Metis

1798 - 1799


Not a single Hudson Bay Company employee,
during this century, asked to retire in the
North West Territories.

The Hudson Bay Company has 530 servants in the
trade, with 416 being from the Orkney Islands.

Most, if not all, would abandon their country
wives (Cree) and Orkney Metis children.

The English would not allow these men to bring
their families home.

Until this time, the men had no option, as they had
not ventured far from their trading shacks.

Now that the Hudson Bay Company employees are
aware of the Metis Colony at Red River, many
would join the Metis Colony and the Metis culture.


The Red River Metis began mining salt for the fur trade.

The 'XY' Company is organized as competition
against the North West Company.


1798

The XY Company, for economic reasons, forbid its employees to take Indian wives.

Jean Baptiste Belleau born 1798 died October 3, 1843 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(II)-James Bird born 1798 North West son (I)-James Bird born 1775 Britain, and Mary Kelly Indian born 1777 North West territories, listed St. Andrews, Red River census 1870. (II)-James 1st married Elizabeth b-1808, 2nd marrage Sarah Butts Indian b-1809 North West Territories. This could be in error as James Bird Sr arrived HBC 1788 but had children from 1781 making his birth day closer to 1760 or we are dealing with two James Bird.

Daniel Boone (1734-1819) moved to Missouri region from west Virginia where he stayed until his death.

Pierre Bonneau Metis b-1798 Red River Settlement married Louise Gariepy Metis b-1800 Red River Settlement.

(IV)- Jean Baptiste Jr. Cadotte (1761-1818) and his wife, Janette Piquette ( -1850), are living at Red Lake Falls (Wisconsin) with their daughters, (V)-Marie Archange Cadotte (b-1797) and (V)- Archangle Cadotte (b-1798). The Northwest Company did not maintain a post at Red Lake this season.

Prairie du Chien, birth Charles Brisbois, Metis died 1847 son Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein.

Isaac Cadotte b-1798, living 1870 census, Drummand Island, Michigan.

Joseph Desmarais Metis b-1798 married Cecile Dumont Metis b-1800 likely North West.

(II)-William Dickson Metis born 1798/1801 son (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) from Mackinac and Helen Totowin. He married 1st to a Ojibwa Metis and 2nd to a Yankton woman.

Joseph Dorion was hired by la Compagnie du Nord Ouest for 'servir comme Matelot pendant trois ans', to work as a boatman.

David H. Elliott b-1798, living 1870 census, Fountain, Minnesota.

(II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853, son (I)-Lawrence (Laurenz) Edward Ermatinger (1736-1789) and Jemima Oakes; Charles married Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. Charlotte was daughter Kadowaubeda (Broken Tooth or DeBreche) Ojibwa of the Sandyt Lake Village of the Ahahwauk (Loon) clan.

Thomas Fidler Metis b-1798 married Jane Kippling Metis b-1805 likely North West.

(I)-John Foulds b-1798 England married Mary Fidler b-1805 Red River Settlement.

Detroit marriage Jean Baptiste Gignae and Marie Catherine Fare.

John Gulding born 1798 North West son John Gulding, listed 1870 St. Andrews, Red River census.

Donald Gunn born 1798 Ruberts Land, census 1833 Red river.

Henry Hallett born 1798 North West, census 1838 Red River.

(II)-Charles Houl (Houle), Metis, b-1798 Red River, a hunter, son of (I)-Houle b-1769 Europe & Elsie Indian b-1774; married 1st Magdeleine Breland, Metis b-1800 Red River, 2nd Catherine Falardeau, Metis born 1810 Red River. 1850 census. (Charles b-1794 & Catherine b-1820) (I)-John Inkster b-1798 Scotland married Mary Sinclair Metis b-1805 North West Territory.

Manuel Lisa (1772-1820) born Cuba arrived St. Louis in the late 1790's.

Kechegawnawououm b-1798, living 1870 census, Pt Aux Chene, Michigan.

Julien Laundry b-1798 married Josephte Metis b-1799 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste LeLondu b-1798 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a farmer.

Toussaint Lessier b-1798 Canada married Josephte Lachevrotier Metis b-1815 Canada.

