Metis

1821 - 1823


The Canadian North West Company merged
with the British Hudson Bay Company


The New Hudson Bay Company eliminated the historic
Great Lakes and St. Lawrence trade networks.

The Hudson Bay Company continued to attempt
to enforce segregation between Protestant and Catholic
Metis through religion, language and location.


1821

Fort George, West Coast, birth Isabelle Boucher Metis died 1860, daughter Jean Baptiste Boucher, interpreter on assignment with the N.W.C. and Josephte Kanhopitsa; She married 1839 Joseph Barnabe.

Red River Valley contained 500 Metis relocated from Pembina to Red River: 133 French speaking at Red River, likely Metis, with a few French; 65 De Meurons mercenaries, mainly Swiss and German, having arrived this year; and 221 Scots, Irish and English. Simpson recommended to the Selkirk Estate that recruitment of European immigrants virtually cease and the Red River be peopled from the West itself, not from abroad.

Jean Baptiste Charette, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1821 to 1846.

Maximilien Genthon arrived at Red River from Lanoraie, Quebec. He married Marie Louise Jerome, daughter Martin Jerome and an Indian woman. They had a daughter Marguerite Genthon who married William Dease.

Augustus Laroche, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1821 to 1846.

Joseph Rondo (Rondeau), born 1797 Montreal, joined the Hudson Bay Company, wintered at the Fraser River,

Great Slave Lake and Fort Edmonton and settled at Red River where he married Josephine Boileau, a Kutenai Metis.

The Eskimo or Husky dogs were summered in a dog kennel at Red River. Garry reports that 100 dogs were kept by a man who received two dollars per day for each dog. They were located at a excellent fishing place in order to feed the dogs. In winter the dogs were used by the Metis on dog sleds like the Inuit (Eskimo). It is noteworthy that the Metis stopped every five miles for a pipe (smoke) to rest the dogs, and they measured distance by the number of pipes.

The Presbyterian Minister promised by Thomas Douglas had still not appeared, and applications to Governor Alexander MacDonnell, a Roman Catholic or more properly, the Scotch thought, a nothing Aryan, was to no avail.

The dreaded Irish Orange Order began arriving in Canada, being brought in by Protestant Irish. The order vowed to make Canada Protestant, British and Conservative. The Orange men would have a profound negative impact on the Metis and Canadian Culture. The British Hudson Bay Company Post at Fort Waterloo was distributing its quota of three hundred and sixty nine gallons of gin per trading season. Exasperated by the continuing violence between the British Company and the Canadian Company, the British Government urged a compromise solution. But Thomas Douglas of Selkirk would not negotiate with the Canadians. Thomas Douglas was now becoming a liability to the British Hudson Bay Company. Thomas Douglas, a harassed and broken man, died April of this year, and few mourned his passing. Many Scottish descendants, however, were thankful for his tenacity in carving a place for their clans. Chief Peguis of the Red River Ojibwa aided the people of Red River. In times of famine, he provided food. When asked for land, he granted it. During the Seven Oaks conflict, he harbored a Scottish mother and her children. The English reported the Cree still considered the Ojibwa as advancing on their lands. An evil thought planted by the English, but these rumors were unable to break the alliance and family ties with the Red River Metis.

The annual meeting at Fort William made the usual arrangements between the Nor'wester and Montreal agents but reached no decision on the future of the Company. The current agreement was to expire in 1822, and merger with the British Hudson Bay Company was still a possibility as the ongoing war was very destructive to both sides.

A party of Hudson Bay Company voyagers portaging a load of trade goods at a supply post along the route of the Grande Portage and the North West fur country.

Meanwhile, two thousand Scots settled in the Rideau district, south of present day Ottawa.

They were unemployed weavers, uprooted by the land enclosure system in Scotland. Three thousand Scots also settled in the Peterborough area.

