lake Trading Post on Red Lake, at the source of the Lac Rouge River- a tributary of Red River in the Fond du Lac District, is turned over to the Americans.

Fort Michilimackinac was transfered to the United States and the forces stationed there retired to the St. Joseph Island, where they built a fort and blockhouse. This post created the famous volunteer contingent of 160 voyagers and 30 British regulars who regained Mackinaw in the war of 1812 on July 12.

British soldiers killed Chief Wabakinine at York while he was trying to protect his sister from sexual assault, enraging the Mississauga (Ojibwa) Natives at the Western end of Lake Ontario.

(III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr. (1723-1803), Sauteax of La Pointe de Chagouamigon Bay, entered into agreement with the North West Company to allow Cadotte to trade the tributaries to Fond du Lac, which included Red River, in the interests of the North West Company. He maintained a fort on Red Lake, a short distance south of the exit of Red River, until 1797. He also constructed a ten mile portage this year. Cadotte Sr., in May, turned over all his property to his two legitimate sons. In return, he wanted them to care for him for the rest of his life, in view of his indisposition and great age. The witnesses at the Sault to this transaction are his neighbor Jean Baptiste Nolin and new comer (I)-John Johnson (1762?-1828) or (1742-1830?) who had arrived La Pointe about 1792.

Francois Beaubein Desrivers is one of the few traders who did not sell out to the North West Company. He signed with the XY Company, an agreement of 1798, but he died some time before 1802. His family does not appear to take part in the North West fur trade after this date.

Joseph Reaume did accept a post with the Company and was assigned to the Fort Dauphin district, near where he wintered as a freeman the year before opposing John Cobb HBC Post Doubtful. Fort Doubtful was shut down because the Indians were much attached to Reaume. Reaume stayed here until 1799.

(IV)-Charles Chaboillez (Chaboiller) (1772-1812) a Metis, of the NMWC, junior of Michilimackinc and father Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboillez (1736-1808), senior wintered at Rat River.

James Sutherland (1751-1797) is assigned by John McNab, Chief at Albany on James Bay, to Brandon House on the Assiniboine River.

The Northwest Company established trading posts at Horse Lake (1796-1797) and Fly Lake (1796-1799), both north west of Lake Superior.

James Mackay of the Missouri Company sent John Evans, a Welshman, with a small party to the Mandans. Evans had come to America to find the Welsh Indians, descendents of Prince Madoc who he believed discovered America in 1170. Evans made a detailed map that Louis and Clark would later use. The Mandan did not like the higher cost of Spanish trade goods and preferred to deal with Mackinac and Prairie du Chien.

Construction begins on Fort St. Joseph this summer by Andrew Foster and Company, situated on the south east tip of St. Joseph Island at the eastern entrance of the channel, linking Lake Huron and Superior. The intent was for Fort St. Joseph to replace Fort Michilimackinac as the hub of the fur trade. Leonard Brown and 12 men arrived in the fall to assist in the construction. Thomas Duggan, an alcoholic, moved from Fort Mackinac, this year, to Fort St. Joseph and was court marshaled in 1802 for defrauding two Ojibwa customers. It is noteworthy that St. Joseph Island hosted Ojibwa, Ottawa, French-Canadians, Metis, and English, Scottish and German-Jewish merchants and traders, as well as British soldiers.

January 12: Quebec, marriage (II)-Paul Hotesse Metis Huron de Lorette son (I)-Zacharie Hotesse, second Chief Huron de Lorette and Charlotte LaHrenouatha; married Marie Louise Galarneau.

February 16: Detroit, Michigan, marriage William Harffy to Ann Roe.

February 16: Michilimackinac, baptism, female Borde daughter Jean Baptiste La Borde dit Sans Regret and Marguerite Machar Chevalier.

March 25: Michilimackinac, baptism, female Frambois, daughter Alexis La Frambois and Marie Josephte Adhemar.