Donald McKay d-1820 is working Mattawagamingue (Mattagami) Post near Gogama, Ontario.

Hector McKenzie b-1788 married Mary Bird Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Abraham Martin b-1798 Canada married Eupgrisine Gariepy Metis b-1825 North West Territories.

Margurite Marie Michina, a Sallshan woman born 1798, Coeur D'Alene married Canote Humpherville a French Metis canoe man who died 1841.

Tthey had eight children, a few of whom were baptised Colville in 1839.

Kitchi Moniawinini (Great Montreal Man or Great Canadian Man) born 1798 most likely Montreal died February 20, 1860, LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Charles Peltier, Metis b-1798 Pembina married Suzanne Bercier, Metis b-1803 Red River. 1850 census. (Charles Pelletier b-1805 N.W.T. & Suzanne b-1801 daughter Alexis Bercier b-1771 Canada and 1st Josephte Indian b-1783 2nd Margaret, Metis b-1779.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Francois Piquette born 1798 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married June 26, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Louise Atikons born 1816 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Pierre Rivard b-1798 married Therese Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Bonaventure St. Arnaud b-1798 Canada married Genevieve Contre Metis b-1817 most likely North West.

Martin St Mathe b-1798 North West Territories married Angelique Letenore Metis b-1805 most likely North West.

Francis St. Peters, Metis is born about this time in Pembina Ojibwa Band, lived at Saint Joseph, applied July 17, 1868 for mixed-blood script Lake Superior and was approved.

George Sandison born 1798 North West, census 1834 Red River. (William B-1804, David b-1805, another William b-1806).

John James Smith b-1798 England 1st married Mary Indian b-1794, 2nd marriage Nancy Favel b-1816 Red River Settlement.

(I)-James Taylor b-1798 Orkney married Mary Inkster Metis b-1812 North West Territories.

Mary Thomas b-1798, living 1870 census Ashton, Michigan.

John Thompson of the North West Company, while wintering on the Rogue River, abandoned his Indian wife and child, attempting to assign (or sell) his responsibilities to Demarrais. His wife, however, refused and returned to her people.

Joseph Vandal b-1798 married Marie Charette Metis b-1805 most likely North West.

Smith Wabose b-1798, living 1870 census Bay Mills, Michigan.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth (II)-Pierre Louis Vasquez (1798-1868) son (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin; married 1846 Narcissa Burdette Land.

Whitehead b-1798 married Jane Indian b-1800 North West Territories.

George Landmann, born 1780, arrived from Quebec to Fort St. Joseph, on the St. Joseph Island where the Saint Mary's River flows into Lake Huron.

The following people had already established a settlement on the Island: John Ogilvie, Robert Gillespie, David Mitchell, Jean Baptiste Pothier, Chiset, Fergot, Thomas Duggan, Guillaume La Mothe d-1799, Charles Langlade Jr., and Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboillez. Guillaume La Mothe had previously worked Michilimackinac.

This was an excellent year for the North West Company and their published trade figures were:

106,000 Beaver skins
32,000 Marten

17,000 Muskrat (Musquish)
6,000 Lynx

5,500 Fox
4,600 Otter

3,800 Wolf
2,100 Bear

1,900 Deer
1,800 Mink

1,600 Fisher
700 Elk

600 Wolverine
500 Buffalo

 

The cost per North West Company share averaged four thousand pounds, and dividends are four hundred pounds. The company established a trading post at Moose Lake (1798-1799).

The Metis from Red River began mining the salt from the salt springs between Winnipegosis and Camperville, and by 1874, the annual production of salt would reach one thousand bushels per year. It was of poor quality and brownish in color after processing. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C., bought two slave Sioux women from the Mandan, who are later sold to other traders. It is noteworthy that (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), NWC, a slave trader, who was assumed to be of a higher moral standard than most British, not only condoned, but took an active part in the slave trade. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), NWC, met Sheshepaskut, a Chief of the Red Lake Ojibwa who claimed to have repressed the incursion of the Dakota Sioux and driven off the Village Indians to the Missouri. The Ojibwa are aware that (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), NWC, had visited and traded with the Mandan, and these claims are intended to discourage competition. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) NWC recorded the sighting of a motley group of Indian trappers half of them Iroquois. Part of them went up the Red Deer River, and about 250 went to Fort Augustus (Edmonton, Alberta). This year a fire in May consumed eight Indians near Edmonton House, so reports (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811) an Orkney, Factor for Hudson Bay Company.

