Metis

1812 - 1814


The Hudson Bay Company dumps hundreds of displaced,
dirt poor Scottish and Irish north of the Metis Red River Colony.

The infamous Thomas Douglas of Selkirk provided
neither food supplies or farming implements.

His objective is clear by his actions, that is
to instigate problems.


A Metis Flag is introduced


The Scottish North West Company believes that the
Red River settlement is overrun by some rascally
avages, some Canadian Freeman, and those half-breeds.

They believe those Scottish settlers must be removed at all costs.

The Canadians took Washington and burned the
Capital and the Presidents house.

The Americans later whitewashed the walls to
hide the burn marks and called it the Whitehouse.


1812

Pierre Beauchamp is born 1812 North West, census 1838 Red River. Possible son Jacques Beauchamp.

Jacques Cardinal Sr. of St. Genevieve, Quebec traveled from Fort des Prairies to Columbia for the North West Company until the merger in 1821.

Old North West Territories, birth, (II)-Thomas Dickson, Metis (1812-about 1833) son (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah (Red Hair Man) (1768-1823) and Helen Totowin; Jean Baptiste Dorion Metis born 1812/13 likely in the Dakota's died 1849 Oregon son Pierre Dorion Metis (1780/82-1814) and Marie Aioe

Laguivoise (Wihmunkewakan) (1786-1850) also known as Marie Aioe Dorion Venier Toupin; Jean married 1845 Washington Josephte Cayuse/Kiaus. See 1780.

Ninian Edwards is Governor of the Illinois Territory.

Isabella Finley, Metis, born 1812 Spokane, Washington daughter Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821).

Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) was in charge of the Spokane House until this time.

Joseph Gagnon Jr. born 1812-1814, North West son Joseph Gagnon Sr. born 1776-1778 possible son Joseph Gagnon living Rue Vallier, Quebec 1768-1769, as listed 1831-1838 census Red River and 1768-1772 inspector of chimneys (H-1758).

North West, Pierre Falcon, married, Mary Grant, sister of Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854).

James Grant assumed control of the Fond du Lac Department for the N.W.C.

Niel Livingstone born 1812 Red River son Donald Livingstone is living St. John, Red River in 1870.

Donald MacKenzie established a trading post at Lewisten, Idaho.

Hugh (Laird) McGillis (1767-1848) of Leech Lake departed for Fort William Michipicoten and Lesser Slave Lake.

N. Roi born 1812 died September 15, 1837 LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Francois Roy (LeRoy) b-1784 son Joseph LeRoy (1744-1825) and Marguerite Oskinanotame (1760-1835); who married Therese Lecuyer is operating a trading post from 1812 to 1818 at the portage between the Fox and Wisconsin River.

Some people recruited to the 1812-1815 war are:

Jean Baptiste Cadotte born 1790 of Ste Genevieve, Champlain, Quebec.

Francois Guernon born 1790 St Barthelemi, Quebec.

Ambroise Gagnon born 1792 St. Celestin, Quebec.

Louis Gagnon born 1791 Ste. Agnes, Charlelioux, Quebec.

Firmin Gagnon born 1793 Ste. Cecile du Bic, Rimouski, and Quebec.

Francois Gagnon born 1791 St. Thomas, Yamaska, Quebec.

Pierre Gagnon born 1789 St. Francois, Montmorancy, Quebec.

Francois Gagnon born 1794 Auxcoudres, Charlevoix, Quebec.

Jacques Gagnon born 1796 Baie St. Paul, Charlevoix, Quebec.

Simon Gagnon born 1787 St. Joachim, Montmorency, Quebec.

Pierre Gagnon born 1795 St. Jean, Montmerency, Quebec.

 

Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) of Prairie du Chien, on the Upper Mississippi, remained relatively neutral during the war, but sent his son Charles Brisbois (1798-1847) north towards Red River with his brother-in-law Henry M. Fisher. This resulted in Michel's arrest in July of 1816 on charges of treason, and he is taken to St. Louis for trial and is acquitted of the charges. Ironically in 1819 he was appointed Chief Justice for Crawford County, Michigan.

Chief Factor William Hemmings Cook at York Factory is messing with the squaws, according to (II)-Miles Macdonell (1767-1828) of the H.B.C.

Fort Clatsop of the Oregon Territory built by Lewis and Clark expedition where they wintered 1805/06 was still intact this year.

Fort Henry, at Kingston Ontario, was built this year on Port Henry, beside Lake Ontario, to guard the outlet to the St. Lawrence River.

George Schindler of Mackinac, became crippled and opened a school for boys. His wife, Therese Lasallere, took over his fur trading business with the Indians. Hercules L Douusman of the American Fur Company convinced Therese to give up fur trading and to open a school for girls - which she did.

Many historians totally ignore the existence of the Metis Red River Settlement that is decades old. It is noteworthy that, prior to the European invasion of Red River, there were thousands of Metis settlers on the region called Red River. The Red River des Metis Settlement dates to about 1775 or earlier. It is noteworthy that there are over 180 Metis births at Red River Settlement. This is amazing considering most families travel on the two annual buffalo hunts as well as on freighting, trapping or trading activities. It is also not uncommon for one family in the Metis Settlements to care for 15 young children while the parents are away.

Ramsey Crook of the American Fur Company wrote the Congress of the United States to prevent exclusion of foreigners in the American fur trade.

He argued that the Canadian (French) boatmen are indispensable to the success of the trade. They submit quietly to proper control, they are patient docile and preserving. They are harmless in themselves. The advice was taken and Canadians were employed for the next 20 years, even after the merger of the N.W.C. and the H.B.C.

