Metis

1803 - 1804


The French sell what they don't own: the Louisiana Territory.

"The Indians are what they claim to be in their actions.

The English and French are not what they profess to be;

Christians and Civilized." Jameson 1838


The Englishmen and Scotchmen began their relentless
campaign to dominate the Metis.

Metis partners and clerks are systemically
replaced with English or Scottish personnel.

The British would continue this relentless
practice into the mid twentieth century.


1803

Thomeson Audinson, Metis b-1803 Red River married to Leathine Metis b-1802 Red River living Lakeland eastern Alberta 1891.

Charles Belgarde, Metis b-1803 Red River, a hunter, married Susan Brien b-1823 Red River.

Toussaint Charbonneau, Metis b-1758 is living Fort Pembina.

William Connolly (Connoly) born Quebec died 1849 at Rat River House in the Athabasca Others suggest died 1848 Montreal 1st married Susanne a cree woman born Churchill died 1862 St. Boniface, Red River. They had three children: John, Amelia (b-1812) and William. Some suggest this marriage was a life long marriage commitment according to the Country tradition, but in (1831)1832, he sent his wife and children back to Red River in order to marry Julia Woolrich of Montreal.

Marie Crebassa born 1803 USA daughter John Crebassa, living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

Bazil (Basile) Delorme, Metis b-1803 Pembina, a hunter, married Marguritte McGillis, Metis b-1802/07 Red River.

Michel Deup (Ducept), Metis, b-1803 Red River, a hunter, married about 1829 , wife not listed but married to1844, and living Red River, 1850 census.

Suzanne DuCharme born 1803 Red River Settlement daughter Pierre DuCharme.

Benjamin Gervais born 1786 Riviere du Loop arrived the Metis Red River Colony this year with several Canadian families. He however did not farm until 1812 deciding trading is more lucrative. He would not marry until 1823.

Marie Archange Grignon born April 1803 is baptized July 14, 1804 Michilimackinac daughter Francois Grignon and Marie Angelique Gravelle.

Seraphinus (Seraphin) Lacombre (Lacombe) born March 13, 1803, died December 31, 1840 La Pointe, Wisconsin. Headstone reads "This stone is erected to his memory by his friends as a mark of respect and esteem."

Madeleine Lemire, Metis, b-1803 Red River, married to Francois Fagnant, Metis b-1796 Red River.

Red River Settlement, marriage, Angus McGillis (1774-1842) son Donald McGillis and Mary McDonell Lindry; married country style and churched St. Boniface 1830, Margaret Notinikaban (Vent de Bout).

William McIntosh (1784-1842) is located at Lesser Slave Lake.

Joseph Robidoux (1783-1868) of St. Louis, Missouri is at Fort Dearborn (Chicago, Illinois).

Charlotte Rocheblave Metis is baptized July 14 at Mackinac daughter Noel Rocheblave aka Porlier and Nigans Ottawa. Moel is the son of Philippe Francois Rocheblave and he married April 11, 1763 Marie Michelle Dufresne at Kaskaskia, Illinois. Noel died December 10, 1805.

John Charles Sayer Jr. moves to the Folle Avoine Department to curb the generosity of Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) and Joseph Reaume.

Jean Baptiste Wilkie, Metis b-1803 Pembina a hunter married Amable Elise Azure, Metis b-1808 Pembina.

France was aware they could not hang on to the vast Louisiana Territory and sold it to the U.S. at about 2 1/2 cents an acre rather than let it fall into the hands of the British.

The NEW FORT later called FORT WILLIAM

The N.W.C. New Fort (Fort William) is constructed by the North West Company at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River, some 50 km north of the international boundary, as Grand Portage is now under American control. It would remain operational under the N.W.C. until 1821 when the Hudson Bay Company merged with the North West Company. This command post was named in 1807 after (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825), the chief superintendent. This picture was taken in 1812. The last remnants of this Fort were demolished in 1902 as the fort was abandoned in 1880.

