Metis

1809 - 1811


The North West Company issues an edict that says
to only marry daughters of white men.

Racialism is being built into the fur trade system.

Racism was first introduced by the English and now the Scots.

The Hudson Bay Company Orkney men form a union.

The response is that no more men from Orkney
are to be sent out to America.


The Thomas Douglas obtains controlling interest
in the Hudson Bay Company.

The British did not believe they had the right
to sell the land, either by authority or occupation.


1809

The Hudson Bay Company could not pay a dividend; it was over drafted £50,000 at the bank. Committee members were forced to provide operating cash. There was talk of withdrawal from the fur trade in Canada. Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), the Scot son of Dumbar Douglas and Helen Hamilton, is busy buying the depressed Hudson Bay stock.

John Jacob Astor, a German, attempted to make a joint venture with the Northwestern Fur Company but when rejected organized the American Fur Company to work the Oregon Territory (Oregon, Washington & B.C.) this year and in 1811, purchased the Mackinaw Company. He hired Alexander McKay the 2nd in command of the Mackenzie Expedition to the Pacific of 1792/93.

In the Upper Mississippi District, Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851), who married Dakota woman, was taken east by Meriwether Lewis of Lewis and Clark, but upon his mysterious death this year, Scott returned to the Upper Mississippi District.

Pierre Dorion, Metis (1780/82-1814), served as an interpreter on the Missouri River for Manuel Lisa. Lisa obtained a warrant against Dorion in the spring of 1811 for an unpaid debt that Pierre had owed as a former employee at Fort Mandan.

Peter Skene Ogden born 1790 Quebec died Oregon City 1854, he joined the North West Company this year and had a bad reputation for violence which delayed his been accepted as a Chief Trader for two years after the merger with the Hudson Bay Company.

Duncan Campbell born 1802 who married Dakota woman wintered until 1810 on the Mississippi River with Michel Cadotte

James Gait born 1809 Red River Settlement son James Gait, living St. Andrews, Red River 1870.

Jean LaDiroute born 1809 Red River Settlement son Philibert LaDeroute, living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

Jean Baptiste Bruce born 1809 Red River Settlement son Pierre Bruce, living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

Robert Logan, a clerk at Sault Ste Marie who later settled in Red River, ignored the North West Company edict to marry daughters of white men and took an Indian woman as his wife. He is not alone in this practice, as this ensured the man of trading privileges among the woman's tribe as well as temporary security if he failed to establish himself when he shed his servant position for a trader position. In many cases this was the only method of getting ahead in the company, and the fine was a small inconvenience.

Mowatt of the British Hudson Bay Company, shot and killed McDonnell of the Canadian North West Company, resulting in his hand being branded.

Mowatt also spent six months in jail in Montreal. Alexander Henry reported that the North West Company usually brings down 300 to 500 bags (45,000 pounds) of pemmican and upwards of 200 kegs of grease each spring. Some of the grease is shipped to Fort William, but the whole of the pemmican is required for the people going out in the spring and coming back in the fall.

Jean Baptiste Champlain sold lot #26, French Land Claims, to Antoine LeClair at Peoria (Poiria), Illinois

Elizabeth Wilkie, Metis b-1809 Pembina, married about 1827 Red River, Martin Jerome, Metis b-1800 Red River, a hunter.

Pierre Genou, alias Gagnon and Ginan, voyager for the North West Company, is reported with (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) this and next year. On October 20, at Fort Vermilion, in house #5, lives Joseph Genou, alias Gagnon or Gagnion, and his wife. No children are reported, but the Gagnon family in 1810 numbered 17 persons.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the North West Company built Kullyspell House by Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho.

Labrador administration is attached back to Newfoundland. In 1760 it was attached to Newfoundland then, in 1774, it was attached to Quebec. The Inuit a.k.a. Eskimo and Metis continue to be largely ignored.

The North West Company built four schooners at Fort William between 1809 and 1821.

Andrew Wedderburn, a.k.a. Colvile, joined the Hudson Bay Committee and is soon followed by his brother-in-law, John Halkett. He introduced his new system that was to replace the defeatist attitude of the committee. The London standard was eliminated, allowing Masters of posts to fix their own standards of trade, and they were allowed profit sharing like the French Companies. They were told to abandon their traditional submissive nature, and it was suggested they practice a determined firmness. Some believe this is the turning point of the Hudson Bay Company. Colin Robertson, a former North West Company man, suggested enlisting scores of Canadians so that the Hudson Bay Company could start an immediate onslaught on the North West Company's position in Athabasca. The London Committee, however, were not prepared to take such a bold step at this time.

Jean Claude Campenes Ou Campenet; canonier de la garnison de Quebec; il etait. November 15, 1756, a Charlesbourg, et en 1778, a Ste Anne de la Perade.

Laframboise; his wife Marcotte; daughter Jean Baptiste Marcotte- who is the daughter of Ke-wi-na-quot (returning cloud), an Ottawa chief ; their son Louizon; 12 men; and old Angelique- their slave, departed Mackinac to winter at the upper part of Grand River, Michigan. An Indian entered the tent of Laframboise and shot him dead. Marcotte continued on to the wintering location where she buried her husband. She conducted the trade, returning to Mackinac in 1810.