The Hudson Bay Company settlers are warned about the Canadian freemen and half-breeds who are not to be trusted being, in general, outcasts from the company. The Irish and Scots at York say that they are being treated like felons. Some attempted mutinous activity and were returned to Scotland.

(I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) appointed (II)-Miles Macdonell (1767-1828) as Hudson Bay Company Governor of the Assiniboia, and he preceded the first British settlers to Red River. He had a belligerent attitude that exacerbated conflict between the British Colony, The Metis Red River Colony and the North West Company, and he suffered severe emotional instability.

John Tanner stated that an Ottawa man, Shaw-gwaw-goo-sink, introduced maize cultivation among the Ojibwa at Netley Creek in the Red River area.

This is likely untrue as the women are in charge of agriculture and the Ojibwa have been raising maize for centuries. Alexander Henry (1764-1814) also claimed credit for providing the first seed for the Ottawa gardens. This also is unlikely true as most maize seed into Red River is from the Mandan in North Dakota. It is noteworthy that both the Ottawa and Ojibwa are age old farmers. Red River at this time had a road running from Fort Douglas (Fort Garry) to Fort Pembina (Fort Dair), and another from Fort Douglas to Birsay Village and onward to Portage Des Prairie. Many gardens existed at the forks of the Red River, planted by the Metis, Ojibwa and Cree families. Corn and potatoes provided a good alternative to wild rice. Peter Fiddler of the British contingent had built Fort Dair this year at the mouth of the Pembina River.

Dr. Bigsby estimated that the Great Lakes Corp. included 3 regiments of 800 to 1,000 men, each mostly being voyagers of the North West Company.

Among the voyagers and Metis there was much insubordination, pipe smoking, low bowing cortices, and talking and inquiry as to espousal's health; small talk. Even in danger they continued to laugh, not stopping their noisy tongues. There was no military seriousness.

Four citizens of Peoria (Poiria), Illinois testified at Cahokia, Illinois to John Haws, Justice of the Peace, that Potowattomi Chief, Main Pock, and his band at Proria, Illinois, were stealing. They include Louis Bisson; a Peoria trader, Jean Baptiste; Champlain of Poiria, Joseph Dagenais and Nathaniel Pope an agent for Thomas D.L. who lives opposite mouth of the Missouri on east bank of the Mississippi.

The British army at Mackinaw included the traders Askin, Langlade, Michel Cadotte and Joseph Rolette. (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823), Indian trader, and John Askin jr., Indian Agent, commanded the Indians. (I)-John Johnson (1762?-1828) or (1742-1830?), an Irishman, Crawford, Pothier, Armitinger, La Croix, Rolette, Franks and Livingstone accompany the Canadians with 260 others. Mackinac fell on July 17 without a shot being fired.

After the fall of Fort Mackinac and Fort Dearborn, the Natives began to flood to Tecumseh and the Canadian defense. Tecumseh and his one hundred and fifty Native warriors expanded to six hundred.

The Metis, with much civility, placed themselves at the service of the poor Scottish party. Peltier showed them to land already cleared and ready for cultivation. He had provided horses and carts to assist in building Fort Daer. He also agreed to lend his cart and canoe for the summer to a family. Baptiste Roy received and took care of their seed grain. Francois Delorme and his Metis son supervised the building of their first dwelling. They also smoothed relations with the Indians who resented the intrusion of the Bay people. Fifteen Metis headed by Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere, alias Lagemodiere, Lagimodiere, and Lajimodiere (1778-1855), a French freeman, and included Bostonnias Pangman, b-1778, a Metis, conducted a hunting party to help feed and establish the Scots. The Metis Isham, likely the son of (I)-James Isham (a bigamist with a wife in Britain and Canada), supervised the preliminary work of breaking the soil and soon became their interpreter, while his son became a hunter for the Scots.

Later the Scots would ask to retain the likes of Bostonnias Pangman, b-1778, a Metis, who went to work with John McLeod at the H.B.C.'s Turtle River Post and Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere (Lagemodiere) (1778-1855), a French Freeman, as the colony hunters. At this time there was no conflict between the English and French settlers. The Metis, however, were a bit apprehensive about what the real intentions of the H.B.C. were toward the Red River community.

Earlier, one of his agents, Robert Simple, lost his life in a barbarous native massacre brought on by his own ineptitude. The Metis are furious with this intrusion because they know that the British Hudson Bay Company was behind this action, but they had pity on this shabby, motley group and offered provisions and showed them how to make sod homes, less they perish in their first winter.

The (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) scheme did not allow time for proper planning. The Hudson Bay Company settlers went hungry in 1812 and 1813, having no provisions except the charity of the North West Company and the Metis of Red River. The Selkirk settlers attempted to purchase corn from the Ottawa and Bungee (Ojibwa) Indians at Dead River.

Seventy five thousand displaced British American loyalists settled in the Southern Ontario peninsula. All of Upper Canada, excluding Native Canadians, had a population of ninety four thousand, composed of English, Irish, Scotch, Dutch and German immigrants, in that order according to numbers.

John MacDonnell of the North West Company appeared to be the first to replace the term Metis or Brule with the racist term Half Breed when referring to the Red River Peoples. He believed that 'Red River is thinly inhabited, overrun by some rascally savages, and some Canadian Freemen and Half Breeds.' He said, "The savages, in general, are great villains and most of the Freemen are not to be trusted and in general outcasts from our employ."

