Metis

1815


The British, having imposed sanctions on the
Metis Colony at Red River, expect retaliation.

The Metis Nation offer the Scottish and Irish
squatters free transportation to Upper Canada.

This year only 13 sponsored Hudson Bay Company
families remained at Selkirk Town, Red River.

The Hudson Bay Company colony on the
Red River is now only a garrison.


The Red River Regional Government created the
first Canadian Mounted Calvary.

The Canadians routed the Scottish squatters from
the H.B.C. Red River colony and burned their buildings and crops.

The Metis had no serious objections to the
Scottish settlers, only with their British war like tactics.


For the St. Paul, Minnesota listing of refugees from the turmoil at the Red River Colonies. Go To St. Paul 1815-1850


1815

LA POINTE, MADELEINE ISLAND LAKE SUPERIOR

Louis Gaunaux, alias Gournon, Gornow and Garneau, is born 1790, Wisconsin, most likely La Pointe, Madeline Island, Lake Superior died about 1863

Sault Ste Marie. He is of Mixed Blood, being the son of Monsieur Garneau and Mother Sioux (Se Gaunaux So Way Guay) as per 1854 treaty script No. 31C. Louis married about 1815 at La Pointe, Wisconsin to a Chippewa girl Se-Ranze (Say-Shaw-Ne-Nie?) born 1800 Canada daughter Se Ranze of La Pointe and she is still unable to read or write in 1850. They say Shaw Ne Nie could be an adopted Dakota into the Ojibwa tradition or this family story could apply to Louis's mother Se Gaunaux So Way Guay. Se Gaunaux (So Way Guay) appears to be his mother, but this is not completely verified at this time. His mother is known to be with him in 1846, listed as Lewis mother, but she is not living with him in 1840. Louis had a second marriage about 1826 at Sault Ste Marie, Michigan to a (V)-Archange Cadotte listed in 1854 treaty script No 40 living 1854 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan alias Julia Nolan (Nolin) script No. 119 according to the testimony of Joseph Gurnoe, in 1870. (family members are also recorded as Guernon, Gurnoe, Gournoe, Gournon, Gournow, Gornow, Genereau and Generareaur). The name spelling of Gurnoe, Gurno and Gurneau are the most common surviving spellings in the Lake Superior and Red Lake areas

On May 11, Louis, who was living Sault Ste Marie in 1854, received word that he would be issued script. He received script on June 13, 1864, and applied script on January 10, 1865, to E 1/2 of NE 1/4 section 20 township 44N range 5W Bayfield, Wisconsin range and range number 131 recorded volume #1 page 210, date of patent January 10, 1865, died on or before 1868, probably Bayfield, Wisconsin. The Bayfield land description appears to be in error. Some contend he died in Sault Ste Marie in 1862, but this must be in error. Theresa Schenck suggests that the Sault Ste Marie records list his death as October 21, 1863 at age 74.

Louis Genereau treaty No. 1080 also selected land under Michigan treaty of July 31, 1855. The land selected is section 18, township 15, range 16 W79 meaning west 79 acres in Michigan. This land claim is amended to read W79-63 meaning a 63 foot frontage and recorded under treaty No. 1080

Louis Generareaur. Under treaty No 1080 Se Garnie (Say-Shaw-Ne-Nie) (f) selected E 1/2 section 7, township 42, range 1 802.89 meaning 802 acres with a frontage of 89 feet in Michigan. Under treaty No. 935 Se Gaunaux (So-Way-Guay) selected lot No. 5 section 13. township 44, range 12 - 47 transfer, meaning 47 acres transferred to her name in Michigan.

SOURCE: Treaty with Chippewa of Lake Superior, September 30, 1854. The treaty listed each head of family, single or widowed person, over twenty one years of age (in 1854) or who is raising a family. They must be of mixed blood and then become entitled to eighty acres of land. The listing issued by the Secretary of the Interior, April 21, 1871, as published by Government printing office in 1874. Listing of 1850 census Sault Ste Marie, Michigan reference #12-12 records some of the younger children. Red Cliff Reservation, Bayfield Bureau of Indian Affairs records, Carole S. Fizell Cadotte Gordon of Ashland records and County Court records. The list of selection of land made by the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan, under treaty of July 31, 1855, included Louis, Say-Shaw-Ne-Nie and So-Way-Guay. Listing of Sault Ste Marie bands of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians including John, Eli and Francois Gurnoe. 1840 census of Stephen R Wood county lists Louis Gornow with eight boys and five girls living at home.