John Holliday of the American Fur Company was trading six thousand annually in Lake Superior. Sault Ste Marie, on the American side, consisted of fifteen to twenty buildings, occupied by five or six French and English families. (I)-John Johnson (1762?-1828 or 1742-1830?), an Irishman, was in charge, and he married Susan or Angelice Oshawousgodaywaygua (Oshahgushkadawaquay), Woman of the Great Meadowthe, died 1843 daughter of Chippewa (Ojibwa) Chief Waubjeeg (white Fisher). Henry R. Schoolcraft was visiting there and would later (1823) marry Johnson's daughter, Jane Obahbahmwawagezhegoquay Johnson, Metis.

There are about 200 Chippewa (Ojibwa) settled about the establishment. The population of Michigan is 9,048, having doubled in the past decade. Twenty eight Chief Traders and Fifty three Officers; thirty two of which would be former North West Company men.

Some of these new Hudson Bay Company men were: Donald MacKenzie and Alexander Christie, who would both become Governor of Assiniboine; John Roland, Chief Factor at Fort Edmonton; Colin Robertson; Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857), father of Oregon; John Stuart of the Fraser exploration group; James Leith; and William Connolly. William Williams became Governor of the Southern Department and George Simpson Governor of the Northern District. George Simpson (1787-1860), an illegitimate child from Northern Ireland, dominated the fir trade for the next 40 years. Some called him the little emperor because of his small size.

Samel Black (1780-1841), formally of the XY Company, now of the North West Company, is one of the few rejected by the new H.B.C. Later in 1823 he was admitted as a clerk and in 1824 became a chief trader.

Dr Bigsby, physician and secretary to the British Commission, with his party of Metis, began surveying the boundary between Frand Portage to the Lake of the Woods. Some of those involved in the survey are Long, Garry, McKenny, Kane, Kennicott and Franklin.

Fort Alexandria in the interior of British Columbia is built by the North West Company and grew wheat this year.

There are surplus forts and personnel. The North West Company had 97 forts, and the Hudson Bay Company had 76 forts. This resulted in twice as many clerks as needed. Senior officers retired under generous terms.

Unsatisfactory or newly hired personnel were discharged. A strategic shift of trade routes would take place from Montreal to the Hudson Bay, from canoe to York boat. The merger eliminated the historic Great Lakes and St. Lawrence trade networks. The French, pork eating Voyager became redundant; being replaced by the English York men to serve the North West Territories. The displaced peoples became independent traders at Red River and Sault Ste Marie. The Hudson Bay established itself at Sault Ste Marie in an attempt to displace the free traders, but considered their Michipicoten Post as more strategic. Others joined the American Fur Company or faded into the Canadian or American main stream. These Coureurs des Bois, being attached to their native women, rarely returned to native Quebec but, rather, migrated to the Red River, Dakota territories, Red Lake, and the shores of Lake Superior to become hunters, trappers, and free traders. A small number sustained themselves on fishing, the production of maple sugar and on farming. The natural flow of Canadians to the Territories now became an English flow through the Hudson Bay. The Hudson Bay Company gave preference to British subjects to ensure that the western expansion was English. At this time practically all officers and many lower ranked employees had women according to the custom of the country. Church sanctioned or recorded marriages were few. The company had a practice of not bringing churchmen into the fur trade country until Thomas Douglas of Selkirk opened the door. Some English veterans of the Hudson Bay Company with their Metis families settled on the left bank of the Red River. These include: William H. Cook, Thomas Thomas, James Bird, Alexander Ross, John Pritchard, Donald Gunn, Thomas Bunn and others. The English had a policy to limit the Metis to higher positions in the fur business. A few Metis who attained the higher accounting positions were: John McNab (b-1806) son Thomas McNab (b-1782) North West, Charles Thomas, Charles Bird, James Hodgson and (II)-Thomas Fidler, who are sons of superior officers and mostly Anglo Saxon Half-breed rather than French Metis.