York (Toronto) is described as a dreary, dismal place. It did not possess the characteristics of a village, lacking a church, school or business establishment.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), of the NWC, noted a large group of Indians engaged in the fur trade, at least half of them Iroquois from Quebec.

Part of them went up the Red River and about 250 of them came up the Saskatchewan, in company with the canoes of the Fur traders to the upper post called Fort Augustus (Edmonton, Alberta) of the North West Company.

(IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) built a permanent post at LaPointe on a spot known as the Old Fort. He also built posts at Lac Courtoreille and posts on Wisconsin, Chippeway and the St Croix Rivers. His Ojibwa name is Kechemeshane (Great Michel). The Cadotte's are doing $40,000 in annual business out of Grande Portage. Jean Baptiste Faribault reported being robbed by the Winnebagoes at Prairie du Chien.

(IV)- Jean Baptiste Jr. Cadotte (1761-1818) and his wife,

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr., Metis, born (1761-1818), of the North West Company out of La Pointe, established a trading post at the junction of the Red Lake and Clearwaters rivers (Minnesota). This location is now called Sportsman's Park in Red Falls. He is with his wife Janette Piquette, Metis (-1850), are living at Red Lake Falls (Wisconsin) with their daughters, (V)-Marie Archange Cadotte, Metis (b-1797) and (V)- Archangle Cadotte, Metis, (b-1798). (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), of NWC, took shelter in that Post this year during a spring snow storm. David Thompson (1770-1857) wrote: Mr Baptiste Cadotte was about 35 years of age, he was the son of a French gentlemen by a native woman, and married to a handsome native woman, also the daughter of a Frenchman. He has been educated in Lower Canada and spoke fluently his language with Latin, French and English.

There is a high probability that Monsieur Garneau (Gaunaux), the stray of Ste Pierre de Montmagny, born about 1769, is working out of this Fort, as his second child, Francois Gourneau, would be born in 1800, of the Red Lake band. It is more than coincidence that the Garneau Clans of La Point and Red Lake precede and align with the movements of the Cadotte clan. It would appear that Monsieur Garneau (Gaunaux), the stray born about 1769, probably work for the Cadotte family, into which his son would marry. Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboillez (1736-1808) of Red River traded with Sucre, a prominent Chippewa Chief from Red Lake. He normally traded with the (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1723-1803) family at the junction of Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, Red Lake County, Minnesota. Others reported that the Pillager (Ojibwa) Indians, located on Leech Lake, Minnesota, are hunting and trading the Red River. The Maskigon and Cree, who live between Lake of the Woods and Lake Winnipeg, are also hunting and trading Red River.

Cadotte is fluent in Latin, French, English and Ojibwa. About this time, Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) records that a John Sayer Jr. had been ordered to go to the assistance of Mr. Cadotte who is subject to allowing himself to be overcome by drink. John Sayer Jr., a former Coureur des Bois of Fond du Lac, claimed being ill and asked his old friend, Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot), to go in his stead, giving him a letter for Cadotte. The letter instructed Cadotte to turn the post over to Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot). It would appear that this is the beginning of a conspiracy to remove Cadotte from the North West Company. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) remained a partner of the Company and, in 1801, still held 1/46 share. In 1803 he would be expelled from the company for alleged drunkenness. He basically represented the last of the Coureurs des Bois. Desriveres is a signatory of the XY Company agreement of October 1798.

The Birth of Beverley Jefferson, son of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), 3rd President of the United States of America, and his slave Sally Hemings, has been denied for over two hundred years, despite conclusive evidence including DNA testing. Sally had five children: Beverly, Harriet, Easton, Madison and another Harriet, as the first one died. It is noteworthy that Jefferson had 187 slaves in his estate.

MISHIPESHU AGAWA

This is Ojibwa rock painting, called Mishipeshu Agawa, is believed to be created about this time or earlier. The north shore, not far from Sault Ste. Marie, is covered with this art, as are a number of other locations. It would appear that they were painted from a canoe or from some suspension type system. They are best observed from a boat.