July: Alexander Mackenzie wrote: We have settled with Laviolet and Beaubien, two long time free traders. They will fall in our debt for 40,000 livres, though we gave them 30,000 livres for their property in the country. The principles of the North West Company are determined to eliminate all Coureurs des Bois or free traders from the fur trade. LaViolett is hired for two years to winter in River Pabinna, but he and his partner quarreled and he goes down. LaViolette accepted a clerkship position in the Lake Winnipeg district in 1797 as a means to discharge his debt to the company.

(IV)-Gabriel Attina LaViolette, alias Ranger (d-1803), died Fond du Lac during the winter of 1803-1804.

July 25: (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) entered into a five year contract with the North West Company, making him chief trader of Red Lake and its dependencies. As a result, Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) assumed Cadotte's indebtedness to Jean Baptiste Nolin at the Sault.

July 26: Michilimackinac, baptism, Angelique Vaillancourt daughter Joseph Vaillancourt and Marie Elizabeth Bourgoin.

July 27: Michilimackinac, baptism, Angelique Roi born 1787 daughter Louis Roi and Savage Sauteux Woman

July 27: Michilimackinac, baptism, Louis Roi born 1792 son Louis Roi and Savage Sauteux Woman

July 27: Michilimackinac, baptism, Genevieve Roi born January 1795 son Louis Roi and Savage Sauteux Woman

July 27: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Anne daughter of Savage Woman.

July 28: Michilimackinac, baptism, Alexandre Clark, Metis, born 1790 son Jacque Clark and Savage Sauteux Woman.

July 28: Michilimackinac, baptism, Julienne Clark, Metis, born 1792 daughter Jacque Clark and Savage Sauteux Woman.

July 28: Michilimackinac, baptism, Louise Clark, Metis, born 1794 daughter Jacque Clark and Savage Sauteux Woman.

July 28: Michilimackinac, baptism, Sophie Solomon, Metis, daughter Guillaume Solomon and Savage Sauteux Woman.

July 28: Michilimackinac, baptism, Rose Laborde, daughter Jean Baptiste Laborde and Marguerite. Rosalie Laborde married John Dousman.

July 29: Michilimackinac, marriage Alexis Lafromboise and Josephe Adhemar. See March 19, 1792.

July 30: Michilimackinac, marriage Joseph Laurent Bertrand to Felicite Pillet (Carignant). See September 21, 1795.

July 29: Alexander (Alexis) Laframboise is in the west 1785

July 29: Michilimackinac, baptism, Alexis Laframboise, son Alexander LaFramboise and Josephe Adhemar.

July 29: Michilimackinac, baptism, Genieve Laframboise, daughter Alexander LaFramboise and Josephe Adhemar.

July 29: Michilimackinac, baptism, Josephte Laframboise, daughter Alexander LaFramboise and Josephe Adhemar.

July 29: Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Laframboise, son Alexander LaFramboise and unknown, I assume child is not by his wife Joseph Adhemar.

July 29: Michilimackinac, baptism, Joseph Laframboise, born 1790, son Alexander LaFramboise and unknown, I assume child is not by his wife Joseph Adhemar.

July 29: Marie Madelaine Courtois, Metis, born 1793, daughter Joseph Courtois and Savage Sauteux Woman.

August 1: Joseph Courtois and his Sauteux wife baptized their three year old daughter Marie Madelaine, Metis, at Mackinac.

August 1: Michilimackinac, baptism, Magdaleine Bouriess, Metis, born 1789 daughter Louis de Bouriess and Savage Sauteux Woman.

August 2: Michilimackinac, baptism, Female Frerot, born 1794, daughter Nicolas Frerot and Josephine Poitras.

August 3: Michilimackinac, baptism, Francois Regis Bourassa, Metis, born January 1794, son unknown and Savage Slave of Bourassa.

August 8: Michilimackinac, baptism, Francoic LaFortune, Metis, born 1790, son Joseph Lafortune and a Savage Sauteux Woman.

August 8: Michilimackinac, baptism, Catherine Martin, Metis, daughter Antoine Martin and a Savage Sauteux Woman.

