Metis

1836 - 1847


The British Government renews the Hudson Bay Company
lease of Canada for another twenty-one years.

Half or mixed blood of the Chippewa (Ojibwa)
to be considered as Chippewa


MacKenzie said the Mark of Cain is upon all born in
Canada (Indian and Metis).

The Hudson Bay Company is unwilling to take
natives - even as apprentice clerks..

Selkirk's heirs sold their rights to Red River
back to the Hudson Bay Company.


1836

Sault Saint Marie, birth Josette Davieaux, Metis the daughter Hyacinthe Davieaux b-1805 married Charlotte Misay, likely Sault Saint Marie after 1830 a first marriage 1829 to Piquette or Josette Pellerin, likely Sault Ste Marie, source Monique Daviau.

Thomas Campbell, Metis born about 1836/37 died before 1855 Upper Mississippi District son Duncan Campbell born 1802 and Dakota woman; married Dakota woman.

The McKay family moved from the Fort Edmonton region to Kildonan, Red River some time between 1836 and 1840.

James McKey (1828-1879), a Metis, is born at Fort Edmonton son James McKay Sr. of Sutherlandshire, Scotland a Hudson Bay Company steerman from 1816 to 1840 and Margaret Gladu, daughter of Charles Gladu and Margaret Ross.

John McLean noted about 40 Iroquois and half-breeds are employees at McLeod Post.

Father Provencher brought chickens from Sault Ste Marie and Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi to the Red River to improve the breeding stock for all the district, as there were few chickens in the area.

Red River was becoming more drawn towards the American economic sphere, as they developed their steamer, rail and postal service to St. Paul, Chippewa Country on the Mississippi River.

The American Congress created the Wisconsin Territory and admitted Michigan to the Union.

About 139 men died at the Battle of the Almo defending against Mexico. Davy Crocket (1786-1836) died in this battle as did James Bowie (1796-1836), famous for the Bowie knife, he died sick in bed during the battle.

The proposed 1836 treaty to the Ottawa and Chippewa, by the Unites States Government, proposed four classes of people in the Lake Superior region. The Indians are desirous of making provisions for their half-breed relatives. The President is determined that individual reservations shall not be granted, but a fund of $150,000 will be established. Three classes of claimants, the first of which shall receive one-half more than the second, and the second, double the third. Those from Sault Ste Marie to sign are Jawba Wadiek, Waub Ogeeg and Kawgayosh.

John Macallum took over operations of the Red River Boarding School. He instituted a new system of sadistic discipline, based on the best Schools of Britain, that he claimed invigorates both the body and mind of the pupil and implants and cherishes habits which will be of essential service in active life. Macallum was considered as a stern, red wigged, snuff-taking man, who kept by his desk, a finger-sized native brown willow stick about three and a half feet long with which to trash the children. Life under Macallum was as bitter as Egyptian slavery. This analogy to the Egyptians is based on inaccurate information but still makes a powerful statement of tyrannical power. The Reverend John Macallum, born about 1807, the teacher of some 14 girls under age 16, married one of his students, Elizabeth Charles, daughter Chief Factor John Charles.

Washington Irving's Astoria documents his observations of the St. Louis, Missouri region Metis: The dress of these people is generally half civilized, half savage. They wear a capot or surcoat, made of a blanket, striped cotton shirt, cloth trousers, or leathern leggings, moccasins of deer-skin, and a belt of variegated worsted, from which are suspended the knife, tobacco-pouch, and other implements. The lives of the voyageurs are passed in wild and extensive roving, in the service of individuals, but more especially of the fur trades. They are generally of French descent and inherit much of the gaiety and lightness of heart of their ancestors, being full of anecdote and song, and ever ready for the dance. They inherit too, a fund of civility and complaisance; and instead of that hardness and grossness which men in laborious life are apt to indulge towards each other, they are mutually obliging and accommodating; interchanging kind office, yielding each other assistance and comfort in every emergency, and using the familiar appellations of cousin and brother when there is in fact no relationship. Their natural good-will is probably heightened by a community of adventure and hardship in their precarious and wandering life. We are talking of things fast fading away. The race of Canadian Voyagers, their glory is departed. They are no longer the lords of our internal seas, and the great navigators of the wilderness.

The following is a census of a Metis person who resided at Sault Ste. Marie, Mackinac, St. Ignace, and the Grand River Valley of southern Michigan. In addition to being related by blood to the Ottawa and Ojibwa who ceded land in the treaty, the mixed-blood person had to reside within the area ceded. Those persons not living in the area, or living in the area but not related by blood to the Ottawa and Chippewa ceding the land, are not listed:

Allore, Arnois, Ashman,

Badeau, Bailley, Baird, Barry, Batchford, Bayard, Bazallette, Beaubien, Beauchamp, Beaudeau, Beauresau, Belonger, Bennet, Benois, Benwain, Edward Biddle, Sophia Biddle, Bingham, Blanchard, Boadwine, Boide, Bodre, Bongo, Bostwick, Bouchard, Bouresau, Bousha, Boushay, Boutwell, Boyd, Bradley, Brisbois, Burkhart, Charles Butterfield,

Cadotte, Cameron, Campbell, Carbenau, Carow, Champaigne, Chapman, Charbeneau, Chebau, Cheveaux, Chindley, Chorrette, Clermont, Cloutier, Collins, Constin, Contwa, Elizabeth Cook, Corbin, Cotwin, Cowles, Cross, Crow, Curtiss,

Daigno, Joseph Daily, Dauphiny, Davenport, Davis, Decotau, Desnoyer, Dingley, Dolly, Dousman, John A. Drew, Dubey, Ducamp, Dufault, Durette, Duverney,

Edwards, Ely, Enos, Ermatinger,

Farley, Farling, Felix, Fisher, Folsome, Fontaine, Frariot,

Genereux, Gesson, Gibson, Gornor, Gothier, Goust, Graham, Grant, Graveaet, Gronda, Gullee,

Augustin Hamblin (Hamelin) Jr., John Holiday, Mary Holiday, Hubert,

Jackson, Jeaudron, Jellee, Jeroiux, Johnston, Jones,

King,

La Branche, La Butte, La Croix, La Fond, Joseph Lafrombois, La Guthrie, La Pierre, La Roc, La Sieur, Henry A. Levake, La Viritie, L'Amerandau, Lacoy, Lapelle, Lapine-Allore, Lasaw, William Lasley, Laudre, Lawrence, Le Cuyer, Le May, Lese, Lore, Louisignon, Lozon,

