Metis

1805 - 1808


The Hudson Bay Company occupied the Bay
for over a century but never surveyed the area,
nor made charts to guide the ships.

They requested Clergymen as teachers, but none
could be found who would leave Britain on any terms.


It is noteworthy that no white women are
reported in the Red River area until 1806.

These would be primarily of Metis of French origin.

It is noteworthy that this is the first reference to
white vs. non-white people.

More European evil is invading the Lands of Brotherhood.


1805

(I)-William Alexander Aitken (Aitkin) aka Aitki of Edinbugh, Scotland died September 16, 1851 Swan River Post (Aitkinville) arrived in the Great Lakes region being employed by John Drew about this time. It is said he had at least two wives (III)-Striped Cloud Madeline Ermatinger Metis Payshahquodoguay daughter of (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kadowaubeda) and Gingioncumigoke. He is said to have 25 Metis children some named Alfred murdered at Red Ceder Lake about 1836, John, Matilda, Roger, Nancy, Elizabeth, Ann, Julie E., Salina, Robert, Amanda, Sarah J., Childe, Isabel, Henry and Edgar. William later worked for the American Fur Company in William Morrison'e Fond du Lac Department. Later he was chief trader at Sandy Lake operating into Pembina to the west and Rainy Lake to the north and south to the Crow Wing River.

Prairie du Chien, birth Louis Gabriel Brisbois, Metis son Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein; married 1827 Judith Provost.

Jousette Cook, Metis b-1805 Red River married about 1833 Joseph Coak (Cook) b-1814 Pembina, a hunter.

Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) of the Lewis and Clark expedition, as an interpreter, is sent back to St Louis with the Chiefs of the Yankton, Omaha, Oto and Missouri tribes.

Red River (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853), wife Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880 and family are transferred from Sault Ste Marie to Red River of the north (Lake Winnipeg) working for William McKay of the North West Company.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son (I)-Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, is selected to expand the North West Company business operations beyond the Rocky Mountains.

Red River of the North, birth of Jean Baptiste Hamelin, Metis son Jacques Hamelin and Angelique Tourangeau.

Edouard Herman, Metis, b-1805 Red River, a hunter, 2nd marriage about 1841 Red River, Marguerite Paquette b- 1826 Red River.

The North West Company sent George Keith to established Fort Nelson, B.C. They also constructed Fort Good Hope on the east bank of the Mackenzie River, 805 km northwest of Yellowknife.

William McIntosh (1784-1842) is located in the Peace River country.

Angus McGillis (1774-1842), son of Donald McGillis of the N.W.C., is assigned to Fort Dauphin.

Dakota, birth, Joseph Montre jr. son Joseph Montre and a Dakota woman; Joseph Jr. married Toyahta Dakota 2nd marriage Mergd who was first married to James Hayes.

Jean Baptiste Paquin, Metis b-1805 Pembina married Genevieve Ainanikip-kik, b-1815 Pembina.

Joseph Parenteau, Metis b-1805 Red River, a hunter, married Angelique Godon, b-1813 Red River. 1850 census. (Joseph b-1811 N.W.T. & Angelique, Metis b-1818) Genealogy First Metis Nation. 1st child born 1822 suggests a second marriage, 2nd child born 1833 suggests Angelique b-1813 likely more accurate.

Francois Savoyard, Metis b-1805 Pembina, a hunter, married Madeleine Comtois, Metis b-1825 Pembina. 1850 census. (Francois b-1808 son Francois Savotard b-1784 & Marguerite, Metis b-1788, & Madeleine b-1822 N.W.T. daughter Gilbert Comtois b-1815? & Marguerite Martyin, Metis b-1820? Red River) Genealogy First Metis Nation. Comtois parents appear to be in error.

John Sayer Jr. is assigned to Lac des Chats on the Ottawa River by the N.W.C.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son (I)-Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, followed the MacKenzie River route along the Peace and Parsnip Rivers. establishing Fort McLeod (1805) at McLeod Lake, and in 1806, established a Fort at Stewart Lake, B.C. 1806, later known as Fort St. James. He also established Fort Fraser (1806) at Fraser Lake. He named the area New Caledonia, which was the Roman name for Scotland, and Fort George (1807), now Prince George. Jean Baptiste Bouche (Boucher) dit Waccen, died in 1850, a Metis of French and Cree ancestry, accompanied Fraser.

Ramsay Crooks of New York is at Mackinac in the employ of (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) and Company, engaged in trade to the Missouri and Red River to Canada but mostly with the Dakota's.