August 8: Michilimackinac, marriage Michel Brisbois son Joseph Brisbois and Marguerite Devault; married Donnitelle Gautier daughter Carles Devault and Magdeline Chevalier.

October 4: Michilimackinac, baptism, Angelique Vaudette, Metis, born May 1795 daughter Hypolite Vaudette and Savauge Woman.

December 7: Michilimackinac, marriage Michel LaBruere to Inacvois Kamoquoy.

1797

Michel Allary b-1797, Metis, married Marie Indian likely North West.

Mary Bazinaw b-1797, living 1870 census, Mackinac Island, Michigan.

(I)-James Bird Sr., a.k.a. James Curtis (d-1856), is a trader at Cumberland House, York until 1799.

James Bird wrote Peter Fidler at Cumberland House, asking him to send up supplies of ice chisels, hatchets and files, but Fidler replied that he could not spare them.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr., Metis, born (1761-1818), wintered at the forks of the Red Lake and Clearwater River (Red Lake Falls). Some suggest he is credited with opening the fur trades region above the Upper Mississippi. This is not likely but he was a significant player.

Jeremie Cardinal b-1797 married Louise Adam Metis b-1813 Red River Settlement daughter Joseph Adam b-1785 Red River Settlement and Isabelle Rivard Metis b-1805 Red River Settlement.

Jean Baptiste Charbonneau Metis b-1797 Canada son Joseph Charbonneau b-1777 and Margaret Lamoureaux Metis b-1780; married Louise Boucher Metis b-1800 likely North West.

Prairie du Chien, birth Sophie Brisbois, Metis daughter Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein.

Andrew Charlebois married (V)-Marie Joseph Hamelin Metis baptised August 19, 1787 Michillimackinac daughter (IV)-Louis Charles Hamelin Metis born 1737 Michillimackinac and Marie Joseph LeSable of the Sauteuse (Ojibwa) Nation born 1737 Michillimackinac.

Jane Cotay b-1797, living 1870 census, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.

Louis Cyr b-1797 Canada 1st married Nancy Metis b-1799 likely North West, 2nd marriage Elise Cummings Metis b-1805 likely North West.

David Demontigny b-1797 married Josephte Fagnant Metis b-1799 likely North West.

(I)-Robert Dickson, a.k.a. Mascotapah (Red Hair Man) (1768-1823), from Mackinac, son John Dickson and Helen Wight of Scotland. He eventually made his home at Lake Traverse, a favorite Dakota camping site, and married about 1797 Helen or Totowin daughter of Wanoti and a sister of Nakota Red Thunder, a Yankton Dakota chief.

Michel Donnais b-1797 Canada married Isabelle Metis b-1800 likely North West.

Joseph Duganne b-1797 married Marie Chatelain Metis born 1800 likely North West.

Sophia Eniwesky b-1797, living 1870 census, Sutton's Bay, Michigan.

John Favel Metis b-1797 married Isabel Short Metis b-1800 likely North West.

Charles Fidler Metis b-1797 North West Territories married Ann Saunders Metis b-1807 North West Territories daughter Jack Saunders Metis b-1797 North West Territories and 1st marriage unknown, 2nd marriage Sophie Indian b-1805.

Michael Frishette b-1797 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Donald Gunn b-1797 Scotland married Margaret Swain Metis b-1802 North West Territories.

John Edward Harriot b-1797 1st married Elizabeth Pruden b-1800, 2nd marriage Nancy Bunn Metis b-1810 Red River Settlement.

Henry Hay Metis b-1797 1st married Sarah Arcus b-1782, 2nd marriage Marguerite Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Samuel Hill reported nine ships are on the Oregon Coast including Captain Dodge and Captain Rowan.

Louis Keway b-1797, living 1870 census, Harbor Springs, Michigan.

Mary Kewaykenso b-1797, living 1870 census, Petoskey, Michigan.

