1824 - 1835
The French had opened a door to a continent
the Metis had humanely tamed it.
The Metis Empire was greater than the Roman
providing clear evidence of a superior culture that
can co-ordinate an Empire without blood shed through
sharing and caring.
The frequent flooding of the Red River
many farmers from their homes.
They survived the winter by digging cellars
prairies, roofed with sod.
The period of 1823-24 is considered the years of the Holy War at Mackinac. The Roman Catholics and the Presbyterians are conducting a religious war that is embarrassing the Christian community. The army, to contain the rivalry, brought in a Episcopalian minister as their chaplain and this appeared to settle the war.
Jim Bridger (1804-1881) a mountain man described the Great Salt Lake and Yellowstone but few people believed him.
Red River (White Horse Plains), marriage Andre Trottier Trotchie Metis died April 24, 1874 son Andre Trottier b-1757 Montreal and Louise Chippewa Indian; married 1824 Red River (White Horse Plains) Marguerite Paquette St Denis.
At Red River both the Church and the H.B.C agreed to encourage the Metis to quit the Pembina and move closer to Fort Douglas to discourage illicit dealings in furs with the Americans and to become a valuable wall of defense in case the Dakota attacked the H.B.C. colony. Bishop Provencher gave his support with this policy shift.
Upper Mississippi District, birth, Henriette S. Campbell, Metis daughter Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman; married Benjamin Aitken Dyomme.
Red River, marriage (I)-Peter Quinn of Ireland living St. Peter, Iowa, died August 18, 1862 Redwood Ferry married Red River before moving to Fort Snelling, Minnesota in 1824 to Mary Louise Findley a Metis Cree Woman. Quinn was killed August 18, 1862 by the Dakota Sioux.
By this year the Montreal firm of McGillivrays, Thain and Company virtually disintegrated with the death of William McGillivray, the illness of Thomas Thain, and the falling into disuse of the Montreal trade routes to the west.
Alexander Ross of Red River explored the Salmon River Country of Idaho.
Peter Skene Ogden (1790-1854), a violent trader, is ordered into the Oregon Territory to trap the region bare.
Ogden is one of those traders who practiced serial marriages where he acquired a new wife when he moved. The British Hudson Bay Company believed all lands south of the Columbia River would eventually go to the Americans and didn't want them to have any furs. This he did, and explored the Humboldt River, Great Salt Lake and the lower Colorado River. Ogden married Princess Julia, alias Julia Rivet, a Nez Perce step daughter of a French Canadian trapper.
Jedediah Smith explored the Salmon River Country, Idaho but was not part of the Alexander Ross expedition of the same year. He said he visited the Hudson Bay Company fort at the Lewis Forks on the Columbia where the fort contained 80 men.
The first wave of settlers to Michigan arrived at Sylan, Washtenaw County. Lymann Warren bought out his father-in-law and became Chief Factor, until 1838, of the American Fur Company, and La Pointe, the Metis settlement, became the company's major post, shifting focus from the Sault Ste Marie Post.
Williamstown birth George Thompson Metis died August 28, 1824 son David Thompson (1770-1857) and Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis.
This year a number of Metis and French Canadian Freemen moved from the Pembina to Red River, the White Horse Plains (Grandtown) and into the deserted Orkney Village area. Others located at St Boniface.
(I)-James Curtis Bird, born 1773 son James Bird and Elizabeth Curtis, who married Cumberland House Elizabeth Oo-menahomisk, retired to Red River and was in charge of Edmonton House from 1799-1816. It is noteworthy that he gave the surname Curtis to his children. Upon the death of his country wife, he married another woman, a Mrs Mary Lowman, which resulted in two children, Elizabeth Margaret and Curtis James.
Bird totally ignored his Metis children by his first country wife(s?) and focused his last will on his last wife's children.
Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854), a Scottish Metis, claimed to have created a separate settlement at White Horse Plains a.k.a. St. Francois Xavier called Grand Town, a Metis settlement, also referred to as Grant's Village of the Red River. It is claimed that 80-100 Metis families settled there this spring to farm. The Metis had called it the White Horse Plains for the past forty years. This is where Lawrence Garneau (1840-1921) would live when he arrived in the 1860's. One of the most disconcerting things about the European culture is their insatiable desire to set foot on other people's efforts, change the name and call it there own. The Ontario English would claim credit for creating Red River in 1812; as though nothing of importance happened before that time. Europeans, and especially the British, must be suffering as a group of people with a major cultural inferiority complex which they try to hide behind a stiff upper lip.
Lyman Marcus Warren became Chief Factor La Pointe.
Between 1824 and1830, the Canadian fur trader, Peter Skene Ogden (1790-1854), worked the areas of Idaho, Utah, Nevada, Montana and the Oregon.
Sonego or Nahnebahwequay (meaning upright woman), an Ojibwa and later named Catherine Sutton born 1824 Credit River flats UC, died September 26, 1865 Sarawak Township, Canada married William Sutton an Englishman and lost her Indian annuity money owing her and her Metis children. She obtained a private audience with Queen Victoria in 1860 but concluded the English idea of justice is that might is right.
July: Findlay, a Canadian named Barrette and two others are killed at Lake Pepin by an Ojibwa war party of 29 warriors.
Birth Fort Manuel, Missouri Lisette Charbonneau, Metis, daughter Toussaint Charbonneau and a Shoshoni girl named Sakakawea (Sacajawea) aka Janey, (1788-1825?) guides of the Louis and Clark expedition.
Rosette Hehita Finley, Metis, (1825-1908) born Spokane, Washington son Jacques Raphael (Jacko) Finlay, Metis (1768-1828) and Pend D'Oreille or could be the child of James Finlay, Metis, b-1794 or Thornburn Finlay, Metis, b-1795 or Bonhomme Finlay, Metis, (1795-1821) or Augustin (Yoostah) Finlay (1800-1883).
John Hutchinson married Mademoiselle Censols who had eight previous husbands, being abandon by those Hudson Bay Company Men.