At Lesser Slave Lake, Tolibee (an Ojibwa) was appointed Trading Captain by the Hudson Bay Company, as was his 1/2 brother, Jean Baptiste Desjarlais (Nishicabo), a Metis. They commanded a sizable group of Metis, Ottawa, Ojibwa and Iroquois traders. These traders wielded considerable power, and Robert Kenny of the Hudson Bay Company was determined to undermine this authority. He wrote that these people know well how to take advantage of the times, but it is to be hoped that a time will very soon come when these fellows will be kept under by the power of a single trader without opposition.

The Gay Head Indians, who lived on the western end of Martha's Vineyard, were a tribe of mixed-bloods; Indian and Negro.

THE POPULATION OF THE NORTHWEST BY TRIBE IS ESTIMATED AS FOLLOWS:

ALGONKIAN Speaking peoples

Ojibwa (includes 2,800 living north shore Lake Superior) 5,100 to 5,300

Cree 3,800

Cree and Ojibwa (not differenced in trade at Fort Dauphin) 600

Blackfoot, Blood and Piegan 5,700

Gross Ventre 1,150

ATHAPASKAN Speaking peoples

Sarcee (Thompson estimated their numbers as 650) 350

Others 11,000

 

SIOUAN

Assiniboine 2,900

 

TOTAL 30,600

 

It is important to keep in mind that these are very rough estimates, based on rough assumptions and are not census related.

March 13: Patrick Myuagh deserted Fort St. Joseph for Fort Mackinac and freedom, but he was found frozen to death only 30 miles from the Fort.

His companion, Keary, suffered frostbite so severe that all his fingers and both legs had to be amputated.

June 19: Baptiste La Fleur, interpreter, and Stuart went to St. John's to discover the whereabouts of his brother who is traveling the Rocky Mountain portage to St. John. The fate of the party is unknown.

June 29: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Cadotte and Co. sent Francois Larose, Francis Landrie, Joseph Rivard, Pierre Rondeau, Joseph Beaupre and Jean Baptiste Leveille to Lac Courte Oreille.

June 30: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Cadotte and Co. sent Alexis Lavalle to La Pointe and Francois Lemieux to Lac Courte Oreille.

July 10: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Pierre Gouin (Girou) or Gnou to winter St. Joseph.

July 17: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Benjamin Cadotte to winter Mississippi.

September: Moose Factory (I)-Isabel Gunn, alias John Fubbister, and her illegitimate son who was fathered by (I)-John Scarth, returned to Orkney. She arrived in 1806, disguised as a boy.

October: Alexander Henry, the younger, on the Saskatchewan River, opposite the mouth of the Vermilion River, with eleven canoes of trade goods, noted James Bird and his family arrived by canoe from York Factory, then departed with his family on horseback, presumably for Fort Edmonton.

October: (I)- David Thompson (1770-1857) is at the Flathead (Salish) Post (Libby, Montana) with Finan McDonald, James McMillan, Michel Kinville, Metis, Francois Sans Facon, Metis, Francois Gregoire, Metis, Pierre Gregnon, Metis, Francois Rivet, Metis, Brucier, Pembrook (Pemruck), Bellaire, James McMillan and a voyager, likely Michel Bordeaux dit Bourdon, Metis and Jean Baptiste Boucher.

1810

Antoine Azure, Metis, b-1810 Red River married to Charlotte Pelletier, Metis b-1815 Red River. Genealogy First Metis Nation. (Antoine Azure, Metis, b-1794 Red River married about 1835 Red River Charlotte Pelletier, Metis b-1792 Red River.) 1850 census.

Alexis Beaudoin and Perrault are working the north side of Lake Superior.

Matildia Bruce, Metis b-1810 N.W.T. daughter Benjamin Bruce b-1775 and Matildia, Metis b-1778: married Donald McKenzie, Metis b-1800, one child is noted Matilda McKenzie, Metis b-1849 (1840?) who married about 1869 Mathew Cook, Metis, b-1848 N.W.T. (1891 census claims Nova Scotia) son Joseph Cook b-1792 N.W.T. and Catherine Sinclair, Metis, b-1785.

Francois Delain, Metis b-1810 Red Lake, a voyager, married about 1837 Satan (Satin),Metis, born 1812 Red Lake Antoine Laliberte, Metis b-1810 Red River, a hunter, son Pierre Laliberte b-1776 and Joseohte Gaudry, Metis b-1780; married about 1837 Red River Marguerite Nadeau b-1822 Red River. 1850 census (Antoine b-1808) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Marguerite Lionais dit Delaunay, Metis b-1810 Red River married Jean Baptiste Letendre dit Batoche, Metis b-1790 Red River.

Jean Baptiste Martel (Martelle?), Metis b-1810 Red River, a hunter married Josephte Godon b-1820 Red River.

Francois Masson, Metis b-1810 Red River, a carpenter, married Therese Charron dit Ducharme. Metis b-1810 Red River. 1850 census. (Francois b-1800 & Therese b-1812) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Charlotte Nolin, Metis b-1810 Pembina married a Parisien

Baptiste Perrisen (Parisien), Metis b-1810 Red River, a hunter, married Marie b-1812 Red River.