Old Swan, a..ka. Ak Ko Makki, a Sikiska Chief, drew a map of the west for Peter Fiddler of the Hudson Bay Company at Chesterfield House on the Red River and South Saskatchewan River. Fiddler upgraded the map to include all known information on the west and it was published. It is noteworthy that the Lewis and Clark Expedition had access to this map and therefore knew exactly where they were going.

Alexander Henry (1764-1814), the younger, reported the North West population for the Company's fifteen districts in Indian Country: A total white fur trade population of 1,090 men, 368 women and 569 children. (There were no white women in Indian Country, therefore the women and children are Metis or native). Other reports suggest 1,610 men, 405 women, 600 children and 77,368 Natives; excluding the southern Lake Superior North West Company trading Department. The North West Company, including acquired XY Co., itself totaled 1,250 men. The overall estimate of North West Territories population is 7,502 men, 16,995 women and 52,871 children. The estimate of men vs. women must be greatly exeragated.

The North West Company Lake Superior posts include:

South Lake Superior North West Lake Superior

Kamanistiquia Lake Nepegon

Fond Du Lac Lac Des Isles

Follovoine Monoutagua

La Pointe Pic

Montreal River Michipicotton and Bay

Batchenoinan

 

Joseph Gagnon born 1805 Red River Settlement son Joseph Gagnon born 1766 Canada.

William Sutherland born 1805 Red River Settlement son James Southerland, living St. Paul, Red River 1870.

William Thomas born 1805 Red River Settlement son Thomas Thomas, living St. Paul, Red River 1870.

Suzanne Smith (widow) born 1805 Red River, living St. John, Red River 1870.

Jeanne Cameron born 1805 Metis likely at Turtle River, North West daughter Joseph Dugald Cameron, who made a life long commitment to his country wife was living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

Louis Villebrin born 1805 Red River Settlement son Louis Villebrin, living St. Boniface, Red River wife Louise Collin born 1820 Red River daughter Joseph Collin.

Fort Gibraltar (Winnipeg) is built as the chief post of the interior by the North West Company to supply the entire Western Operation.

Alexander Henry (1764-1814) and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), on July 3, 1805, recorded the Red River des Metis Settlements population as follows:

WHITE INDIAN

Location MEN WOMEN CHILDREN MEN WOMEN CHILDREN

Upper Red River 56 52 82 1,170 1,200 2,500

Lower Red River 75 40 60 160 100 250

Lake Winnipeg 88 11 15 90 111 194

Rat River 25 7 10 70 90 150

TOTAL 244 110 167 1,490 1,501 3,094

 

WHITE INDIAN

Location MEN WOMEN CHILDREN MEN WOMEN CHILDREN

Athabasca 208 48 84 not given

Athabasca River 37 12 15 55 38 66

English River 78 40 63 211 380 1,100

Rat River 25 7 10 70 90 150

Ft des Prairies 136 59 103 4,823 13,632 45,906

Fort Dauphin 45 22 18 19 17 31

Upper Red River 56 52 82 1,170 1,200 2,500

Lower Red River 75 40 60 160 190 250

Lake Winnipic 88 11 15 90 111 194

Lac La Plue 46 10 10 103 141 195

Fond du Lac 128 29 50 499 784 1,944

Nepigon 90 20 20 238 283 299

Kamanistiquia

Mille Lac

Lac des Chins 62 16 36 70 84 178

Le Pic 16 2 3 44 45 58

----------------------------------------------------------------------

1,090 368 569 7,502 16,995 52,871

 

The Inuit are totally excluded, and most counts are based on those who are engaged directly in trade. AMK Co. has 520 men, 37 women and 31 children. At this time, there are no known white European women in the country and very few non-Metis men. Daniel Williams Harmon (1778-1845) observed a white child, adopted by the Ojibwa, living among a large encampment on the Red River. Some of the Metis men would be off hunting, and some Metis or their wives and children would be living with the Indians. The population of the Red River Colony of the New Metis Nation is six thousand, six hundred and six people before the English even decided to settle in this area.

The Ojibwa at Netley Creek, Red River planted a traditional European garden.

Antoine Desjarlais claimed sovereignty over Red Deer Lake, Saskatchewan, having left the North West Company to become a freeman with his Native wife and Metis family. The majority of Metis considered themselves freemen. The indenture system forced the French and English Voyagers into servant roles.

The Ojibwa tradition restricted the choice portions of all animals to the men. However, the French Metis ignored this long standing tradition and choose to share the best portions with his wife and children.