Mallatt, Marcia, Daniel Marsac, Martin, Mataw, Maville, May, Mcclure, McDonald, McGulphin, McMurray, McNinch, Mero, Miniclear, Mitchell, Montrielle, George Moran, Louis Moran, Morris,

Nichols, Nontroit, Nowlin,

Oakes, Ojibway,

Paladeau, Paspater, Paquin, Payan, Peck, Pelkey, Pelotte, Peltier, Perunet, Piquette, Plante, Poisson, Ponds,

Razette, Read, Luther Rice, Rix Robinson, Rodd, Rolau, Romaine, Rosay, Rosseau, Rowland,

Schermerhorn, Schoolcraft, Shaw, Leonard Slater, Smith, Snaickell, Sovay, Stevens, St. Onge, St. Pierre, Sulyar, Sylvester,

Tanner, Taylor, Terdiff, Terrier, Thurston, Tromble, Troteschaud, Joseph Trotier, Trudell,

Viencourt, Vincecount,

Warren, Wells, Willard, G.D. Williams,

Yarns

 

This season is very dry on the prairies. The resulting fires drove off the animal population, and this resulted in widespread starvation among the People.

May 4: Thomas Douglas Selkirk's heirs sold the Assiniboine back to the Hudson Bay Company without consulting the inhabitants, selling their lands which were never purchased nor paid for by the Selkirks. This single move created deep seated resentments within the Metis Nation. The Company did not know how to administer law and order. The Company's decisions to funnel trade to the Hudson Bay and Britain and to discriminate against the employment of Metis or Canadians, forced the Metis to conduct trade into Saint Paul and thereby establish cultural ties with the Americans. It is noteworthy that St. Paul is a Metis dominated culture. The Companies negative attitude towards colonization throughout its history did not work to the benefit of Canada. The fear was growing in some peoples minds that the Hudson Bay Company had lost the Oregon Territory and were in the process of losing British Columbia, Red River, and maybe the entire West.

August: Joseph N. Nicollet on the Mississippi at Rapids of the Little Falls discovered hieroglyphics that were interpreted by Chagobay, an Ojibwa, as recording the death of a Metis Chief ,Victor, brother of Joseph (Akipa) Renville (1779-1846), Metis, of Lac qui Parle, being ambushed by the Ojibwa on his way back from St. Peters.

Victor was leading a Dakota war party against the Ojibwa in 1833.

September 4, 1836 census lists the Sault Ste Marie Gornow clan as follows:

Louis Gornow age 46 1/2 blood living Sault Ste Marie since 1826

Archange Cadotte age 38 1/4 blood living Sault Ste Marie since 1806 (wife)

John Gornow age 15 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie

Lennet Gornow age 13 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie

Simon Gornow age 11 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie

Edward Gornow age 9 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie

Archange Gornow age 8 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie

Charlotte Gornow age 6 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie

Eli Gornow age 4 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie

Polly Gornow age 1 1/4 blood born Sault Ste Marie

 

The five eldest children are not listed and are assumed to be living in La Pointe, Wisconsin at this time, with their mother Say-Shaw-Ne-Nie, daughter of Se Ranze. The family is listed as a third class half-breed, likely due to the desertion of his first family at La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Some other 'G' names on the census include Gandia, Gauthier, Genereaux, Gounnon, Goslin, Goddin, Grigneu, and Grignen.

Sault Ste. Marie

This painting by George Catlin represents a view from the Canadian side of Sault Ste Marie, looking across the river to Fort Brady.

March 28: Washington in the District of Columbia, Treaty with the Ottawa and Chippewa Nations.

The Indians are desirous of making provision for their half-breed relatives, and the President having determined, that individual reservations shall not be granted.

The Ottawas and Chippewas, feeling a strong consideration for aid rendered by certain of their half-breeds on Grand River, and other parts of the country ceded, and wishing to testify their gratitude assigned:

Rix Robinson, Metis, in lieu of a section of land on the Grand River rapids allocated $36/acre.

Leonard Slater, Metis, in lieu of a section of land above said rapids allocated in trust for Chiminonoquat $10/acre

John A. Drew, Metis, in lieu of 1 3/4 section to his Indian family at Cheboigan rapids at $4/acres.

Edward Biddle, Metis, in lieu of one section to his Indian family at the fishing ground, at $3/acre.

John Holiday, Metis, in lieu for 5 sections, at $1.25/acre.

Elizabeth Cook, Sophia Biddle and Mary Holiday, one section each at $2.50/acre.

Augustin Hamelin, jr. Metis, two sections at $1.25/acre.

William Lasley, Metis, Joseph Daily, Metis, Joseph Trotier, Matis, Henry A.

Levake, two sections each for their Indian families at $1.25/acres.

Luther Rice, Metis, Joseph Lafrombois, Metis, Charles Butterfield, Metis,

Charles Butterfield, Metis, being of Indian descent and to George Moran,

Louis Moran, G.D. Williams for haslf-breed children under their care and to

Daniel Marsac, for his Indian child, one section each at $1.25/acre.

 

September 3: Cedar Point, Fox River, near Green Bay, in the Territory of Wisconsin, Treaty with the Menomonie Nation.

Relinquish all rights and provisions of the treaty of 1831 and 1832.

The Indians are desirous of making provision for their mixed blood relatives, and friends

October : The Stony Indians informed J.P. Pruden, Chief Trader at Carlton House, that a rampaging prairie fire was moving rapidly towards the Trading Post. The warning and the cool headed Fort personnel saved the Post.

December 10: John Ballenden, accountant at York Factory, married Sarah McLeod daughter of Chief Factor Alexander Roderick McLeod at Red River. Sarah was a student of the infamous Red River Boarding School.

1837

The Committee of Vigilance of Upper Canada is formed with W.L. MacKenzie as agent and secretary. Its purpose is to form a Provisional Government for Upper Canada.

Birth Michel Arquette, Metis son Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) born September 1, 1797 Montreal, son Michel Arquette and Marie Louis Gaudry; married 1839 Vancouver, B.C. Marguerite Waponte died October

1870

Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin), birth Elizabeth Hudon Metis daughter Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) and Margaret O-ge-mau-gee-zhi-go-qua (Ogemaugeeeshigoquay) (Queen of the Skies) born 1790; married Gustave Borup.