The Russians sent an expedition to California for the sea-otter trade.

Napoleon Bonaparte of France sold the French claim on the Louisiana Territory to the United States for twenty seven million dollars. The French do not consult with Canada on the sale of its territory. The French do not consult with the 50,000 inhabitants of French Louisiana. Napoleon feared that Louisiana might fall into British hands. It is noteworthy that many displaced Acadians in Haiti found their way into Louisiana after the revolution in Saint Domingue (Haiti) in 1791. This claim had little real significance, as the British did not sell their claim to much of the land, and the Indians were not a party to the transaction. The only significance is that France would not go to war over an American claim to the territory. Thomas Jefferson would long be criticized for this action, as the land could have been acquired without purchase, as France was unwilling to fight on any account.

The French conclude that every person of eminence in Canada is engaged in the fur trade.

The trip from Lachine, Quebec to Sault Ste Marie in Chippewa Indian Territory took about four to five weeks to travel. This was the first major break point for making deals with other traders and for taking on fresh supplies. Sault Ste Marie was also an opportunity for visiting, merrymaking, singing and dancing. The parties usually lasted until dawn, and some parties went on for two or three days. From Sault Ste Marie to Fort Kaministikwa (Thunder Bay), the Voyagers usually kept close to the shoreline whenever possible, which took another two to three weeks. Before 1803, the trek was to Grand Portage in Chippewa Territory (Minnesota). One thousand men had built the new nerve center for the North West Company called Fort Kaministikwa because the proposed new Canadian boundary would place Grand Portage in American hands.

After 1803, Fort Kaministikwa, at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River, Lake Superior, is the great central warehouse of the North West Company. It was the meeting place of the Nor'wester from as far away as Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca, which took three months of travel. Fort Kaministikwa was comprised of forty two buildings linked to a great hall, with space enough to seat two hundred at a formal dinner. Kaministiquia was first established in 1678 by Dulhuts, and again settled in 1717.

The Canadian fur traders organized themselves into four groups, namely: Montreal: Agents and Directors who wintered in Quebec,

Voyager: Mangeur de lard (pork eating), mostly part time Eastern French Canadians including a few Scots and English, who were freespirited, but strictly controlled by debt to the company and thereby indentured, and who also wintered in Quebec with few exceptions.

Nor'wester: Hivernant (winterer) pemmican eating, fully committed free spirits who required a specific ritual, performed at Fort Kaministikwa, before being allowed to become a member and who normally wintered in the Territories.

Freemen: Anyone involved in the fur trade that was not in the employ of the Canadian North West Company

Washington Irving, born 1783, departed New York for Montreal. He had a different view of the North West Company. There were Scottish merchants who formed a kind of commercial aristocracy and who held a feudal sway (the lords of the lakes and forests) over much of Western Canada. They were cool and calculating businessmen by day. After dark, they proved to be a lusty breed with well developed tastes for pretty Indian wenches and boisterous all-night celebrations. They were a hard drinking and heavy eating group of men. The second men he encountered were the Canadian fur men; the tough and tireless French voyagers. Sinbads of the wilderness, he called them. He reported that they often spent more than a year at a time paddling through the woodland streams, coasting the most remote lakes, and creating new wants and habitudes among the natives. These adventurers of the Canadian west explored and mapped the labyrinthine waterways, the rugged mountains of the far west, the fertile south-central plains and the bleak tundra of the Arctic north. They planted the first permanent western settlements; their crude little trading posts. They virtually established the National Canadian Policy of peaceful cooperation with the Indians. They were the first rulers of Western Canada. He concluded by saying that this occurred long before the Americans breeched their virgin West.

During the merry making at the Fort, the senior partners had first pick among the ladies of the country. The dances included the French jig, the Ojibwa step and Scottish reel. Singing included naughty French songs and Scottish ballads, but the natives and Metis preferred the French Ballads. The Voyagers used the Ojibwa women for temporary favors and described them as having a softness and delicacy not found in the more civilized belles.