John Randolph of Virginia responded to American settlers in the west who claimed Canada was arming and stirring up the Indians by saying that it was mere surmise and suspicion. It is our own thirst for territory that has driven these Sons of Nature to desperation. Congress, however, created the Michigan Territory. St. Paul (Minnesota), the Metis center, claims itself as a settlement this year.

Pegouisse (Peguis), alias the Destroyer and Little Chip (1774-1864) of Sault Ste Marie, has been working the Red River since the 1790's.

Daniel Harmon (1778-1845) wrote: "At Fort Assiniboine, it is now upwards of fifty years since a French missionary left this area". The missionary had resided here a number of years, instructing the Natives in the Christian Religion. Daniel Harmon (1778-1845), an American trader, claimed that in the past four years of trading Fort Pembina to the Rocky Mountains, he never had a chance to speak a European language other than French. He recorded that the Eskimos at the mouth of the Coppermine River had European trade beads, probably traded by the Danes at Davis Strait. On June 2, James Hughes and Alexander Stewart are on the South Saskatchewan, having come on horse from the North branch. On September 11, Daniel Harmon is assigned to Cumberland House and James Hughes and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and company passed through on their way to Fort des Prairies. The nearby Hudson Bay Company Post is commanded by Peter Fidler. On September 17, Harmon sends Peras to winter at Moose Lake.

Charles O. Oakes settled on the south banks of the Saint Mary River, and in 1808 he moved to the Canadian side of the river. He married Charlotte, the daughter of Katawabeda (Broken Tooth), Chief of the Sandy Lake Ojibwa. He operated trading posts at the Sault, St. Joseph Island and Drummond Island.

Capt. Samuel Hill entered the Columbia River to acquire timber for spars. He likely encountered the same natives that Louis and Clark would later encounter.

Louis and Clark wintered at Fort Mandan and encountered a young 17 year old Shoshoni girl named Sakakawea (Sacajawea) aka Janey, (1787?-1825?)* who had been captured in the Rocky Mountains by a party of Hidatsas. Toussaint Charbonneau, a French trader living in the Knife River village, had bought her as one of his wives (1) February 11, 1805. She gave birth to a son, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, Metis, on February 11, 1805. Rene Jusseaume administered an Indian remedy for speeding up labor and her first child was born within ten minutes. The baby would be taken on the expedition trip. The expedition had hired them both as guides. The young couple would be settled at Kawsmouth by 1823. It is noteworthy that Native women owned the houses, gardens and household goods, the European in contrast could not own property. *birth date varies from 1784 to 1787 Lemhi Vally and death December 20, 1812 Fort Sumner, North Dakota or April 9, 1884 Shoshone reservation Wind River Valley, Wyoming. (1) one of his wives died Fort Mandan 1812. Toussaint Charbonneau was a bit of a drip but Sacajawea appears to be an exceptional person.

Joseph Howse, with 20 men, reoccupied Fort Chesterfield for the H.B.C. John MacDonald of Garth represented the N.W.C. and the XY Company that was acquired by the N.W.C.

Daniel Williams Harmon (1778-1845), an American, being of stern scruples, having rejected his friends urgings to acquire an Indian mate, finally succumbed to that age old urge. He acquired a Canadian Daughter, aged about 14 years, a French/Cree Metis named Elizabeth Duval. His intent was to dispose of her when he finished his tour of duty. He eventually married his Country wife in 1819, and when he retired, took his wife and two younger daughters, Sally and Polly, with him into retirement. His older children remained in the field.

On Vancouver Island, eight of the crew of the Athualpa are killed by the natives.

Prairie des Chiens, a Metis settlement, had 16 houses, St. Feriole 8 houses and around the area were about some 37 houses.

April: Lewis and Clark, in April, entered what was to become Montana Territory. Francois Antoine la Rocque accompanied a band of Crow to Big Horn River, Montana this year.

April, Rainy Lake: The N.W.C. Post reports that all the women are out making sugar. Mr. Grant's girl was especially expert at the job.

November: The Louis and Clark expedition reaches the Pacific at the mouth of the Columbia River (Oregon/Washington border).

December 27: Fort Chesterfield is again abandoned by all parties due to the continued objection of the Natives. It is not reopened until 1822 in a different location.

1806

The Lewis and Clark Expedition shot a Montana Peigan man in the back, claiming he attempted to steal a gun. As a result no white-man was allowed in the Peigan Territory. Lewis and Clark pronounced the Great Plains as a desert and as being barren. Zebulon Pike announced that Pikes Peak, which he discovered, would probably never be climbed, and that most of the plains were too desert like to be able to support a white population. The one benefit he saw was that it would limit the people of the United States who are prone to rambling and extending themselves on the frontiers.

