Metis

1800 - 1802


No less than 14 members of the McTavish and
McGillivary Scot clans worked in the
North West Company fur trade.

The North West Company attempts to restrict
free trade, but loses in court.

The judgment says the Company has no legal
right to restrict free trade.


The Metis invent the Red River cart.


The North West Company tries to buy
out the Hudson Bay Company.

It is reported that the perverted practice of trading
young women's favors had reached the Prairies.


1800

Alexis Bellgard, Metis b-1800 Canada married Marguerite Dufort, Metis b-1797 Red River.

Francis Benechi born 1800 likely La Porte, Wisconsin married January 6, 1850 La Pointe, Wisconsin Theresia Jawanassinokwe born 1804 likely Fon du Lac, Wisconsin.

Michael Basinet born 1800 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married September 22, 1850 La Pointe, Wisconsin Margaret Ochkigikwe born 1820 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Elise Boucher born 1800 Red River Settlement daughter Noir Boucher.

Jean Baptiste b-1800 Minnesota, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Michael Brissette born 1800 died March 22, 1845 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Augustus Cadotte born 1800 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married July 22, 1838, La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Anna Mijakamigijigokwe born 1818 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

George D Cameron born 1800 likely Lac du Flambeau (Lake of Flames), Wisconsin married July 24, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Wechkin born 1817 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(I)-John Archibald Campbell (1775-1808) is a trader for the Machinac Company from 1800 to 1806, when he became independent.

Jean Baptiate Cloutier, Metis b-1800 Pembina, a lumberman, married Josephte Racette b-1801 Red River.

Antoine Cornoyer born 1800 likely Lake Superior married July 24, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Susan Dullieme born 1806 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Nicolas des Coteaux born 1800 likely Lake Superior died June 18, 1856 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Francois Demonay b-1800, Pembina, a hunter, married Marguerite Metis, b-1800 Red River Nemaha Territory, Missouri, birth Margaret Dorion Metis born about 1800 daughter Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow); married about 1829, St. Charles, Missouri a Louis Desnoyers. See 1780.

Marie DuPuis (widow) born 1800 Red River Settlement living St. Norbert, Red River 1870.

Sault Ste Marie, birth (III)-Anne Ermatinger, Metis (1800-1817) daughter (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.

Marie Fistin born 1800 Genitoire, NWT daughter Fistin.

Thomas Forth born 1800 Red River Settlement listed a son of the Scot Thomas Forth.

Caroline Gauthier born 1800 likely Lake Superior died September 26, 1850 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Pierre George, Metis b-1800 Red River, a hunter, 2nd marriage about 1841 Red River Marguerite Saulteaux b-1820 Red River

Francois Gourneau, alias Geurnou, Guernoe (Garneau) (1800-1870), is born this year, Red Lake Band, Minnesota treaty 1854 script application No. 343 dated June 7, 1869, and rejected.

Jean Baptiste Hamelin (Hamel/Amelin) was with the Alexander Henry (1764-1814) brigade on the Upper Red River of the North until 1801.

Antoine Houl (Houle), Metis b-1800 Pembina, a hunter, married Julie Metis b-1810 Pembina

Martin Jerome, Metis b-1800 Red River, a hunter, married about 1827 Red River, Elizabeth Wilkie, Metis b-1809 Pembina

Antoinette LaJunairndre born 1800 Red River Settlement daughter Jean Baptiste LaJunairndre.

Francois Laquitte, Metis b-1800 Pembina, a hunter, married Isabelle, Metis b-1805 Pembina.

Marie Lambert born 1800 Rabasca (Athabasca) daughter Robert Lambert, living St. Boniface 1870.

Joseph La Porte Jr., Metis born 1800/10 son Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) and Pimeegeeshigoqua Ojibwa woman.

Francis Lebranche born 1800 Red River married about 1836 Michigan Agelique b-1813 Wisconsin, living Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan 1850 census.

Joseph Letendre, Metis b-1800 Red River, a hunter, married Christine b-1826 Red River, likely second marriage.

Louis Laudry born 1800 Red River Settlement son William Laudry, living St Norbert, Red River 1870.