Paradise, Montana, birth, Joseph Rivet, Metis, son Francois Rivet b-1754 Quebec d-1852 and Theresa Tete Platte a Flathead Indian.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the North West Company is conducting trade at Saleesh House near Thompson Falls, Montana with the Nez Perce on March 11. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the North West Company is conducting trade near Bonners Ferry, Idaho.

Jean Baptiste Vallee, Metis b-1810 Red River, a hunter, married Marie Kipling b-1819 Red River.

Joseph Boisvert and Bazile David rejoined the North West Company and is with Alexander Henry Jr. on the upper Saskatchewan River,

Forty three births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year. The cause of this large influx of pregnant women into the Settlement is not known. It would appear that the women and children were not as actively engaged in the buffalo hunts. It's possible that the buffalo herds were close to the Red River colony this season.

Red River, birth Pierre Bottineau, Metis famous guide and interpreter died 1895 Red Falls, Minnesota son Charles Bottineau and Margaret Clear Sky an Ojibwa Woman (Chippewa). He married Red River Genevieve Laurence born 1818 Minnesota and had 8 Metis children; Daniel, Jean, Pierre, Genevieve, Rosalie, Marguerite, Leon, and Elsie. He had a 2nd marriage in Little Canada, Minnesota to Martha Gervais, daughter Louis Pierre Gervais of Champlain N.Y.; they had 10 more children; Charles, Mathilde, Henry, George, William, Norman, Laura, Jennie, Agnes and Noah. Pierre is noted at Fort Snelling 1837, Frazer River 1859 with Nobles, Idaho 1863 with Fisk, Missouri River 1862 with Sibley. Some confusion exists concerning Pierre's birth 1816/1817 Red River vs. Dakota Territory. It is also suggested that he grew up with his mother's people- the Ojibwa.

Madame Laframboise dit Marcotte, a Metis fur trader, upon the death of her husband, obtain her own trading permit and made her servant, Genevieve Maranda, in charge of her home in Mackinac when she wintered in the interior or transported her furs to Montreal.

Dakota, birth Antoine Renville Metis son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow); 1st married Elizabeth and 2nd marriage Madeline.

Red River of the North, birth of Solomon Hamelin Metis son Jacques Hamelin and Angelique Tourangeau.

Prairie du Chien, birth Mary Brisbois, Metis (most likely birth year) daughter Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein; married Pierre Lachapelle. but George Pascal Brisbois is listed born this year so could be 1811 to 1813?

Peter Fidlers's wife, Mary Cree, at Ille a La Crosse is the only one who knew how to mend and set nets.

Duncan Campbell born 1802 who married a Dakota woman, wintered until 1810 on the Mississippi River with Michel Cadotte then joined the American Fur Company, working for James Lockwood at Prairie du Chein.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) is assigned to the North West Company's MacKenzie River Department from 1810 to 1814.

Daniel Harmon lived in Carrier Country from 1810 to1819 and married a native woman. Harmon noted that the Carrier People had a Miuties (chief), but he had no authority or influence over the community. It is noteworthy that an English clergyman rewrote parts of Harmon's journals to portray the natives as ignorant savages, which was more in line with Christian thinking at this time.

Joseph Nadeau, Metis b-1810 N.W.T. married Susanne Bourdon b-1813.) Genealogy First Metis Nation or (Joseph Nedeau (Nadeau), Metis b-1807 Red River, voyager married about 1831 Red River, Susanna b-1808 Pembina. 1850 census.

Charles Shibous, Metis b-1810 Red River, an Indian trader, married about 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin, or Red Lake? Josette b-1819 Missouri River.

The population of Michigan Territory is 4,528. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818) is offered the job as Indian storekeeper, replacing the suspended Askin. Lt. Francis Gore wrote to Sir James Craig on February 26, 1810, that the dissipated habits and extreme intemperance of the interpreter, Cadotte, render him unfit for trust, as during his stay in York, he was almost in a continual state of intoxication. Captain Dawson, however, wrote April 21, 1810, praising Cadotte in a letter to Gore. Cadotte took charge of the stores. He is still drawing severance pay from the North West Company.

J.D. Cameron, an Ojibwa Metis, pioneered Anglican works at Sault Ste Marie, embracing Christianity after being convinced that the earth is round. He later converted to Baptist and worked Lake Superior for 25 years.

The Orkneymen of the Hudson Bay Company organized a form of labor union to prevent the Company from hiring the number of men it wanted, in order to force them to raise their wages. The Hudson Bay Company believed that the North West Company is conspiring, by malicious tricks, to discredit its service in order to prevent it from getting its annual supply of useful hands.

(II)-Miles MacDonell (1767-1828) is surprised that the Hudson Bay Company has never encouraged its servants to bring their families into the field.

He is also amazed that not a single Cree has adopted the British values, or the British belief in the true deity.

Therese Villebrun, Metis b-1810 Red River married Louis Laverdure b-1814 Pembina, a hunter.