Before heading back east, the Voyagers had to lug the northern trade goods north to Pigeon Lake; a storage depot nine miles inland. They said it was easier to get to heaven than to Pigeon Lake; obviously because of the previous nights frolicking. A storage site at Rainy Lake saved the Nor'wester fifteen days travel time. By the end of July, it is time for the return trip.

Most of the Nor'westers are Metis, emerging from decades of intermarriage between French Canadians and Native Women; a phenomenon going back to the early fur trading days of New France. Newcomers to the trade were most likely to throw in their lot with these Metis people and find their own Native woman; mostly Ojibwa and Cree. At the end of the season only two dozen maintenance staff occupied Fort Kaministikwa. The Voyagers wintered on the St. Lawrence, and the Nor'westers in the field with their Country Wives.

Peter Fidler reported 110 Iroquois traders up the Peace River near the Rocky Mountains, engaged in the fur trade.

The Nor'wester were pranksters. They gloried in persuading Natives not to trade food with an opponent, fell huge trees across narrow streams, slash tents or destroy trading goods and canoes, laughing uproariously at his discomfort, and if he looked like a good fighter they would offer employment.

With the Nor'wester, all was fair in whatever had to do with trade, short of murder. As a result, few independent traders reached the Saskatchewan.

However, some operated on the Great Lakes such as Forsyth and Richardson and Company out of Detroit which the Nor'wester dubbed the 'Little Company' or little society, and they called their employees Potties; from the French word 'potee' meaning small measure. Potties became the nickname for the English in the North West Territories, and the meaning would change. The Forsyth, Ogilvy and other small companies merged with the 'XY' Company.

At the junction of the Red River and the Assiniboine Rivers, Red River carts arrived with kegs of Maple sugar from Red Lake, Chippewa Territory (Minnesota) for trade purposes. Twenty Chippewa (Ojibwa) in canoes had also come to the Fort to trade ten kegs of sugar to Alexander Henry Sr. (1739-1824), this must be the younger (1764-1814) as the Sr. retired to Montreal. The Canadian Camp, a favorite wintering site, in March 7 only contained 6 families. Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) departed the camp with his guide Florimeaux who is the grandson of Monsieur Florimeaux and a Cree woman.

A Metis was considered one with his favorite horse. The buffalo hunt became a major Red River occupation to supply the fur trade.

Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) considered the Canadians ignorant. They only chat about horses, dogs, and canoes, women, and strong men who can fight a good battle. Harmon, however, admitted that he couldn't speak French. Harmon's writings clearly demonstrate his English bias. However, he acquired a Metis boy, age 12, by a Canadian and Ojibwa woman, as his own child.

The Americans, at this time, began calling the Ojibwa on their side of the boundary: Chippewa.

Thomas Douglas of Selkirk, (1771-1820), son Dunbar Douglas and Helen Hamilton, during the period 1803 to1809, is arranging passage for many poor Scottish families to Prince Edward Island. In February, Thomas made a proposal to the British Government to send Scottish Highlander soldier settlers to the Country around Lake Winnipeg. Thomas is aware of the advantage which war might bring from the standpoint of leading government to accept responsibility for potential Lake Winnipeg settlers. Thomas also had a desire to be a military commander.

He would continue to pursue this military option in one form or another for the next ten years, even though it was clear he had no support for the venture. Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) was slowly losing credibility among the residents of Kildonan as many tenants began selling their property in anticipation of their imminent departure for North America as a military force. He would have a profound negative impact on Western Canada.

(I)-John Thomas of Vaudreuil Quebec was the Governor until 1813.

John McDonnell (1768-1850) is in charge of the upper Red River Department from 1799 to1809. He declared that he is determined to rid the senior positions of the North West Company of those Metis and Frenchmen. Augustin Cadotte (1766-183?) is a clerk in the N.W.C. on the low Red River.

In September, Augustin Cadotte, Antony Payet and five men built a fort at Pinancewaywining Hair Hills to trade with the Cree and Stone Indians.