The Lewis and Clark Expedition became the second expedition to cross North America, north of New Spain. The first being the Mackenzie Expedition of 1793.

Pierre Dorion Jr. Metis married an Iowa woman Mary Toway (L'Ayvoise) Metis and had three children, Jean Baptiste, Margaret and Paul.

Red River, birth (III)-George Ermatinger Metis (1806-1822) son (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son (I)-Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, noted that the Carrier People at the confluence of the Stuart and Nechaco Rivers had a pistol, brass-mounted, with powder and ball, that he believed came from the Pacific coast.

J.E. Harriott of the North West Company married Elizabeth Purden, Metis, promising her father he would live with her and treat her as my wife as long as we both lived. The marriage was concluded by a dram of liquor and a wedding dance. Most Country marriages included an exchange of vows.

Francois LaRinere born 1806 Red River claims to be white son Smaveulise LaRinere, living St. Vital, Red River 1870.

Hugh (Laird) McGillis (1767-1848) was Chief Agent Fond du Lac Department, 1806-1812, with headquarters at Leech Lake.

Michel Beatinau (Patenaude), Metis b-1806 Red River, a hunter married Josette Bourassa, Metis b-1808 Red River. 1850 census. (Michel b-1808 & Josette b-1810) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Antoine Plouffe, Metis b-1806 Red River, a hunter, married Archange Marcellais, Metis b-1815 Pembina.

Reed Lake House, birth (II)-Emma Thompson Metis died February 22, 1814 Montreal daughter (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis.

Upper Mississippi River, country marriage Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis son Joseph Renville (1754-1795) a trader of the Mississippi and Miniyuhe sister Mdewakanton Chief Little Crow - Big Thunder a Dakota of the village Petit Corbeaux; Akipa married about 1806 Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow). Akipa departed Prairie du Chien 1805 with the Pike expedition up the Mississippi River to its source.

Spring: At Chesterfield House, the North West Company is under siege by the Blackfoot, and the men escaped through trickery. This area would be abandoned for the next 16 years.

(I)-Isabel Gunn, disguised as a boy under the name (I)-John Fubboster, arrived Moose Factory. John Scarth, who came over with her, kept the girls identity quiet and was intimate with her. She became pregnant and delivered a boy on December 29. She and her son were returned to Orkney in September, 1809.

Rupert's House: John Robertson deserted the Hudson Bay Company and his Indian wife for the North West Company. The father-in-law tracked down Robertson and executed him for callous abandonment. An unknown Cree summarized the actions of the British Hudson Bay Company men as follows: They take women not for wives, but use them as sluts, to satisfy their animal lust, and when they are satisfied, they cast them off and another one takes her for the same purpose. (I)-James Isham, a bigamist, with a wife in Britain and Canada, reported that the offspring of Hudson Bay Men and Indian women are pretty numerous. It is noteworthy that Hudson Bay records made no distinction between Indian and Metis peoples.

Stuart's Lake Post (later Fort St James) was built this year.

The anger of the Cree was becoming so intense, because of the Scottish bestiality towards their women, that the North West Company resolved that no man whatsoever, either partner, clerk or engage, shall take, under any pretense, any woman from any tribe to live with him in the fashion of the North West.

Dr. John McLoughlin wintered Vermilion Lake, close to Rainy Lake Fort.

Rousseau, the free trader, dispatched Monsieur Delorme to trade north of Lake Superior, and had to abandon their trade goods as a result of North West Company harassment. They settled out of court for losses of goods but not labor, and that would be a recurring event.

In York (Toronto), English advertisements are still offering slaves for sale. The price of a woman is one hundred and fifty dollars. It is noteworthy that Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) is a strong believer in the racial inferiority of Africans, and I am sure this also implies to American Indians. George Washington had many slaves at his estate. This racial philosophy of slavery based on inferiority can be traced back to the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). These perverted men are likely unaware of the origins of their beliefs.

John Fubbister, alias Isabel Gunn, a H.B.C. servant, arrived at the post of Alexander Henry (1764-1814) at Pembina and begged for help. He is with an abandoned and pregnant Orkney girl whois presently in childbirth. The Orkney (John Scarth) who had debauched her is wintering at Grandes Fourches (an outpost of Red River). She delivered a healthy boy within the hour, and is conveyed home the same day. John Kipling of the H.B.C. noted that one of our men turned out to be a woman and is delivered of a fine boy in Mr. Henry's house. John Scarth returned to Orkney in 1812. Isabel stayed at Albany until 1809.