Dakota, birth Marguerite Renville Metis daughter Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).
James Kipp (1788-1865+) of Montreal, working for the Columbia Fur Company, built a trading post at the mouth of the White Earth River for the Assiniboine trade.
Birth, Dakota, Thomas Dorion (Peguwaakinica) Metis son Louis Dorion (1782-1890) and Zeah White Cloud, married 1st Rattling Iron High Hawk, 2nd marriage Good Heart, 3rd marriage Iron Feather.
(I)-Donald McKenzie (1783-1851) married August 18, 1825 Red River, Adelgonde Humbert.
John Pritchard boasted a line of well built houses from White Horse Plain to Netley Creek, an abundance of domestic cattle and a prospect of wheat exceeding anything heretofore produced in this Red River Country.
William Sherley Williams (Old Bill) (1787-1849) is at the mouth of the Columbia River. He explored from the Mexican border to the Canadian border from 1803 to this time. He mostly explored and traded on his own and was considered the most fearless of the Mountain Men. He married at least three wives, had two daughters Sarah and Mary, and a son named Jose b-1834.
This year the buffalo hunt was a total failure and the Metis, who had ranged far out onto the plains, survived their homeward trek by eating their dogs, horses, their buffalo robes, leather tents and their shoes. The Reverend David Jones noted that this severe lesson may teach the thoughtless Canadian half breeds to turn their attention to diligence and industry on their farms. He considered hunters to be idle, roving, imprudent and, in times of want, even threatening and dangerous.
The American Government created Indian Territory (Country) between the Red and Missouri River, providing further pressure on the Natives to migrate from their lands east of the Mississippi to the west. They are under the threat of the loss of Federal protection against state and local elements and other forms of coercion to migrate.
The Hudson Bay Company, after merging with the North West Company, held Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, Montana and outposts as far as Alaska, Hawaii and San Francisco, including much of Canada- nearly one twelfth of the earth's surface, exercising the authority of a sovereign government. The Metis had accomplished, with minor blood shed, more territorial authority than any European peoples including the Roman Empire. The French had opened a continent and the Metis had humanely tamed it. Only the aboriginal peoples, whom we call Indians, held greater territorial sovereignty, covering two continents which, when compared to Europe or Asia, lived in relative peace with a higher quality of health, variety of food and, from a bias point of view, well being and therefore civilization. Even with the more aggressive neighbors to the south, we had and still have the longest undefended border in the world. No other civilization can make that claim as they must rely on might, not right, to maintain their civilization.
Francois Gourneau alias Geurnou, Guernoe (Garneau) (1800-1870) of Red Lake Band, Minnesota married about 1825 Pembina, North Dakota a Marguerite Martineau born 1805-1809 and on annuity roll #1166 1893 Red Lake, Minnesota.
The inhabitants of Red River buy Fort Douglas, built in 1812 on the west bank of the Red River, just below the spot where the Assiniboine joins the Red River. Some claim that most Voyagers or trip-men that man the York boats are from the Red River community. The employees of the Hudson Bay Company dropped from one thousand, nine hundred and eighty three in 1821 to eight hundred and twenty seven, forcing many into other
occupations or into the free trade market. A new grain mill is in operation at Red River and 1,600 bushels of wheat are in storage.
The Reverend David Jones (d-1844) of Red River reports the Metis buffalo hunt of the fall is a total failure.
They survived the bitter homeward trek by eating their dogs and horses. The Welsh Church of England Minister wrote "May this severe lesson teach the thoughtless Canadian Half Breeds to turn their attention to diligence and industry on their farms." William Williams, Governor of the Hudson Bay Company Southern Department, retired, and (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) assumed command of both departments.
(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) an Englishman of the Hudson Bay Company considered the Canadian Freemen as worthless and a motley crew, the very scum of the Country.
This water color represents an Indian trapper family in their lodge near Fort Garry, Red River in the 1820's. They are clad in traditional buckskin and trading-post clothing. It is noteworthy that many Europeans at this time could not differentiate between Indian and Metis. This, to me, looks more like a Metis family than Indian?
Reverend John West suggested that the orphaned or abandoned children of Country Marriages between Indian women and Hudson Bay Company servants be educated atthe Red River Boarding School, but this was not approved. Governor George Simpson said this would, in his opinion, be to no purpose until agriculture and not the Chase becomes the main pursuit of the Savage Tribes.
(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) did not like what he considered to be West's expensive schemes of Schools and missionaries all over the country, nor his inclination to deal freely in politics. (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) set forth a policy saying that Missionaries should refrain from imposing their moral scruples, especially on such issues as 'Country Marriages'. They should not meddle with the Company trade. West was replaced by Reverend David Jones and his schoolmaster, Harbidgem, who could neither keep accounts nor teach the common rules of arithmetic. Harbidgem was replaced by an Orkney man named William Garrioch.
Father Richard arrives at Detroit.
Alexander Ross noted that this winter was unusually severe in Red River, having started earlier and continuing later than usual. The snow was 3 feet deep, 4-5 feet deep in the woods. The cold was intense, often 45 degrees below zero F. The ice measured 5 feet seven inches. The freezing began in late October.
Peter Skene Ogden (1790-1854) a violent man and William Kittson were sent into the Snake River Country, south of the Columbia River to trap the country bare. They had 58 men including Charles McKay, 10 engages, 53 Freemen, 30 wives and 35 children. The reached as far south as the Great Salt Lake, Utah.
William H. Ashley (1778-1838) and Andrew Henry b-1775 and 25 men out of Saint Louis, Missouri traveled to Yellowstone to trade. They made a Mackinac boat and traveled by horse back Mr Harn and wife, Clyman and Fitzpatrick considered themselves as Mountain Men. On this trip 29 H.B.C. men deserted to join the Ashley Rocky Mountain Fur Company.
January 30: The St. Pauls Anglican Church of Red River opened for business. This was a very bad winter.
There were no buffalo, only famine in the Red River.
April: At Fort Carlton, Chief Factor John Stewart noted that all the women were out making sugar.