The spelling of the family name as Gurnoe was by Joseph Gurnoe, who assisted all applicants for script application who were mixed blood Chippewa from Lake Superior. He identified family members. He also assisted in full blood Indian allotments before 1854.

FIFTEEN CHILDREN WERE RECORDED:

Isabel Garneau also Gournon, Half-Breed, born about 1815 La Pointe, Wisconsin or possibly Fond du Lac married September 9, 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin a Henry Cotte Half-Breed born 1813. Both residing Fond du Lac at time of marriage. Witness are Jos. Montrail and Michel Cadotte.

1854 treaty script No. 57. Source La Pointe marriages and family relationship confirmed by (7)-Joseph D. Gurnoe during 1854 treaty.

Joseph D Gurnoe born 1819 (1812) La Pointe, Wisconsin, died 1910, Bayfield, Wisconsin. He married about 1837 a Charlotte LaGuard (Shanud?) born 1813, La Pointe, Wisconsin died June 1, 1898 Red Cliff, Wisconsin. Both are living1854 in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Joseph is a witness, advisor and translator for script application. He provided evidence to verify all mixed blood Chippewa of Lake Superior to Red River. By 1870 they were living Bayfield, Wisconsin with a son named Simon Gurnoe. The 1812 birth date most likly belongs to Joseph Kuisnpau Garneau born 1811.

Second marriage about 1871 Theresa Corbine born 1849. Two Joseph Gurnoe's are listed in 1839, age 43 and 23 in the list of Mixed blood Chippewa of Lake Superior, claimant for payment according to the Treaty of 1837. It's possible this second marriage belongs to another Joseph?

Francis S. Gurnoe also Gournoe is born 1821 Bay Mills, Michigan living 1850-1854 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. Notification of acceptance for script is June 13, 1864. He is living and received the script under No. 29C May 11, 1864 and applied the script, January 10, 1865, to N 1/2 of NW 1/4 section 21 township 45 range 2W Bayfield, Wisconsin range and range number 139, date of patent May 10, 1865. Under Treaty No. 220 (7)-Francois Gurnoe according to Michigan treaty July 31, 1855 selected a land grant of S 1/2 of SW section 24, township 47 range 5W, Michigan.

Charles Gurnoe born Bay Mills, Michigan before 1833 of Chippewa mixed blood and living 1854 Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan was issued script under No. 96, August 25, 1864. A Charles Gurnoe is baptized 1831 Detroit according to Theresa Schenck.

Jane Gurnoe is born 1826, La Pointe, Wisconsin. Listed as unable to read or write she is living 1850-1854 Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. She married

September 22, 1840, at Sault Ste Marie, Michigan a Chippewa Chief John Whiskey. The issue of script to Jane under treaty No. 113 dated November 12, 1864.

Louis second marriage about 1824 to a (V)-Archange Cadotte alias Julia Nolan born 1798 is listed in 1854 treaty script No. 40 and No. 119 according to testimony of (7)-Joseph Gurnoe in 1870. She is the daughter of (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte born 1761 and Marie Janette Piquette (Saugemauqua) who died about 1850. July 23, 1827 census of Townshiop St. Marie County Chippewa taken from Indian traders and licences at Sault Ste Marie lists Louis Gurno and wife with three children under twenty one years. Theresa Schenck suggests, based on the Detroit baptismal records, that this marriage must have taken place about 1824. The 1836 census supports this contention.

Mary (Lennet) J. Gornow also Gurnoe born 1823 Bay Mills, Michigan (before 1833) married before 1854 to Stafford living somewhere in Minnesota.

Treaty of 1836 lists birth date as 1823.

John B. Gornow also Gurnoe, and Cournoe is born 1821-1822 (1829?) Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. He is living 1850-1854 Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, living and received script under No. 30, June 13, 1864, Bayfield, Wisconsin, married April 10, 1849 a Sophia (Sofa, Sophie) Bouc (Buck) born 1825 Minnesota, died April 1, 1900. July 31, 1855, John Gurnoe, under Michigan Treaty No. 121, selected script land. The land recorded as W of SW section 19, township 45 range 2 E is in Michigan. Marriage record suggests birth year as John 1821 and Sophia 1826. Treaty of 1836 lists birth date as 1821.