Josephte Gagnon born 1837c Manitoba (MB7-314).

Mrs. Anna Jameson visited Sault Ste Marie and classified it as little more than an Indian Village.

Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872) of the U.S. and Sir Charles Wheatstone simultaneously claimed to have invented the telegraph. The inventor, however, is physicist Joseph Henry (1797­1878), as was proven in court.

In 1831 he constructed the first practical electromagnetic telegraph.

Pierre Bottineau, Metis (1810-1895), and wife Genevieve Laurence departed Red River for Fort Snelling (St. Paul, Minnesota) in the employ of General Henry Hastings Sibley as guide and interpreter. Bottineau, being a Metis is considered a second class citizen. Bottineau is land cleared from Fort Snelling, along with his brother Severe Bottineau, b-1814 Red River, and other Canadian Metis are moved down stream to Pig,s Eye (St. Paul) near Fountain Cave. In 1840 the army would again drive the settlers off their land a few more miles downstream.

Gabriel Franchere of the American Fur Company located at Sault Ste Marie, wrote that the reason for the long passage is owing to an accident on the Ottawa River. They broke one canoe, drowned one man, and had to run back to Fort Colonge for other canoes and provisions that they procured from Sicought (Silveright?). They then lost eight men by desertion. This could be the reason Gabriel is replaced next year.

The American Fur Company launched the vessel 'Madeline' in Lake Superior.

September 5: Canada West, marriage Thomas Gouro to Mary Anne Scratch.

December: Red River, birth Gabriel Dumont Metis died May 19, 1906 Batoche son Isidore Dumont and grandson Jean Baptiste Dumont.

1838

The British Government, being ignorant of the Companies actions in Canada or not really caring, renewed the Hudson Bay Company license for twenty-one years. John R. Livingston of the American Fur Company replaced Gabriel Franchere at St. Mary's, Sault Ste Marie. Missions are established at Red Lake, Sandy Lake, Mille Lacs and Crow Wing.

Representatives of several Southern States met in Cleveland to discuss the invasion of Canada. They framed a constitution for a "Free Canada" and made arrangements for the issuance of invasion currency. President Van Buren responded: This government recognizes a still higher obligation to repress all attempts on the part of its citizens to disturb the peace of a country where order prevails, or has been re-established. Later this year the hypocrite President hailed the forced removal of the Cherokee Indian tribe to new lands in the West.

Sault Saint Marie, birth Angelique Davieaux, Metis the daughter Hyacinthe Davieaux b-1805 married Charlotte Misay, likely Sault Saint Marie after 1830 a first marriage 1829 to Piquette or Josette Pellerin, likely Sault Ste Marie, source Monique Daviau.

Upper Mississippi District, birth Margaret Campbell, Metis daughter Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman; married Joseph Labathe.

Upper Mississippi District, Jean Baptiste Campbell, Metis born about 1838 son Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman.

Pierre Leblanc of the Oregon Territory since 1800 married Nancy Matooski the abandoned wife of John G.

McTavish. This appears to be Pierre's second wife as he took a wife to Oregon Territory in 1800. Pierre died this year along with 4 of their children but no mention is made of the fait of his wife.

 

FORT PELLY

William Todd, a physician at Fort Pelly on the Assiniboine River (Saskatchewan), used a cowpox virus to vaccinate the Fort and the Indians.

He taught the Indians how to vaccinate their own people, and those who were vaccinated were spared a high mortality rate. Vaccine was sent to all other Houses and Forts. For those who refused vaccination, like the Cree and Assiniboine, the death rate was staggering. Half the Slave, Blackfoot, Blood, Piegan, Circees and Fall (Gros Ventre) Indians died this season.

The Woodland Indians were spared but the Plains Indian suffered terrible losses, some up to 3/4 of their population. William McKay at Beaver Creek was ordered to vaccinate the Indians in his region and he complied.

Charles Ducharsne, Metis, at Carlton House, is seriously ill with smallpox.

News arrived that two French Canadian priests, Norbert Blanchet and Modests Demers, are on their way to Columbia, which the Anglicans had a desire to reach. The Hudson Bay Company prohibited the clergy from going west of Red River.

The 23 ton 'William Brewster', the 60 ton 'Algonquin' and the 40 ton 'Siskawit' are hauled up the St. Mary rapids into Lake Superior.

Thomas Farnham, traveling the Santa Fe trail, was in the midst of buffalo for three days. It is estimated that this herd numbered well over a million animals, covering 1,350 square miles.

January 5: At Carlton House, (Saskatchewan) on the Saskatchewan River, a Metis named Piere Le Rocque died of smallpox which was carried by the Indians from Fort Union on the Missouri River. It was later learned that his batch of cowpox was dormant and provided no protection to him and others.

December 3-4: About 400 men from Detroit raided Windsor but were repulsed by the Canadian militia under the command of John Prince (1796-1879). Four of the Invaders were summarily executed by Prince.

1839

European hat makers switched from beaver to silk, seriously impacting the fur trade in Canada. Governor (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) invited the Wesleyan Methodists into the country to offset the Roman Catholics and Anglicans. David Jones followed the Hudson Bay Company directives and he hoped the Wesleyan would also be more amenable.

Birth Lisette Arquette, Metis daughter Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) born September 1, 1797 Montreal, son Michel Arquette and Marie Louis Gaudry; married 1839 Vancouver, B.C. Marguerite Waponte died October 1870.

Pascal Bisscornet d-1854 St. Paul, Oregon, Married 1839 Louise Cowitchin, living Donald, Oregon 1842.

Rankin took some Lake Superior Ojibwa to Britain for display. Louis Cadotte, the half-breed, is the interpreter who presented them to the Queen. He married in St. Martins Church, London. His wife died at Sault Ste Marie.

The Hudson Bay Company is giving the exclusive trading rights to Vancouver Island.

Upper Mississippi District, Marie Campbell, Metis born about 1839 daughter Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman.

Upper Mississippi District, Mathas S. Campbell, Metis born about 1839 son Scott Campbell, Metis (1790's-1851) and Dakota woman.

Guerin, born 1812 Saint Remi, settled across the Mississippi and became an early settler of St. Paul.