February 1: Georgia: A list of 'Old Settlers on the lands of the Frontier of Georgia are as follows: (It is not known how early they settled on these lands.) Jesse Austin, Richard Burkaes, Moses Halcom, George Hopper, Lucas Lecroy, James McCracken, William Weatherspoons, William Wofford, Benjamin Wofford, and Nathaniel Wofford

March 14: (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the N.W.C. arrived at the Pembina post and, on March 21 (IV)-Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboiller (Chaboillez) (1736-1808) accompanied him to Vincent Roy's NWC post, south of Pembina on the Forest River.

March 21: Rene Jusomme and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C., arrived at Cadotte's house at Red Lake Falls, saying his native woman is also the daughter of a Frenchman. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C., noted the location as 47-54-21. David meets Sheshepaskut (Sugar), the principle Chief of of the Ojibwa Tribe, on the Red :Lake River.

May: Fire broke out in the Fort Edmonton area, and Tomison estimated that eight Indians had burned to death within the period of the last 10 days.

September 2: Michilimackinac, baptism, Female Bourassa, Metis, born 1797, daughter and slave of D. Bourassa

October 1: Roderick MacKenzie claims sending the first Winter Express Canoe from the interior for Lake Superior this year. The canoe departed Fort Chipewean on October 1 and arrived Sault Ste Marie on May 17, 1799.

 

1798 HUDSON BAY, NORTH WEST TERRITORIES

(I)-Thomas Thomas-(2) born 1781 British Islands, arrived at York Factory in 1794, defected to North West Company in 1804 and died August 2, 1868, St. Peter's Church, Red River. He took a number of country women, one being Mienish Cree, possible second marriage Sally & third marriage about 1830 to a Jane. (Thomas Thomas married (churched) October 8, 1834 St. John, Red River Jane an Indian both of Red River). The third marriage could be confused with Thomas Thomas-(3).

SIX CHILDREN ARE RECORDED:

(II)-Henry Thomas, Metis, born about 1799

(II)-Richard Thomas, Metis, born 1800 Albany District of Hudson Bay Company died, July 7, 1860, Little Britain, Red River married about 1823

(II)-Eleanor Thomas born 1805.

(II)-Mary Thomas, Metis, born September 29, 1804

(II)-Eleanor Thomas, Metis, born 1805

(II)-Simon Thomas, Metis, born 1815 North West (ID # 4679) married about 1835 Catherine Linklater.

(II)-John Thomas, Metis, born 1819 Red River baptized August 11, 1835 and classed himself as both native and Metis, married about 1840 and 1835 baptism lists mother as Sally or (Gaily).

1799

(I)- David Thompson (1770-1857) of the N.W.C. essentially completed his assignment of mapping the upper Red River valley, the Mandan villages on the Missouri River, the sources of the Mississippi River, the Fond du Lac and the Rainy River regions west of Lake Superior. He was assigned a trader position for the next 7 years but continued to survey as time permitted. During this period, he completely mapped the fur trading territories east of the Rocky Mountains. In 1806 he would commence the survey of lands west of the Rocky Mountains.

Antoine Allary, Metis, born 1799 North West Territories married Suzette Caplette, Metis, born 1805 Red River Settlement daughter Joseph Caplette b-1770 Canada and Angelique Guiboche Metis b-1780

Jean Baptiste Beaulieu b-1799 married Margarite Saulteaux b-1805 likely North West.

Francis Bellin (Belland) is born in Minnesota, no location given.

Superior, (Wisconsin) birth Stephen Bonga, Metis died 1889 son Pierre Bonga (Mukdaweos) Negro, born 1780's and an Ojibwa woman of Lake Superior; married Susan.

Henry Brown b-1799 Orkney married Isabella Slater Metis b-1806 daughter James Slater b-1777 Orkney and Mary Metis b-1780 likely North West.

(IV)-Charles Chaboiller (1772-1812) became a partner of the North West Company and is assigned the Lower Red River Department.