The British Hudson Bay Company, as a result of declining dividends, reorganized and eliminated the London Standard, allowing more local autonomy and profit sharing. The Official Company Bulletin proclaimed, "No more men from Orkney to be sent out to America, but men from the Western Islands and Coast of Scotland where the people are of a more spirited race than the Orkney." The truth of the matter was that the Orkney had little respect for the English and openly held them in contempt. The Hudson Bay Company sent agents to Glasgow, the Hebribes and to Montreal to recruit servants. The first of the non Orkney servants to arrive are an Irishman and three Highlanders from Stornoway. They are maliciously treated by the Orkney, being considered as a break in contract. Many Orkney refused to renew their contracts, as they felt the Company betrayed their confidence.

British military regulations at this time only allowed six women and their families per company of soldiers at British forts.

William William's became Governor in Chief of the British Hudson Bay Company because of his sheer love of violence and lack of subtlety. The English were obviously expecting problems in the Territories. There was even talk of employing those French Metis, and establishing a retirement colony at Red River for those Orkneys and English half-breed families with no desire to return to Britain.

The Hudson Bay Company finally accepted some responsibility for the country children. They had ignored reality for so long that they had no terms for these new Canadians. The would eventually adopt the French terms for these country born peoples, including the derogative term- half-breed. Over two hundred years of British Metis ancestors were denied their rightful place in history. They were never allowed to become an ethnic/racial entity. It was not until they merged with the already established Red River Metis establishment that they were offered an alternative. The British/Indian descendents as Metis only begins about this time. It did not take long for the British Metis to blend into the French Metis culture. As a result, the modern Metis went through a cultural transition. Some diversionists, even to this day, attempt to divide the Metis people with meaningless distinctions.

The Hudson Bay Company finally realized that its dependency on England for food was too costly. The Decision was made to procure food supplies from the Prairies; mostly buffalo, but other Metis and Indian produce likely entered the trade.

(I)-Thomas Thomas, alias John George Thomas of Vaudreuil, is Superintendent of southern factories: Moose, Albany and Eastman, as well as master of Severn House, last year and this year. This (I)-Thomas Thomas, born 1766 (not to be confused with (I)-Thomas Thomas born 1781 and arrived 1794 who is also an ancestor of Garneau), arrived in the Hudson Bay Territories in 1789, being the first Canadian ancestor of (IV)-Eleanor Thomas. He would eventually marry into the Garneau clan.

This year witnessed the first Fort Carlton, and the Metis Rebellion of 1885 would destroy the last Fort Carlton. Actually, this is the third fort built on the Saskatchewan River near Duck Lake, and is called Carlton House but later renamed Fort Carlton. The original known Forts were built in 1795 and 1804.

Daniel Harmon (1778-1845) reports that nine bushels of potatoes planted yield 150 bushels of potatoes.

Jean Bilone Dumont born 1810 Red River Settlement living St. Norbert, Red River 1870 census.

Some place this as the year the Pembina Chippewa Metis (Bungi) move from the Red River to the Turtle Mountains to create a settlement.

Jacco (Jacques) Raphael Finlay (Metis) (1768-1828), and Partner Finan McDonald (Metis) establish Spokane House for the N.W.C. on the Spokane River, a short distance from its confluence with the Columbia. This house supported the Metis free traders of the region. Finlay and McDonald settled down to raise their Metis families near the Trading Post.

These children are likely not from the same Indian woman, one could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821).

Suzette Finley, Metis, (1810-1848) born Spokane, Washington son Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman.

Marie Josephte Finley, Metis, (1810-1869) born Spokane, Washington son Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman.

Jedidiah Morse of the H.B.C. wrote that New South Wales is a country of vast extent, of which little is known, lying round the southern part of Hudson Bay. The Hudson Bay Company had occupied the shores since 1683, but seldom strayed from its coast. This is incredible and speaks volumes of the English inability to explore.

The Missouri Fur Company built Fort Henry near St. Anthony, Idaho.

Captain Jonathan Thorne sailed with four Pacific Fur Company partners and nine clerks for the Columbia River, Oregon Territory. W.P. Hunt and Donald Mackenzie headed overland with over 70 men from St. Louis, Missouri.

April 24: Prairie De Chien, birth Elizabeth Therese Baird died November 5, 1890 daughter Henry Munro Fisher (American Fur Company) and Marienne Lasaliere Metis daughter Pierre Lasaliere and Therese Schindler (also married George Schindler); Elizabeth married 1824 Mackinac Henry S Bird (1800-1876)

June 23: The Pacific Fur Company is regestered in New York by John Jacob Astor, b-1763, a German. His partners included ex-Nor'Westers: Alexander McKay, Donald McKenzie and Duncan McDougall.

July: John Jacob Astor, b-1763, a German led a sixty man expedition to the west coast. The expedition leadership included Wilson Price Hunt, Donald McKenzie and Ramsay Cooksand. The expedition dwindled to 34 after wintering on the Missouri river above St. Louis. They engaged Pierre Diron as guide who took his pregnant wife and two Metis children on the expedition.

July 6: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Francois X. Cadotte and Jean Baptiste Cadotte to winter Lac Flambeau Southeast of LaPointe.

July 10: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Michel Cadotte to winter River Court Oreille a La Pointe.

July 10: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that the Mackinac Company engaged Alexis LaValle to winter La Pointe.

July 12: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Michel Cadotte sent Guilliaume Lalonde to Lake Superior.

July 13: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Michel Cadotte sent Souverain Danie to Lake Superior.