John Linklater born 1800 Red River Settlement son John Linklater.

D. MacDonell born 1800 likely Lac des Sables (Sandy Lake), Minnesota married August 30, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Genovefa Contois born 1816 likely Lac des Sables.

Donald McKenzie, Metis b-1800 married Matildia Bruce, Metis b-1810 N.W.T. daughter Benjamin Bruce b-1775 and Matildia, Metis b-1778.

Angelique Methot, Metis b-1800 Red River married before 1825 Red River Francois Fournier, Metis b-1796, Red River, a hunter . 1850 census. (Francois b-1793) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

John Moore born 1800 Red River Settlement son John Moore.

Benjamin Morreau born 1800 died January 17, 1880 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Legard Nolin b-1800, living 1870 census Sugar Island, Michigan.

Nicolas Nolin b-1800, living 1870 census Sugar Island, Michigan.

Agathe Peltier (Azure), Metis b-1800 Pembina. 1850 census. (Agathe Azure b-1806 married to Pierre Pelletier, Metis b-1804 N.W.T.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Azure Peltier (Pelletier), Metis b-1800 Pembina, a hunter, married Mary Metis b-1805 Red River.

Jean Baptiste Phillips (Phillipe), Metis b-1800, Prairie du Chien, a hunter.

Francis Pickette b-1800 Michigan, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Louis Ponsand b-1800 Canada, married Josette b-1810 Red River, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a voyager.

Manitoulin Island, Georgian Bay, birth (III)-Charlotte de Rocheblave, Metis baptised July 14, 1804 Mackinac daughter (II)-Noel Rocheblave died 1805 and Nigans Ottawa, died 1862

St. Louis, Missouri, birth 1800/01 Joseph F Robidoux son Joseph Robidoux (1783-1868) and Eugene deLisle

Edward St. Arnauld born 1800 likely Lac des Sables (Sandy Lake), Minnesota married August 30, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin Maria Descarreaux born 1810 likely Lac des Sables.

Josette Spence, Metis, married several times, is from Lake Superior Ojibwa, lived Upper Mississippi, applied November 3, 1870 Lake Superior Script, rejected for script, no reason given.

Joseph Vieul, Metis b-1800 Pembina, a hunter, married Mary b-1813 Red River.

Nineteen births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement. This would imply a population of 347 people in the Metis Settlement.

Bird Mountain, Saskatchewan: Daniel Harmon said the Cree and Ojibwa in this quarter have been so long accustomed to using European trade goods that it would be difficult to obtain a livelihood without them; especially fire arms to kill game. They have almost lost the use of the bow and arrow. It is noteworthy that the Native people were still using the bow and arrow on the buffalo hunt in the 1770's, finding them just as effective as the gun.

The early Hudson Bay Company offspring did not get classed as a separate ethnic/racial entity prior to this time. Most Metis were dispersed to the Indian hunting grounds each winter. The company also removed all British servants who retired or were dismissed so as to eliminate any chance of them becoming free traders. Very few H.B.C. officers' native sons gained permission to travel to Britain. Few Metis became company servants; the few who did were classified as 'Native of Hudson Bay' or even as English in order to avoid the wrath of London. Those genealogists who trace their ancestors to this period run into much confusion. The Hudson Bay Company records are not to be trusted as they were falsified on many occasions.

John Tanner encountered Ozawwendib (Yellow Head), son of Weshkobug (The Sweet), an Ojibwa, who lived at Leech Lake. This man was one of those who make themselves into women and are called women by the Indians. They are commonly called Agokwa; a word which is expressive of their condition..

James Grant of the N.W.C. is posted at the outlet of Rainy Lake Post until 1804 when he is replaced by Hugh Faries.

Prairie du Chien, birth Joseph Brisbois, Metis died 1849 son Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein; married 1826 Marie Domitelle Fraser.

At Fort Chipewyan, the abandoned wife of Morin is taken by James Mackenzie to be resold into virtual slavery.

The North West Company shipped to Britain, furs valued at £144,000, and the Hudson Bay Company furs to Britain are a mere £38,000. In terms of total furs harvested, the Hudson Bay Company is still a minor player. It is noteworthy to remember that it was 2,750 miles from Montreal to Athabaska, yet the Hudson Bay Company profits continued to drop. By 1801 dividends dropped to four per cent.