Joseph Boissoneau, in 1846, claimed to have occupied the same spot on the North Bank of St. Mary's River (Sault Ste Marie) from 1826 to 1846. He claimed authority from Major Weinniett when commanding Drummand Island. He also says that Mademoiselle St. George, now in Montreal, holds the west part under the same authority. Joseph Boisenneault Jr. claims a part of his fathers rights and the rest by possession.
Duncan Campbell born 1802 who married Dakota woman is trading Fort Barbour at St. Croix Falls.
Hercules Dousman of the American Fur Company is assigned to Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
Until this year, white people could be sold as indentured servants in the United States. Andrew Johnson (1808-1875), who became President in 1865, was a runaway slave, and advertisements appeared in newspapers in an attempt to get him back. He eventually married Elizabeth McCardle (1810-1876) and became a slave owner.
Thomas L McKenny, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, visited Sault Ste Marie to prepare for the Treaty of Fond Du Lac. He, however, was more interested in the Metis women of the area. John Johnsons daughters, Jane and Eliza, were of particular interest, as was the daughter of Armatinger. He also was in awe that his canoe men had taken the canoe out of the water; mended a breach; reloaded it; cooked breakfast; shaved; washed; ate and re-embarked, all in 57 minutes. The normal standard for this procedure is 60 minutes, which suggests McKenney knew little of the trade business. He also reported that on the Lake Superior run they began at 3:00 AM and by 7:00 PM had paddled 57,600 strokes. When asked, they said that they were not tired yet. They eventually camped at 9:30 PM.
Mr. H. R. Schoolcraft is the current Indian Agent with his twenty-two year old Chippewa wife. Captain Elijah Boardman is the Captain Commanding the detachment, and Lieutenant Julius Kingsbury commands the second infantry. T. Pitcher is assistant surgeon. (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) children are reported given a section of land each under the treaty of 1826. One section of land is given to Saugemauqua widow of the late (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1797-1818) and to her children (V)-Louison Cadotte (1802-1871), Sophia Cadotte,
Archangel Cadotte (1798), Edward Cadotte and Polly Cadotte, one section each. Unfortunately, this part of the treaty is never ratified and the half-breeds of Lake Superior are left without land.
Louis Gournon, alias Gornow (Garneau) (1790-1865), moved to Sault Ste Marie, Michigan, as noted in the 1836 mixed blood treaty records.
(IV)-Archangle Cadotte born 1798 Red Lake Falls, Wisconsin daughter (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) and Marie Janette Piquette also known as Saugemauqua married about 1826 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan a (6)-Louis Gurnoe born 1790 LaPointe, Wisconsin.
Mr. Armitinger is living on the Canadian side of Sault Ste Marie. Chippewa County and the Seat of Justice were established at Sault de Ste Marie or, as some call it, St. Mary's Village.
Charles Gauthier married Hudson Bay Betsy England adopted daughter of James England.
(I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) became Governor of the Southern District and Montreal posts as well as his Northern post to become what some called the Little Emperor, his reign was to last until 1857.
Joseph D. Cameron, who is married to an Indian woman, recorded at Lac La Pluie in 1826 that the Oat-che-buoys are treachery, insolence, superstition and drunkenness. Hostility is greeted with hostility. Lac La Pluie (Rainy Lake) is 90 miles south of Lac Seul.
The Reverend A.G. Morice noted that the Iroquois are a sizable element of the Hudson Bay Companies engages in New Caledonia. They also brought the technology of constructing birch bark canoes, which the local people did not possess. Many Iroquois married local women and settled in the region.
February 6: At Red River, Donald McKenzie at Fort Garry wrote to Andrew Colvile that the settlement was prosperous and tranquil. A new grain mill had finally been put into operation, and 1,600 bushels of wheat were in store for Norway House.
March 21: Father Richard of Detroit reports that 600 Canadian voyagers assembled at Mackinac every year between the first of May and the first of October. Father Richard also reports the population at Sault Ste Marie on the American side is forty seven men, thirty women, and seventy five children. Those living on the St. Maries River, however, are 75 men, 112 women and 55 children. Louis Gurno, his wife, and three children under 21 years are listed, as is (V)-Louis Cadott and wife. They are listed in the July 23, 1827 census of Township St. Marie County Chippewa. A (V)-Michael Cadotte (1787-1856), with eight children, is listed as residing at La Point and a (V)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (b1790), with four children, is located at Snake River. The Mestizoes or Metis primarily occupy Sault Ste Marie, Mackinac and small detached of settlements on the frontier. Those French also occupy Detroit and Monroe. At St. Mary, fishing for white fish and brook trout is the primary occupation, followed by the making of maple sugar. The gardens include potatoes, oats, peas and strawberries. Mr. John Johnson, age 64, an Irishman, married to Oshauguscodaywaygua, age 54, daughter of Chief Wa-ba-jick of Le Pointe, runs the establishment, and they have three sons and four daughters.
May 5: A flood drove many Red River farmers from their homes. This great flood carried away houses, cattle and trees. They were swept away in 1/2 hour when an ice jam broke. Fortunately, only five people are killed. Three churches and the mill survived. This is the largest flood in recorded times. They survived by digging cellars in the prairies, roofed with sod, and thereby lived underground through the winter; much as the first Scots had when they arrived. Many departed for the United States and some estimate the number was as high as 500 people. The flood waters didn't crest until May 22. Most of the Swiss and German mercenaries, some 250, quit Red River. Some suggest over 500 in all departed Red River.
September: Peter Skene Ogden (1790-1854), exploring the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, reached the River of the Falls where the Indians had built a bridge, but he lost five horses through the bridge. Historians refused to believe the Indians were capable of building a bridge to support a horse, let alone a number of horses.
October 9: The Stone Indians are severely reprimanded by the Chief Factor at Edmonton House for attempting to steal horses. A few years later at the same location, a group of Assiniboines, some of whom were in disgrace for stealing, set fire to the long grass across the river, threatening the Edmonton agricultural operation on the south bank of the river.
