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Biographies Beginning With "C"

From the book
Compiled by Franklyn Curtiss-Wedge and Others
Published Winona, MN by H. C. Cooper, Jr., & Co., 1920
Republished Currently by Higginson Books

Callahan, Michael A. (page 438), a well known merchant of Minneiska, who for the last 14 years has also held the office of postmaster, was born in Sandy Creek village, Orleans County, New York, November 23, 1858, son of John and Mary Callahan. The parents, natives of Ireland, came to the United States about 1839 or 1840, and spent the rest of their lives in Orleans County as farmers. The mother was the first to pass away, her death taking place in 1869. She had been twice married, John Callahan being her second husband. He survived her but a short time, dying in 1872. Michael A. Callahan, wo was the only child of his mother's second marriage, resided in Orleans County, New York, until reaching the age of 20 years. After attending the local schools, and for a part of the time while thus engaged, he assisted his father on the home farm. He then learned telegraphy and for some years was in the employ of the New York Centeral Railroad, at Rochester, N. Y. About 1880 he came west to Minnesota and entered the employ of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co. from 18881 to 1888 being stationed successively at St. Paul, Winona, and Weaver, Minn. Then going to Montana, he worked for the Great Northern Railroad Co. for a while. Under President Harrison's administration he obtained a government position in the Indian service, and was thus employed during the rest of that administration, and for eight months under that of President Cleveland. He then returned to railroad work, but was shortly taken sick, and for the next two years did little, on account of poor health. When he resumed active work again, it was as an employe of the Mississippi Logging Company, and for four years he had charge of their store at West Newton. In 1898 Mr. Callahan came to Minneiska and started his present store, well stocked with boots and shoes, and men's furnishing goods, in which line of trade he has established a reputation as a reliable merchant. In September, 1906, he became postmaster and has remained a popular official. The office is located in his store. In 1882 Mr. Callahan was married at Weaver, Minn., to Eliza J. Hitchcock, who was born in Missouri, November 27, 1860, but had lived in Minnesota since she was three years old, and in Weaver, Wabasha County, since she was 18. She was the daughter of John and Elizabeth Hitchcock, who settled at an early date in this county. One member of the family is said to have been the first white child born on Greenwood Prairie, near Plainview. To Mr. and Mrs. Callahan were born three daughters; Daisy, September 15, 1883; Ellen Grace, October 20, 1884; and Frances, June 28, 1887. Only one is now living. Daisy having passed away August 4, 1901, and Ellen Grace, August 10, 1886. The surviving daughter, Frances, was married February 18, 1908, to Edward J. Valentine, and now resides in Rollingstone Township, Winona County. She has six children, namely: Donald, born November 20, 1909; Ruth Elizabeth, August 14, 1911; James Edward, November 29, 1912; Katherine M., February 22, 1914; Frances A., October 22, 1915; and Florence in December 1918. Mrs. Michael A. Callahan died January 14, 1917, leaving to her husband the memory of a happy wedded life. He is one of the leading citizens of the picturesque little village of Minneiska, the history of which he has helped to make, and few men in this part of the county are better known or more popular.

Carley, Charles Brookings (page 238), an Olmsted County pioneer, was born in New York State, descended on both sides of his house from old New York families. As a young man he moved to Luzerne County, Penn., where he was married. In 1856 he and his wife came to Minnesota, and settled on a tract of wild land in section 1, Oronoco, in Olmsted County. From there they moved to Farm Hill, in Farmington Township, in that county. After this they came to Wabasha County and settled on a farm in Zumbro Township, a few miles from their former home. After a long agricultural career they retired and moved to Rochester, where they lived for a while. In 1895 they came to Plainview to make their home with their son, James A., and with him they moved to Wabasha. After that they again went to live among old friends and acquaintances in Zumbro Township and there the wife died July 5, 1915. Since then Mr. Carley has made his home with his children. He is highly respected by his fellow men, and has taken his share with the other pioneers in the development of this fertile region, having lived to see the wonderful changes that have transformed southeastern Minnesota from a wilderness into one of the most flourishing regions of the country. In politics, Mr. Carley has been a life-long Democrat. He and his wife were members of the Wesleyan Methodist church. Mr. Carley was married in Luzerne County, Penn., June 17, 1851, to Agnes Dodson, who was born there, Jan. 21, 1832. This union was blessed with ten children: Joseph Dodson, born April 18, 1852; Eliza, born July 10, 1854; Richard Sterling, born February 3, 1856; Frederick A., born August 6, 1858; Charles J., born September 29, 1860; Ernest, born March 12, 1862; William, born July 30, 1864; Frank, born November 3, 1866; James A., born June 17, 1869, and Walter E., born March 13, 1871. Ernest died October 18, 1862, and Frank died August 1, 1868.