George Simpson wrote to Andrew Colvile concerning John Pritchard and his Buffalo Wool Company of Red River which failed, as he hated incompetence. A Tallow Company and another company which grew flax and hemp, also failed. The Hayfield Experimental Farm also collapsed. Pritchard was attempting different ventures, as the Selkirk settlers were poor farmers, mostly accustomed to raising sheep. It is worth keeping in mind that every gentlemen in the service was unfriendly to the Selkirk Colony and they were not provided with proper tools, nor tools to make tools. It wasn't until 1824 that the settlers managed to acquire primitive implements such as ploughs and sickles.

Louis Gornoe (1790-1863) is alleged by his descendants to be an officer at Sault Ste Marie of the North West Company. It would appear that he is working out of Fort La Pointe (Madeleine Island, Lake Superior), which is under the control of Sault Ste Marie. Fort La Pointe is listed as a North West Company Fort. His forced retirement from the North West Company resulted in his moving his family to Sault Ste Marie on the American side. More accurately, it is at Bay Mills which is about ten miles south west of Sault Ste Marie on the Saint Mary River. Maps of this period indicate few choices for unemployed traders with families to feed. Sault Ste Marie is the North West Company establishment on the north shore of Lake Saint George that is east of the Saint Mary river. Excluding the American Sault Ste Marie and Bay Mills, only two other locations, namely Fort Michilimackinac and a colony called 'New Settlement' not far from present Bay City, offer options.

There were a number of Chippewa camps and a number of Metis settled at La Pointe, Madeline Island, Red Lake and Pembina. The advantage of Bay Mills over other locations was the availability of fish. (7)-Francis S. Gurnoe is born 1821 Bay Mills, Michigan son (6)-Louis Gurnoe born 1790 and Se-Ranze (Say Shaw Ne Nie) born 1800.

George Simpson (1787-1860) at Fort Wedderburn, Mackenzie River, complained of ink freezing in his pen when within four feet of a large fire, while trying to write his report; so cold was this winter. He also wrote that the Company Gentlemen immediately form a relationship with the wives or daughters to secure alliances in trade. This is a complete reversal of previous H.B.C. policy. After the demise of the Canadian North West Company, there are no more summer voyages from Montreal. The only agreements made are for three year contracts. These longer absences resulted in a greater likelihood of definitive emigration into the Metis Nation. Red River, the Hudson Bay Company believed, still had potentialities as a place of retirement, a source of food supply for the fur trade but, more important, a barrier against American encroachment.

The Hudson Bay Company continued to attempt to enforce segregation between Protestant and Catholic Metis, through religion, language and location. A new class of free trading Metis at Red River was emerging, who could not align with the Hudson Bay Company thinking.

The priests used the excuse of the threatening Sioux to persuade five hundred Metis to relocate from Pembina to St. Boniface where other French Metis from St. Lawrence River settled, using the excuse to better protect themselves and Red River. After Thomas Douglas of Selkirk's death, Edward Ellice of the North West Company assumed a leadership role in the Red River Metis Nation.

We should keep in mind that the south west trade from the Great Lakes didn't stop over night, and most people in this region paid little, if any, attention to boundaries, especially in Chippewa Territories- which was most of the west. Truman Abraham Warren and Lyman Marcus Warren both joined the American Fur Company and married Cadotte's daughters.

The reorganized Hudson Bay Company consisted of 53 officers or- as they liked to call themselves - commissioned gentlemen. There were twenty five Chief Factors and 28 Chief Traders. Two thirds of this number represented the old North West Company men. Nicholas Garry, committee member of the new Hudson Bay Company, noted:

The Canadians in the service of the company exceeds so much the number which will be required that it will be expedient not to renew the engagements of such men whose time has expired. It is noteworthy that the English and Scots were not included.

There are 50 women and children living at the expense of the Company. Steps should be taken to avoid this.

The Hudson Bay route being selected over the St. Lawrence route had clear implications for the London English vs. the Canadians.

The great North Wester depot and administrative center at Fort William was to be run down, while Rainy Lake, the old Canadian supply base for Athabasca, will now become a mere trading post, as these Athabascans will be supplied from York Fort.

Boats will be used rather than canoes. This will shift the work from Metis and voyagers canoe men to English, Orkney and Scottish boatmen.