At Fort Hall on the Snake River, (Idaho) Oregon Territories of Canada, the Hudson Bay Company is encouraging American settlers to go to California instead of Oregon to delay its settlement and protect the fur trade. Small parties of settlers, however, are reaching Oregon, and the Hudson Bay Company attempts to encourage Metis settlers to go from Red River to Oregon proved fruitless. The fears are that Fort George (Astoria) on the mouth of the Columbia River, Fort Nez Perces (Walla Walla), Fort Covile on the upper Columbia, Fort Vancouver on the Columbia and Fort Nisqually on Puget Sound would be lost.

January 28: Vancouver, B.C. marriage, Amable Arquette (Arcouet, Arcoueite) born September 1, 1797 Montreal, son Michel Arquette and Marie Louis Gaudry; married Marguerite Waponte died October 1870. Oregon census 1842.

September 16: Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, James Anderson born 1813 Indian Country in Upper Canada married

Margaret Mackinsie born 1821.

1840

Father Belcourt held service at Duck Bay on Lake Winnipegosis.

Widowed David Munro married Betsey who had 4 to 5 previous marriages to those Hudson Bay Men.

Jean Baptiste Wilkie, an English Halfbreed, who was raised by the French, was elected Chief Captain of the buffalo hunt.

This year less than 100 American fur traders and missionaries lived in the Canadian Oregon Territory (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon) and it was dominated by the Canadian Metis. It is noteworthy that this region was claimed by the Spanish, Russians, British, Canadians and Americans. This region was not part of thealleged Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The Americans believed they had a Manifest Destiny of the Republic to occupy the whole continent. The next century would see this European thinking resulting in two major world wars. This evil thinking is based on the simple belief that might is right. Most Americans still believe in the principle of Manifest Destiny for themselves but not for others.

The Metis who visited York Factory are described as the men who wear long blue capotes like children's surtouts (very long) and hoods- either hanging down or on their heads, scarlet leggins, not trowsers, and gay scarlet military sashes round their waist.

Fort McKenzie, Montana, birth Jerry Potts died July 14, 1896 son John Potts a Scott who died 1850's who worked for the American Fur Company and a Piegan woman or as others say a Blood known as Crooked Back who died 1840's. Jerry Potts worked for the Canadian Mounted Police for 22 years. One epitaph says Jerry Potts the Metis was like Moses, he led the Mounted Police out of the desert and brought them to the end of their difficulties. This is not far from the truth as he made all the major decisions in the management of the southern Alberta Mounted Police this century.

Some early Metis settlers to St. Paul, Minnesota include: Bottineau, Gervais, Labissonniere, Cloutier, Pepin, Desmarais, Bazile, Laroche, Benot and Fournier to name a few. It is noteworthy that the word settler assumes a land claim was made. Soldiers, trappers, traders, freighters, guides, interpreters or those squatting in or about St. Paul would not be considered as settlers.

Smallpox eliminated the Mandan Natives who farmed the Mississippi plains, and the few survivors joined other bands. In 1804, a Mandan town had been located near Bismarck, North Dakota which was the wintering point for the Lewis and Clark expedition to the Pacific.

The Anglicans establish a mission at Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan, soon moving to the Pas.

Marie Cadotte born 1840 Red River, North West daughter Laurent Cadotte (b-1787) and Betsy Thomas (b-1810). Marie Cadotte married about 1863 Red River, North West a Antoine LaLiberte born 1837 Red River, North West son Antoine LaLiberte. The family is living Red River 1870 census.

Lawrence Garneau born 1840, Bay Mills (South East of Sault Ste Marie), Michigan, a Metis, died December 10, 1921 St. Paul de Metis, Alberta son (6)-Louis Garneau born 1790 La Pointe, Madeleine Island, Lake Superior and Archange Cadotte born Canada. The 1881 census states place of parent's birth as Ontario and the 1850 census states place of birth of Louis as Wisconsin. Family tradition has Lawrence's birth place as Bay Mills, Michigan.

SAULT STE MARIE

This painting of Sault Ste Marie is from the 1840's. The actual location is unknown.

One thousand Red River carts and four hundred huntsmen in the annual buffalo hunt collected 1,075 buffalo (others suggest 1,300) under the command of the Metis hunt Chief and his Officers. The commanders are selected annually by democratic election, a process learned from their Native ancestors. The Metis organized two hunts per year in June and in September or October.

Strict rules of the hunt maintained order, and they used a democratic process to establish the leadership and the rules.

Charles MacKenzie wrote: The Mark of Cain is upon all born in this Country (Canada), neither education nor abilities serve them, the Honorable (Hudson Bay) Company is unwilling to take natives even as apprentice clerks and the favored few they do take can never aspire higher. Let there be no doubt, that this systemic practice would prevail for the next one hundred and thirty years, being imbedded in Law and Government legislation. This attitude would also prevail in the Roman Catholic Church and other international business ventures. I look in the mirror and can still see the seeds of this Roman and English evil.

St. Paul, Minnesota had no more than four hundred inhabitants, most of whom are French Canadian Metis.

Annual excursions between Red River and St. Paul, Minnesota, trading furs for merchandise, began some time before 1840.

Peter Lassen, a Dutch immigrant, arrived at Lassen Peak, California some time this decade.

Mount Rainier of Washington experienced a minor eruption.

January 21: The Ojibwa and Iroquois on the credit river near Toronto, renewed a friendship treaty. Two hundred Ojibwa Chiefs and fifteen Iroquois headmen were attending. The Ojibwa and Iroquois, numbering several thousand, were standing united amidst waves of white settlers rapidly encroaching on their territories.

May: The American military demolished the Metis houses at St Paul, Minnesota across the river from their Fort, considering them a risk to security.

June 15: The role was called for a semi-annual buffalo hunt out of the Metis settlement of Red River. 1,630 people were present with 1,210 Red River carts.

June 28: LaPointe, Wisconsin marriage Eustachius Bellecourt, Metis born 1815 Lac de la Sang-ous (Leech Lake, Minnesota) baptised 1835 La Pointe, Wisconsin son Baptiste Bellecour and Sah-gah-je-way-guay married La Pointe, Wisconsin a Josepha Curepain born 1824 both living Lac des sables (Sandy Lake, Minnesota) which is on the St Louis River/Lake Superior to Mississippi River portage route. Location and parent value add by Jay Holmen.