Francois Lamoureux born 1797 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married September 27, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Osawamik (Kadjidji) born 1805 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Oliver Larocque Metis b-1797 Canada married Margaret Piche Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Carol La Rose born 1797 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin died May 30, 1844 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Charles La Rose born 1797 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married August 16, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Angelica Roi born 1795 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Alexis Lesperance b-1797 Lower Canada married Marguerite Grenot Metis b-1801Upper Canada.

(I)-George McKay b-1797 Scotland married Helen Indian b-1800 North West Territories.

Nicholas Morris Jr. b-1797, living 1870 census Stonington, Michigan.

Dennis Nadeau b-1797 married Madeleine Daze Metis b-1800 North West Territories.

Amable Nault b-1797 Canada married Josephte Lagemonier b-1812 Red River Settlement.

Pierre Parenteau b-1797 Canada married Josephte Laurin Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Louis Perreault b-1797 married Madeleine Ducharme Metis b-1801 most likely North West.

Bonaventure Parisien b-1797 married Isabel Indian b-1783 most likely North West.

St. Louis, Missouri, marriage Louis Resson son Louis Tesson Honore; married 1st. Marie Duchouquette, 2nd marriage 1788 St. Louis Therese Creely, 3rd marriage 1797 St. Louis Catherine Rivet, 4th marriage 1811, St. Louis, Missouri.

Jean Baptiste Richard b-1797 North West Territories married Margaret Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

George Ross b-1797 Orkney married Catherine Breland Metis b-1813 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Rouleau born 1797 likely Fond du Lac, Wisconsin married July 28, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Elisabeth Mokigijigokwe born 1816 likely Fond du Lac, Wisconsin

Jack Saunders, Metis, b-1797 North West Territories married Isabel Indian b-1790 most likely North West.

John Saveret b-1797 married Louise Roussin Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

John Smith b-1797, living 1870 census Hessel, Michigan.

D. Arpentigny St. Luc b-1797 Canada married Catherine Boucher Metis b-1805 most likely North West.

James Swain b-1797 married Nancy Henry Indian b-1806 most likely North West.

Isaac Todd (1742-1819) dissolved his long time partnership with James McGill.

Elisabeth Tremblez born 1797 likely Lake Superior daughter Chantal, died May 28, 1857 LaPointe, Wisconsin, widow of Tremblez.

Red River Region, birth Joseph Trottier Trotchie Metis died January 30, 1852 Red River (Pembina) son Andre Trottier b-1757 Montreal and Louise Chippewa Indian; married June 14, 1841 Red River Marie Chippewa Indian.

Joseph Trottier Metis b-1797 North West Territories married Elizabeth b-1786.

Joe Yanot b-1797, living 1870 census Suttons Bay, Michigan.

Francois Xavier Welsh b-1797 Canada married Charlotte Sauve Metis b-1809 North West Territories.

(I)-Thomas Wishart b-1797 Scotland married Barbara Spence Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Jim Zoondah b-1797, living 1870 census Star City, Michigan.

Joachim Dorion from L'Assomption is engaged by McTavish, Frobisher and Company for Grand Portage.

The N.W.C. established a trading post at Fond du Lac on the eastern shore of Lake Athabasca.

Orkney fishing boats, flat bottomed with high pointed bow and stern, are introduced into the Saskatchewan River. They are later to be called 'York Boats'. Some claim that, although influenced by Orkney design, the York boat was invented by the Metis.

The York Boat was introduced because the English and Orkney were unable to master the canoe. This is a replica on the Red River.

James Sutherland (1751-1797) died April 29 at Brandon house. His two brothers, Robert and Alex, inherited his savings. His Indian woman and children are not mentioned in his writings, but the Hudson Bay Company Secretary suggested that the children remain in Rupert's Land and that the brothers will send an annual allowance through the Company. It is noteworthy that prior to this decade, Metis children were not acknowledged by the Hudson Bay Company. The wives and children were essentially abandoned to fend for themselves. It is also recorded that many of the returning Orkney, who returned after 8-10 years service, having abandoned their wives and children, returned to Scotland with all the vices and none of the virtues of the savages.