(V)-Archange Cadotte (b-1798) moved to Sault Ste Marie and claimed, in 1836, to have lived there for the next 30 years.

Marie Anne Gaboury, wife of Jean Baptist Lagimodiere, arrived in August at the Red River Metis Colony, being the first known European woman in the settlement. On January 6 of the following year, while at Pembina, she had a baby girl called Reine, only the second known non Metis child born in the prairies. Naroisse Grant, born 1806, Pembina, is reported living in this region until 1854, then listed on La Pointe Script as having moved to Alexander, Minnesota: so it was reported in 1870.

Portage La Prairie harvested potatoes, carrots, corn, onions, parsnips, beets, and turnips. Pembina also reported harvesting cabbages and melons.

Simon Charette of Michilimackinic, formally of the Cadotte party in 1799, is killed on September 15 by a war party of 50 Dakota Sioux at Folle Avoine River, working out of Portage la Prairie.

(I)-John Johnson (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), an Irishman of de La Pointe, is trading the country around Lake Superior and Huron. The formation of the Michilimackinac Company, which acquired the American portion of the North West Company including Fort La Pointe, is to avoid any American tariffs. Michael Cadotte (1764-1837) remains in charge.

The Metis, according to Daniel Harmon (1778-1845), are unable to read, yet are far from ignorant, having a better knowledge of the world and human nature than do other lower class people in most other countries. They are unusual in that they prefer to put their knowledge at the service of others rather than use it for themselves. Pierre Genou, alias Gagnon, and Ginan, voyager for the North West Company, left Rocky Mountain House on October 26.

The Louis and Clark expedition encountered two traders on the Missouri River near Omaha, Nebraska, and John Colter of Virginia asked to leave the employ of the expedition to join the traders. He departed with them. John Colter would go on to trade Wyoming, and the Yellowstone, and admitted that numerous anonymous French fur traders had crossed Wyoming and the Yellowstone before and after his exploration of the region. It is noteworthy that Louis and Clark, on their return trip, encountered eleven parties of traders coming upstream in twenty boats. There is little doubt the Metis and Coureurs des Bois had explored most of western America long before the official exploration.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son (I)-Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, built Fort St. James about 38 miles north of Vanderhoof, B.C. on the southeast shore of Stuaret Lake among the Carrier Dene People and Fort Fraser this year.

Paul Slobodchikov, a Russian trader reached Baja California. The Russian American Company traded in California and Timofei Tarakanov was on this trip.

January 30: Birth Pitchlynn, a.k.a. Peter Perkins Pitchlynn, a Choctaw Metis, died January 17, 1881. He considered the treaty with General Jackson as being fraudulent to his people, and refused to shake hands with Jackson. In 1865 he became an Indian Agent at Washington.

February: Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike journeyed to the sources of the Mississippi. He noted that three Ojibwa Chiefs ruled this area.

Babesigaundibay (Curly Head) ruled the Mississippi; Kadowaubeda (Broken Tooth), son of Biauswah, ruled the Sandy Lake region; and Eshkebugecoshe (Flat Mouth), the Pillagers of Leech Lake Area.

April 21: Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere married to Marie Anne Gaboury (1780-1875) who is considered the first European woman in Red River. These are the grand parents of Louis Riel.

May 20: Simon Fraiser (1776-1862) and John Stuart (1779-1847) named New Caledonia, and sent the first recorded furs from the region to Dunvegan, Alberta.

May 30, John McDonald visited Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan River. Jacco (Jacques) Finlay, a Metis, wintered on the Saskatchewan above the Kootenai Plains, hoping to establish a trade route to the Columbia using the Howse Pass. Some claim he was marking a trail over the divide to the Columbia for David Thompson's trip in 1807. Finlay is likely following a well established Indian trail to the Columbia. Finlay would go on, in 1810, to establish Spokane House.

June 24: Agreement between (I)-Robert Dickson, a..ka. Mascotapah (1768-1823), and Company, (I)-James Aird (d-1819) and also for his late brother George Aird, Jacob Franks and Wilmot, and the James and Andrew McGill and Company (James McGill for his late brother Andrew McGill, Thomas Blackwood and Francois DesRivieres of Montreal; the former was indebt to the latter.