June: Another Simpson departed Red River for Fort Snelling with a large party of what he called Half-Breeds.

On June 14 he shot two of his men dead. Later he was found shot, and no one was willing to say what really happened.

1841

Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast. Living Oregon

1842

Pierre Bottineau, Metis (1810-1895) and brother Severe Bottineau, b-1814 Metis, relocated from Fort Snelling to Saint Paul, being evicted by the army.

Father Jean Edouard Darveau established a mission at Duck Bay on Lake Winnipegosis in competition with the Reverend Abraham Cowley of the Angelican Church Missionary Society.

James Douglas b-1803 of the Hudson Bay Company established Yerba Buena Trading Post in San Francisco, California.

The great lone land (Prairies) named by the Government, Canada West, was not a popular name, and the name North West or Indian Territories still held popular support. By this time, five hundred and sixty thousand English had immigrated to Canada.

(I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) wrote London of the need to check the Roman Catholic influence which is injurious to the Company's interest. Simpson authorized over a dozen men to take Indian wives at Fort Stikine with the Tsimshian People. He believed it would be good for the trade. He also encouraged 116 Red River Metis to migrate to the Oregon Territory this year.

(I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) in an Express Canoe on one of his many inspection tours. Express canoes are manned by the best canoe men in the employ of the Company.

The Factor, James Heron of Osnaburgh, noted the arrival, on June 26, of the first missionary, a Reverend William Mason of the Wesleyan Missionary Society from Lac Seul. The Indians asked McKenzie: What have these Black Robes came here for? Did they come to destroy the Indians and their children? We are resolved not to hear them.

Bishop Provencher wrote: "Secular priests will make slow progress; there is no unity in their views, without mentioning the fact that they put their hands to the plough only for a short time, which they always find too long." He therefore turned to the Oblates of Mary Immaculate (OMI) for help.

By this year the Americans, by their scores, are entering the Hudson Bay Company region of Oregon.

Governor (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) reports 120 farms are located along the Willamette River, which flows into the Columbia River in the Canadian Oregon Territory. He reports that these include 55 Canadians and 65 Americans farms which produced 35,000 bushels of wheat and equal quantities of oats, peas, barley and potatoes. He also noted the presence of 3,000 cattle, 2,500 horses and a multitude of hogs. Their only customer was the Hudson Bay Company. Fort Vancouver had 1,200 acres under cultivation and produced 4,000 bushels of wheat. Other farming communities included Cowlitz River and Fort Nisqually on Puget Sound at the mouth of the Nisqually River.

Between 1840 and1860, it is estimated that 30,000 Black Americans used the 'underground railway' to escape slavery and migrate to the land of the free in Canada. Most would eventually become mixed blood Canadians.

The Metis were described as dark of skin, bois brule or scorched wood. They were sometimes call Indian, but were neither European nor Indian. They were described as a fine race, tall, straight, well proportioned, lightly formed and extremely active and enduring. Their chests, shoulders and waists are of that symmetrical shape so seldom found among the broad-waisted, short-necked English, or the flat chested, long necked Scotch; or so says a British lord. They are a proud people, priest ridden, brave and honest. These Metis are much given to song and merriment, generous hospitality and night-long dancing, caring for this day's joys and letting tomorrow go hang.

Pig's Eye, Minnesota is renamed St. Paul by Father Lucian Galter when he built the first church. It was originally named Iminijaska; meaning White Rock, Mendota, Little Settlement and Fountain Cove before being named Pig's Eye after French Metis trader Pierre Parrant, born 1777 Sault Ste Marie.

February 8: Kamloops, New Caledonia (British Columbia), death Samel Black born May 3, 1780 Scotland. He joined the XY Company that had merged with the North West Company in 1804. He was stationed at Kamloops for the Hudson Bay Company, to become Chief Factor in 1837 of the Thompson River District. He was never popular with the natives and they eventually killed him.

June: At Red River, the great semiannual buffalo hunt is organized with over 400 hunters dressed in buckskin or blue woolen capotes, sashed in scarlet, armed with muzzle loading rifles and mounted on splendid horses.

Another 200 men are assigned to the spare stock and herded the draft animals, while 1,000 women and children walked or rode with the camping gear in the carts. These Metis of Red River region outnumbered the Europeans 10 to 1- some 5,000 of them. Leaving St. Boniface for Pembina, still more Metis swelled the hunting expedition. This year they had to travel 20 days and 250 miles before buffalo were sighted. About 1,375 buffalo were taken on the first day; the equivalent of 225 pounds for every man, woman and child in Red River.

The meat and hides that were sold to the Hudson Bay Company fetched more sterling than all the farms products and crops which were mostly worked by the English and Scottish, including their half-breed descendents.

August 8: Sault Ste Marie marriage Stephen R wood b-1810 and Emeline Johnson. Witness Adaline Jones, Susan J. Fowles, and Mary J. Newcomb. Witness Frs Garnoun and Wm Parole (illegible).

1842

Sophie Cadotte born 1842 Red River daughter Michel Cadotte.

Adolphus Chamberlain aka Francois Dolphis Chamberland married to Julia Ann Watichie daughter of George Waticie, Iroquois and Chinook woman, listed in the 1842 Oregon census.

The American Fur Company, under the control of Ramsey Crooks, effectively went out of business.

Vancouver, marriage Charles Desroches of Quebec, on assignment with the H.B.C. married Kilemniks Chinook, a Salishan Indian.

James Douglas of the Hudson Bay Company selected Port Camosack to build Fort Victoria aka Fort Albert aka Fort Adelaide.

The Ashburton Treaty settled the Canadian American boundary from the headwaters of the Ste Croix River to the Lake of the Woods.

The Americans consider this the end of a permanent Indian Country, as one hundred settlers in eighteen covered wagons took off across the "The Great American Desert" (Plains), marking out a road that would become known as the Oregon Trail.

John B. Gurnoe, for years, carried the mail between Sault Ste Marie and Saginaw, making four round trips a winter on snow shoes. His mail bag and provisions weighed 200 pounds. These were held on his shoulders and fastened over his forehead with a strap. He camped out in the open at night. This trip of ten days and 400 miles travel is made for twenty five dollars a round trip. John McLoughlin, a Metis and son of Chief Factor John McLoughlin Sr. (1784-1857) of the Columbia District (Oregon), is murdered at Stikine River. Governor (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) and John McLoughlin have long been at logger heads over the treatment of American settlers into the Columbia District of Canada, namely Oregon. (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) wanted to use a heavy hand and treat the immigrants ruthlessly. McLoughlin refused, being a humanitarian, and dealt with them kindly. McLoughlin retired in 1846 and spent the rest of his life at Oregon City.