The ignorant Scottish squatters, not realizing the value of the maple tree, destroyed them for lumber and firewood, thereby destroying the maple sugar industry in the Metis Red River territory, which had been a thriving agricultural business for the Natives for at least three centuries. The interesting anomaly between the two cultures is that the Europeans first order of business is to blindly impose their values on the environment, whereas the Native peoples make inquiries as to what works best for the benefit of all, then they experiment within this wisdom. The former value is more efficient and the latter value is more effective. This highlights an important cultural difference between eastern and western cultures. Most Europeans do not understand the fundamental difference in belief and values between efficiency and effectiveness.

The first Bank in Canada, the Bank of Montreal, opened this year. John Gray, an old fur trader, becomes the Bank's first President.

(V)-Archange Guron, alias Cadotte (b-1798), in testimony at the Sault in 1862, stated that (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818) died 1812 near Fort George. (IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) gave testimony at the Sault in 1823 placing his death as 1818.

Etienne Owayaissa, N.W.C., is in the Oregon Territory.

The Lake Superior schooner, 'Fur Trader', was later lost while trying to shoot the St. Mary rapids to the lower lakes.

Robert Stuart discovered the Oregon South Pass, but John Jacob Astor of the Pacific Fur Company forbids Stuart to reveal this vital route across the Rockies. It remained unknown until the Cree showed Jedediah Smith the pass in 1824.

This season the prairies are very dry. The resulting fires drove off the animal population, and this resulted in widespread starvation among the People.

The North West Company established Fort Cume-loups (Kamloops) 'meeting of the waters' across the river from the Pacific Fur Company fort established last year by David Stewart.

January 1: Norway House, birth Amelia Connolly Metis, died January 8, Victoria daughter William Connolly (Connoly) born Quebec died 1849 at Rat River House in the Athabasca Others suggest died 1848 Montreal 1st married Susanne a cree woman born Churchill died 1862 St. Boniface, Red River. They had three children John, Amelia (b-1812) and William. Some suggest this marriage was a life long marriage commitment according to the Country tradition, but in 1831 or 1832 he sent his wife and children back to Red River in order to marry Julia Woolrich of Montreal.

January 18: Donald McKenzie, McLellan, Read and 11 men arrived overland from Missouri. They said they had to go south to 40 degrees to avoid the Blackfoot where they discovered an old trading post built by Henry an American trader in 1809 on the Mad River. The savages had killed everyone except Archibald Petton who escaped.

February 15: The Astor expedition arrived Fort Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River being led by Mr Hunt, 30 men, one woman and two children.

April 30: The United States and Territories were mobilizing for war against Canada. This American war against Canada had two major objectives:

Destroy the last trace of Indian fighting power in the Great Lakes Country (Ojibwa Territory) in order to clear the way for European settlement.

Drive all British out of North America so that the Americans might control all of North America.

May: Cadotte, Peace and John Askin are at Fond Du Lac, Minnesota, recruiting Ojibwa warriors.

May: The supply ship Beaver of the Pacific Fur Company arrived the mouth of the Columbia River with much needed supplies.

June: The Congress declared war on Canada on June 18, 1812. The President did not support this President Madison's War but he did sign the declaration of war. On June 24 the Canadian North West Company notified Sir George Prevost at Quebec that the United States of American was at war with Canada. The Americans had eight million people, with three million living in the part of the States bordering on Canada; which only had some five hundred thousand people. Canada had an army of four thousand ,four hundred and fifty men, and only one thousand and five hundred were west of Montreal to defend one thousand three hundred miles of border. Major General Isaac Brock was building up Canada's fortifications and alliances with the Natives, knowing that when war broke out with the Americans, he had to take the offensive. A month before the declaration of war, General Hull's troops left for Canada from Dayton, Ohio.

June 29: The Pacific Fur Company at Fort Astoria, Oregon discovered the fur trade was not as lucrative as they once thought. They found the Indians were not friendly or their leaders lacked the basic skills to win them over. The majority of the Expedition set out for home. The party consisted of three proprietors, nine clerks, 55 Canadians, 20 Sandwich Islanders and Messrs. Crooks, McLelland and R. Stewart. Messrs. Hunt, McDougall, Clapp, Halsey, Franchere and six others remained at Fort Astoria.

July: David Thompson and nine men of the Northwest Fur Company arrived the Pacific Fur Companies Fort Astoria, Oregon Territory and stayed a month. They said they were scouting for a fort location.

July 2: A search of an American Schooner at Fort Malden found all of General Hull's baggage, including his detailed war plans to attack Detroit River then, north of Fort Mackinac, to take St. Joseph Island to cut the Canadian North West trade route. On July 5, General William Hull arrived at Fort Detroit with two thousand five hundred men to confront the Canadian force of four hundred and fifty plus another one hundred fifty Natives under the command of Tecumseh at Fort Malden. St. Joseph Island had forty five redcoats, but one hundred and eight French-Metis from Sault Ste Marie and surrounding territory and four hundred Ojibwa responded to the call to arms. (6)-Louis Gurnoe is working out of La Pointe and Sault Ste Marie at this time and likely involved in the war. Fort Mackinac, defended by sixty blue-coated regulars, on July 16 falls to the Canadians. When the Chippewa of Lake Michigan heard the results, they assembled and took Fort Dearborn, slaughtering half the inhabitants in their retreat.

July 13: Mickinaw fell to the famous volunteer contingent of 160 Metis Voyagers and 30 British regulars who regained Mackinaw in the war of 1812 and held this position until 1815 when treaty returned it to the Americans. The Metis Voyagers returned to Drummond Island which ironically was also on American soil and they had to be relinquished in 1828. The Metis Voyagers then moved to Penetanguishene, Simcoe County, Old Forte Ste Marie, at Fesserton and Coldwater and south of Lake Simcoe near Pefferlaw, York County. Most if not all of these Metis were country marriages as a priest or missionary was a rare sight. Fidelity, however was a marked characteristic among them.