Simon Gornow also Gurnoe born 1825-1827 Sault Ste Marie Michigan, unable to read or write, lived 1854 Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, issued script under No. 71C, August 25, 1864, and living Bayfield, Wisconsin, applied script, May 25, 1870, to W 1/2 of NW. 1/4 section 23 township 54N range 26W Saint Cloud, Minnesota range and range number 181, date of patent May 25, 1870 about 100 kilometers NW. St. Paul. A Simon Gurnoe is baptized 1824 Detroit according to Theresa Schenck. Treaty of 1836 lists birth date as 1825.

Edward Gornow also Gournor, Gornoe and Gournon is born 1827-1829 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan and living 1850-1854 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. A Edward Gurnoe is baptized 1831 Detroit according to Theresa Schenck. Treaty of 1836 lists birth date as 1827

Arkanze (Archange) Gornow also Gournoe is born 1828-1830 Canada daughter (6)-Louis Gournoe and Archange Cadotte. Archange is recorded as

being unable to read or write. She is living 1850-1854 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. Married November 28, 1850 at Sault Ste Marie a William Rolleau son Jean Baptiste Roleau and Mary Fagnan. A Archange Gurnoe is baptized 1831 Detroit according to Theresa Schenck. Treaty of 1836 lists birth as 1828.

Charlotte Gornow also Gurnoe is born 1830-1832 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan daughter Archange Cadotte. She is living 1854 Superior City, Wisconsin, a second marriage(?) January 1, 1857 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan to a William Shaw born 1830. She applied for script, October 24 and, December 16 1872, at Du Luth, Minnesota, applied script to SW of NW. 1/4 Section 6 NW NE 1/4 Section 7 Township 55 range 14, 80 acres.

Charlotte claimed a birth date of 1834 at her marriage. Treaty of 1854 suggests she married before that time, making this a second marriage or that she is falsifying the records to obtain script. The treaty of 1836 lists birth date as 1830.

Elias Gornow, also Gornoe is born 1832-1833 Sault Ste Marie, Sault Ste Marie, Michigan daughter Archange Cadotte. She is living 1850-1854 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. July 31, 1855, Eli Gurnoe under Michigan Treaty No. 122, selected land as E section 19, township 45 range 2 E, in Michigan.

Treaty of 1836 lists birth date as 1832.

Amelica (Amelia & Polly) Gornow also Gornoe is born 1835-1837 Sault Ste Marie, Sault Ste Marie, Michigan daughter Archange Cadotte. She is living 1850-1854 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. Treaty of 1836 lists birth as 1835.

Lawrence Garneau, alias Gourneau and Gurnoe born 1840, Bay Mills (ten miles south East Sault Ste Marie), Michigan is the son of Archange Cadotte. He married about 1868, Red River, North West Territories to (IV)-Eleanor (Heline) Thomas, born 1851, an English (Scottish) speaking Metis of Swampy Village, Red River, North West Territories; census 1849, C-2170, census 1870, C-2170, St. Andre, P-191. Lawrence is living Sault Ste Marie, Michigan 1850-1854 and departed Bayfield, Wisconsin 1859 for the interior. Living St. Andre, Manitoba in 1870.

A second marriage occurred about 1912 in Edmonton or Saint Paul de Metis, Alberta to an Emily Hamlin, his Cree Metis housekeeper.

The American Congress enacted a law prohibiting foreigners, who did not become citizens, from engaging in Indian Trade. The French controlled the trade, therefore the Government allowed interpreters and voyagers to be employed by American traders.

1815

Xavier Biron, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the north bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1815 to 1846. He claimed to have written authority from Major Winniett who commanded Drummond Island.

Cuthbert Grant, Metis, born 1793 Grant House in Saskatchewan, educated in Montreal and Scotland, returned to Red River where his sister Josephte is married to John Wills of the N.W.C. Another sister is married to Pierre Falcon, and their father had died in1799 at Grand Portage. William McGillivray acted as their guardian.

Joseph Lefond, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1815 to 1846. He claimed to have written authority from Major Winniett who commanded Drummond Island.