Joseph Rondeau (Rondo) settled St. Paul Landing before moving to the Falls of St. Antony, Minnesota.

The United States Congress passed the Homestead Act, allowing 160 acre farms to all homesteaders who would live on them and farm the wilderness. What they didn't tell the homesteaders is that only the poorest-quality land was given away. Good farms of 160 acres cost about $1,000.

January 9: Birth, Angeligue Marguerite Bonanfant, Metis daughter Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast. Living Oregon 1842

May: An Indian called Lobster arrived at Lac Seul, claiming a mission known as the White Dog is being built on the Winnipeg River.

October 4: La Pointe of Lake Superior, in the Territory of Wisconsin, Treaty with the Chippewa Indians of the Mississippi, and Lake Superior.

Unceded lands belonging to the Indians of Fond de Lac, Sandy Lake, and Mississippi bands, shall be the common property and home of all Indians, party to this treaty.

The Indians have expressed a strong desire to have some provision made for their half-breed relatives.

Signing for each band:

Crow Wing River - Po-go-ne-gi-shik, Son-go-com-ick,

Sandy Lake - Ka-non-do-ur-uin-zo, Na-tum-e-gaw-bon

Gull Lake - Ua-bo-jig-, Pay-pe-si-gon-de-bay

Red Ceder Lake - Kui-ui-sen-shis, Ott-taw-wance

Po-ke-gom-maw - Bai-ie-jig, Show-ne-aw

Wisconsin River - Ki-uen-zi, Wi-aw-bis-ke-kut-te-way

Lac de Flambeau - A-pish-ka-go-gi, May-tock-cus-e-guay, She-maw-gon-e

Lake Bands - Ki-ji-ua-be-she-shi, Ke-kon-o-tum,

Fon du Lac - Shin-goob, Na-gan-nab, Mong-o-xat

La Pointe - Citchi-waiskey, Mi-zi, Ta-qua-gone-e

Onlonagan - O-kon-di-kan, Kis-ke-taw-wac

Ance - Pe-na-shi, Guck-we-san-sish

Vieux Desert - Ka-she-osh-e, Medge-waw-gwaw-wot

Mille Lac - Ne-qua-ne-be, Ua-shash-ko-kum, No-din

St. Croix - Be-zhi-ki, Ka-bi-na-be, Ai-aw-bens

Snake River - Sha-go-bi

Chippewa River - Ua-be-she-shi, Que-way-zhan-sis

Lac Courtulle - Ne-na-nang-eb, Be-bo-kon-uen, Ki-uen-zi

 

Signing for government:

Henry Blancford - interpreter

Samuel Ashman - interpreter

Justin Rice

Charles H. Oakes

William A. Aitkin

William Brewster

Charles M. Borup

Z Platt

C.H. Beaulieau

L.T. Jamison

James P. Scott

Cyrus Mendenhall

L.M. Warren

1843

La Pointe, Madeleine Island, Lake Superior had a population of 390 Chippewa and 218 Mixed-Blood.

(I)-Andrew Graham Ballenden Bannatyne (1829-1889) joined the Hudson Bay Company, but quit in 1851 to become a free trader. He married the daughter of Andrew McDermot..

Complaints keep mounting since John Macallum took over operations of the Red River Boarding School. Letitia Hargroves' wife, in September wrote: Macallum's school is going to wreck. Children who have had duck, geese and venison 3 times a day are supposed to suffer from breakfast of milk and water with dry bread, suffer severe floggings and, confinement after any fault and the total want of the following meal. The boys and girls are constantly fainting. He makes the girls strip off their Indian stockings and adopt English fashion then walks them through freezing snow. The illness and deaths of a number of the Schools students is of grave concern among some of the colony.

American settlers by the hundreds, and later by the thousands stream, into the Hudson Bay Company's Oregon Territory. Actually, 1,000 came this year, driving 5,000 head of cattle. The Company began to realize they were losing their position and Britain was not prepared to go to war to retain the old North West Company trading region of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana; now called the Oregon Territory. The Canadians dominated this region for the past 35 years, until this year when 1,000 settlers entered the Oregon Region and 1,500 in 1844. This migration would be dwarfed by the gold rush of 1849.

The first American Governor of California, Peter Burnett, said, "With our trusty rifles we should drive out the British usurpers", although the Canadian Fur Traders had Governed the country since 1818.

The Red River settlement has over 5,000 souls of whom 55% are Roman Catholic. Out of 870 families, 571 are Metis, 152 are French Canadian, 110 are Scots, 22 are English, with the balance being of various nationalities.

June 17: The Hudson Bay Company's anti-liquor regulation, approved at Red River, claimed to limit further degeneration of the natives but was more probably for cutting the cost of trade. Sophia Thomas, who died in 1861, daughter Thomas Thomas, married Reverend William Mason.

 

1844

Burney is superintendent of Fort Astoria, Oregon Territory.

Father Darveau is at Le Pas where rival Henry Budd ,a native, is acting as teacher and catechist. Darveau drowned in June while working Le Pas. Rumors circulated that Budd may have been involved in the death.

John A MacDonald joined the dreaded Orange Order of British North America. The Orange Order has been accused by many historians of bringing old world quarrels to the new world. This is true, but many others from Europe also dragged their evils to America. The Orange Order pushes for Irish Protestantism.

Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton noted that tens of thousands of settlers are meditating on claim jumping in the Canadian Oregon Territories when he said, Go on! The Government will follow you and will give you protection and land. It was very clear that the government would clear the land of Indian and Canadian domination, by force if necessary. The British, not prepared to go to war, would leave the Indians on their own.

It mattered not that the Oregon Territory is dotted with Hudson Bay Company forts.

The belligerent cry of "Fifty four forty or fight" figured prominently in James K. Polk's successful presidential campaign of 1844. This would lead to the Oregon Treaty of 1846 between the British and American Governments to accept the 49th parallel as the international frontier. McLoughlin, who retired from the Hudson Bay Company Oregon branch in 1846, even though he helped the American settlers and sympathized with American republicanism, ended up a venerable but pathetic figure, as he had to endure considerable local opposition and hostility. Few would remember or care about the Metis discovery, exploration or establishment of the Oregon Territory.