Active interior posts include:

La prairie by E. Harrison

Lake Manitoba by John McDonell

Bears Head by L. Dorion

Prairie en Longue by J. St. Germain and La Jeneusse

Hair Hills by Augustin Cadotte

Red Lake by M. Langlois and DuFord

Turtle River by Joseph D. Cameron

Pembina by Alexander Henry the younger (1764-1814)

 

Alexander Hendry built a trading post near old Fort Rouge (Winnipeg).

April 11: Louisiana Territory is sold to the Americans by France for $11,250,000.00. The estimated 50,000 people consisting of mostly Cajun and Metis were not consulted. The Creoles at this time consisted of mixed blood, French, Spanish, Acadians, Germands, Italian, Scots, Irish, Indian and Blacks.

May 25: The British Hudson Bay Policy forbid women Natives (Country Concubines) to come to Britain, nor have any female children born in the Country (Hudson Bay Territory) permitted to return to it after receiving their education in Great Britain. The official shameful English policy is to abandon their Country Concubines on leaving the service. Some men, however, arranged marriages (sold their wives and children) to other British Hudson Bay Company men or made monitory provisions for their children. At this time there were few alternatives, as the British Hudson Bay Company didn't want to establish settlements for retirement. John George McTavish arrived at Moose Factory this year and took a 'country wife'; a (II)-Charlotte Thomas, one of the Governor's daughters. Other records suggest Charlotte married Peter Spense. When John George McTavish, the bastardize, cast off his 'country wife' (II)-Thomas, she smothered their two children, and (I)-John George Thomas disowned his daughter.

May 29: Mackinac: (I)-James Aird (d-1819) arrived from River St. Peters (Minnesota).

The Canadian North West Company established four trading posts on the Hudson Bay to compete with the British Hudson Bay Company. They closed in 1806, being uneconomical. The British Hudson Bay Company followed their usual policy of doing nothing, which worked well this time.

One thousand, mostly Metis, traders are working the Saskatchewan River this season, among three thousand Native traders.

July 16: The North West Company entered into agreement with M Cadotte to trade Point Chagouamigoy River de Saugeux and Lac Des Courts Orelles. Another account suggests that on July 16, the N.W.C. contracted Jean Baptiste Cadotte to trade Point Chagovamigon, Riviere du Sauteaux, and Lac Des Courts Oreilles. There appears to be a conflict of second account and July 19 statement?

July 19: (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) was expelled from the North West Company this year, allegedly for intemperance, but some say it is because he is a Metis. The charges read that he was expelled for conduct highly improper and inconsistent with his duty and with the Character of a Partner of the North West Company. He, having indulged himself in drunkenness and riot, to the great loss and injury of the said concern. Cadotte returned to Sault Ste Marie and the following year to Deux Montagnes, near Montreal.

July 28: Michel Curot of the X Y Company, likely the son of Amable Curot, and his party of Jean Baptiste Roi, Alexis Beaudoin, Touss Savoiard (Savoyard) and wife, Bazile David, Joseph Boisvert, Jean Connor, Joseph Lizzotte, Francois Lizotte, J. Lajeunesse, Claude Milliette, Guillaume and Hubert Deau departed Grande Portage for Folle Avoine (wild rice), River Jaune (Northern Wisconsin). Jean Baptiste Roi and Joseph Lizotte are left at Fond du Lac, Lake Superior. Joseph Lizzotte and Francois Lizotte are at Lake Winnipeg by 1804. Babeaux, with his wife, is at Fond du Lac to guide Mr. Sayer, his wife, two children, a Negro and another man to Michel Curot's place. Le Petit male and wife are at Fond du Lac. Sayer told the natives that Michel Curot deserves their pity and would not be in the field very long.