July 17: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Michel Cadotte sent Benjamin Cadotte, Elie Rather, Francois Beaucheman and Michel Girard to a la Folle Avoine.

July 21: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Lemoine sent Louis Montreuil, Michel Ellie, Louis Proudome, Pierre Longlin and Charles Labarge to Missouri River.

June 22: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Michel Goursolle sent Michel Girard to the Grand River.

July 23: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Lemoine sent Jean Baptiste Lesage to Missouri River.

July 24: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Lemoine sent Pierre Morin to Missouri River.

July 27: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Pierre Grignon engaged a party to Ouisconsin.

July 30: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jean Baptiste Lemoine sent Joseph Labott to Missouri River.

July 30: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Lewis Crawford sent Francis Ladouceur to Lake Superior.

July 31: Lewis Crawford sent Francis LaDowceur to Lake Superior.

August 7: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Charles Bellaire sent Joseph Galerneau to Missouri River.

August 11: Lewis Crawford sent Antoine Turette to Lake Superior.

August 20: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Jacques Portier sent Jean Baptiste Gendbeau to the Mississippi River.

September 6: The Pacific Fur Company out of New York sent the ship Tonquin, under command of Captain Thron, to build Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River. A second ship, Beaver, is dispatched with provisions. A second party of 59 people are sent overland and they both are expected to arrive at the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon Territory about the same time. Only 35 of the overland party survived to reach the Pacific Ocean. The missing 24 either died from sickness, starvation, drowning, fights with Indians, fatigue or desertion. They had consumed or lost their provisions. A Wilson Price Hunt led the overland party. Some considered him inexperienced.

December 30: Marie the wife of Pierre Diron, guide for the Astor expedition to the Pacific gave birth to her third child. The next day she was back on her horse heading west.

1811

John Jacob Astor, a German, b-1763, of the American Fur Company claimed to have established Astoria, Oregon this year.

Joseph Belcour of the North West Company is working the Athabasca River.

Saskatchewan River Valley, birth Pascal Breland Metis son Pierre du Boishue dit Breland and Louise (Josphte) Belley; Pascal would marry Maria Grant Metis daughter Cuthbert Grant.

Ross Cox of the Pacific Fur Company claims to have ascended the Columbia River 9 times and descended 8 times in the next 6 years. He believed the North West Company was the undisputed masters of the interior of America.

Kiakik (Keyackie) Finley, Metis, born 1811 Spokane, Washington son Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821).

Birth, Spokane, Helene McDonald, Metis daughter Finan McDonald and Marguerite Pend d'Oreille. A son named James is also noted.

Donald McKenzie a 300 lb trader for the Pacific Fur Company established a trading post on the north side of the Clearwater River 5 miles above Lewiston. McKenzie and company were hi-handed and demanding towards the natives and the Nez Perce refused to trap beaver. The said they would trade horses, food or clothing but not furs. McKenzie had to shut the post down and travel on to the Pacific.

Wilson Phunt of the Pacific Fur Company explored the Snake River Valley and Boise Valley, Idaho.

St. Louis, Missouri, marriage Louis Resson son Louis Tesson Honore; married 1st. Marie Duchouquette, 2nd marriage 1788 St. Louis Therese Creely, 3rd marriage 1797 St. Louis Catherine Rivet, 4th marriage 1811, St. Louis, Missouri.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Julie Hudon (about 1811-1903+) Metis daughter Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Charles H. Oakes.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Clement H. Hudon (1811-1893) Metis son Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Elizabeth Farling. Clement's sister Gustave Hudson birth year unknown married Charles W. Borup. Hypolite Hudson birth also not known

Green Bay, marriage (IV)-Pierre Antoine (Fanfan) Grignon, Metis (1777- 1823) Green Bay (son espouse) as baptized August 6, 1787 Mackinac, son (II)-Pierre Grignon (1740-1795) and Menominee/Winnebago; married 1st 1801 Charlotte Pemonica, 2nd 1811 Marie Chellefoux.

Red River, birth (III)-Frederick Wiolliam Ermatinger Metis (1811-1869) son (II)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.

Gabriel Franchere, at Astoria, Oregon from 1811 to1824, says that the Indians of the upper Columbia River are always on horseback and go to the Missouri River for the annual buffalo hunt.

Pierre Dorion, Metis (1780/82-1814), journeyed west with an expedition led by Wilson P. Hunt of the American Fur Company that journied up the Missouri River with 80 men for the Pacific..

Archibald Pelton, a Massachusetts teenager, survived a Blackfoot attack that destroyed the expedition he was with. The Nez Perce found him wandering about in southern Idaho and took him in. A short time later Donald McKenzie with his ragged and starving group of 11 members of the Astor Expedition are saved by the same Nez Perce band and Pelton was re-united with his people.

David Stewart of the Pacific Fur Company wintered at Cume-loups (Kamloops) 'meeting of the waters' and established a trading post.

(I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811), an Orkney and Chief Factor, retired but no mention is made of his Indian wife and family.

Fort Augustus (Edmonton), birth (II)-Joshuah Thompson Metis son (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis.

Douglas appointed Miles MacDonell (1767-1828) as Governor of the Assiniboia.