No less than 14 members of the McTavish and McGillivary clans worked in the North West Company fur trade.

The McKenzie clan was also evident. Henry McKenzie, first cousin of Alexander McKenzie, arrived in Canada at twenty one years of age with his brother Donald McKenzie from the Loch Broom area of Scotland. Two other brothers, Roderick and James McKenzie, were already established in the North West Company. A fifth brother, John McKenzie, sent his son Kenneth McKenzie to take up land grants in Glengarry, Upper Canada. John, however, took no part in the fur trade. It is noteworthy that when James McKenzie was at Fort Chipeway, he sexually abused the Indian women, and when the Indian husbands complained, he threatened to kill them if they tried to recover them. Many received beatings- or so reports Philip Turner.

Jesuit Father Jean Joseph (1728-1800), the Swiss, died March 16, 1800, and with him the Society of Jesus became extinct in Canada. Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845), a clerk who would become Superintendent beyond the Rocky Mountains with the North West Company, commented that there is no Sabbath in this North West Country. Knowing that the young Harmon is an idealistic religious person, they quipped that there is no God and no Devil in the wilderness; meaning no priests, and therefore no sin. Harmon was indentured April 29 for 7 years and departed Montreal for Grand Portage with 30 canoes for the North West. When Harmon passed Sault Ste Marie they teamed up with another 35 canoes, containing some 300 men all westward bound. On July 3 three canoes full of Iroquois traders and their families left Grand Portage for the upper Red River to hunt beaver.

Harmon wrote July 8: Mons Mayotte took a woman of this country for a wife or rather concubine. Mr. Miller is in charge of the Hudson Bay Post at Red River. Harmon writes that the Canadian possess lively and fickle dispositions, rarely subject to depression of spirits. They are not considered brave, but when danger strikes they- as they say- play the man.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) entered into treaty with the Piegans on the Bow River, allowing a number of Saulteaux (Ojibwa), Iroquois and Nipissing traders to work the Stony Mountains for furs and thereby providing a barrier between the Piegan and their enemies. They were not long in the region before they were trading over the mountains. They discovered the Tete Jaune Cache Pass (Yellowhead Pass). They also opened the Athabasca Pass; the gateway to the Columbia River Department. A trader named Thomas Iroquois would later guide (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) over the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia, as the Piegans would not allow him to pass. It is noteworthy that most assume Thompson was the first to cross the Rocky Mountains into uncharted territory. However, many traders had preceded him. Notably Jocko Findlay, a Metis, son of James Findlay Sr., preceded him by at least a year but he is generally ignored in history books. It is also noteworthy that Old Swan, a.k.a. Ak Ko Makki, a Sikiska Chief, provided a detailed map of the west to the Hudson Bay company, and both Thompson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition had access to these maps, which were upgraded of all known information on access to the Pacific, by Peter Fiddler.

Napoleon Bonaparte reclaimed the Louisiana Territory in the Treaty of San Ildeionso for France. The population of Spanish Louisiana had grown from 7,500 to nearly 50,000 when France regained possession.

Sault Ste Marie became part of the Indiana Territory. The traders are traveling in brigades of as many as ten canoes, whereas previous brigades seldom exceeded three or four.

Prairie Buffalo (Bison) Approximately fifty million buffaloes are on the continent, most of them west of the Mississippi valley, down from about seventy million in the 1500's.

A quarter of a million gallons of liquor is being brought to the prairies each year in trade. This was appalling, as the native population is about one hundred and twenty thousand people.

Red River carts were used from 1800 to 1900.

Red River carts are being developed for prairie travel; being made entirely of wood. The Plains Indians, when referring to these carts, called them half wagon- half man because they only had two wheels and a Metis precariously astride the vehicle.