The official (Hudson Bay Company) recognized that the population in Red River had grown from ninety Hudson Bay Company people (Excludes Metis and Native) in 1912 to five thousand, one hundred and forty eight, mostly Metis, at this date (excluding most Natives).

In early summer, Bishop George Jehoshaphat Mountain of Montreal ordained the infamous John Macallum of the Red River Boarding School as a priest in the Church of England, despite the numerous complaints of savagery and dropping attendance of his school. The Bishop believed the School was one of a superior order, even though the teaching of Latin, Greek, Euclid, English literature and geography were neither interesting nor useful to the young teen aged youngsters of mixed blood. Donald Ross of Norway House, who from 1833 to 1856 placed one or more of his ten children in the Red River Boarding School, warned Macallum that a current of unfavorable opinion existed in regard to his schools, but more particularly in the female department.

Macallum was fully aware of the numerous unfavorable opinions against his person. Why Donald Ross or some other parents did not lay a thrashing upon Macallum is unknown. The Red River Boarding School had some supporters such as Richard Hardisty who sent his sons, Joseph, William, Richard and George and had plans to send Henry. Hardisty, however, would not send his daughter Mary, likely because of the Donald Ross comments. Reverend Macallum died on October 3, 1849. Colin Campbell McKenzie and Roderick Ross were considered the first scholars of the Red River Boarding School, as they went on to Cambridge and returned to the North West. Peter Jacobs graduated and became a missionary but not in the North West.

Father Jean Baptiste Thibault is doggedly reconverting many of the Methodist converts around Edmonton.

Minister Evens might have recaptured his converts, but he accidentally killed his interpreter Thomas Hassell. As a result of Father Thibault's predatory converting of Methodist followers, Governor (I)- George Simpson (1787-1860) issued a policy that the Company stood for liberty of conscience, so long as missionaries did not interfere with one another's converts.

A priest named Bellcour from the White Dog Mission on the Winnipeg River is claimed by the Lobster to claim that the traders are cheating the Indians. This is according to the records of McKenzie who claims these priests have more influence over the Indians than the Company's missionaries. He also complained that the priests could get the Indians to do work for nothing, which they would not do for the Company for payment.

A sudden increase in Lake Superior shipping follows the discovery of iron deposits of the Marquette Range and copper on the Keweenaw Peninsula. The Keweenaw mines, between 1850 and1875, provided 75% of all copper mined in the U.S.A.

October 22: Louis David Riel born St. Boniface. Hhis father, a Metis, was a leader of the free trade movement and his mother was Julie Lagimodiere from Pembina and Fort Edmonton fame. The Metis freemen were doing business with the St. Paul, Metis in Chippewa Country (Minnesota) despite the English forbidding this practice. This year four unnamed Metis, and Peter Garrick, Henry Cook and J. M. Laughlin made the journey to St. Paul to free trade, taking one hundred and twenty days for the trip. They claimed to be one of the first to travel the overland route in Red River carts, having to cut their way in many places. This claim, of course, was a figment of their imagination as the Metis were using this route for over fifty years.

 

1845

Fathers Alexander Antonin Tache' and Casimer Aubert arrived at Red River, two of the many Oblates to service the North West Territories. Tache reported that the Metis are nearly all gifted with a great power of observation.

On September 5, as an example to other natives, a Saulteaux (Ojibwa) was hung at Red River, being convicted by the Governor of killing another Saulteaux (Ojibwa) and a Sioux. The Metis Nation petitioned the Governor, asking him to explain the rules of law as it now exists. The Hudson Bay Company had no basis in law to justify their actions, and the Hudson Bay Company in future years would deny committing this act of murder and other acts against the Natives.

Charles Cavileer, a saddler, settled in St. Paul, Minnesota.

Paschal and Sauverre St. Martin settled at the Falls of St. Anthony, Minnesota and claimed only about 50 people occupied this area. It is noteworthy that by 1848 the population would be about 300 people.

Marriage, Fort Hall, Snake River Country, Richard Grant Chief Factor, Fort Hall married Helene McDonald, Metis born 1811 Spokane House daughter Finan McDonald and Marguerite Pend d'Oreille. Grant had a son from a previous marriage named John Francois Grant born 1831 Fort des Prairies in Rupert's Land.

Father M. Thibeault visited Notre Dame Des Victoires, Red Deer Lake as a potential mission site; as Metis and Indian occupy it. He also visited Ile-a-la-crosse in the English River District, both this year and next year.

Father G. Belcourt went with the Metis on their annual buffalo hunt.

The Church forced (VII)-Francois Xavier Garneau, 1809-1866, to change his History of Canada to remove uncomplimentary statements about the Roman Catholic Church. The critics noted that in early Canadian historical accounts only the Catholic Church is incapable of error, whereas the non Catholics are continually making errors that the Church are quick to document.

Ten new vessels are hauled up the St. Mary into Lake Superior.

Pierre Bottineau, Metis (1810-1895), relocated from St. Paul to Nicollet Island at the site of the falls on the Mississippi River called Bottineau Prairie. This became a meeting place of the Red River cart drivers on their way to St. Paul to trade. He also ran the Mackinaw Transport boats up the Mississippi from St. Anthony in

1842, and by 1849, set up a trading post at Elk River.

The United States annexed Texas from Mexico.

June 16: birth, Marie Anne Bonanfant, Metis died June 9, 1850 daughter Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast. Living Oregon 1842

June 17: (II)-Paul Kane (1810-1871) departed Toronto on his painting expedition of the North West Territories. He spent this summer in Lake Huron and the Lake Michigan region.

 

1846

The U.S.A. had an insatiable desire for more land and declared war on Mexico to acquire more territory.

The Royal Regiment, a 500 man contingent, arrived at Red River to ensure the peace; as some would claim. Or, as others claimed, to ensure the monopoly and authority of the English Hudson Bay Company because the Metis were beginning to challenge their authority. On June 15, the Oregon Treaty cost the Hudson Bay Company its rights in the Oregon Boundary Territory, previously jointly held by Canada and the United States.

They, however, did not quit the Territory until 1871 when compensation is paid.