October 14: The plains are on fire, which is started by Joseph La Doceur, tenting with our hunters, or by those roving scoundrels- the Stone Indians. The Stone Indians will light fire to the grass at Fort Carlton next season.
Nicol Finlayson of the Hudson Bay Company, married to an Indian woman, noted that he would have not taken any rabbits were it not for the fact that they are starving this season. The Hudson Bay Company takes a mini census of Red River but ignores the majority of the population- the Freetraders, Metis and Indians.
White Horse Plain, Red River, birth Peter Hourie, died 1910 Regina, Saskatchewan son of an Orkneyman and a Snake Indian.
Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846), Metis, is firmly established at Lac Qui Parle, having built Fort Renville/Adams and maintaining an army of warriors called Tokadantee or Prairie Dogs.
Upper Mississippi District, Joseph S. Campbell, Metis born 1827/36 died 1869 son Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman; married Mary Anne.
George Campbell, Metis born about 1827/32 died before 1855 Upper Mississippi District son Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Dakota woman
Fort Langley is established on the Fraser River 20 miles east of Vancouver, B.C. It was abandoned in 1839 and relocated 22 miles upstream, it burned in 1840 and was rebuilt. This fort was eventually abandoned in 1886.
Joseph Rondo born 1797 Montreal married Red River Josephine Beauleau (Boileau) born 1810 Kootenais.
June 27: Fort Langley (B.C.) is established by Jame MacMillan and a company of men.
Red River, birth Rose Aucent, family moved to West Coast 1831, died 1901 West Coast.
James Kipp (1788-1865+) of Montreal, working for the Columbia Fur Company, built Fort Floyd- the fore-runner of Fort Union.
Upper Mississippi District, birth, Scott Campbell, Jr. Metis died 1870 son Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851)and Dakota woman; married Benjamin Aitken Dyomme.
Upper Mississippi District, birth, about 1828 Hypolite S. Campbell, Metis son Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman
James Douglas b-1803 of the H.B.C., who married the Metis daughter of Connolly, arrived at Fort Vancouver this year.
Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854), a Metis, is appointed warden of the Plains by the Hudson Bay Company's (1828-1853) Governor, (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860).
C. O. Ermatinger moved to Montreal following the loss of his Drummond Island Fort to the Americans. His house would remain empty until 1833. Schoolcraft's brother-in-law, Reverend William McMurray, would occupy the house. Many other old Metis families based themselves there, and the Sault moved to Penetanguishene on the southern Georgian Bay or to the new North West. John Johnson Sr. died this year.
(II)-James McKey (1828-1879), a Metis, is born Fort Edmonton son (I)-James McKay Sr. of Sutherlandshire, Scotland a Hudson Bay Company steerman from 1816 to 1840 and Margaret Gladu, daughter of Charles Gladu and Margaret Ross. James would later marry Margaret Rowland.
(I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) noted that the McLeod Lake area, up to Finlay River, had been trapped out by the Iroquois some years previously.
The American Fur Company built Fort Union at the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers for trade with the Assiniboine. John Johnson (1862-1928) died on September 22, 1828 at Sault Ste. Marie. He is not known for his intelligence and polished manners but for his hospitality.
The schooner called 'Recovery' departed Lake Superior for the lower lakes, leaving only small boats on Lake Superior until 1835.
John Tanner appeared in Sault Ste Marie (1780-1846?), having been captured by the Shawnees in 1789, and passed 30 years as an adopted citizen among various tribes. In 1817 he attempted to rejoin his white relatives in Kentucky but was not accepted. John was a lost soul with nearly a universal prejudice against him, and he disappeared in 1846.
September 28: St. Joseph mission, Lake Michigan, in the Territory of Michigan a Treaty with the Potawatomi.
Land grants to be determined:
Sahnemoguay, wife Jean Baptiste Dutrist, 1/2 section of land.
Waypenahtemoguay, wife Thomas Robb, 1/2 section of land.
Shippeshickquey, wife James Wyman, 1/2 section of land.
Assapo, wife Antoine Gamlin, 1/2 section of land.
Moahguay, wife Richard Chabert, 1/2 section of land.
Meshawketoquay, wife George Ciot, two sections of land.
Mary Prejean, wife Louis St. Combe, one section of land.
Topenawkoung, wife Peter Langlois, one section of land.
Aubeenanbee, a Potowatami chief, two sections of land.
Mechehee, wife of Charles Mini, 1/2 section of land.
Louison, a potowatamie, one section to include his house and cornfield.
Keshewaquay, wife Pierre F. Navarre, one section of land.
Benac, a Potowatami, one section of land.
Pepebeway, a chief, one section of land.
Pierre Le Clair, one section of land
Betsey Ducharme, 1/2 section of land. This section of land granted by Chicago treaty to Nancy Burnett now Nancy Davis to be purchased by United States.
Madeleine Bertrand, wife Joseph Bertrand, one section of land.
Joseph Barron, a white man who long lived with the Indians, request for 2 sections of land was rejected.
Settlement of debts:
Thomas Robb, $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
McGeorge $300, for provisions sold to Indians.
Jean Baptiste Godfroy $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Jean Baptiste Hedgens $200, for goods heretofore delivered to the Indians.
Joseph Allen $145, for horses stolen from him by the Indians while he was surveying.
Jean Baptiste Bourre $700, for goods furnished the Indians , a part in relation to this treaty.
Thomas Forsyth $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
S. Hanna & Co. $100, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Gabriel Godfroy, jr. $500, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Timothy S. Smith $100, for goods heretofore sold to Indians.
W.G. and G.W. Ewings $200, for goods heretofore sold to Indians.
Joseph Bertrand $2,000, for goods heretosold to the Indians.
Jean Baptiste Comparet $500, for goods heretofore sold to Indians.
C. and D. Dousseau $100, for goods heretofore sold to Indians.
P.F. Navarre $100, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Francis Paget $100, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
G.O. Hubbard $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Alexis Conquillard $200, for goods heretofore sold to the Indians.