Moonias is the term given by the Metis and Indians of the Northwest to a greenhorn or tenderfoot who had not learned the ways of the area. The Nor'wester followed the Voyager tradition of acquiring Country Wives. When he wanted one of the Native daughters to live with him, he made a present to the parents of the damsel, such articles as he may suppose would best please them. Should they accept the articles offered, the girl remains with the man unless either does not agree in which case they would then separate. The gifts are forfeit no matter how short the marriage.

The British Hudson Bay Company men this year surpassed, in numbers, the Canadian North West Company men in the taking of Indian women. However, they never referred to their Country Women as wives.

John B. Corbin is recorded as commandant of the Lac Coutereille Department.

(II)-Richard Thomas is born 1800 (some records say 1806) in the Albany District of the Hudson Bay, North West Territories. He arrived Red River 1820, baptized November 13, 1837, and died July 8, 1860, at Little Britain, Red River. He is the son of (I)-Thomas Thomas born 1881 and (II)-Eleanor Thomas (who also married 1822 Peter Foy) daughter (I)-John George Thomas born 1766 and Neenish Cree. Thomas married about 1820 (II)-Eleanor Thomas born 1805 died June 25, 1878, baptized November 13, 1837, daughter (I)-John George Thomas alias Thomas Thomas born 1766 and Mienish Cree.

The number of Metis women and children directly dependant on the North West Company is estimated as one thousand.

The Kutenai, who live west of the Rocky Mountains, came to trade at Rocky Mountain House, Alberta. Charles Lagrasse, Pierre Leblanc and his wife went to the Kutenai Country, Oregon Territory.

The Dakota, numbering 400, attacked the Sandy Lake Ojibwa band after they separated from the Pillager band. The Dakota destroyed nearly the whole camp at Cross Lake including women and some children.

Louisiana by secret treaty is returned to France. The Louisiana Acadian people introduced okra into their culture, being introduced by African mixed bloods. Okra is a staple of the gumbos for the future French-Acadia-Cajun culture. Acadia-Cajuns had no problem intermarrying with African, Indian, Metis and all European peoples. They freely borrowed from other cultures but most mixed bloods were incorporated into the evolving Cajun culture.

Unlike their southern counterpart the Acadian (Cajun) rarely owned slaves but some of the more wealthier Acadians did own slaves. It's questionable if these slave owners were true Acadians.

Three very unique high bred cultures had evolved in America based on aboriginal traditions, a dash of European traditions, and are often called, mixed blood cultures vs. the great melting pot. The most significant by numbers is the Metis culture of the Old and New North West of America. The East Coast Mixed Blood Acadian culture are more aligned with the beliefs and values of the Metis culture and are in the process of searching for their roots.

The south coast mixed blood Cajun culture descended from the Acadian culture but is very unique in its nature. The Cajuns however are more closer aligned with the Metis culture, than the American culture. The Cajun culture is trying to understand its roots. All three cultures are built on the foundation of the aboriginal peoples who have spent over 50,000 years trying to get it right.

January 3: Alexander Henry (1764-1814), the younger, wrote : I got rid of my bedfellow (Country Wife) who returned to her father with good grace.

January 19: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Louise of the Saulteux Nation as witnessed by Sieur F Catin.

March 21: Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Laframboise daughter Alexis Lagramboise and dame Joseph Adhemar.

April 20: Michilimackinac, baptism of an adult woman of the Sauteux Nation.

September 26: (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822), wife Mary Cree and eighteen men began building Chesterfield House for the Hudson Bay Company at the mouth of the Red Deer River where it enters the South Saskatchewan River.

September 28: John Wills of the XY Company began building a trading house 100 yards from Chesterfield House.

October 6: Pierre Belleau of the North West Company began building west of Chesterfield house, a common stockade which was to be shared as the natives were not pleased with this intrusion.

October 21: Michilimackinac, baptism, Charles Maillet son Charles Maillet and Elizabeth McDonald.

November 10: (II)-George Fidler Metis is born Chesterfield House son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary Cree Indian. The Fidler's arrive here September 26, 1800.

November 25: Archibald Norman McLeod of Swan River Fort wrote that he sent E. Ducharm for red deer; LaRose and H. Ducharm for birch; and Valle for wood. Roy took a dose of physics and he scolded Girardin (Giradin) for stupid observations of Harmon and Collin. Old Parant is busy making a slay (sleigh) and Danis (Dannis) is making window shutters.