July 15: Charles Roberts commanded the British Post at St. Joseph Island and is ordered by Brock to attack Michillimakinac which is fifty miles away. Roberts sent (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah) (1768-1823); a Red River Valley trader, with 180 voyagers, 45 men of the Tenth Royal Veterans, and 300 Indians against Michillimakinac. It is noteworthy that Michillimakinac only contained 59 men; 41 Americans and 18 Canadians, who immediately joined the other Canadians. The 41 Americans immediately surrendered the Fort without a shot being fired.

August: The Indians reported the ship Tonquin had been taken by the Nootka Indians. It appears the Captain Thorn of the ship Tonquin had struck one of the chiefs of the Nootka for alleged theft. McKay of the Tonquin was living among the Nootka at the time and informed Captain Thorn that the natives were insulted and were determined to take the ship. Captain Thorn just laughed at this threat. Canoes full of Nootka arrived with furs to trade and McKay again warned the Captain Thorn the Indians were dangerous. Captain Thorn laughted and said he had enough fire power to deal with twice this number of savages. Thorn and McKay were the first to be dispatch then the crew followed shortly there after. John Anderson, John Weeks and Stephen Weekes made the relative safety of a secure cabin where fire arms were stored. They said they would leave the ship in peace if they were allowed. Anderson rigged a fuse to the ships supply of powder and escaped unmolested out a window to a small boat. The Nootka swarmed the ship intent on stripping the ship when it exploaded killing 200 Nootka and wounding another 200. Anderson and company could not clear the bay because the tides were running against them and were dispatch by the Nootka that night.

August, 16: The American, William Hull, surrendered Fort Detroit with an army of 2,500 men and is poised to invade Canada based on a rumor that 4,000 voyagers are marching against him. Isaac Brock (1769-1812) marches on Fort Detroit with only 300 men, but Tecumseh, (1768-1813), the Shawnee war Chief, is waiting at Fort Detroit with 600 warriors. He also recruits 400 Canadians and dresses them in British uniforms to confuse the Americans. The Americans have been watching the Indians perform their war dances and are terrified. Tecumseh knows the Americans are terrified and deliberately parades his men in view of the Fort. Brock ups the stakes but informs the Americans that it is not his intent to conduct a battle of annihilation, although he can't control the savages. While the fear is still fresh, he orders his guns to commence firing on the Fort for the next two hours. Fort Detroit wants three days to make up their minds, but are given three hours. The British capture 2,200 prisoners and enough equipment and canon to equip an army. A few weeks earlier, General William Hull, the American commander at Detroit, had crossed the border to proclaim: "You will be emancipated from tyranny and oppression and restored to the dignified station of freedom...I come prepared for every contingency". General Hull had been so sure of victory that he had brought his young son, a married daughter and his two small grand children. Many young soldiers had brought their wives. The Canadian army now had seven hundred British and Canadians and six hundred Natives when they attacked Fort Detroit. After the first attack, which killed a number of his officers, General William Hull surrendered the Fort and his 2,500 man army.

August 30: The first of the poor evicted Scottish squatters, a party of eighteen persons, had wintered at York Factory on the mouth of the Nelson River Miles MacDonnell, (1769-1828), an agent of (I)-Tomas Douglas (1771-1820), then, this month, took the group on to Brandon House on the Assiniboine River. The infamous (I)-Thomas Douglas of Selkirk (1771-1820) failed to give these people provisions or shelter. Some claim he is just incompetent and that it wasn't out of malice.

September: Some suggest that Miles MacDonnell (1769-1828) and the first Hudson Bay Company settlers arrived at Red River this month, and they selected the center of their settlement as Point Douglas on the west bank, only a mile or so away from the North West Company Post at Fort Gilbralter.

William Auld at York was not pleased with the immigrants, and is believed by some to have attempted to sabotage the project.

October: The Northwest Company offered its engages to Canada and their King. In October the Corps of Canadian Voyagers is created under the command of (I)-William McGillivray (1764-1825), esquire. It would be disbanded at Lachine on March 14, 1813. Some members of the Corps are: Angus Shaw, Archibald Norman McLeod, Jean Baptiste, Alexander MacKenzie, Kenneth MacKenzie, John McDonell, James Stanley Goddard and Joseph McGillivray.

October 12: The first voyager (engage canoeman) to fall during the British war was Pierre Rototte of the Corps of Canadian Voyageurs at St. Regis. John McDonell and 35 men were taken prisoner.

October 13: The Americans send 1,200 men streaming across the river just below the Niagara Falls to Queenston Heights to avenge the humiliation of the fall of Fort Detroit. The British and Canadians pin down the Americans on the beach, but they make the high ground. The Americans capture the British canon. The field looks grim. The fate of Canada is in the hands of 80 Mohawk warriors led by John Norton, a Metis, and they are outnumbered 15/1 . The Mohawk's hit and run tactics confuse the Americans who become disoriented and are unable to get organized. They are held in this state for ten hours until reinforcements arrive. The Americans abandoned their positions and ran, in disorder, for their lives. Their commander, Winfield Scott, surrenders 925 prisoners. 500 Americans are dead along with 100 British and Canadians. A dozen Mohawks, including two Chiefs, have also fallen. Barely four months into the war and two major American armies have fallen. It is noteworthy that Isaac Brock didn't want to be in Canada and didn't trust the Canadians, but he gave Canada time to organize a defense against the American war of expansion.