Baptiste Bouche, interpreter, takes the daughter of the Carrier Chief as a wife.

Michel Cadotte is born 1811 Red River Settlement and will marry Nancy Cochrane also born 1820 Red River Settlement. Catherine Henry born 1811 Red River Settlement daughter Alexander Henry (1764-1814), living Red River 1870 census.

Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Michel Cadotte engaged Guillaume LaLonde and Sauverain to Lake Superior.

The Hudson Bay records indicate that two calves are shipped by boat inland from York Factory where they are born. This is believed to be the first record of the cattle industry in the prairies.

Jean Baptiste Grauier is listed in Montreal as a very old trader.

A winter squabble broke out among the Irish and Scotch settlers at the Hudson Bay Company. Nine men from Glasgow and four from Orkney refused to submit to Hudson Bay Company authority.

A.S. Morton says that the Earl of Selkirk is to set apart one tenth of the District for the settlement for retiring servants with their squaws and their dusky families.

Alexander Henry (1764-1814), the younger, at Rocky Mountain House on the Saskatchewan, says the Gros Ventre this year are offering their women to the men at the post for a night or two.

Jacques Cardinal (Cardinel) Sr. of St. Genevieve, Quebec went to Fort des Prairies for the North West Company.

It is reported that the Earl of Selkirk has obtained a controlling interest in the Hudson Bay Company. The British, for ten shillings, sell one hundred and sixteen thousand square miles of Canada; an area five times the size of Scotland, despite the objections of Alexander MacKenzie and other Canadian partners who were trying to buy up British Hudson Bay Company stock to block the sale. The area is called the Assiniboine and includes the Red River to Thomas Douglas (1771-1820). The selling price is a token price, as the British did not believe they had the right to sell the land either by authority or occupation. The transaction, however, is beneficial, as they could put the ignorant, zealous, do goodie, Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) between them and the Canadians- as they called them. If the venture turns sour, the British Hudson Bay Company is clean to try another alternative.

This is a win-win scenario, consistent with the best British tradition of getting someone else to do your dirty work. As part of the deal, it is agreed that the Selkirk Settlement is to provide 200 servants per year for ten years to the Hudson Bay Company.

Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), son of Dunbar Douglas and Helen Hamilton, had also established Baldoon in Upper Canada and a colony on Prince Edward Island as a result of the Scottish Land Clearance in Greater Britain. This action, however, was military in nature. Its intention was to cut the Canadian continental trade artery to the Saskatchewan and Pacific, using the poor Scottish settlers as pawns against the Metis Nation. It was a no-lose scenario, a base to dispose of those vile English half-breeds and surplus Scottish trash. The upside was the demise of the Canadian North West Company. The action did not go unnoticed, as Simon McGillivray, a good friend of (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), in Scotland wrote: "Thomas must be driven to abandon his plan for his success would strike at the very existence of the fur trade". Simon failed to see that Great Britain herself was the source of the real problem and (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) a simple ignorant pawn. Many new comers to Hudson Bay are from Glasgow, the Highlands and Ireland. To make matters worse, some are Roman Catholic and had brought their priest. William Auld wrote that the new French Canadian servants will evanesce more readily with the Irish because of a common religion.

The reason for the founding of the South West Company, which acquired the Michilimackinac Company, was to avoid American taxes.

The Hudson Bay Company recorded the employment of 21 half-breeds. Others raised at the forts are classified as whites. The total number of employees is 320, including 80 who were to depart for Great Britain. They are wintering near York Factory at Seal Island. Thirty five whites are scheduled to depart next year for Red River. The North West Company is claimed to have 1,200 employees. The number of Canadian Freemen is not known but most likely exceeds two hundred.

The Mackinac Company sold it's assets to John Jacob Astor, b-1763 of the American Fur Company, and he called it The South West Company. This company was short lived, as it was merged in 1816 with his American Fur Company.

Thomas Douglas of Selkirk (1771-1820), son of Dumbar Douglas and Helen Hamilton, had dug a political hole and is desperately trying to find a way out. He had been attempting to get support from the government to recruit Scottish Highlanders as soldier settlers for a colony at Lake Winnipeg in Canada. The Government told him many times that it was not tenable. Thomas was quickly losing his honor and credibility in the Highlands when he jumped at a scheme to recruit bold and hearty peasantry to people the Lake Winnipeg colony. William Young wrote that the Earl of Selkirk has brought himself into an awful scrape and us to a world of trouble, for what can people now do for themselves, without proper aid from the Government. The residents of Kildonan developed a great anger toward Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk (1771-1820), as did his future settlers north of the Metis Red River Settlement.

Henry Marie Brackenride ascended the Missouri River with the Missouri Fur Company under the leadership of Manuel Lisa. Wilson Price Hunt led the Pacific Fur Company bound for Astoria, Oregon was on the river at the same time and they traveled together for a while. The Lisa group consisted of 25 men including 20 oars men who were mostly Canadians and Creoles. They were of the opinion that Americans were not considered up to the task. They claimed that Touissant Charbonneau and Sacajawea (1784 or 1787 - 1812 or 1884) of the Louis and Clark expedition were their guides.

Each village we visited the People would present the Metis offspring of the Louis and Clarke expedition.