December 21: Alexander Henry (1739-1824) sends a stallion and two mares to (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) at Red Lake. The intent is to forward them to Mr. Peter Grant (1764-1848) at Rainy Lake. Michael Langlois is currently stationed at Reed Lake.

1801

John William Bell born 1801 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married July 24, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Margarite Brabant born 1818 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Sault Ste Marie, birth (III)-Charles O. Ermatinger Metis son (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.

Margaret Gournon born 1801 Ontario (MB7-4) which also lists Joseph Gournon living before 1801 Ontario. Could be a reference to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario.

Green Bay, marriage (IV)-Pierre Antoine (Fanfan) Grignon, Metis (1777-1823) Green Bay (son espouse) as baptized August 6, 1787 Mackinac, son (II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago; married 1st 1801 Charlotte Pemonica, 2nd 1811 Marie Chellefoux.

Red River of the North, birth of Marguerite Marie Hamelin Metis died February 24, 1890 Little Canada, Minnesota daughter Jacques Hamelin son (Jacques Hamelin and Marie Anastasie Landry) and Angelique Tourangeau; Marguerite married Antoine Pepin who died January 31, 1851 St. Paul, Minnesota

Edward Harman, Metis, alias Edward Addotte, of the Pembina Ojibwa Band applied Lake Superior script February 27, 1871, rejected, applied 1865 for La Pointe script and received La Pointe 1854 script.

Peter Lanoix (Lepissier) born 1801, died May 18, 1839 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Hugh (Laird) McGillis (1767-1848) of New York joined the N.W.C. He married a Native woman and had seven Metis children.

Louis (Louison) Letendre dit Batoche, Metis b-1801 Red River, a hunter, married Marie Julie Hallett, Metis b-1801 Red River. 1850 census. Sophia b-1770 Red River living with family possible mother Louis?. (Louison b-1805 N.W.T. & Marie b-1810 daughter Henery Hallet b-1772 & 1st Indian, 2nd Catherine Dungas, Metis b-1780) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Augustin Parisien, Metis b-1801 Red River, a hunter married Angelique McPherson, Metis b-1822 Red River. 1850 census. (Augustin b-1810 & Angelique b-1820 daughter George McPherson b-1800 and Angelique Racette, Metis b-1803.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Josephte Racette, Metis, b-1801 Red River married Jean Baptiate Cloutier, Metis b-1800 Pembina.

Pierre Savoyard, Metis b-1801 Pembina, a hunter, married Louis Dubois, Metis b-1815 Red River. 1850 census (Pierre b-1800 N.W.T. & Louise b-1805 daughter Francois Dubois b-1775 and Angelique Lariviere, Metis b-1775 Red River.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Jenny Southerland born 1801 Red River Settlement daughter Peter Southerland.

Francois St. Pierre, Metis b-1801 Pembina, a hunter, married Marie Laverdure, Metis b-1813 Pembina. 1850 census. (Francois b-1802 N.W.T. & Marie b-1810) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Rocky Mountain House, birth (II)-Fanny Thompson, Metis daughter (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis.

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) became president of the United States were 20% of the population were slaves out of a total population of 5 million people. Sally Hemings (1773­1835), Jefferson's mistress slave for 25 years, was a blood relative of Jackson's wife. She was Martha Jefferson's half sister. Martha's father, John Wayles, had taken Betty Hemings, Sally's mother, as a slave concubine after the death of his third wife. Betty bore him six children; of whom Sally was one.

Three births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement.

This year appears to reflect a policy change at the Roman Catholic Mission at Mackinac. The parish register of baptism, marriage and death no longer refers to Indians as savage but now references them by Nation name of birth.

The inner circle of the North West Company expanded this year to include High Gillies, (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818), John McGillivray, James McKenzie, and (I)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) became one of the companies youngest partners.

The British Hudson Bay Company contends that some Canadian North West Company employees followed the example of Simon McTavish and perverted the Indian custom of taking female slaves as wives, turning some of them into trade items to settle debt to the company. Some of the girlsmwere as young as nine or ten years old. This, they contend, is a result of the Canadian Company policy to keep non partners in perpetual debt. These exceptions appear to justify the actions of the British Hudson Bay Company men and support Company rivalry, rather than account for social norms.