July 19: New Fort is renamed For William in honor of William McGilvray. Doctor McLaughlin is posed at Sturgeon Lake, which is North West of Fort William. Charles Chaboillez (1772-1812) and James Leith wintered at Pic and Michipcotton.

September 3, (I)-James Aird (d-1819) was in charge of the Missouri trade when he met Lewis and Clark on their return from the Pacific, between the mouth of the Vermilion River and the mouth of the Big Sioux River (Missouri)

December 29, Moose Factory, birth (II)-baby boy Scarth son (I)-John Scarth and (I)-Isabel Gunn both of Orkney.

1807

Nine births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement.

R. Dickson Co. sent Jean Baptiste LeBlanc to Lac Superior.

(I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810), a Spaniard of St. Louis, Missouri, is at the Mandan Village on the Missouri River with Manuel Lisa, and are having problems with the Blackfoot.

Green Bay, marriage Joseph Campinne (Camanne) to Charlotte Roy Metis b-1785 daughter Francois Roy Metis son Joseph Roy (LeRoy) (1744-1825) and Marguerite Oskinanotame (1760-1835) daughter AhkenepawehAkeeneebaway (Standing Earth) a Menominee and Waupanokoew;

Dakota, birth Joseph Renville Metis (about 1807-1856) son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow); 1st married Marie and 2nd marriage Tenosia Armatender/Ermatinger?.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), marriage Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) son Nicolas Basile Hudson Beaulieu and Marie Josette Miville; married Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790 daughter Waviishgaugauge or White Raven, grand daughter Keesh-ke-mun.

Nemaha Territory, Missouri, birth Comanaka/Comanna Dorion, Metis born about 1807, child Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) and Yankton woman (Holy Rainbow). It is noteworthy that Pierre was a polygamist also married to a Iowa woman. See 1780

Jean Marie Cardinal Jr. (about 1771-1823) son Jean Marie Cardinal Sr. (about 1729-1780) and Omaha slave (Panis MaHa); married Elisabeth (Isabel)

Antaya Peltier and had the following Metis children, Eustache b-1808, Helie b-1810, Pierre b-1812, Julien b-1821 and Paul.

Manuel Lisa (1772-1820) came up the Missouri River to trade furs and built Fort Lisa (Fort Manuel or Manuel's Fort) on the Big Horn River, Montana.

Joseph Nedeau, Metis b-1807 Red River, voyager married Susanna, Metis b-1808 Pembina.

Catherine Normand, Metis, born 1807 Canada daughter Ambroise Normand, living Red River 1870.

James Inkster born 1807 Red River Settlement son James Inkster, living St. Johns, Red River 1870.

David Thompson and company are in the Oregon Territory.

The North West Company abandoned trading with the Mandan and Missouri Indians.

The Mackinac Notary Book, 1806-1818, recorded that in 1807, thirty five independent traders are listed, and by next year they began to form into partnerships, especially under the Mackinac Company name. This would only last about three years.

John Askin Jr,. a Metis, is stationed at Fort St. Joseph. He noted that the coin of the country is called whiskey.

The Hudson Bay Company opened its first school at York Factory in response to requests by parents of Indian and Half-breed children. The first teacher is the surgeon of the Post. The Company requested Clergymen for teachers, but none could be found who would leave Britain on any terms.

Pointe a la Gourgaine (Gourgane) is the name given to the north entrance to the Nipigon Strait.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) built Fort George (Prince George) this year at the confluence of the Nechako and Frazier Rivers..

Horses were noted at Leech Lake.

John Colter of the Louis and Clark expedition, who became a trapper, discovered the geothermal activity in the Yellowstone area.

The Beaver Club of Montreal debated changing their name to the Voyager Club of Montreal.

The New Fort at Thunder Bay, Ontario is renamed Fort William and this fort would last until 1880.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son (I)-Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, built Fort George

June 10: Tou-Paint Gareau is employed by (IV)-Augustin Grignon at 600 livers, to winter south of Michilimackinac.

June 10: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Francois Freniere engaged Benjamin Cadott, Dominac Le Roux and Pierre Pierojai to winter the Mississippi.

June 10: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Augustin Grignion engaged Fraissen Gareau, Geoffroi Bourdeau and Waweh to winter in the south.

June 12: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Giasson and Berthelot engaged Noel Gernie, Pierre Banje and Joseph LeBlanc to winter the Mississippi.

June 23: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Benjamin Cadotte to River St. Peter.

June 30: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Pierre Gladeau to Prairie du Chien.

June 30: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) employs Pierre Giroux, Poette Bourgare, Touissant Robidoux, John Lessard and Alexis Buissett at 550 liver to winter at Nipey.