October: Thomas McMurry was in charge of the XY Company Post at Fort Dauphin, on the northwest point of Lac des Prairies. He ordered J. Dufaut, Gadon and his native wife and grand daughter, Martelle and family, Fournier, Giroux and Baptiste La Salle to winter near the former site of Fort des Espinettes on the north side of the Assiniboine River; a site abandoned in 1794. Their first visitor was an Indian named Kekanotin. L'Oiseau Rouge, Le Coup Fort, Mangiquijique, Petit Borgne, La Loge, and Cou Croche arrived shortly after.

October 19: South West Point, Tuskingo or Shoebouts: A Cherokee married to Clarinda Ellington, having been taken as a small child by the Shawnees, is with three small children. When asked if she desired to return to friends and family in Kentucky, she said yes, but not without her children. So she stayed with her husband.

1804

Joseph Brousseau, voyager is at La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Besherman Bushman, Metis b-1804 Pembina, a hunter, married about 1832 Red River Mary b-1810 Red River.

Brothers Joseph Lizotte and Francois Lizotte are at Lake Winnipeg.

Louis (Louison) Landry, Metis b-1806 Red River, a hunter, married about 1832 Red River Isabelle Chalifoux, Metis b-1810 Red River. 1850 census. (Louis b-1816 N.W.T. and Isabelle b-1819) Genealogy First Metis Nation

Joseph Nedeau (Nadeau), Metis b-1807 Red River, voyager married about 1831 Red River Susanna b-1808 Pembina. 1850 census. or (Joseph Nadeau, Metis b-1810 N.W.T. married Susanne Bourdon b-1813.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Bonaventure (Leverture) Parrisen, Metis, b-1804 Red River son Bonaventure Parisien b-1797 and Isabel Indian b-1783; married Marguerite Sailteaux, Indian b-1810 Red River. 1850 census. (Bonaventure b-1800 & Marguerite b-1805 N.W.T.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Joseph Nolin, Metis b-1804 Pembina married Louise (Lizette) Frederic Metis, b-1812 Red River. Louise b-1875 Pembina, likely mother-in-law living with them 1850 census. (Joseph Nolin b-1810 N.W.T.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Baptiste Batnon (Patenaude), Metis b-1804, a hunter, married Philesta b-1818 Red River.

Touss Savoiard rejoined the North West Company.

Duncan Cameron wrote that the Nipigon Country has been occupied by the Ojibwa since 1654, partly from Lake Superior and partly from Hudson Bay, as they spoke a mixture of Ojiboiay or Chippeway, as some call it, and the Cree or Masquigon spoken at Hudson Bay. The elders told Cameron that, as the two peoples encountered each other in the interior, they intermarry and become one People.

Only four births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year. A great drought in 1804/1805 hit the Red River Valley, adversely affecting the planted crops and the fur trade in general, as a result of the Prairie fires. The N.W.C. Post on the western shores of Lake Winnipeg also reported suffering serious loss of food due to the drought and fires.

The following is a partial list of North West Company men employed in the North West, especially the Athabasca District:

Andre Belanger, Francois Belanger, Francois Boucher, Jean Baptiste Bouvier, Pierre Bruce, S. Cardinal, Gabriel Caisse, Joseph Roy dit Charou, Richard Daigneault, Antoine Denault, Francois Desrosiers, Tomothee Dionne, James England, Jean Baptiste Gerard, Charles Lachance, Pierre Laliberte, Francois Lariviere, Jean Baptiste Larocque, Ignace Lavallee Jr., Jean Baptiste Lemay, H. Moreau, Joseph Paul, Nicolas Paul, Paulet Paul, Augustine Poirier, Francois Raymond

The North West Company built Fort of the Forks, a.k.a. Fort Simpson, N.W.T., located on an island at the confluence of the MacKenzie and Liard Rivers. In 1821 it was renamed by the Hudson Bay Company after George Simpson

Peace River Forks, birth (II)-Samuel Thompson, Metis son (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis. Charlotte Small is likely the sister of Nancy Small, Metis and brother of Patrick Small Jr. Metis born IIe-A-La-Crosse, Athabasca District. Some believe the Small family are the earliest recorded Metis in the IIe-A-La-Crosse region.