Lake Superior, birth Marguerite Bonga, Metis born 1797-98, died 1880 daughter Pierre Bonga (Mukdaweos) Negro, born 1780's and an Ojibwa woman of Lake Superior; married 1823 Fond du Lac Jacob Fahlstrom.

(III)-George Bird born 1797 North West son (II)-Joseph Bird (b-1781), census 1831 Red River.

Cuthbridge (Cuthbert) Grant born 1797 North West, census 1831 Red River. Possible son Peter Grant (1761-1848) or Cuthbert Grant (Sr.)?

Jean Baptiste LaDeRoute, Metis born 1797 Red River son Philibert LaDeRoute, listed census 1870 St. Boniface, Red River.

Dr. John Munro is at Grand Portage.

Detroit, Michigan, marriage, Jean Baptiste Gignar and Charlotte Berland.

Hudson Bay Company's Lac La Pluie (Rainy Lake) Post is abandoned, as nobody at Osnaburgh Post (Lake St. George) knew the way there.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), a thirteen year veteran with the Hudson Bay Company, defected in order to work for the North West Company because they would not let him do surveying and map making. He is hired, at four times his former salar, to survey the American and North West Company boundaries. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) would marry a Metis named Charlotte Small daughter of the Factor. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) is considered a poor explorer, but an excellent surveyor and map maker.

A local priest suggested that men from Sorel (seventy kilometers from Montreal), rather than Lachine engages, be hired for a missionary expedition to the Red River Metis colony, as they are experienced, honest, polite and- above all- inexpensive. More than one third of Sorel's adult population are voyagers.

Meanwhile, Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboillez (1736-1808), North West Company, built Fort Pambian (Pembina) on the south bank of the Pembina River, near its mouth, in Red River Metis Territory. He had a fort at Pembina, on the American side, for many years but destroyed it in 1796 to relocate on the Canadian side. It is noteworthy that Pembina and region has been a strong Metis settlement since before 1780. (IV)-Charles Chaboillez, Metis, (1772-1812), junior, attempted to keep the Indians from trading with the Cadot Post. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) is reported being at the Fond du Lac post, about two miles where St. Louis Rivers enters. He shortly moved to the Red Lake River Falls post, probably in response to the Chaboillez threat. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) met Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) at Red Lake, noting he is fluent in Ojibwa, Latin, English and French. During these years on the Saskatchewan, the beavers are so plentiful that women and children can kill them with stick and hatchet. Corbeau of Red Lake is trading Red River.

Forsyth, Richardson and Company, a subsidiary of Phyn, Ellice and Company of London and the Parker, Gerrard and Ogilvie Company of Montreal, joined forces, calling themselves The New North West Company. This Company would be known as the 'XY' Company after October 28,

1798.

The North West Company began construction of the Sault Ste Marie Canal. It is completed by 1801 and destroyed in 1812 by the Americans. Fort Cadot (Cadotte House) is built on the south bank of Red Lake River at the mouth of Clearwater River, on the right bank of the latter. This fort, built by (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (b-1761) of La Pointe, is believed abandoned by 1800.

James Sutherland (1751-1797) died shortly after taking command of Brandon House. His two brothers, Robert and Alex, inherited his savings of 1,050 pounds. His Metis children are not allowed to travel to Britain and are given an allowance.

James Perlier of Montreal, his Metis woman and one of the Dickson brothers, wintered near Sauk Falls. (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) at Buckingham House on the Saskatchewan River, noted the coming and going of Iroquois Indians engaged in the fur trade.

The North West Company at Salt River, North Dakota River, establishes Roy's House.

Alexander McKee, Thomas McKee, his son and Peter Drummand, began to negotiate to purchase St. George Island. Thomas Lacey and 6 men are working on Fort St. George, which was started in 1796 and is not completed until 1799. It is located on the west side of Niagara River at Niagara-on-the-Lake. It is intended as a replacement for Fort Niagara which was built in 1678 across the river.