Eleanor Kinzie and her four children, by late John Kinze $3,500, in consideration of attachment of the indians to her deceased husband, who was long an Indian trader, and who lost a large sum in the trade by the credits given to them, and also by the destruction of his property. The money is in lieu of a tract of land which the Indians gave the late John Kinzie long since, and upon which he lived.
Robert A. Forsyth $1,250, in consideration of the debts due from the Indians to his late father, Robert A. Forsyth, who was long a trader among them, and who was assisted by his son, the present R.A. Forsyth. The money is in lieu of a tract of land which the Indians gave to the late R.A. Forsyth, since renewed to the present R.A. Forsyth, upon which both of them heretofore lived.
Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast.
Hyacinthe Davieaux b-1805 married Piquette or Josette Pellerin, likely Sault Ste Marie, possible second marriage after 1830 to Charlotte Misay, source Monique Daviau.
Dakota, birth, Louis Dorion Metis son Louis Dorion (1782-1890) and Zeah White Cloud, married 1869 Julia.
Sault Ste Marie, Marriage, (III)-James R. Ermatinger (1808-1866) son (II)-George Ermatinger (1770/80-1841) and Catherine McKee; to Charlotte Cadotte (1805-1887), widow Truman Warren and daughter Michel Cadotte and Madeleine Equaysaguay.
Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth, Catherine Hudon (1829-1902) Metis daughter Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; Robert P. Fairbanks.
Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth, Henry B. Hudon Metis son Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Josette Belanger.
George Keith, Factor of Michipicoten, Lake Superior, claimed the Natives of this district were a mixed race, deriving their origin from the Maskigon or Swampy Cree and the majority from the Ojibwa or Saulteaux (Ojibwa) tribes.
Angelique and her older sister Marguerite Nolin, daughters of Jean Baptiste Nolin (1742-1826), opened the first school for girls in western Canada, in St. Boniface. The students mostly being daughters of French, Cree and Ojibwa parents. There were, however, a few Metis with Scottish backgrounds who also enrolled their daughters.
A rendezvous is held at Pierre's Hole (Teton Basin, Idaho), where hundreds of Mountain Men and Voyagers congregated. Pierre's Valley is the meeting place of Owners and Traders, Voyagers and Mountain men to exchange furs for new supplies. This makes us appreciate how many unknown, unrecorded men are working the Oregon Territory.
This season is a very dry on the prairies, the resulting fires driving off the animal population, and this resulted in widespread starvation among the People.
Martin Bonanfant, Metis (1830-1858) son Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast. Living Oregon 1842
Dr. Charles W.W. Borup traded Yellow Lake in Western Wisconsin this decade.
Jean Baptiste Cadotte, Metis, one of Dingley's men is killed this summer by the Dakota Sioux.
Charles A. Grignon took over the Fox River Post, Wisconsin. He married Mary Elizabeth Meade of Pennsylvania. Charles is the grandson of a Menominee woman.
Tete Jaune, alias Pierre Bostonais, a blond Iroquois, is trading the Yellowknife Pass around this period.
Sault Saint Marie, birth Joseph Davieaux Hyacinthe Metis, the son Hyacinthe Davieaux b-1805 married 1829
Piquette or Josette Pellerin, likely Sault Ste Marie, possible second marriage after 1830 to Charlotte Misay; Joseph married Theresa Cadotte daughter Louis Cadotte, source Monique Daviau.
Susanne La Porte Metis daughter Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) and Pimeegeeshigoqua Ojibwa woman; married July 25, 1830 Thomas Conners a trader and second marriage Jean Baptiste.
Patrick Small reports that the buffalo are very scarce around Fort Pitt and that the Blackfoot are forced to hunt in
Cree territory for moose and red deer.
A second wave of settlers arrived at Prairie Ronde, Kalamazoo County, Michigan. The population of Michigan surged to 32,538.
The Hudson Bay Company built Fort Pitt just east of what is now the Alberta, Saskatchewan border.
The Great Lakes Metis clearly identified themselves as a distinct culture this year. At Green Bay, Wisconsin, some were even referring to themselves as 'French Creole'- meaning native born.
In twelve years the Roman Catholic Church was only able to establish two outlying missions, Pembina and White Horse Plains. Most priest recruits found the work unpleasant and soon returned to Lower Canada. All Canadian secular priests looked upon Red River with dread.
(I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) noted the homeliness of European women in the Northern Regions, stating that our Canadian Metis women are angles compared to them. Some claimed he fathered seventy sons between the Red River and the Rocky Mountains. It is interesting, after making these statements, how he could turn on these very women in his later life. (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) would marry his eighteen year old cousin, Frances. He, however, only acknowledged two children in Britain and five children in Canada; by four women:
Betsy Sinclair, Margaret Nahoway, Margaret Taylor, Mary Keith. He had an affair with Anne Foster that did not produce an issue. He did much to destroy the 'Country Marriage' tradition, which was so common at this time.
This is a critical turning point, as Indian and Metis women became lesser citizens in the eyes of the Hudson Bay Company and the Church. (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860), putting away his Country wives, upset the Chief Traders because he also put down their own 'Country Wives'. The Hudson Bay Company, this year, attempted to redirect Red River settlers to Oregon to secure the Company trading position, but only a score or so families made the move. Meanwhile, the Irish Orangemen in lower Canada were becoming the storm troopers of the Conservatives, and July parades were often occasions for violence.
The influx of European women into Red River caused cultural problems as the lovely, tender exotics had no useful social or economic role to play in a harsh fur-trade environment. Their only value was as a status symbol and for sexual gratification. These foreigners developed a sense of inferiority and turned their unhappiness on the Country women in an unflattering manner.