Red River Settlement, NWT, birth Marie McGillis Metis (1804-1856) daughter Angus McGillis (1774-1842) son Donald McGillis and Mary McDonell Lindry; married 1803 country style and churched St. Boniface 1830, Margaret Notinikaban (Vent de Bout); Marie married Cuthbert James Grant Jr. (1793-1854) Captain de Metis and Warden of the Plains.

Antoine Houle b-1787, died March 20, 1867 Manitoba 1st married Josephte Louzon b-1787/89 and 2nd marriage J. Chartland born 1790 Red River Metis settlement. His children are Francois b-1805, William, Jean Bapriste, Francois b-1811, Antoine Jr b-1812, Josephte b-1812, Joseph b-1816, Madeleine b-1818, Louis b-1824 Louise b-1826, Marguerite b-1831 and Charles b-1833.

Sault Ste Marie?, birth (III)-Frances Ermatinger Metis son (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.

Pascal Breland, a.k.a. Burleigh the Freeman, son of Pierre Breland, and his Metis wife, Louise Belley, were on the Saskatchewan. Pascal, however, spent most of his life in the Red River Metis Colony. Pascal amassed a fortune of 7,000 pounds, along with some half dozen wives. One of his wives was Maria, daughter of Cuthbert Grant. Adams Archibald, in 1870, would write of the bigamist, that he was a man of means and influence, highly upright in character and a fine specimen of his race.

James Grant of the N.W.C. is posted at the Fond du Lac Dept as a clerk & interpreter for Hugh McGillis. Fond du Lac is a term applied to the end of Lake Superior, westward from Chequamegon but also to the district drained by St. Louis River. It also included the upper waters of the Mississippi including Red Ceder, Leech and Sandy lakes.

Mary McKay was born in 1804, the North West daughter of Alex McKay, living St. Andrews, Red River 1870.

James Corrigall born 1804 North West son Peter Corrigall, living 1870 St. Andrews, Red River with his wife Ann Anderson born 1810 North West and daughter James Anderson.

The Lewis & Clark Expedition reached the Pacific ocean in Oregon Territory and included: William Bratton, Toussaint Charbonneau, William Clark, John Colter, John Collins, Peter Cruzatte, George Drouillard aka Drewyer, Joseph Fields, Reuben Fields, Charles Floyd, Robert Frazier, Patrick Gass, George Gibson, Hugh Hall, Thomas Howard, Francis Labiche, Jean Baptiste Lapage of Fort Mandan, John Ordway, John Potts, Nathaniel Pryor, Sacagawea Indian wife Toussaint Charbonneau, George Simpson, John Thompson, William Werner, Joseph Whitehouse, Alexander Willard, Richard Windsor, Peter Wiser and York Negro, servant of William Clark. Pierre Cruzatte, a French-Canadian boatman was the Louis and Clark expedition fiddler.

The British are systematically replacing the French in controlling positions in the trade, and now had almost completed their control of the Canadian North West Company with the following composition:

Type of Activity British French Other

Bourgeois 43 2

Clerks 44 32

Interpreters 2 43

Guides 16

Voyageurs and others 24 625 8

TOTAL 113 718 8

The objective is foreign domination by replacing all clerks with Scottish or English, leaving the second class positions to the French and Metis which was more suited- so the English believed- to their mental capacity. This is also a belief of the Scottish. The Scottish would learn that the English considered the Scottish, Irish and Welsh to be second class citizens, making the Mixed Blood the third class.

The annual conclave at Fort William, formally called Kaministikwa, named after (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825); a nephew of Simon McTavish.

One thousand Country Wives and Metis children are becoming dependent on the Forts and therefore on the Company. A new regulation prohibiting the employees from marrying pureblooded Native Women, subject to a one hundred pound sterling fine, passed the majority vote. The argument presented was to ensure husbands for the Metis women and reduce dependency on the posts of abandoned wives. It is noteworthy that McGillivray had a Cree wife.

Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845), North West Company, recorded : "Those Indians who reside in the large Plains are the most independent and appear to be the happiest and most contented of any people upon the face of the earth." He is posted to Fort Alexandra up the Assiniboina River, beyond Carlton House. On October 4, Francis la Rocque arrived from Montagne a la Basse, five days march from down river. Charles Chaboillez (1772-1812) is superintendent of Red River. Monsieur Poitras commanded the North West Company Fort at River Qui Apelle and Assiniboine, which is near an XY Fort. Charles Chaboillez (1772-1812), McKenzie and Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) visited Poitras. Cadotte is recorded at Grand Portage.

A growing number of retired Canadian North West Employees were choosing to remain in the field with their Country Wives and children, leading the Metis to regard themselves as the New Nation which would focus on the Red River Metis Colony as their capital, but included Red Lake and Sault Ste Marie at this time. In reality, the Metis occupy the Great Lakes, down the Mississippi and up the Missouri as well as the Red Lake area, the Red River of the North and Saskatchewan River systems. These fathers of the Metis Nation wanted to ensure their daughters had first preference in marriage, and many, therefore, supported the new law of the land. Few Voyagers or Nor'westers followed the law, considering the fine a form of taxation to support Metis children.

Joseph Gagnon born about 1804 married Marie Grignon living 1840-1850 Saint Joseph Dakota Territory a brother in law of Antoine Gingras.

Gareau, a voyager for the North West Company, is posted at Fort des Prairies.

Charles Groulx, a guide for North West Company, is at Rainy Lake.

Antoine Genou, voyager for the North West Company, is at Fort des Prairies.

Pierre Genou alias Gagnon and Ginan, voyager for the North West Company, is not listed until 1806

Pierre Genereux, voyager of North West Company, is at Lake Winnipeg.

The war between the North West Company and 'XY' Company came to a sudden end. The unexpected death of Simon McTavish on July 6, 1804, removed one of the barriers for friendly relations. It is noteworthy that all his children died by their twenty fifty year, as though cursed.

The Hudson Bay Company sought legal advice to protect their charter; giving them exclusive trading rights, being defied by the North West Company. The opinion was tabled that the H.B.C. charter did not rest on an act of Parliament, but merely upon the Royal prerogative, and the granting of sole trading rights was beyond the power of the crown. The Royal prerogative to the granting of lands neither obtained by conquest nor occupations, was not reviewed to my knowledge. The Metis and Indians believed that neither the H.B.C. nor England had any rights to their lands. They believed in sharing the land and its resources, but not in domination to the exclusion of others.

Michel Curot wrote to Mr. Grignon at Grande Portage requesting provisions and passing on letters from Athabasca. It took two seasons for goods to pass from Montreal to the Athabasca.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) returned with his family to Deux Montagnes near Montreal. This Metis community contained many of his friends, and it is believed he stayed for the next three to four years.

Paul Hudon de Beaulieu (1787-1848+) and brother Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) of Montreal, who died 1838 La Pointe, Wisconsin, are trading Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin. Bazil lived and traded Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin) from 1804 to 1834.

Joseph Brousseau is listed voyageur at La Pointe, Lake Superior.

A second fort is built on the Saskatchewan River near Duck Lake and near future Fort Carlton. The first known fort was built in 1795.

(IV)-Francois Grignon son (III)-Joseph Grignon (b-1730) and Amable (Daunais) Fremine? married 1804 Michilimaknac Angelique Gravelle born 1797 daughter Joseph Gravelle and Josephe Raisin. July 4, baptism (V)-Marie Archange Grignon born 1803 daughter (IV)-Francois Grignon and Marie Angelique Gravelle. July 4, (IV)-Francois Grignon witnessed a baptism. Francois is not of the Green Bay Grignon family.

The Nootka attacked the American ship Boston, killing all but 2 of the crew. John Jewett, one of the captured men, is rescued in 1805.