July 5: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent John B. Cadotte north.

July 7: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Messrs. Dickson, Crawford and Company engaged Pierre Charrett, Joseph Gagnon and Benjamin Payans to winter Fond Du Lac, Minnesota.

July 7: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Rocheblave and Pollier engaged Pierre Giroux to winter Lac Du Flambeau that is Southeast of La Pointe.

July 9: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Nolin sent Jean Baptiste Decauteau, Theodore Pillion & Jean T. Nolin to Lake Superior.

July 9: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Charles Ermatinger sent Francois St. George, Hycinthe Tebeau and Jean Baptiste Crevillion to Lake Superior.

July 11: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Jean Baptiste Monbuin and Thomas Conner to Lake Superior.

July 12: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Jacques Nasseur to Lake Superior.

July 18: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent Paul Bourke to the Missouri, River.

July 21: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent Louis Dugal to the Missouri, River.

July 21: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Rockblave & Pollier sent Louis Dugal, Louis Fournier, Jean Baptiste Lanschagrin, Jean Baptiste Boicour, and Etiene Precour to the Missouri, River.

July 24: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Rockblave & Pollier sent Jean Baptiste Tission to Missouri River.

July 25: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent Joseph Masay to the Missouri River.

July 25: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Tousaint Pothier sent Chrisostome Ponca to the Missouri River.

July 25: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Charles Brutor sent Gabrial Ayott and Jean Baptiste Roie to the Missouri River.

July 25: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that George Lagotherie sent Toumie Matlet to the Missouri River.

July 25: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Julien Perat, Dominique, Joseph Calle, Etienne Bariteau and Joseph Bellaire to the Mississippi/Missouri Rivers.

July 26: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Alexis Bruneau to the Mississippi/Missouri Rivers.

July 28: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent John B. Bele to the Missouri River.

July 29: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Charles Bruyeur sent Francois Manseau & Michel Briyen to the Missouri River.

July 29: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Mackinac Co. sent Pierre Gereau to St. Joseph.

July 31: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Robert Dickson & Co. sent Jean Baptiste Gireux & Joseph Perrault to the Missouri River.

December: (I)-John Archibald Campbell (1775-1808) became U.S. Indian Sub-Agent at Prairie du Chein.

December 4: Daniel Harmon's woman has a son, George Harmon.

December 28, Doctor McLaughlin, with two Canadians and one Native, visit Holdane at Red Lake.

1808

Pierre Bercier Sr. d-1830 of the N.W.C. is in Oregon Territory and married Emelie Finlay.

Elisabeth Caldar born 1808 Red River daughter J. Calder, living St. Andrew, Red River 1870.

(I)-John Archibald Campbell (1775-1808), who became U.S. Indian Sub-Agent at Prairie du Chein, is killed in a duel with trader Redford Crawford; Campbell's former trading associate. (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) was acting as Redford's second. John left seven Metis children to fend for themselves as his Dakota wife died in 1801.

Prairie du Chien, birth Bernard W. Brisbois, Metis died 1885 son Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein; married 1830 Therese Lachapelle.

John B. Corbin is recorded as commandant at the Lac Coutereille post.

Wenona Crawford born 1808 Minnesota.

Paul Dorion Metis born 1808/09 likely in Beaverhead, Montana died 1889 on the Iowa/Sac/Fox reservation in Doniphan County, Kansas son Pierre Dorion Metis (1780/82-1814) and Marie Aioe Laguivoise (Wihmunkewakan) (1786-1850) also known as Marie Aioe Dorion Venier Toupin; Paul married 1st Fasvhimpiimi (My Horse Comes out Horse), 2nd marriage Mary Atoktisau. See 1780.

Birth, Old North West Region (II)-Helen (Ellen) Dickson Metis (1808-1884) daughter (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah (Red Hair Man)) (1768-1823) and Helen Totowin; She married 1st. Joseph R. Brown and 2nd marriage Moses Arconge.

Michilimackinac, birth or baptism? (III)-James Rough Ermatinger Metis (1808-1866) son (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. James married 1829 Charlotte Cadotte (1805-1887) daughter Michel Cadotte and Madeleine Equaysaguay.

Red River Settlement, birth (III)-Madeleine (Striped Cloud) Ermatinger Metis daughter (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. She married William A. Aitken

Red River Settlement or Sault Ste Marie, birth (III)-William Ermatinger Metis son (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.

Red River Settlement or Sault Ste Marie, birth (III)-Jane Ermatinger Metis daughter (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. She married 1840 Edward S. Lovell.