Captain Cornelious Sonles sailed for the Columbia River, Oregon Territory with another contingent for the Pacific Fur Company that included Clarke, Clapp, Halsey, Nicolls, Seton, Ehninger and Ross Cox. Henry Willetts died of scurvy on the trip.

The Pacific Fur Company Employees at the Columbia River Fort Astoria (Fort George) are mostly Canadians and are as follows: Antoine Belleau, Jean Baptiste Belleau, Bazile Brousseau, Pierre Brugiere, George Cone, Joseph Cote aka Cotte, Ross Cox, John Day, Joseph Delauney, Pierre Delaunay, Jean Baptiste Delorme, Louis Dinnelle aka Dinelle, Pierre Dorion, Jean Baptiste Dubreuil d-1849, Francois Ducharquette aka Dechouquette, Andre Dufresne, Russell Farnham, Prisque Felix, Gabriel Franchere, Jean Baptiste Gardipie, Joseph Gervais, J. Cook Halsey, John Hoback aka Hobough, Francis William Hodgkins aka Hodgens, Charles Jacouette, Paul Den Jeremie, Jean Baptiste Labonte, Louis Labonte Sr., Andrie Lachapelle (1781-1881), Michel Laframboise, Louis Laliberte, Francois Landry, Joseph Landry, Joseph La Pierre, Louis La Valle, Giles Leclere, Alexis Le Compte, Andre Longtain b-1794, William Matthews, Duncan McDougall, Donald McGillis, Thomas McKay, Metis, Jean Baptiste Ouvre, Francis Benjamin Pillette, John Reid (Reed), Alexander Ross, Alfred Seton, Joseph Samant, David Stuart, Jonathan Thorn d-1811 captain of the Tonquin and William Wallace.

Louis Labonte Sr. of the Pacific Fur Company married a Columbia Indian Woman daughter Clatsop chief Coboway.

Other traders in the Oregon are: Regis Brugiere, William Cannon, Alexander Carson, Ramsay Crooks, Pierre Detaye, Francois Fripagnier, Wilson Price Hunt, Benjamin Jones, Michel Lanson, Basil Lapensee, Ignace Lapensee, Francois Le Clere, Guillaume Leroux, Mr Louis, Alexander McKay, Jean Baptiste Desportes McKay, Andrew McKenzie, Donald McKenzie, Donald McTavish d-1814, Joseph Miller, John M. Mumford, Antoine Papin, Joseph St. Martin, Robert Stuart and Andrew Valle.

Joseph St. Martin of the N.W.C. arrived at Fort Astoria (Fort George) at the mouth of the Columbia River and married a Chinook Woman.

January 11: Chief Factor William Hemmings Cook, at York Factory wrote: Our gentlemen have, all though rather reluctantly, been out in tents and are there yet. York Factory only contained three or four men and so cold was the main building, and so inefficient and ineffectual are its fireplaces, that serious consideration is being given to abandoning it in winter.

March: Jean Baptiste Bouche (Boucher) dit Waccan died 1850 Metis of the NWC at New Caledonia, B.C. married a Carrier (Dene) chiefs daughter and had a second marriage 1817 to Nancy McDougall daughter James McDougall and had 17 Metis children, Jane b-1818, Sophie b-1820, Jean Baptiste b-1822 and Francois b-1824.

March 22: Captain Thorn of the ship Tonquin arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon Territory to build Fort Astoria.. He dispatched a small boat to find the channel, but the five men were lost. In a second attempt he lost another three men: Job Aiken, John Coles, Ebenezer D. Fox and John Martin. Captain Thorn offloaded the Pacific Fur Company employees, but not all the supplies, before sailing for Vancouver Island to trade.

April: An advertisement called for young active stout men to build a colony in Canada. They are not told that a colony already exists, and that they will be used as weapons of war. William Auld made it very clear that army regulars would be required, as open conflict would break out.

The winter of 1810-11 is the most severe in memory. The Red River flooded and at the Assiniboine junction, the waters rose fifty feet above the normal five foot flood level. The spread is a width of eight miles instead of the normal eighty to one hundred yards. The settlements and crops along the river are destroyed. Churchill and York report a severe shortage of provisions. A request is sent to Bas de la River (Winnipeg) and Red River Settlement for pemmican.

June: Captain Thorn of the ship Tonquin of Fort Astoria, Columbia River, is taken by the Indians, likely in Clayoquot Sound, Vancouver Island. He antagonized the Natives and they killed him and his crew, and destroyed his ship and the supplies that should have been off-loaded at the Columbia River.

July 12: Michel Cadotte sent Guilliaume LaLonde to Lake Superior.

July 13: Michel Cadotte sent Souverain Danie to Lake Superior.

July 15: It was stated: Mr. Jean Baptiste Cadotte, having since the year 1802 received from the Concern one hundred pounds currency per annum as a donation at their pleasure - the same be discontinued after the payment that shall take place in the year 1813 - it having been considered that he holds the place of Indian Interpreter in Upper Canada, and is thereby enabled to support himself without the Company's assistance.

July 15: (I)- David Thompson (1770-1857), with a party of 9, reached the mouth of the Columbia River to find John Jacob's Astor, b-1763, Fur Company had arrived a few weeks earlier. Thompson was unaware that the agreement between the American Fur Company and the North West Company to jointly support the voyage had fallen through. Thompson had not been ordered to reach the mouth of the river first.