World War ~ Homefront Worker
Carley, James A. (page 238), senator, attorney, business man and public official, is a splendid example of those native sons of Minnesota, whose parents were pioneers, and who have worthily carried the affairs of the Commonwealth still further along the road of progress and eminence. With but little encouragement he has won his way in the world and in achieving a satisfactory measure of success for himself, has assisted materially in the public, civic and business development of the state. As farm boy, teacher, attorney, county attorney, mayor, state representative, state senator, real estate, telephone and lumber investor, he has faithfully done his duty as he has seen it, and in so doing has won the esteem and respect of the people with whom he has come in contact. So widespread is his sterling reputation that he has already been prominently exploited in the public press as excellent material for the Governorship, and in 1918 he secured heavy support for the Democratic nomination for that office. James A. Carley was born in Oronoco Township, Olmsted County, Minn., June 17, 1869, son of Charles Brookings and Agnes (Dodson) Carley. With a common school training as a foundation, he secured an excellent education, his alma maters being the Wesleyan Methodist Seminary at Wasioja, Minn.; the Minnesota State Normal School at Winona, Minn.; the Hamline University at Hamline, Minn., and the law school of the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis. In the meantime since the age of fifteen he had made his own way, teaching, working at farming, and at such other employments as promised sufficient financial return. His first school was at Farm Hill, which he had attended as a boy, and subsequently at intervals he taught other school, including night classes at St. Paul. He was graduated and admitted to the bar in 1894. He at once opened an office in Plainview, but for two years thereafter continued his career as an educator. Since then his life has been one of ever increasing success. In 1896 he was elected county attorney, and although then inexperienced, he conducted the office in such a manner that he was thrice reelected. At the close of 1908 he retired to take up his duties as a member of the lower house of the Minnesota State Legislature. So excellent was his record in this respect that in 1910 he was persuaded to run for the upper house of the Legislature. Owing to political conditions he was defeated, but in 1914 again became a candidate and was elected. Although a Democrat, and the county was largely Republican, he received the largest majority ever received by a candidate for the senate in this district. In the senate he has made a most notable record, and is one of the influential figures in capitol politics. He was chairman of the Game and Fish Committee, and later of the Civil Administration committee, and a member of the finance, Education, Insurance, Judiciary, Towns and counties, and Public Service Co-operations Committees, all being of the most important in the Senate organization. One of his most notable fights has been for a tonnage tax on iron ores, which after years of effort he and his friends enacted into a law, in 1919, only to be defeated by the Governor's veto. In Plainview, Senator Carley has likewise been an important factor in public life. From 1914 to 1918 he did most excellent work as president of the village. During the world War he took an active part in the various drives, and delivered hundreds of talks in behalf of the loyal support of the government, in his own county and at many points within the state. In business, he has been no less distinguished. He was one of the founders of the Greenwood Prairie Telephone Co. in 1902, and is now president and principal owner, having had the practical management of the company since 1908. He was president of the New Wabasha Lumber Col., at Wabasha, which has recently sold its yards to the Botsford Lumber Co., of Winona, and is one of the founders and president of the North Star Moulding and Frame co., of Minneapolis. He has extensive real estate holdings in the vicinity of Plainview, and a large farm near Mapleton, in Blue Earth county, this state. He also has a pleasant home in Plainview. Fraternally he belongs to Plainview Lodge, A.F.&A.M., Wabasha Chapter, R.A.M., Lake City Commandery, K.T., Winona Consistory, S.R.M., Osmon Temple, A.A.O.N.M.S., Rochester Lodge, No. 1091, B.P.O.E., and Plainview Lodge, I.O.O.F., besides being a member of many fraternal insurance orders. Mr. Carley was married October 4, 1900, to Mary G. Chamberlain, daughter of C. L. and Loretta (Woodard) Chamberlain. Mrs. Carley is a member of the Congregational church. She is also a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution and of the Eastern Star.