John Cox b-1799 Orkney married Nancy Taylor Metis b-1818 North West Territories daughter George Taylor b-1800 and Jane Prince Indian b-1808 North West Territories.

Joseph Defond Metis b-1799 Red River Settlement married Josephite Gesbiens Metis b-1806 Red River Settlement.

Jean Baptiste DeJardiul born 1799 Red River son Jean Baptiste DeJardiul, listed 1870 Red River census. (Possible DesJardin or LaJarde)

Joseph Delorne b-1799 Canada married Brigitte Villebrune Metis b-1805 daughter Louis Villebrune b-1780 Lower Canada and Marian Indian b-1785 North West Territories

Nicolas Descotteaux born 1799 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married September 8, 1841 Maria Brebant born 1806 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Jean Baptiste Desjardin Metis b-1799 Red River Settlement married Marguerite Hamelin Metis b-1819 Red River Settlement daughter Jacque Hamelin b-1771 Canada and Angelique Tourangeau b-1770

Maydeleine DuCharnie born 1799 Red River, North West daughter Pierre Ducharnie, listed census 1870.

Joseph Fagnant Metis b-1799 and Hamel b-1800 likely North West.

Thomas Forth b-1799 Scotland married Elizabeth Boucher Metis b-1800 Red River Settlement.

Baptism, Detroit, Catherine Geraud daughter Amable Gerard.

Charles Gladu Metis b-1799 married Madeleine Laurin b-1804 most likely North West.

(I)-George Groat b-1799 Scotland married Charlotte Spence Metis b-1809 North West Territories.

Henry Hallet Jr. Metis b-1799 North West Territories married Catherine Parenteau Metis b-1799.

John Henderson b-1799 married Mary Metis b-1804 most likely North West.

Alexander Henry (1764-1814), in his expeditions of 1799-1814, noted that the natives on the interior of British Columbia had European trade goods and Russian coins.

William Kay b-1799, living 1870 census, Bay Mills, Michigan.

Louis Laferte b-1799 Canada married Agathe Carron Metis b-1814 Red River Settlement daughter Antoine Carron b-1784 Canada and Angelique St. Germain Metis b-1788

Jean Baptiste Lafontaine b-1799 North West Territories 1st married Marie Indian b-1800 most likely North West, 2nd marriage Madeleine Morin Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Lafontaine b-1799 Red River Settlement 1st married Louise Gervais Metis b-1847 most likely North West daughter Basile Gervais Metis b-1821 and Francoise Leddoux Metis b-1824 Red River Settlement, 2nd marriage Clemence Bauvier Metis b-1851 Red River Settlement.

Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) retired to Scotland this year.

Duncan McGillivray (1770-1808) is placed in charge of Fort Rocky Mountain (House).

John McKey said that the Tinpots (Tinnawabino) Ojibwa gang and Cranes Ojibwa gang are real brothers, and their lands are the same. One problem with the use of terms like tribe, gang, group and band is that they do not necessarily relate to a matrilineal totem. Any group could include the clan of Eagle, Sucker, Crane, Sturgeon, Deer, Loon, Moose, Pelican, or Fisher as example; for they considered all as brothers. Some suggest it was about this time that the Ojibwa began to shift from a matriarchal society to a European patriarchal society because of the continual pressure of the English and French traders.

John McLeod Metis b-1799 Red River Settlement married Elizabeth Swain Metis b-1820 Red River Settlement.

Jean Baptiste Morin Metis b-1799 married Francoise Bonneau Metis b-1801 most likely North West.

Agatha Okabegijigokwe (Landing Place Woman) born 1799 most likely Lake Superior died December 5, 1859 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Joseph Robidoux (1783-1868) of St. Louis, Missouri is going up the Missouri River.

Jean Baptiste Rousseau (1758-1812), a Metis son of a French fur trader and Indian interpreter, is trading the north shore of Lake Ontario.

William Saunders b-1799 married Flora Hope Indian b-1820 North West Territories.

James Swain Metis b-1799 Red River Settlement married Marguerite Racette Metis b-1810 Red River Settlement.

Joseph Valley, Metis of the Pembina Ojibwa Band, applied February 13, 1869 Lake Superior Script, rejected, received script 1954 La Pointe script, now living Chippewa Station, Minnesota.