October: Another American account reads as follows: In October Isaac Brock (1769-1812) administrator and commander of Upper Canada lost his life to a sniper at Queenston Heights on the Niagara Peninsula however five hundred Iroquois and one thousand six hundred Canadians took the strategic hill and nine hundred American prisoners. Brigadier Wadsworth surrenders seventy five officers in humiliation. General Van Renselaer resigned in disgrace and General Smyth took command of the American forces. Tecumseh is recruiting warriors from 1,000 miles away to war on the Americans. The war exploits are being talked about with the Indians from Mexico to the Arctic.

October 27: A second group of displaced people, led by Owen Keveny, are unceremoniously dispatched at the forks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers. This again infuriated the Metis. This group of squatters consists of one hundred and twenty, made up of Highlanders from the Hebrides and about twenty Irish; all dirt poor folks. Several Hudson Bay Company Factors expressed their anger about this new settlement. Again, (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) had thrown his displaced servants into the thicket without provisions, not even ploughs for cultivation. Except for the generous assistance, again of the Red River Metis and the Hudson Bay Company Factors, these people would have perished, which lends credibility to those who contend that the Scots were expendable pawns of the English. There was no milk in the Metis Colony and the Natives suggest fish broth to feed the babies, which proved satisfactory.

October: The pork eaters of the Canadian North West Company, on October 1, 1812, formed the Corps of Canadian Voyagers. They formed as an auxiliary unit and disbanded on March 14, 1813. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) and (IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) are coerced by the British to be interpreters during the war. Jean Baptiste is seriously wounded and Michel lost an arm.

October: The Plains fire of this year is the most devastating to hit the upper Saskatchewan since the arrival of the fur trade. Edmonton House was forced to send their men fifty miles away to fish. Bird had learned from a Sarcee band that, from Edmonton to the banks of the South Saskatchewan, there is not a bull to be seen nor a bit of dry ground unburned. They would burn again in 1813. This very seriously affected trade for the next few years. The Blood, Sarcee and Peigan tribes were driven down into present day Montana.

October 12: (I)-John Palmer Bourke born January 1791 Sligo, Lightford, County Mayo, Ireland, died 1851 St. James, Red River arrived Red River from Hudson Bay this year; he operated a store until 1816 and was wounded at the Battle of Seven Oaks and fled to Norway House; he married June 11, 1821 Sault Ste Marie, Nancy Campbell born about 1800, Sault Ste Marie, died July 8, 1887 St. James, Winnipeg, Manitoba, daughter John A. Campbell born 1775 and Wahpeton. They had eight Metis children some of who are: (II)-John Bourke born about 1822 RRS, married Elizabeth Fidler, (II)-Walter Bourke born about 1825 married Flora Hallet, (II)-Nancy Bourke born about 1827, (II)-Collin Bourke born about 1829, (II)-Andrew Bourke born about 1830, (II)-William Bourke born about 1831. I suspect most children were born in the Lake Superior region.

1813

Francois Gaiun born 1813 North West, census 1831 Red River.

Dakota, birth Angelique Renville Metis daughter Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow); married 1837/42 Hypolite Dupuis.

Donald Roy McGillis (1786-1817), employed by the American Fur Company, sailed for Astoria on the Columbia River but joined the North West Company after hearing about the British/American war.

Louis Majeau of the N.W.C. is in Oregon Territory.

John Reid established a fur trading post on the lower Boise River, Idaho.

The Americans had driven the Indians from the ocean to the Great Lakes and they say they will go no farther. The Americans consider Tecumseh as a most dangerous man, as he is uniting the Indians against the American expansion efforts.

John George McTavish, died 1847, the bastardize who practiced serial marriages, took possession of Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River for the North West Company. It was renamed Fort George.

Louison Gagnon, born 1813 AL (America Land), is listed, in the 1849 census of Red River, with two males under sixteen and two females under fifteen. A Louis Gagnon, born 1780 Canada, is listed 1840 census Red River, North West. A Francois Gagnon born 1800 Canada is listed 1840 census Red River, North West. A Francois Gagnon born 1810 Canada is listed 1838 Red River census.

Charlotte Rocheblave, a Metis, and her mother Nigans, an Ottawa Indian who could speak French, English, Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Nipissing, settled in Two Mountains, acting as interpreter. They originally lived in the Mackinac region.

Dick Benge, a Cherokee Metis, is killed likely by Daniel Roberts, Talley and Ragsdale; settlers who are encroaching on Cherokee lands.

The Kildonan emigration this year did not prosper. Typhus was brought aboard the Princes of Wales and five emigrants, as well as a young surgeon, died onboard ship. Another thirty were weakened by disease, some to die later. The Captain refused to land the settlers at York Factory and they were deposited at Fort Churchill without proper provisions for a winter on the Bay. (I)-Thomas Douglas' (1771-1820) miscalculations had a wide reaching effect, and his enthusiasm, energy, stubbornness and ingenuity became a liability to the Hudson Bay Company and the Red River community.

On the Canadian side of Sault Ste Marie dwelt some old Canadian boatmen with their Ojibwa wives and children. Charles E'Malinger, a wealthy trader, also lived at the Sault. On the American side of Sault Ste Marie lived a (I)- John Johnson (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), an Irishman, and the old Indian trader named Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) and their Metis families. The American army pillaged Johnson's warehouses and set them on fire.

Joseph Quinsy, in the United States Congress, called the invasion of Canada 'cruel, wanton, senseless and a wicked attack upon an unoffending people.'

The Americans attacked and burned part of York (Toronto), and launched a second invasion of the Niagara peninsula, forcing Canadian troops to withdraw to Burlington Heights at the head of the lake. The Canadian defeats are at Put-In-Bay, Lake Erie, and at the battle of the Thames near Moravian town. On October 5, 1813, Tecumseh lost his life near Moravian town. At Stony Creek the Canadians dislodged the Americans, driving them from the peninsula. (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) and Joseph Renville, Metis, (1779-1846) are present at the siege of Fort Meigns.