James A. Carley

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Carleton, Charles W. (page 544), a prominent member of the agricultural community in Plainview Township, where he owns and operates a farm of 170 acres, 120 acres in Plainview Township and 50 acres in Whitewater Township, Winona County, was born in Plainview Township, Janury 24, 1872, son of John M. and Sarah (Newton) Carleton. The father was a native of New Hampshire and the mother of England. They were married in Wisconsin in March, 1871, and in the same year came to Minnesota, settling in Plainview Township, Wabasha County. In 1874 John M. Carleton bought 120 acres in section 36, the land being partly improved. He finished the work of grubbing and breaking, and later remodeled the buildings or erected new ones when needed, developing the farm into a good piece of agricultural property. After operating it until 1906 he retired, taking up his residence in Plainview, where he died in August, 1912. His wife died on the farm in 1892. They had five children: Charles W., subject of this sketch; Ralph, a minister of the Methodist Episcopal chruch, now residing in Starkweather, N. D.; Ella, residing in Plainview Village; Lizzie Amelia, wife of William D. Hassig, of Plainview Township; and Daisy A., who is a stenographer now living in California. Charles William Carleton was educated in the Woodland school and the public school of Plainview. From an early age he assisted his father on the home farm, and was its active manager after reaching the age of 21. In 1906 he bought the property, on which he has made a number of improvements, having erected a machine shed 24 by 64 feet in size, a hog barn 14 by 54, and a chicken house 10 by 24. He has also remodeled the house. He follows general farming, raising Shorthorn cattle for beef purposes, Poland-China swine, and other good stock, and is doing a paying business. Mr. Carleton is a member of the Plainview Shipping Association. He is clerk of School District No. 62, and politically independent. His religious affiliations and those of his family were with the Methodist Episcopal church. On June 12, 1907, he was married to Lulu E. Hassig, and they are the parents of two children: Harvey A., born October 18, 1908; and Ruth M., born July 9, 1913.

Carpenter, Timothy (page 295), for several years a Plainview blacksmith, was born in Pennsylvania, and there married Emmaline Webster, also a native of that state. They came to McHenry County, Ill., in 1850, and lived there until 1874 when they came to Plainview Township. Mr. Carpenter died in 1887 and his wife in 1906.

World War
Carrels, John (page 775), a prosperous and well known citizen of "West Wabasha," where he owns a fine home, was born in Luxemburg, December 6, 1840, his parents being farmers. With them he came to America in 1847, the voyage being made on a sailing vessel which took 65 days to cross the ocean. The family settled at Port Washington, Ozaukee County, Wis., on a farm, and the subject of this sketch remained until he came to Wabasha County, with his father, in August, 1869, to work in the harvest fields. The father returned to Wisconsin, but John remained here, and for several years worked in a furniture factory in Wabasha city. He then rented land in Greenfield Township, and began farming, which occupation he has followed ever since. He now owns 60 acres in West Wabasha, together with a fine house, and other good buildings, the situation being a beautiful one overlooking the Mississippi rover. Mr. Carrels was married January 6, 1887, to Anna Jacobs, whose parents resided in Belle Chester, on the line between Wabasha and Goodhue Counties. Of this marriage was born the following children: Frank, now living on the home farm; John, who is in Alberta, Canada; William, who died in infancy; Elizabeth, residing in Colorado; William, of Wabasha; Clara, living at home; George, of Alberta, Canada; Henry, deceased; Louis, a farmer in Wabasha County; Edward, on the home farm; Peter, who is employed in the Merchants Bank in Wabasha; Charles, who is engaged in farming; and Josephine, now Mrs. Leo Reister of Kellogg, Minn. Mr. Carrels and his family are members of St. Felix parish, Wabasha, and are people held in high esteem for their sterling qualities of industry, probity and patriotic Americanism. Three of the sons, Edward, Peter and Charles, served in the European war. Edward, who trained at Camp Cody, New Mexico, reached France October 24, 1918, and returned home July 5, 1919. Peter trained at Camp Wadsworth, S. C., and Charles at Camp Grant, Rockford, ill. The two latter did not get over to France.

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Carrels, William (page 776), proprietor of a truck and fruit farm on the outskirts of Wabasha City, was born in Wabasha, Minn., July 20, 1881, son of John and Anna (Jacobs) Carrels. He was educated in parochial and public schools in Wabasha, leaving the high school at the age of 20 years. In 1907 he went to Hettinger County, N. D., where he took a homestead of 160 acres, consisting of prairie land. There he remained four years. Then in the fall of 1911 he went to Alberta, Canada, taking a homestead of 160 acres there, 40 miles east of Warner, on which he resided until the spring of 1915. He then returned to Wabasha, Minn., and in 1916 sold both his Dakota and Alberta property. In the fall of 1916 he bought 14 acres within the limits of Wabasha city, on which he is now raising small fruits and garden produce. He has made considerable improvements on the property, in 1917 building a modern seven-room house, furnace-heated, with bath, hot and cold water and electric lights. The house has an outside finish of stucco and is a commodious residence. It is also a home, as on November 14, 1917, Mr. Carrels married Evelyn Jackson, who was born at Read's Landing, Minn., June 10, 1897, daughter of William and Cecelia Jackson, who were later residents of Hibbing, Minn. Mr. And Mrs. Carrels have one child, William Wilford, tho was born February 27, 1919. Mr. Carrels is a Democrat in politics. While residing in North Dakota he served his township as assessor, and was also for two years justice of the peace. Religiously he and his family are Catholics.