Tousaint Vandry Metis b-1799 Red River Settlement marriage Marie Crebassa Metis b-1812 Red River Settlement.

John Sayer Jr. replaces Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man), of the Folle Avoine Department for the John Sayer Sr. and Company, with Joseph Reaume. Others suggest Joseph Reaume was placed in charge of the Northwest Company Folle Avoine Department from 1799 to 1804.

It is noteworthy that the Hudson Bay Company still only had 498 men in North America, whereas the North West Company had 1,276. The H.B.C. had 180 on the Hudson Bay and the N.W.C. had 903 at Grand Portage.

Spring: (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C., stopped at Isle Las Crosse and met Charlotte Small, a Metis b-1785, daughterof H.B.C. man, Patrick Small, an Irishman who had abandon his family returning to England. They married and were inseparable.

The HBC is claimed to build Action House, commanded by James Bird Sr., in clear sight of the N.W.C.'s Rocky Mountain House.

The Grand Conclave at Grand Portage saw the resignation, from the North West Company, of Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820). He is frustrated with the authoritarian style of Simon McTavish (1750-1804). Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) had the confidence of the Nor'wester, but the company is now in the hands of Simon McTavish (1750-1804) and (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810). Some believed that this is the beginning of the decline and fall of the company. Simon McTavish (1750-1804) had grossly underestimated the importance of maintaining confidence with the Nor'wester, as they represented the real company. To add to their problems, the Americans discovered that Grand Portage was on American soil and started charging tariff on all goods passing through their territory. A road is being built between York and Kingston.

Simon McTavish (1750-1804) and (I)-Joseph Frobisher's (1740-1810) decision to build a canal at Sault Ste Marie on the American side was to eliminate the portage. The 'XY' Company challenged the rights of the North West Company to charge toll for use of this American canal. The American Government resolved the issue by Act of Congress, making Sault Ste Marie a port of entry; thereby ensuring their control over the canal.

The North West Company employed a William Munro this season for 120 pounds' wages for working the upper Red River. Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) joined the 'XY' Company in November.

Napoleon Bonaparte made himself the Dictator of France, and George Washington died this year.

Family tradition and some historians suggest that Monsieur Garneau (Gaunaux), the stray of Ste Pierre de Montmagny, born about 1769, had acquired a country wife from the Ojibwa. They say he had sent her to Quebec for some religious education and to learn the language, before he married her.

(II)-James Brady contends that he ransomed a Sioux captive from the Ojibwa, and sent her to Quebec for religious education, then marriage. The records indicate that two related clans of Garneau exist in the west. One group is at Red Lake, Pembina & Red River, and the other are at Grand Pointe & Sault Ste. Marie. There are also a few unexplained strays at Sault Ste Marie and Red River. The La Pointe wife of Monsieur Garneau (Gaunaux), the stray of Ste Pierre de Montmagny, born about 1769 (See Gaunaux So-Way-Guay), could not read or write. Additional research may resolve some of these soft traditions and assumptions.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C., and Duncan McGillivray (1770-1808), brother to William and nephew to Simon McTavish, traveled the Bow River beyond Calgary. Roderick MacKenzie (1761-1844) made a trip from Rainy Lake to Fort Chipewyan in one month and four days, using a light canoe with six men. The Canadian, Rene Jusseaume, a long time resident among the Mandan of Missouri River, traded on a regular bases to the North West or Hudson Bay Posts, searching for the best trade.

Four or five families of Ottawa (Ojibwa) from Canada have settled about six miles up the Dead River from its junction with the Red River raising corn, potatoes and other farm produce.

Seventy eight percentage of the Hudson Bay Company are from the Orkney Islands, Scotland (416 of 530 servants). Unknown to these people, they carried a Caucasian disease called multiple sclerosis into the prairies. MS is believed to be a Scandinavian disease, carried by the Viking to the Orkney and Shetland Islands, then on to Canada. The Commandant of Fort Churchill wrote: If a man can write his name and knows ten words of the Indian dialect, we will put him to trading with the Indians whom he has no idea how to soothe or to intimidate.

The Northwest Company established their third post at Red Lake. It lasted from 1799 to 1801.