March 3: At Albany, (I)-Thomas Thomas (alias John George Thomas) requested that the British Hudson Bay Company set up a retirement haven for the numerous Metis families who wished to remain in the Country after retirement. He was nearing retirement and was becoming fearful for the future of his half-breed family which he held in high regard. Mrs. Margaret Thomas died December 31, 1813 of gout.

June: The partners of the Pacific Fur Company decided to sell their company and supplies to the North West Company. The company was dissolved in July.

Summer: Pierre Dorion, Metis (1780/82-1814), departed Astoria with a group led by John Reed to Snake River Country and wintered on the Boise River in Idaho. Gabriel Franchere noted finding Pierre Dorion, Metis (1780/82-1814), wife Marie Aioe Laguivoise (1786-1850) and two boys on the Upper Columbia River on his return journey to Canada from Astoria.

May 27: Niagara on the Lake, is in the possession of the Americans until December 13, 1813.

September: On Lake Erie, the battle field is between war ships, and the British lose control of the Lake. The British abandon Fort Detroit as being indefensible, but Tecumseh calls Henry Proctor and the British, shameful fat dogs. Tecumseh knows that William Henry Harrison is waiting with an army of 5,000 men and Tecumseh looks forward to the fight. The British, however, choose to retreat, fearing they will be cut off. As they retreat, the Americans chase them down. When Proctor finally decides to make a stand his men are tired, worn down and disheartened. The Americans launch a cavalry attack, and the British break and run for safety, following Proctor who is the first to flee. The battle only lasts 10 minutes. Tecumseh and his warriors, however, fight on for another hour. Then Tecumseh is cut down.

1814

The major trading centers which are dominated by the Metis, Coureurs des bois and voyager settlers at this time are: Detroit, Mackinac, Chicago, Sault Ste Marie, Milwaukie, Green Bay, Prairie Du Chien, St Paul (called Iminijaska meaning White Rock), St Louis, LaPointe, Red River and many more lesser locations. The American British wars had driven many of the Metis into the west.

Two sons of Joseph Denoyers, Metis, and Charlotte Cardinal, Metis, married Margaret Barada, Metis and Margaret Dorion, Metis daughter Pierre Dorion, Sr. and Sioux Woman. They worked the Osage River, Missouri and Mississippi Rivers.

The Ojibwa traders, according to Thomas Vincent of the Osnaburgh district, report that the Cranes and Suckers hunt to the North of Osnaburgh House, between Trout Lake where there is a settlement from Severn. The Loons hunt to the east toward Lake St. Anns, the Moose and Sturgeons to the south west, and the Kingfishers and Pelicans toward Lake Winnipeg and north west of Osnaburgh.

Birth, Old North West Region (II)-Mary (Marie) Dickson Metis (1808-1884) daughter (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah (Red Hair Man)) (1768-1823) and Helen Totowin; She married Henry Ange.

Prairie du Chien, birth Marie Louise Brisbois, Metis daughter Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein.

Basil Finley, Metis, born 1814 Spokane, Washington son Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883).

Michel Labatte born Sault Ste Marie (American side) son Louis George Labatte and Louisa Cadotte a Metis Chippewa.

The Bannock Indians destroyed John Reid's Trading Post (established 1813) on the lower Boise River, Idaho.

The Hudson Bay Company did not claim exclusive rights until this year and tried to retro fit their claim to 1670. The Hudson Bay Company did not enter the Saskatchewan until the 1780's or the Assiniboine until 1805. The Hudson Bay Company never had any rights to the Red River or the Saskatchewan Rivers. Selkirk was the first to suggest this preposterous idea of exclusive rights to these territories.

A colony of freemen (Metis?) is noted near Fort William.

Three Gagnon's are born Red River, North West about 1814-1815. Josehn Gagnon (1) born 1815 is living with his father and assumed just married in 1835 census. Joseph Gagnon (2) is listed 1835 census Red River, North West, married no children (probably a senior and father of Josehn (1)). Joseph Gagnon (3) born 1815 is living Red River 1835 census. Joseph Gagnon (4) born 1814 listed Red River 1835 census married no children. The 1849 census of Red River suggests a Joseph Gagnon born 1815 is born AL (America Land) with one male under 16 and one female under fifteen.

Joseph Gagnon born 1791 Canada is listed 1831 census Red River, North West with two males one over 16 years and three females one being over fifteen years and one unmarried woman also living with family. In 1838 census a Joseph Gagnon born 1778 Canada with one female under age fifteen is listed.

Joseph Howse listed some of the men at Fort IIe-A-La-Crosse during this season as follows: Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, Thomas Dumont, Charles Flett, John Flett, William Flett, James Gardiner, William Linklater, Jean Baptiste Paul and Charles Gauthier who married 1826 Betsy Englund adopted daughter James Englund.

John Wills married Josephte Grant sister of Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854).

John Wills of Fort Souris suspected that (II)-Miles Macdonell (1767-1828), an employee of the H.B.C. who suffered from severe emotional instability, might attempt to seize his furs, so he dispatched ninety-six bags of furs with orders to hide them near White Horse Plains below Fort Douglas. (II)-Miles Macdonell (1767-1828) ordered Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere (Lagimodiere) (1778-1855), a French Freeman and a Hudson Bay Company man, to find and confiscate the furs. Jean would later be captured, imprisoned and suffer the disgrace of being a traitor. The H.B.C., however, would give him a land grant across the river from Fort Garry for his service. He then sent John Spencer with a group of armed H.B.C. men to attack Fort Souris. which was defended by John Pritchard. Spencer used their axes to cut through the gates and stole 479 bags of pemmican, 93 kegs of grease, 465 pounds of meat, which started the Pemmican War.