The Nez Perce People were named by an earlier French-Canadian, likely a Metis, who thought some were wearing ornamental shells pierced through their noses. The Nez Perce People called themselves Nee-Me-Poo meaning the Real People. The Nez Perce must have told the French-Canadian about the trail to the Pacific Ocean. It is highly unlikely these Voyagers wouldn't have traveled to the Pacific Ocean. To them it would be no big deal.

Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809) and William Clark (1770-1838) better known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition spent two weeks with the Nez Perce in Idaho. The Nez Perce allowed the expedition to take a Country Woman during their stay.

April 30: Alexander Henry the Younger (1764-1814) writes in Pembina River Post: I gave the Indians liquor to decamp and hunt all summer. As a result, Grande Gueule Stabbed Capot Rouge; Le Boeuf stabbed his young wife in the arm; Little Shell almost beat his old mother's brains out with a club; and there was terrible fighting among them. I sowed garden seeds. Alexander Henry (1764-1814) writes that Indian women are also planting crops at Pembina.

July: Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) joined the Lewis and Clark expedition as an interpreter.

August: (I)-James Aird (d-1819) entered into agreement with Robert Dickson, Allen C. Wilmet, Murdock Cameron, John Lawe and Jacob Frank from the R. Dickson and Company, and competitors Jacques Porlier, Noel Rocheblave, the Grignon brothers, Louis Beaupre, Charles Reaume and others.

August 29: Pierre Dorion Metis (1780/82-1814) and a large band of Yankton (70 men and boys), including Sergeant Pryor, meet the Lewis and Clark expedition on the Missouri, just above the mouth of the James River. Pierre's father, Pierre Dorion (1740-1810), was with the Lewis and Clark expedition at this time as interpreter, as was Maurice Blondeau. Toussaint Charbonneau, Metis b-1758, is listed as interpreter with the Lewis and Clark expedition.

September 19: The Red River Settlement Metis are making gallon kegs of pickles from maple sap vinegar, that they claim is not as good as the eastern variety, but passable. An Indian attack on old Fort du Lac, a small fort near the eastern tip of Lake Athabasca, resulted in two Metis being killed, along with their wives and children. An ambush near Fort Chipewyan leaves four hunters dead. Some said the attacks were because of trading with bad brandy. (I)-Thomas Thomas, born 1781 British Islands, arrived York Factory in 1794, probably one of the 'Hospital Boys' indentured to the British Hudson Bay Company. He defected to the Canadian North West Company in 1804 and is the great grandfather of (IV)-Eleanor Thomas who married into the Garneau clan. His desire to have a permanent place to keep his Country Concubine(s) and Metis children led to his defection, even though he would not recognize her (them) as an official wife. He would claim himself as single until the 1834-1835 census, and probably had three or more Country Wives.

October 10: Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) takes a Snare Indian slave girl, age 14 years, as his wife. The Snare Indians live along the Rocky Mountains. This is noteworthy because earlier he said country wives are no better than concubinage.

October 31: Lewis and Clark wrote from the Upper Mandan Village on the Missouri to (IV)-Charles Chaboiller (1772-1812), saying they met with his man, Hugh M'Cracken, who is conducting trade with the natives for the N.W.C., and they requested help in understanding the geography of the country, its productions: mineral, animal or vegetable, under his jurisdiction.

November: The North West Company and the 'XY' Company merged, and (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825), a nephew of Simon McTavish, took command. The new Company excluded Sir Alexander MacKenzie to ensure old wars did not persist. One clause in the agreement allowed for the possible future merger with the British Hudson Bay Company. The intent was for the Canadian North West Company to buy out the British Hudson Bay Company, in order to create a monopoly.

November 24: Charles Chaboillez (1772-1812) of Fort Montagne a la Basse wrote that two American Captains, Clarke and Lewis, with 180 soldiers, have arrived at a Mandan Village on the Missouri River, three days march away. He said that he is invited to visit.