Peter Drummond and Company replace Andrew Foster at Fort Saint Joseph. Fort Saint Joseph was built by the British in 1796 at the eastern entrance of the channel, linking Lakes Huron and Superior. Thomas Lacey had arrived in June with six skilled civilians to construct the blockhouse and kitchen. Charles Langlade and Culver, fur traders, built houses on the Island this year.

One of (I)-David Thompson's companions got lost on a trip from Assiniboine to the Mandan Villages on the Missouri and owed his life to a chance discovery by his associates.

The Missouri Company Cajon's are called back to St. Louis from the Earthlodge Villages to prepare for the next season.

The Northwest Company establishes a trading post at Saunders Lake

John Best recorded how one Hudson Bay Man struck an Indian on the head with a knife when the latter was reaching for a piece of bread in the store. Had we not treated him, he might have bled to death. The same employee broke the Indian's gun, which we replaced.

January 18: Detroit, Michigan, birth (V)-Catherine Dagneau de Quindre died March 15, 1875 Detroit, Michigan, son (IV)-Antoine Dagneau de Quindre seur De Pontchartrain (1751-1814) and Catherine Desrivieres Lamorandiere Trottier (1757-1817); married October 16, 1824 Detroit, Michigan, Pierre Claude Beaubien.

January 21: Michilimackinac, marriage Andre Charleand to Josephe Hamelin.

February: John Best is at Osnaburgh, complaining that the Indians are only hunting deer and not trapping. This is the same man who said earlier that if the Indians do not bring us venison, God knows what we are to do. John Best had used the last of his flour for his men and they are are living, almost solely, on meat procured by the Indians.

February 5: Niagara on the Lake, marriage, Moses and Phoebe, Negro slaves of Mrs. Secy. Jarvis.

April 27: (I)-Robert Prescott (1726-1815) is appointed Governor-in-Chief of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and commander of forces in British North America from April 27, 1797 to July 12, 1796 and to July 25, 1799. He assumed office in 1797 but only spent 3 years in Canada. He was considered a stubborn and hot tempered man.

July: (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) arrived Grand Portage in July and acquired Rene Jusomme as a guide. Rene Jusomme claimed to have lived with the Mandan Indians for some eight years. They departed for the interior in August. The Mandan had few horses at this time, but the Arikaras and Hidatsas had more, with some Hidatsa families having twenty to thirty horses.

July 23: Michilimackinac, marriage Isidore Pelletier to Sophie Soloman.

August 8: Michilimackinac, baptism, Male Baillancourt son Joseph Vailancourt and Marie Elizabeth.

Fall: Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboillez (1736-1808) of the N.W.C., at River Salle of the Pembina River, traded with Old Manamine, (The Sucre) an Ojibwa of Red Lake.

October: Vincent Roy establishes a trading post in the Upper Red River of the North for John Sayer Sr. & Company (same post as above?). Vincent continued with the N.W.C. until 1817, in the Fond du Lac District, when he retired. His son, Vincent Roy Jr (1795-1872), who married Lizette (1805-1883), is at Sault Ste Marie.

October 9: Nicolet, marriage Pierre Parant to (IV)-Marguerite Chauvet, Metis, daughter (III)-Pierre Chauvet dit Lagerne, Metis, b-1737 and (IV)-Marie Jeanne Terrien.b-1739.

October 12: Niagara on the Lake, marriage, Cuff Williams and Ann, negroes from Mr. C. McNabb.

October 18: Michilimackinac, baptism, Male LaFramboise, Metis, born 1793 son Sieur Francois LaFramboise and unknown, likely the brother Alexander.

October 18: Michilimackinac, baptism, Female LaFramboise, Metis, born July 1796 daughter Sieur Francois LaFramboise and unknown, likely the brother Alexander.

November 7: Michilimackinac, baptism, a female Savage of the Sauteux Nation born 1780, daughter Inaououoiskamoquoy.

November 19: Michilimackinac, baptism Female Laframboise, daughter Alexis (Alexander) Laframboise and unknown, I assume child is not by his wife Joseph Adhemar.