John Wills of Fort Souris refused to post the H.B.C. proclamation as ordered, and questioned the validity of the H.B.C. charter and Miles authority to rule on the disposition of pemmican. In fact, the H.B.C. did not have authority over the Metis and Indian Peoples or over their trading practices.

The English were raised in a tradition of serfdom, where the Lord of the Land held the people as no better than slaves indentured to the Kings Land.

The Metis were freemen, raised in a tradition of free trade, freedom of movement and a belief that only God owned the land and the fruits thereof.

During the American burning of Sault Ste Marie, the Metis with 335 men in 47 canoes slipped past the Americans with a large shipment of furs for Montreal.

Peter Fidler, in his account of Canadian Free Traders of Red River, reported on October 31 that Sutherland and three Hudson Bay men carried orders to the Canadians at Brandon House and Charlton House to quit the place. It would appear that Peter Fidler wrote his diary of 1814-1815 after the fact and confused or doctored the sequence of events as well as the facts.

Peter Fidler's journal of 1814-15 called an account of Canadian Free Traders at Red River. It listed 42 families at the Forks at Pembina, 10 families at Swan River, 7 Families at Riviere La Appelle and 7 other families; totaling 64 families in the vicinity. This is interesting given that in 1805, Alexander Henry (1764-1814) and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) recorded 240 families in the Red River region. It would appear that Peter Fidler is distorting reality or is selectively counting only the Hudson Bay Company inhabitants of the region. Maybe the 64 families only represent those who conduct business with the Hudson Bay Company or its colony. Cadotte with his two female children are among the listing.

Fort Michilimackinac, defended by 350 Natives, 100 Newfoundland Infantry and 50 Canadian militiamen, in July, repelled an attack by the Americans.

At this time the Nancy is the only Canadian ship in these waters, having been built at Fort Detroit in 1774 for the North West Company. The Americans sank the Nancy in the Nottawasaga River at the bottom of the Georgian Bay, and the Canadians retaliated by capturing two American ships: Tigress; renaming her H.M.S. Surprise, and the Scorpion; renaming her H.M.S. Confidence, thereby doubling the Canadian fleet in this area.

It is reported that Clark has taken Prairie Du Chien and built a fort. Mackillimakinac sent William McKay with Porlier, Rolette, Honore, Grigon, Brisbois, Joseph Renville (Metis, 1779-1795), Nolin, Lacroix and Biron, to recover Prairie De Chien on the Mississippi. At Prairie du Chien (Iowa) they forced the American gunboat Governor Clark to withdraw. The American garrison surrendered the next day. Prairie Du Chien, a trading post, had been a support for a thriving fur business being built up by the likes of (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823), James Aird and John Lawe.

A Metis flag is presented by Alexander MacDonnell of the North West Company. It's a white, horizontal figure eight on a blue field. It represents the joining of two cultures and, as an infinity symbol, represents the immortality of the Metis Nation. Some would suggest there was two flags; one for the French Metis and another for the British Metis, but I find no evidence to support this contention.

Prior to this time and from the very beginning, the Metis symbol was their distinct clothing. It was more of a personal thing, and like their Indian tradition, varied from person to person.

Gabriel Franchere visited Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826) and noted that Jean Baptiste Nolin had three boys and four girls; one of whom was passably pretty. One son was called Augustin, another Francois and the third, Louis. Gabriel considered Nolin an important trader, and in his home, one sees large furniture with marks of prosperity. Nolin is reported to have acquired a key tract of land on the south side and on the waterfront at Sault Ste Marie, from four Ojibwa Chiefs. It is noteworthy that his wife is Ojibwa, which likely helped in the acquisition of land. He also owned property and a house on the north side of the Sault which he rented out to Charles Oaks Ermatinger. Charles Oakes Ermatinger married Charlotte Kattawabide, an Ojibwa who was 15 years of age, and they were married for 30 years.

A fur trader in the Athabasca District reports that the beaver is dwindling down to nothing. This reduction of beaver is attributed to the reckless hunting methods of the Iroquois. The local Chipewyan are so dissatisfied that they plotted to expel all fur traders from the area.

January 8: Miles MacDonnell, (1769-1828) of the Hudson Bay Company, under authority of the British/Scots, prohibited the export of provisions from Pembina (Red River). No persons whatsoever shall take any provisions, either flesh, fish or vegetables procured or raised within the said Territory, without a license from the Governor, and whosoever shall be detected in attempting to convey shall be taken into custody and prosecuted as the law in such case directs. As an example, he seized the pemmican at the Canadian North West Company Post of La Souris. It is noteworthy that he also seized some pemmican stored at a nearby Hudson Bay Post. Most of the suppliers of pemmican at Red River are free trader Metis. Miles also served notice to quit on the other Canadian North West Company Forts, including the Canadians at River Winnipeg, Turtle River, Brandon House, Carlton House, Fort Dauphlin Portage des Prairies and River Qu Appella. It is amazing that the 'Pemmican War' did not breakout on this very day, based on British arrogance. The Metis Nation had an instinctive hostility towards Englishmen, Orkney men and Scots of the British Hudson Bay Company (or the North West Company for that matter). They formed the first Canadian Mounted Cavalry Division of the Red River Metis Nation, who watched, with increasing resentment, the actions of Miles MacDonnell (1769-1828). Miles MacDonnell (1769-1828) prohibited the running of buffalo by horsemen near the settlement because it drove the herds out of reach of the colonists. It would appear that Miles MacDonnell (1769-1828) had been commissioned to instigate a war so as to draw British armed forces into the region to secure the Hudsons Bay Company's fragile claim to the region. The Metis of Red River are angered by the British pemmican proclamation. Miles MacDonell (1769-1828) ordered the arrest of the Metis for running the buffalo with horses, and those who defied his authority included Bostonnais Pangman and Cuthbert Grant. It is noteworthy that the running of buffalo with horses is a tradition that predates the arrival of the H.B.C. in this region of Metis Country.