The Minnesota Sioux, the Assiniboine and later the Yanktonai Sioux developed floral art in their quillwork. The Sioux, when asked where this design originated, said it was from the Metis; many of whom married into the Sioux Nation. The Plains Cree also attributed the design to the Metis. The Freemen from Pembina (Red River) have been in continual contact with the Dakota Peoples on the Missouri River since before the 1790's. They usually traveled with the Western Ojibwa and Plains Cree
July: The Prairie du Chein treaty created the Great Nemaha Half-Breed Tract, extending ten miles west of the Missouri River between the Little and Great Nemaha Rivers for the half-breeds of the Omaha, Ioway, Otoe-Missouri, Yankton, and Santee Sioux Metis. This Tract was proposed by Wabasha, a Mdewakaton Sioux whose son-in-law was Metis trader Joseph Roulette.
Antoine Bonanfant, Metis (1831-1848) son Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast. Living Oregon 1842
Kit Carson of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company winters on the Salmon River, Idaho.
Josephin Turpin of Montreal worked Prairie Du Chein, then Red River and, this year, Fort Snelling.
Dakota, birth Jean Bapyiste Renville Metis (1831-1903) son Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846) Metis and Marie (Tonkanne) Little Crow (daughter of the sister of Chief Little Crow).
James Kipp (1788-1865+) of Montreal, working for the Columbia Fur Company, built Fort Clark, and in the winter of 1831/32, built Fort Piegan. James retired in 1865 on his Missouri farm near Independence, Montana.
Pierre Leblanc trading at Rocky Mountain House, Alberta and the Oregon Territory since 1800 married Nancy Matooski the abandoned wife of John G. McTavish. This appears to be Pierre's second wife as he took a wife to Oregon Territory in 1800.
Lower Fort Garry, Red River is built. The population of Red River is 460 families; totaling some 2,417 people.
The Blackfoot first began trading at Fort Union (North Dakota) when Kenneth McKenzie is in charge.
Hudson Bay Company's C.T. William Todd builds Fort Ellice near the confluence of the Assiniboine and Qu'Appelle Rivers to protect the trade from venturing American interests. They also sold provisions such as pemmican, tools and traps to passing traders.
March 3: Fort Mistassini (near James Bay) birth Richard Charles Hardisty died Winnipeg, Manitoba October 15, 1889 son and grandson of chief factors of the Hudson Bay Company. He himself would become a chief factor at Fort Edmonton in 1872. In 1887 he was appointed to the Senate.
August 30: At La Pointe, the Reverend Sherman Hall, Presbyterian, wrote that the persons employed by the traders as boatmen and laborers are mostly French Canadians. They are generally Catholic, have no fear of God, and may be as wicked as they choose. The priest can pardon their sins when they go to Mackinac next year, for a few shillings. I fear the Catholic more than the Indians.
Fort Pierre, the future capital of South Dakota, is built.
Baptiste Cadotte born 1832 Red River son Laurent Cadotte (b-1787); married about 1857 Red River Elice Pilon (b-1842) Red River.
Jean Baptiste Desportes, Metis, with his two wives and seven children are at Portland, Oregon.
Guerin, born 1812 Saint Remi, became an engage this year to the American Fur Company for 3 years.
Jean Baptiste Charbonneau (1795-1883) worked Red River as a stone mason on the Catholic Church.
William Connolly (d-1849), an Irishman, took a Country Wife, Susanne Pas-de-nom, a Cree, according to Indian custom in 1803, at Rat River which feeds into the Red River. This year he took his Country Wife to Quebec and obtained a dispensation from the Roman Catholic Church who regarded the Indian marriage as invalid. He took this action so he could marry his second cousin, Julia Woolrich (d-1865) of Montreal. He sent his wife and children back to Red River. In 1867, based on a claim by his Metis children, Mr. Justice Monk found that the Indian Marriage was a valid marriage despite what the Roman Catholic Church had to say, and that the second marriage was invalid (null & void). It is noteworthy that a marriage is between a man, a woman and God. The Churches, Government and the Community are just witnesses. It is also noteworthy that a search of Hudson Bay Company and North West Company records show very few cases of Native Wives being accused of infidelity. This is not so of their European spouses, especially the English.
Marie Janette Piquette, also known as Saugemauqua, widow of (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818), on January 5, 1832, agreed to keep house for George Johnson- then living at the Sault. She was to take charge of his children, wash for them, make mockissins (moccasins) and clothing for the children, and cook for the whole family for the sum of $3 a month until May 20. She would eventually sell her land and move in with her younger brother Jean Baptiste Piquette.
Julia Guinon, born about 1832 in Ramsey or Hennedin County, claims her grandmother is of the Lake Superior Chippewa. She married Jean Baptiste Bottineau and is rejected for mixed blood script in 1870.
Bellecourt laid out along the Assiniboine, the Townsite of Saint Paul des Sauteux to encourage agriculture among the local Ojibwa. Father Provencher criticized Bellecourt, saying he should make converts instead of projecting ambitious plans. He would be recalled to Quebec in 1847.
The Metis brothers, Charles Bent, William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain Bent, established Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River and the Santa Fe Trail near La Junta, Colorado. William Bent is known to have married Julia, also a Metis, and had five Metis children
Nathaniel J. Wyeth of England says when the Mountain men and English meet the Indians, a fight results. Not so the French who flatter the Indians, give him powder, and balls, and flint, and guns, and make Catholic of him, and make out to live in friendship with red men and women of the wilderness. The French have always had a stronger affection of the Indians than any other people.
Nathaniel J. Wyeth of England is a man not easily diverted from any of his notions, or liable to be influenced by the advice of others, even those with considerable experience like Mr. William Sublet the Frenchman. This stubbornness caused many a disaster.
John B. Wyeth reports that Sublet says the Indians do not believe the white adage that 'might is right', "the word of the trading Indians is as good as the bible".
Milton Sublet and 20 traders joined the Wyeth Expedition to travel to Pierre's Valley or Hole.
Captain Sublet had 200 trappers in his employ as well as 500 Indians engaged in the trade.
R.L. Wakefield, William Nud and Lane left the Wyeth expedition to join the Sublet enterprise of trapping and trading.
The Wyeth expedition and Sublet party encountered the Blackfoot who approached under a white flag of truce.