 

MONTREAL CANOE

This painting by Mrs. Hopkin's (1858-1870) of Lachine Quebec

represents the glory of the past. It is a Canot de Maitre (Montreal

Canoe), 35-40 feet long, with a 16 man crew of Voyagers and was

used to run the Ottawa River and on the Great Lakes. The takeover

of trade by the British Hudson Bay Company diverted the trade

route to the Hudson Bay, effectively destroying the Canadian

supply lines. Canadian French Voyagers were no longer required. It

is not clear if they realized that they were dividing a natural nation

and alienating the French.

 

The Hudson Bay Company had recruited 165 Swiss for the Red River Colony. They entered into contract with the H.B.C. with an understanding that they were going to the Red River of the South. They arrived just before winter with none of the promised food or tools, and discovered the best land along the river was already occupied. Some immediately headed south, with most abandoning Red River by 1826 for the south. They said the Hudson Bay Company had failed to live up to their contract. Many went to Fort St. Anthony, a.k.a. Fort Snelling, and St. Peters, a.k.a. Mendota, at the junction of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers. Others went to Venay, Indiana.

The Superintendent of Farming, from the Selkirk's ill-fated colony at Pembina, arrived at Fort St. Anthony (Fort Snelling), on their way to Prairie du Chien, for supplies.

The American Fur Company drove a herd of cattle into Fort St. Anthony (Fort Snelling), and brought five Swiss families. These are likely the Swiss from the Red River of the north. The Metis and Swiss would later be driven from Fort St. Anthony to relocate to Saint Paul, a few miles down the Mississippi River.

June 11: Sault Ste Marie, marriage (I)-John Palmer Bourke born January 1791 Sligo, Lightford, County Mayo, Ireland, died 1851 St. James, Red River; married Nancy Campbell, Metis born about 1800, Sault Ste Marie, died July 8, 1887 St. James, Winnipeg, Manitoba, daughter John A. Campbell born 1775 and Wahpeton. Nancy is sister to Mrs Hercules Dousman, Colin, Duncan and Scott Campbell.

August 12: Francois Cadot born yesterday baptized August 13 son Augustin Cadot and L'Amainbile Otchipwas as recorded Michilimackinac. This Augustin Cadot is probably a son or brother of Joseph Cadot interpreter Fort St. Joseph about 1808, lieutenant during 1812-15 war. Joseph Cadot settled on Drummond Island. August Joseph Gueret witnessed a baptism Mackinac in August.

August 21: Mackinac baptism Francois Cadot son Augustin Cadot and L'Amainbile an Otchipwas woman (probable son or brother Joseph Cadot).

August 29: Chicago, in the State of Illinois, Treaty with the Ottawa, Chippewa and Pottawatamie Nations.

Land grants:

John Burnet, Metis, 2 sections of land.

James Burnt, Abraham Burnet, Rebecca Burnet and Nancy Burnet, Metis children of Kawkeeme, sister of Topnibe, of the Potawatamie Nation, a section of land each on the north bank of the river St. Joseph, about two miles from the mouth.

John B. La Lime, Metis, son of Nokenoqua, 1/2 section above the previous grant.

Jean Baptiste Chandonai, Metis, son of Chippewaqua, one section of land adjoing the tract granted to John B. La Lime.

Joseph Daze, Metis, son Chippewaqua, a section of land above and adjoing the tract granted to Jean Baptiste Chadonai, Metis Monguago 1/2 section at Mishshewakokink

Pierre Moran or Peeresh, Metis, a Potawatamie Chief, a section of land and to his children two sections of land at the mouth of the Elkland River.

Pierre Le Clerc, Metis, son Moiqua a section of land on the Elkheart River above and adjoing the Moran grant above.

The section of land granted by Treaty of St. Mary's in 1818 to Peeresh or Perig shall be granted to Jean Baptiste Cicot, Metis, son of Pesayquot, sister of said Peerish.