John McKay of Osnaburgh House on Lake St. Joseph reported that he invited the North West Company men to celebrate Christmas at the expense of the Hudson Bay Company. McKay remarked that two HBC men could eat 28 rabbits per week, along with 8 lbs of pork, 12 lbs flour and sometimes 40 rabbits. I thought 2 rabbits a day was enough for any man but now I find that 4 is too little.

Not a single Hudson Bay employee, during the eighteenth century asked to remain on Hudson Bay following his retirement from the services. These Bay men did not consider Canada their home. This is not entirely true, as some asked but were rejected and quit the company to join the Canadians.

(I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) is unable to persuade any Indian around Bolsover House at Meadow Lake to guide him to Lac La Biche because all the Indians in this quarter are frightened of the Bungees (Ojibwa) there. The Ojibwa are trading medicines from Lake Superior to the Cree and Assiniboine.

John Sayer and Jean Baptiste Cadotte are on the Mississippi.

Dunbar Douglas of Selkirk died this year, making his son, Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), next in line for the title of Earl of Selkirk.

The Father of Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854) died at Grand Portage, possibly Robert Grant of Grant House. He had acquired considerable wealth, leaving ample provisions for his children. William McGillivray is executor and sends Cuthbert to Montreal and then Scotland for his education.

Philadelpha has ceased to be the capital of the United States of America.

The Hudson Bay Company, this past century, purchased Hospital Boys, those orphaned or poor, some as young as fourteen years old, to be indentured as slaves for seven years into the service of the fur trade. Many child slaves were sent without their parents permission. English children were considered as chattel well into the twentieth century. This practice was being employed as far back as 1680.

Blue Coat Boys: Charles Coats, Henry Conway, Josiah Gosling and William Wheelehouse. Assigned to sea duty.

Gray Coat Boys: Henry Hanwell, Charles Marchant, William Charles Payne and Thomas Ramsey. Assigned to sea duty.

Christ's Hospital: William Dolbey, George Halstead, Samuel Hopkins and Mathew Vicary. Assigned to land duty.

Gray Coat Hospital: (I)-George Charles, (I)-John Charles, (I)-George Donald, (I)-Joseph Hansom, (I)-John Hodgson, (I)-George Hudson, and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) . Assigned to land duty.

January 28: Michilimackinac, marriage Andre Lachaine to Susanne J. Irebour.

May 16: Michilimackinac, marriage Charles Maillet to Isabelle McDonald.

June: An Indian arrived from Lac Seul and informed John MacKay of Osnaburgh that the Canadian's had robbed all his relations and stabbed his old brother.

June 20: Detroit, birth (V)-Julia Dagneau de Quindre died January 16, 1835 Detroit daughter (IV)-Antoine Dagneau de Quindre seur De Pontchartrain (1751-1814) and Catherine Desrivieres Lamorandiere Trottier (1757-1817); married August 21, 1822 Detroit Charles Moran.

July 10: baptism at Michimac a (V)-Michel Cadot born September 6, 1787, died 1856 and (V)-Marguerite Cadot born December 15, 1788, died 1858 children of (IV)-Michel Cadot (1764-1837) and a Sauteux woman Marie Madeline.

July 22: Michilimackinac, marriage Pierre Lacroix son Pierre Lacroix and Therese LaFrance of Quebec; married to Marie McGulpin daughter Patrick McGulpin and Magdelaine Crequi.

June 30: Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Desfonts son Desfonts and Minanaconaton an Outawas Woman.

July 7: Michilimackinac, baptism, Josette Laframboise, Metis born September 24, 1795, daughter, Joseph LaFramboise and Madelain of the Courtes Oreilles, likely the brother Alexander Laframboise.

July 7: Michilimackinac, baptism, Margueritel Laframboise, born November 8, 1797 daughter Alexander Laframboise and Josette (Josephe) Adhema (Adhemar).

July 8: Michilimackinac, baptism, Josette L'Agace, Metis, born 1794, daughter Joachim L'Agace and Elizabeth of Courte Oreille.

July: Michilimackinac, baptism, Henri Soloman, Metis, born October 23, 1797, son Guillaumw Soloman and Agibicocona of the Sauteux Nation.