They gunned down the Blackfoot leader without honor and started a war called the battle of Pierre's Valley and endangered the lives of all traders in the Region. A man named Antoine, a Metis, killed the Blackfoot saying they had killed his father. John Bull (1794-1884) was part of this expedition.
A party of Joe Walker, Joe Meek, Joe Gale, Bill Williams, Mark Head, Bob Mitchel, Alex Godey, QAntoine Janise, William Craig and others ventured into California to steal horses from the Spaniards.
March: Nathaniel J. Wyeth of England and his brother Dr Jacob Wyeth and 21 men departed Boston for the Columbia River. The 21 include George More d-1832, Stephen Burdit, Palmer, Hamilton Law, Batch, John B. Wyeth, William Nud, Theophilus Beach, R.L. Wakefield, Woodsman, Smith, G. Argent, Abbot, S. Burditt, Ball, St. Clair, Alfred K. Stevens, C. Tibbits, G. Trumbull, Lane, and Whittier.
June 17: The steamboat Yellowstone arrived at Fort Union (North Dakota).
July 18: American Fur Trappers battle the Grosventre at Pierre's Hole, Idaho.
William Cockran, an Anglican minister, established Peters Indian Industrial School at Sugar Point, north of the Red River Settlement. The Hudson Bay Company is not pleased, as agriculture could led the Indian away from the fur trade. Of the1,000 sheep bought in Kentucky, only two hundred and six arrived at Red River; the rest having died on the way. Red River's population is listed as 2,985 people. Some French-Canadian Metis, upon retirement from the Hudson Bay Company, went to Willamette Valley, Oregon Territory to take up farming.
Pierre Parrant (Parant), Metis, born 1777 Sault Ste Marie, lived in Sault Ste Marie, St. Louis and Prairie Du Chein before finally settling this year at Mendota ( St. Paul), Minnesota, originally called Iminijaski meaning white Rock. He settled among the many settlers below Fort Snelling, established 1819. It is not know when Little Canada (St. Paul), Minnesota was established by the Red River Metis settlers, but is likely about 1815.
The settlers continued to arrive from the Red River colony over the next twenty years. Adverse weather and the fur wars drove many Metis from Red River.
Madaline Campbell, Metis born about 1833 Upper Mississippi District daughter Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Philo Stone
Therese Campbell, Metis born about 1833/35 died before 1855 Upper Mississippi District son Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman.
Dr. Bell, a rival of the American Fur Company, is at Leech Lake.
The Hudson Bay Council of the Northern Department ordered the Saskatchewan District to produce 600 bags of pemmican yearly.
(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) built Bow Fort 47 miles west of Calgary on the Morley Reserve on a 115 foot high bluff.
Reverend Peter Jones Kahkewaquonaby, a Metis and son of Augustus Jones and a Mississauga Indian (the father later legally married an Iroquois Indian), married on September 8, 1833 New York Eliza Field from a wealthy English family. White English women did not marry Indians, even Christian civilized men like Peter Jones. Family and friends had expressed strong opposition to the union. White English men lived with Indian women but they did not marry them. The Jones were the talk of Credit River Valley, most said it wouldn't last.
Eliza wrote in 1834 that my husband excites much unpleasant curiosity. His brother Peter Jones and wife Christine Brant, the granddaughter of Joseph Brant, became Eliza's closest friend. Peter and Eliza had five sons.
Jane Debow born 1828 Batavia, New York is kidnapped in 1833 at age 5 years by missionaries and spirited west to Mdewakanton, Dakota near Fort Snelling. Jane Debow married 1849 Gibbs Heman in Illinois.
June 24: Chippewa County, Michigan marriage Joseph Bisbois to Chewabegoqua.
September 26: Chicago, in the state of Illinois, a Treaty with the United Nation of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatamie Indians.
Special annuity included:
Billy Cadwell $400/year
Alexander Robinson $300/year for life
Joseph Lafromboise $200/year
Shabehnay $200/year, for life
September 27: Chicago, in the state of Illinois, a supplementary to the Treaty with the United Nation of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatamie Indians dated September 26, 1833.
Birth Amable Arquette, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) born September 1, 1797 Montreal, son Michel Arquette and Marie Louis Gaudry; married 1839 Vancouver, B.C. Marguerite Waponte died October 1870.
Upper Mississippi District, birth John S. Campbell, Metis died 1865 son Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman; married Marguerite Lize.
Henry H. Sibley arrived at St. Peters (Mendota), located not far from St. Paul, for the American Fur Company. His post was at the terminus for the Red River Cart trains of 50-100 carts. These carts are out of the Red River to the north. Within the next 15 years, 500 Red River carts were being employed.
Upper Mississippi District: Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851), who married a Dakota woman, is Indian Agent Taliaferro's Dakota interpreter at Fort Snelling. It is said he interpreted what he thought the person should say rather than what was actually said.
Sault Saint Marie, birth Hyacinthe Davieaux, Metis the son Hyacinthe Davieaux b-1805 married Charlotte Misay, likely Sault Saint Marie after 1830 a first marriage 1829 to Piquette or Josette Pellerin, likely Sault Ste Marie, source Monique Daviau.
Taos Abode: Birth Antonia Williams, Metis, son William Sherley Williams (1787-1849) and Antonia mexican
This year the Red River Colony reverted back to the Hudson Bay Company from the Selkirk family. Father Belcourt recorded that the Indians regarded themselves as the rightful owners of the lands and that the whites were trying to dispossess them. Some believe the American trading period ended about this time and had little impact in Canada. Ramsey Crooks replaced John Jacob Astor as president of the American Fur Company.
Ramsey Crooks maintained two outfits; one at LaPoint and one at Sault Ste. Marie. He moved the headquarters from Michilimackinac to LaPointe. Henry H. Sibley is appointed representative of the American Fur Company at Medota, Minnesota. He would later take a position at Fort Ridgely. The population of Michigan is 87,278.