The common norm was the French custom of taking Country Wives. Unfortunately, some of these were also temporary marriages of convenience.

Most traders concluded that the Country Ladies were a necessity to the trade, had excellent manners, and loved to dance. The Canadian North West Company shipped furs valued at one hundred and forty four thousand pound sterling, whereas the British Hudson Bay Company shipped thirty eight thousand pound sterling this season. Thomas Miller and eight Orkney from Albany Factory established themselves at Pembina and Red River. A Mr. DesFond (DuFord) of 'XY' built at Riviere Aux Gratias with five men. Augustin Cadotte (son Jean Baptiste?) and Mr. Crebassa, with 10 men for 'XY', also arrived in the area.

A new French Canadian Company referred to as the 'XY' Company came into existence to challenge the North West Company and the British Hudson Bay Company. The competition was manageable until Alexander MacKenzie joined the company with a vendetta against Simon McTavish of the North West Company. The North West Company trade began to hurt and they declared war on the 'XY' Company, as well as on the potties (the English of the Hudson Bay Company)- as they called them. War at this time was in the form of harassment.

Free trader Dominique Rousseau sent Monsieur Hervieu to set up a trading post near the Canadian stronghold at Grand Portage. Duncan McGillivray (1770-1808), brother of William and nephew to Simon McTavish, and a senior partner destroyed his camp, threatening to kill him. Rousseau took (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) to court and won a five hundred pound sterling judgment. The North West Company had no legal right to restrict free trade, and the application of force to protect the monopoly would escalate. Alexander Henry, the younger (1764-1814), recorded that the perverted practice of trading young women's favors had reached the prairie Natives. This practice is having an impact on the Gros Ventre, the Blackfoot, Blood and Piegan people.

Alexander Henry (1764-1814) reported the use of Red River carts, and this is believed to be the first report saying that they are being used. Grosse Guele wanted to trade his furs to 'XY', which Alexander Henry prevented. Henry then went to the upper Tongue River and fought several battles with the women to get their furs, for which the 'XY' had already advanced goods to the natives.

Four Iroquois traders of the North West Company were killed by the Gros Ventre on their way to the joint H.B.C.-N.W.C. Fort at Chesterfield House.

Seventy five Iroquois traders were invited into a Gros Ventres (Atsina) village, where 25 Iroquois are killed. The brigade, upon reaching Fort Augustus, wanted to launch a retaliatory attack but were dissuaded by the Cree. The Gros Ventres continued to prey upon the Iroquois throughout the trading season. Peter Fiddler reports two Iroquois are killed when trying to make friends with the Fall Indians (Gros Ventres) not far from Chesterfield House.

Although most Indian traders were Algonquin, a few others mentioned were the Nipissing and Abenaki. (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) mentioned the Bungees; who were actually the Plains Chippewa (Ojibwa) from the Great Lakes. (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney, Factor of the Hudson Bay Company, claimed the North West Company and XY Company had employed over three hundred Eroquees or Mohawk Indians into the Saskatchewan River system this season alone. (I)-William Tomison said the Iroquois leave nothing from where ever they come. Daniel Harmon of the North West Company says that the Natives consider the Iroquois to be intruders. They do not attempt to keep the stock of animals good, they destroy both the young and old. Some Natives have threatened to kill them if they persist in destroying the animals on their lands.

January 1: Red River: Alexander Henry (1764-1814) records that he awakened to find a girl in his bed, one of Chief Liard's daughters; Concomely's favorite daughter, after a New Years party where he was tipsy. The devil himself could not have got her out. Henry went on a buffalo hunt to escape her, but she remained upon his return.

January 30: Red River Settlement: Alexander Henry (1764-1814) wrote: I got rid of my encumbrance, who returned to her father Concomely. Two days later, however, the lady returned. He then began to refer to her as Her Ladyship; he nicknamed her Princess of Wales. He retained this Country Wife until his death (by drowning) at the west coast.