(II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe), who died in 1880, were firmly established at Sault Ste Marie by 1816, but were connected to the Hudson Bay Company and Lord Selkirk. They retired to Montreal in 1828.

Red River Settlement, birth (III)-Jemima Ermatinger Metis (1800-1817) daughter (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. Jemima married Captain Cameron.

Boggy Hall, birth (II)-John Thompson Metis died January 11, 1814 Terrebonne son (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis. Boggy Hall was at the mouth of the Brazeau and Nordegg Rivers into the Saskatchewan River.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Margaret Hudon (1808-1896 Metis daughter Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Martin Bisson.

Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere from Maskinonge had a child, who was born in Pembina this year, with his Canadian bride, claiming it to be the first legitimate white child born on the Red River. This assumes that a country marriage between man, woman and God is not legitimate. It is also claimed to be the second white child born on the river.

Dr. John McLoughlin is on Sturgeon Lake in the Nipigon Department.

Thomas McNab born 1808 North West son Thomas McNab (b-1782) also North West, census 1838 Red River. Son John McNab (b-1806) also listed.

Elizabeth Martell, Metis b-1808 Red River married about 1830 had children until 1844 all Red River.

Joseph Montreuille, Metis b-1808, a hunter, married Isabelle Bottineau, b-1817 Red River, appears to be second marriage.

Paradise, Montana, birth, Francois Rivet, Metis, son Francois Rivet b-1754 Quebec d-1852 and Theresa Tete Platte a Flathead Indian.

Charlotte Spense born 1809 daughter James Spense, living St. John, Red River 1870.

The formation of the American Fur Company (1808-1842) this year is an effort to avoid American taxes. John Jacob Astor is instrumental in its creation, and he controlled the company until 1834. Jacob said he would rather have one Canadian canoe-man than three American canoe-men.

The Hudson Bay Company, despite using the Hudson Bay for over a century never, surveyed the area nor made charts to guide the ships.

The Free-traders at The Pas have a thriving business, selling salt to the passing traders solely for flavoring.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) is offered a job as interpreter in the Indian Department, replacing John Askin, Jr. at St. Joseph's. Cadotte is reported living with his Metis wife, Sauge-mauqua (Marie Janette Piquette), in a small house on the river, east of where the fish hatchery now stands in Sault Ste Marie. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) is a well known fiddler; playing for many dances.

In Fort Vermillion, Alexander Henry (1764-1814) is transferred and takes Her Ladyship (chief Liard's daughter) of Red River with him. He had three children with her but fails to mention her in his later journals, and their fate is unknown.

Congress prohibited African slave trading, but at least a quarter of a million more slaves were illicitly imported into the United States.

May: (II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862), John Stuart, Jules Maurice Quesnil, nineteen (16?) Metis and two Indians descended the Fraser River. John Stuart was one of those men who practiced serial marriages and acquired a new wife whenever he moved. Jean Baptiste Bouche (Boucher) dit Waccen, died 1850, was one of the Metis mentioned. Fraser thought he was on the Columbia River and only realized his error when he reached the mouth and took his bearings. He was greatly disappointed..

May 8: (II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the North West Company son (I)-Simon Fraser and Isabel Grant, departed Fort George with 2 clerks and 16 voyagers, with 2 guides to find a new transportation route to the Pacific. It turned out to be a 520 mile trip down the Fraser River.

June 23: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Benjamin Cadotte to winter River St. Peter.

June 30: Cadotte and Co. sent Alexis LaValle to La Pointe, Lake Superior. See conflict July 10, possible error by Samuel Abbott.

July 5 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged John B. Cadotte to winter in the North.

July 8 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Louis Bisson engaged Pierre Grignon to winter Ouisconsin.

July 9 Charles Ermateau sent Francis St. George, Hycinthe Tebeau and Jean Baptiste Crevillion to Lake Superior.

July 9 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean B. Nolan engaged Jean Baptiste DeCanteau, Jean Francois Nolin and Theodose Pillon to Lake Superior.

July 11 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Jean Baptiste Monbruin, Thomas Conner, and Jacques Vasseur to Lake Superior.

July 20 Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Joseph Pierre Gueau.

August 6: At Grand Rapid; at the North West end of Lake Winnipeg, Monsieur Perigne, a former North West Company man, is now free-trading and has set up shop. Many Metis and free-traders live at Park River and in the Pembina Hills. They own many horses and carts and are busy selling provisions to the Fort at Pembina.