Mackinac had a population of 891 and the Chippewa numbered 526. The slaughter of the buffalo during the next generation, by the Mackinaw, American, Missouri and South West Companies, would have a profound impact on Canada. York, with a population of ten thousand, incorporated itself as a city under the old Indian name of Toronto. An attack by the Gros Ventres forced Bellecourt to relocate his settlement closer to Red River.
In 1834, Richard Hardisty established the Hudson Bay Company on Lake Temagami. This post is continuously opening and closing. When the post is closed, the Metis free traders would move in and force the Hudson Bay Company to return. Red River population is 3,366 people.
Nathaniel J. Wyeth, an Englishman builds Fort Hall, Idaho and Hudson Bay Company builds Fort Boise near the mouth of the Boise River, Idaho.
La Point Wisconsin is made the inland headquarters of the American Fur Company.
Gabriel Franchere ran the St. Mary's outfit at Sault Ste Marie until 1838.
Alexander Carpentier, Jean Baptiste Corbin, Seraphin LaCombre and Michels Cadotte Jr. and Sr. are permanent residents who had to travel to Sault Ste. Marie to practice their religion. They were likely responsible for requesting a priest for their area. The Metis and Ojibwa had banned the Black Robes from Lake Superior for the past 200 years.
The major communities of Red River are Grand town, Swampy Village and Lower Red River. This year, the rebuilding of Fort Garry is with stone. It is noteworthy that the cattle population of Red River stands at over 3,300 head and horses at 461. Red River carts of 469 and 2,500 acres are under cultivation. The Metis population employed themselves in a diverse manner between the fur trade, the buffalo hunts, agriculture, fishing, freighting, making maple syrup and as cattlemen.
Discrimination against Roman Catholics in citizenship and public life was legal somewhere in the United States until this year when the last anti-Catholic law of colonial times was repealed.
Red River, at this time, is usually a reference to a larger region. There is Upper Red River, Lower Red River, White Horse Plains, Red River and some even referred to Pembina, Red River. Later, more refined distinctions, influenced by the Romanists, were added, such as St. Norbert, Red River, St Adolphe a.k.a. Pointe Coupee, Red River and St. Boniface, Red River.
The Middlefort cemetery is now called the Old Indian Cemetery, but it also contains Metis and French voyagers. Middlefort cemetery was named because it was between the old Cadotte Trading Fort at Grant's Point and the present village of LaPointe in 1834-1835.
The old Pikes Bay Cemetery, west of LaPointe, is abandon and was relocated to the Greenwood Cemetery in Bayfield. A Cemetery at Buffalo Bay on the Red Cliff Reservation also contains non Indian burials.
Joseph Cadotte born 1835 Red River. North West son Laurent Cadotte (b-1787) and Betsy Thomas (b-1810). Joseph Cadotte would marry about 1860 Red River, North West a Marie Carron born 1841 Red River, North West.
The Metis of Red River, in a petition against the Hudson Bay Company's import duty, said they had already made several trips to the Mississippi, exporting horn cattle, horses, furs and some articles of industry, and bring home cotton goods, groceries, ammunition, tobacco etc.
Joseph Rondeau (Rondo) born 1797 Montreal married to Josephine Boileau, a Kutenai Metis departed Red River for St. Peters (Mendota, Minnesota?) with Gervais, Labissionere, Beaumette and Dufeni.
The American Fur Company launched the schooner 'John Jacob Astor'; a 78 foot 112 ton vessel in Lake Superior. It was lost in 1844 in a gale at Copper Harbour.
Guerin, born 1812 Saint Remi, settled at St. Peter's and worked Traverse Des Sioux near St. Peter, Minnesota.
Sixty families departed Red River colony for the St Paul Colony in Minnesota.
Indian agent Lawrence Taliaferro ordered the Metis settlers from the area surrounding Fort Snelling (St. Paul, Minnesota). They are perceived as threat, as he fears they would side with the Indians if trouble arose. They moved to Fountain Cove, a short distance away, and this infuriated the Indian Agent, so they expanded the fort territory and forced the settlers to again move. The moved to present downtown St. Paul and called it Pig's Eye after Metis trader Pierre Parrent (Parent), born 1777 Saulte Ste Marie. The naming of St. Paul as Pig's Eye is likely a slight, directed at the paranoid personnel of Fort Snelling.
June 9: Chief Trader Archibald McDonald of Fort Colvile left four Metis children at the Red River Boarding School, whom he cannot expect to see in less than five years. Chief Trader Francis Heron also placed his children in the Red River Boarding School. Chief Factor William McIntosh, in August, sent two of his children to the School, as his other children were considered too abandoned to be admitted as pupils. In other terms, McIntosh was not prepared to pay for their keep. William McMurry, after whom Fort McMurry is named, and Alexander Kenny Isbister, founder of the Manitoba Isbister Scholarship, were two of the students at the Red River Boarding School.
July: Red River Francis Heron married Isabella Chalifoux, then departed for Ireland. Isabella joined him later, but we don't know who took care of his children here or whether he brought some of them with him to Ireland. Source Derrick Conley. Also see June 9 above.
July 27: The Catholic missionary, Frederic I Baraga, began St. Joseph Mission at LaPointe on Madeline Island, Ashland County, Wisconsin until 1845. He conducted the first burial service a month later. The marriage and death records are maintained from this point forward.
August 23: The Red River community officially complained against the monopoly and oppression of the English Hudson Bay Company. The Council of the Assiniboia is reorganized to reflect the inhabitants of the region. Between 1835 and 1862, ten Metis and Canadian councilors had been appointed. However, only four of these had been free of Hudson Bay Company ties and three of the four had been clerics. In other words, only one represented the majority of the people. The French speaking councilors generally originated from the more mixed population of the White Horse Plain District who had a more diverse livelihood, rather than from the more agricultural restricted and homogeneous population of the Upper Settlement. The two groups did not always see eye to eye, as the White Horse Plains people usually accept and adapt more quickly than the more settled people.
The Red River party played the more important role in the resistance movement of 1869-70, in opposition to Canada's unconditional take-over of the Colony of Assiniboia.