February: Archibald Norman McLeod of Swan River Fort wrote that he sent Roy, Giradin, Dannis and Plante to trade with the Indians.

May: Petrus (Peter) Lanoix (LePissier) born 1801 died May 18, 1839 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

April 19: A heavy snow caused Swan River (Manitoba) to overflow, and people who are making maple sugar had to leave the woods and return to the Fort: so wrote Daniel Harmon (1778-1845). Archibald Norman McLeod and his Rapid Indian wife and Metis son are stationed at Swan River Fort, a two days march from Harmon's Post. Monteur and two Canadians visited Harmon, delivering mail from Fort des Prairies on the Saskatchewan River.

A half-breed boy aged 5 years could speak English, Cree, Ojibwa, Assiniboine and French, which so impressed Daniel Harmon (1778-1845) that he concluded the half-breed have a retentive memory, apt to learning. The Metis gathered along the Hair Hills this year, a short distance from the Red River Settlement. The women and children are left to protect the animals and their other possessions. The men are presumed to be off hunting.

Alexander Henry (1764-1814), a few years later, counted 45 men along the same hill. It should be remembered that the Metis freely welcomed, into their abodes, the wives and children of those who are absent. Groups of 20 people might be gathered under one single roof. This should be remembered when you extrapolate numbers of people from a man count, tent or cabin count.

June 1: Harmon estimates Fort Alexandra, up the Assiniboine River, supports (feeds) about 100 people. Harmon observed a white child who was kidnapped and adopted by the Ojibwa in the Illinois Country in the 1780's as a small child. He is now about 20 years old and is regarded as a Chief among the Ojibwa. Archibald Norman McLeod employed William Henry and Frederick Goedike as clerks at Fort Alexandria up the Assiniboine River (Saskatchewan). There was stored, at this Fort, the meat of 85 buffalo cows, 62 bags of pemmican weighing 90 lbs. each, and 9 kegs grease of 70 lbs. each.

September 21: (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) of the HBC returned to Chesterfield House.

October: Alexander Henry (1764-1814) writes he traded from his Pembina Post with 10 Leech Lake Chippewa (Ojibwa) under Wiscoup (Sucre, Sweet).

October 11: John Wills of the XY Company returned to the XY House next to the Chesterfield House.

October 11: Michilimackinac, baptism, Male Champagne, Metis son Simon Champagne and a Savage Woman of the Schiouse Nation.

December 28: Payet, an interpreter for Daniel Harmon at Fort Alexander, has taken a Native Cree wife, giving rum, dry goods etc. to a value of $200 to the parents as a gift. The partners of these wedlock unions usually live in harmony. Primault is another of Harmon's interpreters.

1802

Only two births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement.

James Ballindine was born 1802 North West, census 1838 Red River.

Duluth, birth George Bonga, Metis, died 1884 daughter Pierre Bonga (Mukdaweos) Negro, born 1780's and an Ojibwa woman of Lake Superior; married two Ojibwa women.

Duncan Campbell, Metis born about 1802 Upper Mississippi District son John Archibald Campbell (1775-1808) and Dakota woman; married about 1815 Therese a Dakota Woman (III)-Charles Chaboillez (1736-1808) is the appointed storekeeper for the British Indian Department at St. Joseph Island from 1802 to 1807, after which he retired to Montreal.

Josephite DeJairiut born 1802 Red River Settlement daughter Jean Baptiste DeJairliut (DeJauliot), living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

John A Drew, born before 1780, is trading the Lake Superior area from 1802 to 1817. He was given land at the Chegoigen Rapids at the 1836 Treaty.

Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) is at Clam Lake (Burnett County, Wisconsin from 1802 to 1805.

Peter Grant (1764-1848) of Sandy Lake (des Sables) a partner of the North West Company is assigned to the Sandy Lake post on the Mississippi.

Joseph Hamelin (Hamel/Amelin) is sent by Alexander Henry (1764-1814) to replace Lagasse at the Hairy Hills Post (northeastern North Dakota). However, he remained an employee of the H.B.C. Red River Department until 1805. In 1807 he was working for Francois Freniere & Co. to winter St Peters River (Minnesota River).