January 10: Marie Aioe Languivoise (1786-1850) witnessed the attack and death of the John Reed wintering party, which included: Reed, Dorion, Jacob Regner, John Hubbough, Gilles Leclerc, Francois Landry, Jean Baptiste Turcotte, Andre Lachapelle and Pierre De Launay.

February: The Americans captured St. Joseph's, Lake Huron, located not far from Sault Ste Marie. Mr. Bailly and five other associates with the Mackinaw Company are taken prisoners.

April: An English barmaid named Jane Barnes traveled with Isaac Todd to Fort George, Oregon and is believed to be the first European woman in Oregon. Donald McTavish took her as a concubine to the Columbia River where he shared her with his men. He first shared her with Alexander Henry. McTavish took on a Chinook squaw left behind by the departing Americans. Jane Barnes later made the rounds of the men at the fort. She sailed to China and eventually returned to England.

April 24: Detroit, marriage Antoine DaGneau de Quindre sieur de Pontchartrain baptised August 24, 1751 Detroit, died April 5, 1814 Detroit son sieur (Louis Cesaire) Dequindre and Marianne De Bellestre; married August 23, 1779 Montreal Catherine Desrivieries Lamorandiere Trotter born 1757 died May 12, 1817 Detroit daughter Jean Noel Trotter dit Desrivieries and Marie Catherine Gamelin.

In the spring: Pierre Michel, a Metis, married the 16 year old niece of a flat head chief. Ross Cox claimed Pierre was the only Metis to be honored this way by this tribe. Ross Cox explained how the traditional country marriage had degenerated. When a trader wishes to separate from his Indian wife, he generally allows her an annuity or gets her comfortably married to one of the voyagers, who for a handsome sum, is happy to become husband and daddy for La Dame d'un Bourgeois. This practice was introduced by the Scots, who streamed into the North West trade.

April 24: Cumberland House, birth (II)-William Kennedy, Metis died January 25, 1890 Winnipeg son of Chief Factor Cumberland House (I)-Alexander Kennedy of Orkney and Agatha (Aggathas) Indian Mother, he was educated in Orkney Island 1825-1932 with older brother George. Alexander had five Metis children.

May: Antoine Desjarlais, a former N.W.C. man, is at Lac La Biche with his 4 children, gathering eggs, when Gabriel Franchere, J.G. McTavish, David Stewart, John Clark, Benjamin Oillet (pillet), William Wallace and Donald Roy McGillis (1786-1817) passed their way, coming from Astoria on the Columbia River in April, on their way to Winnipeg River and Fort Bas de La Riviere; which they reached by June 30.

May 22, Astoria, Oregon, mouth of Columbia River, Donald McTavish and Alexander Henry, the younger (1764-1814), after a night of drinking, capsized a skiff and they and five other occupants drowned. Henry had served the N.W.C. for 23 years.

June 21: A party of eighty three Scottish squatters, mostly farmers and sheep herdsmen, arrived near the Metis Red River settlement. These displaced people from the parish of Kildonan are the casualties of the great Sutherland Clearance of 1811 and 1812.

July 19: Robert McDouall marched upon and captured the Metis settlement of Prairie du Chein on the Mississippi. The town was empty, as the settlers had vacated the area.

August 1: Alexander MacDonnell and Duncan Cameron of the Canadian North West Company informed John MacDonald that nothing but the complete down fall of the British Hudson Bay Company and the H.B.C. Red River Colony will satisfy, by fair or foul means, and something serious will undoubtedly take place on the Red River of the north. This is clearly a formal declaration of war. (I)-Thomas Thomas, alias John George Thomas, succeeded William Auld as British Governor of the Northern defense District. Thomas retires in 1815 and winters at Jack River near Norway House. Thomas's successor is Robert Simple. Thomas then retires to the H.B.C colony at Red River, where he died on November 24, 1828.

August: A Canadian expedition took Washington. President Madison deserted the Presidents House. The Canadian army burned the Capital and the Presidents house. The Americans rebuilt the Presidents house, the walls whitewashed to hide the fire marks, and they called it the White House. The Americans halted the Canadian advance at Baltimore. The Americans were on the defensive, as the English blockade extended the full length of the east coast. The treaty of Ghent would conclude the conflict. As a result, future American immigrants could not obtain land in Canada until they lived in the province for seven years. The French population had reached three hundred and thirty five thousand and non French, one hundred and sixty five thousand.

July 20: York (Toronto): Judge William D. Powell sentenced eight men to die on the scaffold's for high treason. The procedure after hanging is beheading and their heads exhibited.

The American Congress enacted a law prohibiting foreigners who had not become citizens from engaging in Indian Trade . The French controlled the trade, therefore the Government allowed interpreters and voyagers to be employed by American traders.

September 22: St. Louis, Missouri, marriage Louis Rene Trudeau married at the Old Cathedral Archange Dumouchel daughter Janot and Marguerite Dumouchel. Source Harry A. Tatro.

September 23: Peter Fidler writes that the settlers harvested their Indian corn, but that most is lost as the horses and cows had broke the fences and ate the crop.