July 8: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Louise Solomon born April 7, 1799 daughter Guillaume Solomon and Agibicocona of the Sauteux Nation.

July 9: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Judith Bourassa, born October 10, 1790, daughter Daniel Bourassa and Margarite Bertrand.

July 9: Michilimackinac, baptism, Joseph Vailancourt, born August 27, 1797 son Joseph Vailancourt and Marie Elizabeth Bourgouin.

July 9: Michilimackinac, baptism, Nicolas Frereau born August 20, 1798 son Nicolas Frereau and Josette Poitras.

July 9: Michilimackinac, baptism, Leon Bourassa, born October 9, 1798, son Daniel Bourassa and Marguerite Bertrain.

July 9: Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Vaillancourt born December 17, 1798, son Joseph Vaillancourt and Marie Elizabeth Bourgouin.

July 9: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Louise born 1797 daughter unknown and Manitown a Savage of the Sauteux Nation.

July 10: Michilimackinac, baptism, Michel Cadot, Metis, born September 6, 1787, son Michel Cadot, Metis, and Savage Sauteeux Woman.

July 10: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marguerite Cadot, Metis, born December 15 1788, son Michel Cadot, Metis, and Savage Sauteeux Woman.

July 14: Michilimackinac, baptism, Louis Martin, Metis, born December 29, 1798, son Antoine Martian, Metis, and Kinicona Sauteaux Woman.

July 26: Michilimackinac, baptism, Alexis Solomon, Metis, born May 23, 1797, Samuel Soloman and Marie of the Sauteux Nation.

July 26: Mitchilimackinac, baptism, Joseph Le Vasseur, Metis, born August 8, 1797, son Jacques Le Vasseur and Madelaine of the Courte Oreille Nation. Jacques and Madeleine married August 5, 1799.

July 20: Michilimackinac, baptism, Henry McFulpin (McGulpin), born June 10, 1797, son Patrice McGulpin and Madeline Creque.

July 28: Michilimackinac, baptism, Elizabeth McGulpin born February 12, 1798, daughter Patrice McGulpin and Madeline Creque.

July 28: Michilimackinac, baptism, Giles McGulpin born April 7, 1799, son Patrice McGulpin and Madeline Creque.

August 1: Michilimackinac, baptism, Catherine Bourassa, Metis born May 1792 a slave of Danie Bourassa and Louise.

August 3 Michilimackinac, baptism, Josette Charlebois, born November 18, 1797, son Andre Charlebois and Josette Ammelain.

Robert Shore Milnes lieutenant-governor Canada to August 4, 1805.

August 5: Michilimackinac, marriage Jacques Vasseur son Jacques Vasseur and Madelaine Vasseur of Montreal; married Madeline unknown.

August 5: Michilimackinac, baptism, Madeliene of the Outawas Nation born 1769. Possible wife 1789 Jacques Vasseur

August 11: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Taillefer, Metis, born April 15, 1787 son Joseph Railefer and the late Louise of the Sauteux Nation.

August 11: Michilimackinac, baptism, Louise Taillefer, Metis, born April 17, 1790 and Joseph Railfer the late Louise of the Sauteux Nation.

August 15: Michilimackinac, baptism, Jacques Vasseur, Metis born January 8, 1799 son Jacques Vasseur and Madeleine an Outawa Woman.

August 15: Michilimackinac, baptism, Louis Vasseur, Metis born June 15, 1790 son Jacques Vasseur and Madeleine an Outawa Woman.

August 15: Michilimackinac, baptism, Genevieve Vasseur, Metis born July 2, 1792 daughter Jacques Vasseur and Madeleine an Outawa Woman.

August 18: Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Agacouchin, born 1789 son Charles Agacouchin of the Potowatowmis Nation and Marguerite of the Outawas Nation.

August 18: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Anne La Saliere, Metis, born 1790 daughter Pierre LaSaliere and Therese og the Outawas Nation.

August 18: Michilimackinac, baptism, Louis Joseph son Louis of the Potowatowmis Nation and Margaeurite of the Outawas Nation.

September 23: Michilimackinac, baptism Antoine of the Mandanes Nation, born 1779 in the service of Charles Langlade.