Dakota, birth Agathe Renville Metis daughter Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

Dakota, birth Francois Renville Metis son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow); married Marguerite Bellegarde.

Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) is purchasing trade goods at Sault Ste Marie until 1818.

(II)-Simon Fraser (1776-1862) of the N.W.C. was determined to retire this year due to the increasing violence between the H.B.C. and the N.W.C., but he was persuaded to stay on for one more year in the Athabasca.

James Grant of the N.W.C. is wintering Leech Lake, with William Morrison wintering at Sandy Lake Post when the Selkirk war begins. Duncan Cameron sent Grant a letter requesting assistance in his conflict with Colin Robertson and the Selkirk supporters.

Jean Baptiste Chandonee, his wife Marie Chapoton and her Aunt Therese Schindler wintered at Mackinac.

Jean Baptiste Charbonneau born December 25, 1795, died 1883 son Joseph Charbonneau and Marguerite Lamoureux arrived Lake Winnipeg to work the North West.

Joseph Delorme, Metis b-1815 Pembina, a hunter married about 1835 most likely Red River, Isabelle Gouneau (Gaurneau), Metis b-1818 Pembina.

1850 census. (Joseph b-1822 & Isabel b-1803) Genealogy First Metis Nation. (Joseph b-1822 would be age 13 when married so not likely correct).

Mary Finley, Metis, and Angelique Finlay both born 1815 Spokane, Washington daughters Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Indian woman or could be the children of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883).

Nicholas (Micolai) Finley, Metis, (1815-1886) born Spokane, Washington son Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and SusanTeskwentichina or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883). Susan Teskwentichina had another child born 1829 named Marguerite Maggie Finlay and is likely not the daughter of Jacko.

William McIntosh (1784-1842) is located at Fort Vermillion.

Alexander Ross of the N.W.C. recorded that the Okanagon women are virtues; with engaging sweetness; make good house wives; and are modest, affectionate and chaste, so there is little surprise when he married Sally Okanagan and had 13 children.

Lake Superior, birth Marguerite Souilliere Metis daughter Basile Souilliere and a Cree Woman; she married Lake Superior Sieur Roussin and had a son Joseph Roussin, family moved to Vancouver 1831; 2nd marriage 1830 Vancouver a country marriage David Dompierre and had a daughter Marie, a son David in 1836 and got married (Churched) 1838 in Vancouver.

Selkirk hired Louis Nolin, the Ojibwa Metis from Sault Ste Marie, as an interpreter at Red River (1815-1817). Selkirk considered Louis as being intelligent.

The North West Company assigned Duncan Cameron, who was stationed at Fort Gibralter, to see to the removal of all H.B.C. settlers at Red River.

Alexander Macdonell, stationed at Qu'Appelle, was assigned the task of inciting the Metis to rebellion against the H.B.C.

Bastonnais Pangman, born 1778 Saskatchewan River, was active on the raids upon the new settlers and helped negotiate the withdrawal of the British settlers from Red River. The Canadian Metis Nation, in retaliation for the British's actions, offered the Scottish Selkirk squatters free transportation to new homes and better land in upper Canada. Two thirds of the two hundred settlers in Red River accepted the offer, arriving at Holland Landing on September 5. This departure included 134 people. The Metis began to be more militant after the British refused to allow them to trade food with the Canadian North West Company.

Bastonnais Pangman, Cuthbert Grant Jr., and other Metis attacked the H.B.C. colony, burning a few cabins and shooting some horses. They suggested that the remaining sixty six settlers should quit the place. John McLeod, being super-stubborn, refused to comply.

(II)-Miles Macdonell (1767/69-1828), Governor of Assiniboina (1815-1817) wrote: Our surrender to the enemy has not saved the colony. Our people, servants and settlers have been driven off by the N.W.C., who set fire to the houses and burned the whole to the ground. Simon McGillivray said, " I am happy to inform you that the colony has been knocked on the head by the N.W.C."

(II)-Miles Macdonell (1767-1828) of the H.B.C., appointed Governor of the Assiniboia and leader of the British Red River colony, is arrested, imprisoned and eventually sent to Montreal as a common criminal. He returned in 1817, but quit back to Montreal a broken man. Selkirk would place the following men on his hit list: Duncan Cameron, Alexander Macdonell, Cuthbert Grant and Bostonnais Pangman.