August 9: Etienne LaMoucour sent Augustin Robinson to Lake Superior.

August 11: A comet appeared, which was not predicted, and is still visible in December. Some religious believed that this was a manifest indication of the wrath of heaven and the destruction of the world by fire.

December 11: Baby Dorion Metis born enroute from St. Louis to Astoria on the Pacific coast died January, 1812 child Pierre Dorion Metis (1780/82-1814) and Marie Aioe Laguivoise (Wihmunkewakan) (1786-1850) also known as Marie Aioe Dorion Venier Toupin.

December 16: The most intense earthquake was centered in New Madrid, Missouri, about 50 miles south of the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. One million square miles was shaken. Chimneys were knocked down in Cincinnati, 400 miles away. Shocks were felt 500 miles away in New Orleans, and in Boston 1,100 miles distant. James Audubon in Kentucky wrote that the earth waved like a field of corn before the breeze. The course of the Mississippi was changed; some islands disappeared, and new lakes and creeks were created.

The active Canadian Fur trading forts, houses and posts dominate the the fur trade in the North West Territories. The Canadian Fur Trade is dominated by the North West Company, but independent trade is significant.

MACKENZIE RIVER VALLEY

Fort Good Hope Post

Blue Fish River Post

Fort Norman

Great Bear Lake Post

Rocky Mountain House Post

Forks of Mackenzie Post

Fort Riviere au Liard Post

 

GREAT SLAVE LAKE REGION

Lac a La Martre Post

Slave Fort

 

PEACE RIVER REGION

Rocky Mountain House

Fort St. John

Fort Dunvegan

Fort of the Forks

McLeod's Fort

Horseshoe House

Fort Vermilion

Fort Liard

Fort du Tremble

Red River Fort

Fort Wintzel

 

LAKE ATHABASCA REGION

Fond du Lac Post

Fort Chipewyan (1)

Fort Chipewyan (2)

Pond's House

 

ATHABASCA RIVER SYSTEM

Fort Pierre au Calumet

Fort of the Forks

Lac La Biche Post

Lesser Slave River House

Lesser Slave Lake Fort

Athabasca River Post (1)

Athabasca River Post (2)

Jasper House

Henry's House

 

BEAVER RIVER REGION

Fort de T'Original

Green Lake House

Fort Ile a La Crosse

Fort Lac Des Boeufs

Methye Lake House

 

CHURCHILL RIVER AREA

Fort Lac La Ronge

Pelican Narroes Post

Fort La Traite House

Reindeer Lake House

Bedford House

Nelson House

Indian Lake House

 

NELSON RIVER REGION

Bears Backbone House

Paint Lake House

Sipiwesk House

Cross Lake House

Wiggs House

Burntwood Lake House

Cross Lake House

Jack River House

Reed Lake House

 

NORTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER SYSTEM

Action House

Boggy Hall

Quagmine House

Fort White Earth River

Fort Augustus

Fort De L'Isle

Fort George

Fort Vermilion

Fort De L'Isle

Turtle River House

Battle River House

Fort Montagne de L'Aigle

Fort La Montee

Fort du Bilieu

Fort Sturgeon

Fort Provindence

Fort St. Louis

 

SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER

Bow River Fort

Fort La Jonquiere

Chesterfield House

South Branch House

 

LOWER SASKATCHEWAN RIVER SYSTEM

Fort a La Corne

Isaac's House

Finlay's House

Fort Lower Nipawi (Nepoin)

Hungary Hall House

Cumberland House

Upper Settlement House

Lower Settlement House

The Pas (Pascoyac) Post

Beaver Lake Post

Cedar Lake House

Fort Bourbon

 

LAKE WINNIPEGOSIS AREA

Swan Lake House

Bird Mountain House

Somerset Post

Fort Dauphin

 

RED RIVER AND ASSINIBOINE REGION

Belleau House

Malboro House

Alexandri Post

Grant's House

Shell River House

Fort Esperance

Fort Montagne a La Bosse

Ash House

Fort Souris

Brandon House

Fort des Trembles

Portage La Prairie (Le Reine)

Adheman's Fort

Blondeau House

Fort Gibralter

Frobisher's Fort

Riviere aux Mort Post

Fort Maurepas

Bas de La Riviere - Winnipeg Post

Fort Maurepas

Red Lake House

Fort Pembina

Grant's House

Henry's House

Roy's House

Turtle River Post

Grand Forks House

 

LAKE OF THE WOODS REGION

Grand Portage Warehouse

Fort Charlotte

Fort William

Mille Lacs House

Sturgeon Lake Post

Fort Kaministiouia

Rainy Lake House

Fort St. Dierre

Lake of the Woods House

Fort Charles

Rat Portage House

Red Lake House

Cabottes House

Portage de L'Isle Post

 

There were hundreds of supply shacks, as the Hudson Bay called them, and unrecorded Canadian and Metis trading. They provided foods such as meats, grains and vegetables. They also provided canoes, horses and other supplies and they also engaged in the fur trade and provided freighting services. As many have reported- they were everywhere.