Osheakkebe or Benac, Metis 1/2 section land north side Elkheart River where the road from Chicago to Fort Wayne first crosses the said river.

Menawche a Potawatamine woman 1/2 section on the east bank of the St. Joseph River where the road from Chicago to Fort Wayne first crosses the said river.

Theresa Chandler or Toeakqui, Metis a Potawatamine woman and her daughter Betsey Fisher, Metis, a section of land on the south side of the Grand River, opposite the Spruce Swamp.

Charles Beaubien, Metis, and Medart Beaubien, Metis, sons Mannabenaqua, each 1/3 section near the Village Kewigoshkeem on the Washtenaw River.

Antoine Roland, Metis, son of Igatpatawatamiequa 1/2 section adjoing and below grant to Pierre Moran, Metis.

William Knaggs or Waseskukson, Metis son Chesqua 1/2 section adjoining and below the grant to Antoine Roland, Metis.

Madeline Bertrand, Metis, wife Joseph Bertrand, a Potawatamie woman, section land at the Parc and Vaches, on the north side of the St. Joseph River.

Joseph Bertrand, junior, Benjamin Bertrand, Laurent Bertrand, Theresa Bertrand and Amable Bertrand, Metis children of Madeline Bertrand, each 1/2 section land at portage of the Kankakee River.

John Riley, Metis, son Menawcumegoquoi a section of land at the mouth of the river Au Foin on the Grand River and extending up the said river.

Peter Riley, Metis, son Menawcumegoquoi a section of land at the mouth of the river Au Foin on the Grand River and extending down the said river.

Jean Baptiste Le Clerc, Metis, son Moiqua 1/2 section land above and adjoining the grant to Pierre Le Clerc.

Joseph La Framboise, Metis, son Shawwenoqua section land on the south side of river St. Joseph and adjoining on the upper side of the land cede to the United States.

 

November 17: Catherine Govreau and Francois Baudoin baptized at Mackinac a Theotis born 1805 and Pierre born 1818.

1822

The Americans issued the Trade and Intercourse Act of 1822. Foreign traders (Canadians) were excluded from dealing with Indian tribes on American territory.

John McDonald is stationed at Brandon (Manitoba)for the 1822/23 season, and reports ten lodges of Ojibwa are in his district.

Dakota, birth Michel Renville Metis (1822-1899) son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow); married 1848 Margaret a Wahpaton woman.

James Kipp (1788-1865+) of Montreal, working for the Columbia Fur Company, built a trading post amongst the Mandans.

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Abraham Hudon (1822-1844) Metis son Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Angelica Lacombe.

(III)-Alexander Kennedy Isbister Metis born Cumberland House (Saskatchewan) died May 28, 1883 London, grand son of (I)-Joseph Isbister a bigamist and an Indian Woman. He willed a personal fortune and 5,000 books to the University of Manitoba.

Abraham Leduce born 1822 Canada married Sally Ann b-1831 Canada, living Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan 1850 census.

Charles Nolin (1823-1907) was born Cavanagh, North Dakota.

Fort Gibraltar of the North West Company is renamed Fort Garry and became known as the upper Fort. The Hudson Bay Company decided to replace the canoe with boats and, therefore, the Metis with Orkney men.

Complaints followed, but the argument was that the Orkney men were cheaper. Racism would become completely entrenched in the Hudson Bay Company systems this decade with no opposition. Governor Simpson wrote that even the Half Breeds of the Country, who have been educated in Canada, are blackguards of the very worst description. This systemic discrimination would invade most business and Government Institutions and would continue in Canada for the next one hundred and sixty years. The Company policy was not to employ Natural Canadians in any supervisory position. This policy, designed to ensured the evolution of an English only Hudson Bay Company, would remain systemic into the twentieth century.

The Hudson Bay Company wished to take action against petty traders like the Metis (IV)-Joseph Cadotte (b-1788) who are extended into the Rainy Lake Region. Cadotte had been expelled from the Hudson Bay Company in 1821. He still commanded much authority among the Indians and Metis.