The Metis had the choice to confront Colin Robertson and his troops, which could have resulted in war and massive bloodshed, or back off and try negotiation. The Metis had no serious objection with the Scottish and Irish settlers, only with the British war invasion tactics. The turncoat, Jean Baptist Lagimodiere (1778-1855), an ancestor of Louis Riel, made the one thousand, eight hundred mile journey to Montreal from Red River to notify Selkirk of the Red River situation. On his return trip, the Canadian authorities at Fort William arrest and throw him into jail for high treason. He remained in jail for three months before being released.

(IV)-Joseph Cadotte (b-1788) of the Southern Department of the North West Company, requested Metis support in massacring a few adherents of Lord Selkirk in order to send a message to Briton. The Metis rejected the request, saying the Metis are not barbarians.

April 13: Duncan Cameron authorized some friendly H.B.C. settlers, with the help of Cuthbert Grant and William Shaw, to take possession of field pieces belonging to the colony. This included nine pieces of light artillery; including a swivel gun, a small howitzer and various cannons. One of the H.B.C. colony men who assisted in the raid was arrested, but the Metis raided the H.B.C. Governor's house and released the prisoner.

May: Alexander Macdonell came down from Qu'Appelle with 12 Cree and attacked the H.BC. colony on the Red River, killing 12 horses with arrows to warn the settlers of an impending war.

June 25: Peter Fidler reported on June 25, 1815, that the Canadian half-breeds served notice on the Hudson Bay Company for all Selkirk Settlers to retire from the region. Fidler says that the Hudson Bay begs for peace, promising the half-breeds would not have to comply with Hudson Bay law. Peter Fidler reported, on June 28, that only 13 Hudson Bay Company families remained at Red River. He also reported that 26 Canadians passed the settlement on their way up the Red River. Miles MacDonnell of the Hudson Bay Company, in a state of high nervous agitation, surrendered himself to the legal authorities at Fort Gibraltar. (II)-Thomas Thomas, a Metis, who is Britons Chief Factor and Governor of the Southern war Department, declined a position with (I)-Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) in Red River and an offer of Governor of the British Northern War District. On August 30 British Governor Simple appointed (II)-Thomas Thomas and Peter Fiddler as Councilors of the British District of Assiniboine.

June 25: A written Order is delivered to the H.B.C. colonists to retire immediately from the Red River, and no appearance of a colony is to to remain. Those departing shall not be molested in their passage out. The Order was signed by James Southerland and James White on behalf of the Hudson Bay Company and the settlers, while Bostonnais Pangman, Cuthbert Grant, William Shaw and Bonhomme Montour signed for the Metis. The H.B.C. settlers fled northward. The H.B.C. Red River colony ceased to exist as of this date, and those few who remained were part of the H.BC. garrison.

July: Louis Dorion, Metis (1782-1890), is a signer of a treaty at Portage des Sioux with the Dakota.

July 31: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that Berthelot & Rolette sent Pierre Geuesselin to the Prairie.

September: Some 140 Highland Scots from the Red River Metis Settlement are transported by the North West Company to Holland Landing, arriving in September. They found temporary employment in the Young Street Settlement, but in 1819, they relocated to West Gwillimbury.

September 15: The Canadian Mounted Cavalry routed the Scottish squatters from the Red River and then burned their buildings and destroyed their crops. All but three of the Scots left the Metis Territory, some going to Little Canada (St Paul, Minnesota). Others later returned with Colin Robertson and a British Athabasca brigade, including eighty four new squatters, bringing the immigrant population to two hundred and seventy people. Colin Robertson, a Canadian turncoat and former Nor'wester, are now acting on orders from London to eliminate the Canadians in the Athabasca. Colin Robertson wrote in his diary: "The plan I am now executing, with the assistance of the (British) establishment, bids fair for the downfall of the most tyrannical system of commerce that ever existed", -referring to the Metis and the Canadian North West Company. Other reports suggest that poor crops and lack of support from Selkirk or the Hudson Bay Company saw 140 Highland Scots desert the Selkirk's settlement this year, using the North West Company canoes landed in September on the Young Street Settlement. By 1819 some had resettled in West Gwillimbury.

October 8: Mackinac Notary Book 1806-1818 recorded that John Caron sent John Francois & Henry Magner to the Prairie.