Geologist Abraham Gesner of Nova Scotia developed a process for making kerosene. The hungry forties, and especially the terrible Irish potato famine, brought four hundred and thirty three thousand immigrants to Canada by 1851.

Mr. Ballantyne is in charge of the Sault Ste Marie, Hudson Bay Company Post. At this time Sault Ste Marie lists 126 families.

There are 80 steamboats on the upper lakes above Niagara; 59 brigs and barks (full-rigged sailboats) and 319 schooners (fore and aft rigged sailboats).

John Turner, alias the Falcon (about 1780-1846) who was a scout, interpreter and who was raised by the natives, who lived in early Red River and lately Sault Ste Marie, mysteriously disappeared, being under suspicion of murder.

Thomas Fitzpatrick, a.k.a. Broken Hand, some consider as being the greatest of the Mountain Men, traders and wagon masters, became Indian agent for the Upper Platte and Arkansas.

Burial ground, claimed by the Roman Catholic Church, contained the following persons: Bossard, Joseph Wilson esquire, Jean Baptiste Contain, Madame Perrault, Raymond Mastat, Henry Seyer, Joseph Seyar

Ne-be-naw-co-jing, Ambrois Surette, Jean Baptiste Lesage, Xavier Perrault, Jean Baptiste Crachier, Joseph Bossanneau, Joseph Boisenneau Jr., Lisk, Jean Baptiste Denomme, St. Marc Martin, Rev. W. Cammeron, John Driver, and Joshua Trott.

In Frenchtown a number of Metis families are living on the Hudson Bay Company's 30 acre farm to the west of Sault Ste Marie and directly north of the rapids: Daveaux, Mousseau, McKay, Brissett, Quadrant or Cadran, Savard, Belleau, Whalen, Thebault or Thebo, Bourassa, Neveau, Boyer, Quebec, Riel, Jourdains, and Dubois.

May 18: Alick Videl visited Sault Ste Marie, Ontario and recorded the following individuals who resided or were in possession of land: Jean Baptiste Soulier, Guidon, Augustus LaRoche, Pierre Belleau, Michel Bouille, Augustin LaRoche, Jean Baptiste Charette, William Perrault, Alexis Biron, Brassar, Michel Labatte, Louis Miron, Joseph Lafond, Francois La-rose, Alexis Biron, Etienne Jolineau, Charles Cadotte, and Joshua Trott.

May 24: (II)-Paul Kane (1810-1871) departed Fort William for Red River where he sketched the Metis buffalo hunt. He then traveled to Norway House, Fort Pitt and Fort Edmonton. He then traveled Jasper house, Columbia Fort Colville and Walla Walla.

June 15: The Oregon Boundary Treaty is established by President James Polk (1795-1849) and Queen Victoria under threat of war by the Americans. The 1844 Democratic Party's election slogan was "Fifty-four forty, or fight".

 

1847

One hundred thousand Irish immigrants came to Canada this year to escape the dreadful potato famine. Many suffer from typhus and cholera that spread across Canada. About 20,000 immigrants would die before being settled.

A study of the Hudson Bay Company personnel records for the period 1823 to 1848 shows that, of junior employees whose origins could be traced, more are from Sorel, Quebec than any other community, with the exception of Montreal. Fifty percent of the work force is still Metis whom the English considered the cheapest and best servants. The English also consider the Metis to be born of inferior stock and therefore not allowed to become officers. This fundamental English belief applied to all people who were not of English stock, and the discrimination would continue well into the late twentieth century.

Henry M. Rice complained that the Hudson Bay Company was buying all the (wild) rice in the Territories, forcing the American traders to depart the Territories due to lack of supplies. Henry M. Rice estimates one half the Metis in Red River of the North, some four thousand, are farming but still attend the annual buffalo hunt and could be enticed south of the boarder if given land. At this time Norman Kittson, agent of Chotian June and Company, with a Mr. Roulette, were working the establishment at Pembina with sixty five Red River carts. Rev. Belcourt was the Catholic Missionary at Pembina, being there from 1831, and had established a Chippewa school at the junction of the Red and Pembina Rivers. Wisconsin became a state this year.

The side-wheeler, 'Julia Palmer', is so inefficient that it took 16 days to travel 200 miles from Copper Harbor to Sault Ste Marie.

Four thousand American settlers streamed into the Canadian Oregon Territories this year. The Mormons, as a result of religious persecution in Missouri and Illinois, headed west. Their route, the Mormon Trail, started at Council Bluffs, Iowa and followed the north side of the Platte and North Platte Rivers as far as the American Fur Company Post, Fort Laramie, in eastern Wyoming, where it joined the Oregon Trail.

March 26: (II)-Paul Kane (1810-1871) witnessed the eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington) from the mouth of the Lewis River in Oregon Territory.

April 30: birth, Charles Bonanfant, Metis died May 1, 1850 son Antoni Bonanfant son Antoni Bonanfant and Marie Pepin 1st married Maguerite Indian aka Marie Spokane also Mary Ann Pend d'Oreille, 2nd marriage 1841 Francoise Deparitti, north west Pacific Coast. Living Oregon 1842

August 2: Treaty with the Chippewa of the Mississippi and Lake Superior included the following clause:

Half or mixed blood of the Chippewa (Ojibwa) to be considered as Chippewa

Some of the signors of the treaty that may be Metis are as follows:

Chief Battiste Gauthier - half-breed - Lapointe Band

Michel Bashena

Warrior, John Baptiste Cadotte

Charles Charlo

Alexander Corbin, Chief

Chief Lueson Corbin

Lueson Godin

David King, 1st chief, - Ance

Peter Marksman, Chief

Jno. Pta. Rellemger

Warrior, John Baptiste Roy

Chief, Vincent Roy

John Sayer

Second Chief, Lemo Sayer

William W.W. Warren, 1st Chief

 

November 29: Dr Marcus Whitman b-1802, a Presbyterian missionary at the Dalles, Oregon on the Columbia River. The Dalles was named by a French Canadian Voyager, the Indians called it Winquatt. Whitman is considered by the natives to be a white doctor of bad medicine. They blamed him of bringing sickness to the People. When he brought in more settlers to their region, that was the last straw. The attacked the mission killing Whitman, his wife Naricissa (Prentiss) and 12 others. They took 53 women and children as captives.