The American Fur Company out of Sault Ste Marie established a trading post on Lake Temagami, between Lake Nipissing and Lake Timiskaming, Ontario. The North West Company schooners completed the removal of material from Fort William to Sault Ste Marie. The schooners became redundant.

Donald MacKenzie, John Rowand and Edward Harriot, with 108 men, 14 women and 21 children, again established Chesterfield House. It is noteworthy that they are surrounded by over 15,000 natives who are not pleased with a fort in their territory. This venture, like those of the past, failed and the Fort is again abandoned in April 27, 1823.

It is noted that 136 Ojibwa are in the Fort Alexander District.

The Bow River Expedition was created to reestablish Chesterfield House for the Hudson Bay Company. The South Saskatchewan was called the Bow River at this time. Donald MacKenzie led the expedition, with John Rowland and Edward Harriot and another 105 men, 14 women and 21 children. They were surrounded by some 15,000 natives. This Fort was abandoned again on April 27, 1823.

John McLean reported that the Indians at the Lake of Two Mountains at the mouth of the Ottawa River, cultivated the soil, and they engage as voyageurs. The mission de Saint-Sulpice attempted to establish Indians as farmers. However, they were not allowed to own their own land. They were given the use of it within certainrigid bounds. If they left the mission to live at other posts where there was no missionary and did not return the third year at sowing time, they would lose the right to their land and meadows. Any Indian harvesting more than he needed for his family could not use his profit to buy the use of more land. Any trader paying an Indian in drink, voided his contract. If these conditions were imposed on the European people there would have been a revolution.

July 9: Red River birth (II)-Harriett Fidler daughter (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary Cree Indian. It is noteworthy that Peter died this year leaving 14 children and a wife.

1823

(III)-Alexander Thomas born 1823 Red River claimed himself to be the son of (I)-Thomas Thomas born 1792 however the Charles D. Denney papers suggest he was the son (II)-Richard Thomas born 1800 who was the son of (I)-Thomas Thomas. Alexander would have a daughter (IV)-Eleanor Thomas who would marry Lawrence Garneau at Red River.

William Keating noted that a Miami chief, some of the time, dressed like a trader (Metis) and some times assumed the Indian costume, but always a capote rather than a blanket. At Red River the first Bois-Brules he encountered had blue capote with a hood; only used in bad weather. The capote is secured around their waist by a military sash. They wear a shirt of calico or painted muslin, moccasins and leather leggings which are fastened round the leg by garters, ornamented with beads, etc.

General Cuthbert Grant d-1854 married Marie McGillis a halfbreed this year; the first in a church. His first wife was Elisabeth MacKay sister of John Richard McKay of HBC, Brandon post, then her sister Betsy MacKay leaving one son James born 1815, then Dakota woman who produced a daughter named Nancy, then Madeline Desmarois and a daughter named Maria who married Pascal Breland. Some suggest he bedded both McGillis sisters Margaret and Marie at the same time. Margaret had one child and Marie nine children. The next year Grant and the McGillis, Potts, Bolinot, Inkster and others settled on White Horse Plains to engage in agriculture being manipulated by the HBC and the Church. About 100 hundred families followed Grant to White Horse Plains the following year. Grant proved to be a better buffalo hunter than farmer and was often elected as chief captain of the hunt.

Dakota, birth Madeline Renville Metis daughter Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

Dakota, birth Rosalie Renville Metis daughter Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).

(I)-Peter (Patrick) Quinn (1787-1862) departed Red River for Fort Snelling. He married about 1827 1st Marie Louise Finley, 2nd Louise Boucher. He was pressed into the British Navy, and arrived York Factory, Hudson Bay at a young age.

Many Pembina Metis are encouraged to relocate to St. Boniface, Red River before the Americans occupy the land.

Jenny Campbell, Metis born about 1823/24 Upper Mississippi District daughter Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Oliver Cratte

Scott Campbell, Metis born 1790's in Upper Mississippi District, died 1851 son John Archibald (1761-1818) and married about 1823 Dakota woman.