Charles Hess of Pennsylvania is at Pembina (North Dakota) died 1820 on the Minnesota River. He married an Ojibwa/Cree woman.

John Knott was born 1802 North West, living St. Andrews, Red River 1870.

Alexis Laframboise arrived at Mackinac with wife Madeline Adhemar and her sister, Angelique Adhemar. The girls opened a school, but shortly returned to Montreal due to the sudden death of Alexis.

Manuel Lisa established a trading post in Osage Country that is west of St. Louis.

Mary Ann Morrisette, b-1802 Red River married Jacque Morrisette, Metis b-1793 Red River, a hunter.

Red River Settlement Region, birth Adolphe Trottier Trotchie Metis born about 1802 son Andre Trottier b-1757 Montreal and Louise Chippewa Indian.

The London Committee of the Hudson Bay Company suggested to York Factory that they did not care to clothe their servants wives.

York Factory, for the first time, have thrown caution to the wind, informing London of the existence of their country wives and children despite Company policy.

Many Nor'westers believe that the stupidity of the Montreal Scots are driving the North West Company into ruin. In a few years the working capital of

Sir Alexander MacKenzie's 'XY' Company is nearly equal to the North West Company. 'XY' only had two hundred and fifty men in the field, mostly former North West Company men, compared with Simon McTavish's North West Company's one thousand and fifty eight. 'XY', however, had the cream of the crop and is producing nearly as much fur as the North West Company. On July 23 a grasshopper plague swept Red River, ravaging the potato crop.

Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) is busy this year in London trying to buy out the British Hudson Bay Company. Nearly accepted is an offer of one hundred and three thousand pounds. Peter Fiddler established Nottingham House for the British Hudson Bay Company. Peter Fiddler the Chief Surveyor, while at Oxford House, reported that the Indian maps convey much information, whereas European documents fail. "XY' Company clerk La Mothe, out of Island Fort, shot and killed North West Company man James King over furs being traded with the natives. His trial in the east resulted in his release, as Canada had no jurisdiction in the North West Territories (Indian Territories). No one wanted to improve the British Hudson Bay Company's position by suggesting their involvement. The Canada Jurisdiction Act, as a result of this trial, appointed Civil Magistrates and Justices of the Peace for the North West Territories.

Several Canadian Nor'wester named Justices of the Peace included: (I)-Duncan McGillivray (1770-1808), brother of William and nephew to Simon McTavish; and Sir Alexander MacKenzie, William's younger brother. No appointment of British Hudson Bay Company men occurred, as they are Non-Canadian in nature.

Augustin Cadotte, this year, is working out of Tekogonaibick. Alexander Henry (1764-1814) took the daughter of Beau Pere the Buffalo as his Country Wife.

The Tlingit's attacked the Russian Amerian Company trading post in Sitka Sound.

February: (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) welcomed the XY Company men into his fort for mutual support against the Fall Indians (Gros Venture). The XY Company men had hidden a cannon the previous season, but were unable to find it when needed. (I)-Peter Fidler also had not maintained his own cannon, and six weeks later put it into working order.

February 21: A band of Gros Ventre attempted to force their way into the XY Company post at Chesterfield House but were expelled. They then killed four Iroquois traders of the North West Company.

March 3: The North West Company sent a 12 man party to Fort Chesterfield, near present day Empress, Alberta, and the Gros Ventre killed the two Canadians (Metis) and ten Iroquois traders. Others suggest it was 14 Iroquois and 2 Canadians of the N.W.C., and that they were killed on the Bow River, southern Alberta.

April 21: Fort Chesterfield is abandoned by all parties, as the Gros Ventre and Crow people were planning to capture the Fort. It would remain abandoned until 1805.

June 9: Michilimackinac, baptism Joseph Flamand, Metis, born 1796 son Jean Baptiste Flamand and Marie a Savage Woman

October: Francois Houle of Sault St. Louis is hired by the N.W.C. for Rainy Lake.

October 4: Hugh McGillies replaced Archibald Norman McLeod who is going to Athabasca with Alexander Henry the younger (1764-1814) and J. Clarke.