William Campbell, Metis born about 1823/25 died 1855 Upper Mississippi District son Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Oliver Cratte

At Alkali Creek (Billings, Montana) 400 Blackfoot attacked 29 traders of the American Fur Company. The stolen furs were traded to the Hudson Bay Company and later appeared on the London market. An American recognized the stolen pelts.

Benjamin Gervais born 1786 Riviere du Loop who arrived Metis Red River Colony in 1803 married Red River Genevieve Larans born Berthierville (Boucherville??), died 1885 likely St. Paul, Minnesota.

The Parkland Assiniboine, Cree and Metis, near Fort Edmonton, numbered 20 tents, and the Strong Wood Assiniboine numbered 40 tents. This is interesting in that Metis are not usually noted separate from the Indians, although they often traveled with them.

Meanwhile, John Bigsby visited the Canadian village of Sault (Sault Ste Marie) to assess the situation after the Hudson Bay Company merger. He reported the Sault consisted of a straggling line of fifteen log huts on marshy ground and a dwelling of a Charles Ermatinger with a windmill. Charles Ermatinger was attempting to encourage the Natives to grow grain. The old North West Company Post consisted of a good resident house, large storehouse, stables, laborer dwellings, garden, fields and jetty for their schooner. The cattle were in remarkably good condition. The American village at Sault Ste Marie, called Fort Brady, headed by a Mr. John Johnson (1742-1830), an Irishman, who is stationed with troops, is the main establishment. St. Mary's village (Bay Mills), ten miles down river, sustains itself by fishing. There were ninety scattered shacks and wigwams, housing several hundred voyageurs, Mixed Blood and Chippewa. Most had Chippewa wives, raising as many children as they could afford to feed. Land claims at the village of Pauwayayteeg are heard at the Sault where brother in law (IV)-Joseph Cadotte (b-1788) swore that Marie Janette Piquette, widow of (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818), had lived upon her lot since 1807 and had never, at any time, removed from the same. She, during this time, had cultivated and improved the front of said lot, and has a considerable portion of it fenced in. He also affirmed her loyalty to the United States throughout a period when loyalties at the Sault were very much divided. Judge Doty notes that the house appears very old and stands on the western boundary of her lot. The widow Cadotte's claim is recognized and her name appears on the first county tax rolls of 1823 and 1825.

Steamboats were coming up the Mississippi River as far as St. Paul, Minnesota.

Stephen H. Long at Red River said that the Metis observed his black man, Andrew and immediately nick name him wapishka; meaning white. Such is their humor.

Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857) is at the Rainy Lake Post.

James P. Beckworth, who was traveling with William Henry Ashley, was adopted into the Crow confederacy, married an Indian woman and settled in the Absaroka region east of Yellowstone.

Fort Assiniboine is established at the confluence of the Freeman and Athabasca Rivers.

The Men of the Snake River Expedition, battled the Piegan Indians in Lemhi Valley, Idaho.

June 20: Drummond Island, death (I)-Robert Dickson (Mascotapah (Red Hair Man)) (1768-1823) who was married to Helen Totowin. He was a very influential trader in both the old and new North West.

August 1: Mackinac, marriage Augustin Hamilin son Louis Hamlin and Josephte; married to Angelique Kiminitchawgan daughter of Kiminitchaw and SichigikSA.

1823

RED RIVER, SAINT ANDREWS, NORTH WEST TERRITORIES

Richard Thomas (1) (ID # 4676) born 1800 (some records say 1806) Albany District of Hudson Bay Company baptized November 13, 1837 St. John Anglican Church, Red River. He moved to Red River 1820, and died, July 8, 1860, Little Britain, Red River son Thomas Thomas-(4) born 1781

Richard Thomas (2) born 1806 Hudson Bay Post Albant River, North West Territories died July 7, 1860 Little Britain, North West Territories son Thomas Thomas; married about 1828 Eleanor

Married: about 1820 Eleanor Thomas at Grand Rapids, Red River

Married: 2nd marriage December 24, 1837 Indian Village, Grand Rapids (marriage blessed by William Cochran of H.B.C.) to (II)-Eleanor (Ellen) Thomas born September 1805, baptized, November 13, 1837, St. John Anglican Church, Red River, died, June 22, 1878 Jack Fish Creek as recorded St. Andrews Church, daughter (I)-John George Thomas alias Thomas Thomas-(2) born 1766 and Mienish Cree born 1781. Script land claimed by widow Eleanor Thomas. Eleanor Thomas 1st marriage Peter Foy.

 

1835 census lists 1M-16 1F-15

1838 census lists 3M-16 2F-15

1840 census lists born 1800 native with 3M-16, 3F-15

1843 census lists born 1800 native with 4M-16, 1F+15, 3F-15

1847 census lists 1M+16, 2M-16, 1F+15, 2F-15

The St. John Anglican Church records lists the children in the following order: (*1)

 

ELEVEN CHILDREN ARE RECORDED; likely represents two Richards

Alexander Thomas (2) born 1823 Little Britain, Red River, died, April 23, 1869, son Eleanor. It's highly possible that Alexander is the son of Peter Foy? 1835 census tends to support this assumption. Family baptism of November 13, 1837 does not include this Alexander.

(*2)Charles Thomas Thomas born 1828 Little Britain, Red River, baptized, November 13, 1837, St. John Anglican Church Red River, died September 18, 1843 son Eleanor. It's highly possible that Charles is the son of Peter Foy? 1835 census tends to support this assumption.

(*1)Matilda Thomas born 1829 Little Britain, Red River, baptized, November 13, 1837, baptized St. John Anglican Church Red River, died November 2, 1843 St. Andrews, Red River, living Red River Settlement.

(*3)Richard William Thomas (ID # 4677) born, May 7, 1834, Little Britain, Red River, baptized, November 13, 1837, St. John Anglican Church Red River, son Eleanor Thomas, married (II)-Mary Thomas born, September 29, 1834, daughter (I)-John George Thomas and Mary Cree. (II)-Mary Thomas second marriage Richo Aouiad. Script issued to Richard May 22, 1876.

Victorine Thomas born February 25, 1837 claims Richard Thomas as her father but no other records verify this claim. Could be his child by a different woman. 1838 census tends to support this claim? Victorine is not included in the family baptism of November 13, 1837. She is likely not the daughter of this Eleanor. (*4)Alexander Thomas (3) born 1835 (ID # 4668) baptized November 27, 1837 St. John Anglican Church, Red River married 1851 Victoria Taylor. (*5)Louise (Louisa) Thomas born 1828 Little Britain, Red River, baptized, November 27, 1837, baptized St. John Anglican Church Red River, daughter Eleanor; married, July 25, 1866, a William Smith (ID # 3507) widower born 1830 son John James Smith.

(*6)Margaret Thomas born 1837 baptized March 22, 1839 St. John Anglican Church, Red River daughter Richard Thomas and Eleanor; married Peter Hourie born 1849 (ID # 2247), marriage source is Genealogy of First Metis Nation and appears to be an error?

(*7)John George Thomas baptized St. John Anglican Church December 2, 1841 son Eleanor, received land script January 28, 1879.

Catherine Thomas born about 1842 died before 1877 and land script denied indicating possible death after 1870.

Anne Thomas baptized June 24, 1845 St. John's Anglican Church, Red River daughter Eleanor.

Nancy Thomas born 1846 Red River daughter Richard Thomas (2) (ID # 4676) born 1800 married John Favel (ID# 1519) born 1843 Red River, source Genealogy of First Metis Nation.

Henry Thomas (ID # 4678) born February 9, 1848 St. Andrews North West son Richard Thomas a metis and Ellenor a metis; married April 15, 1869 St. Peters, Red River a Charlotte Pausien born October 1852, 1875 script suggests he married Charlotte Parisien born October 1848 St. Peters, Manitoba daughter Jean Baptiste Parisien. Script issued May 22, 1876.