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Carstens, Peter (page 583), a well known and respected farmer of Oakwood Township, was born in Holstein, Germany, May 17, 1852, son of Max and Christina (Barnholt) Carstens. The father died in Germany when his son Peter was two years old, and the widowed mother subsequently married Jurgen Loshe. Peter was then adopted by his Uncle Claus Singelman, with whom he resided until he came to America in 1872, settling in Iowa. In that state he remained about 15 months, and then came to Wabasha County, Minn., and lived here for three years. He then returned to Iowa, spent nine months there, and subsequently came back to Wabasha County, worked out three years for Hans Behrns. Then in the spring of 1880 he bought the first part of his present farm, a tract of 70 acres in section 17, Oakwood Township, on which was a good house with some straw sheds. The purchase of additional land has brought the area of his farm up to 160 acres. By way of improvements, he has remodeled the house, erected a barn 40 by 60 feet, with full basement and several outbuildings. He is following diversified farming successfully and has a high standing in the community as a useful and industrious citizen. On Novermber 16, 1878, Mr. Carstens was united in marriage with Phoebe Schuchard, and this union has resulted in the birth of ten children: Rudolph, a resident of Revville County, who married Amelia Lehman, and has two children, Alice and Edna. John of Oakwood Township, married Matilda Carstens, and has five children, Elmer, Edna, Luella, Arnold and Harold. Edward, of Renville County, married Ida Kekker, and has one daughter. Herman, of Lake City, married Emily Winkle, and has two children, Lydia and Vera. Alfred, who married Martha Schroeder, and is now operating the home farm with his brother Carl; Carl, associated as above mentioned, with Alfred. Walter, also on the farm; Mary, wife of Oscar Nass of Plainview, one child, Evelyn; Emma, wife of Walter Senst of Zumbro Township, has one child, Evelyn; and Anna, now Mrs. Fred Wempner of Oakwood Township, has two children, Franklin and Kenneth. Mrs. Phoebe Carstens, the mother of these children, died February 6, 1919. Mr. Carstens is a member of the Lutheran church.

Casparis, Paul (page 467), superintendent of the Wabasha County Poor Farm, was born in Wabasha City, this county, December 9, 1870, son of Paul and Ocenia Casparis. Coming to Minnesota from Germany in 1860, the parents located in Wabasha, where the father followed the occupation of school teacher and dealt in machinery and insurance. Such were his business pursuits for over thirty years except two years which he spent in Big Waumandee Valley, Buffalo County, Wis., engaged in farming. He died in Wabasha in 1891, and was survived by his wife, who is now living in South Wabasha. They had four children: Octavia, now Mrs. John Schallenberg of Wabasha; Paul, subject of this sketch; Anna, wife of Ernest Morin of Wabasha, and Catherine, who is the widow of Bert Edwards and lives in Wabasha. Paul Casparis acquired his education in the common school of Wabasha. He was about 14 years old when his father died and was independently active in industrial pursuits thereafter, following any profitable employment. On June 18, 1896, he was united in marriage with Caroline Bott, daughter of Frederick and Minnie Bott, both of Wabasha, where he and his wife began housekeeping. In the same year he began work for R. E. Jones, in the latter's grain and coal business and so continued for a number of years. In 1903 he was made electrican and given charge of that part of the business, Mr. Jones then operating the lighting system of the city, including business places and private homes. In that occupation he continued until 1908. After that he worked one year in a lumber yard, and at the end of that time rented a farm in Wabasha Township, which he operated until the end of the year 1916. In the following spring he entered the employ of the county in his present position as superintendent of the county poor farm and has continued in that capacity up to the present time, giving good satisfaction. He is the owner of a nice residence property in Wabasha. Mr. and Mrs. Casparis are the parents of four children: Hazel Fayette, born October 30, 1897; Thelma Ruth, born September 15, 1901; Alleyn Ione, born September 23, 1907; and Anna Louise, born August 13, 1915. Hazel Fayette, who was graduated from the Wabasha High School and the Normal Training School, was a teacher for one year and is now living with her parents. Thelma Ruth and Alleyn Ione are attending school in Wabasha. Mr. Casparis was reared a German Lutheran in religious faith, but he and his family are now affiliated with the Congregational church. Mrs. Casparis has lost both her parents, her father having died in Wabasha, January 1, 1902, and her mother in Minneapolis, June 30, 1919. The father was a miller by trade. Mr. Casparis has two sisters and a brother, namely: August , in California; Anna now Mrs. Chalmers Robb of Minneapolis; and Louise, who married Robert English.

Cassidy, William Wilson (page 275), who passed from this life on Sunday, June 23, 1916, in his eighty-fourth year, was a well known pioneer lumberman who has been a resident of Wabasha County for 62 years, and had a legion of friends. He was born at Belfonte, Center County, Pa., March 27, 1833, son of John and Jane (Blair) Cassidy. When William was ten years old the family moved to Iowa and there he was reared on a farm and received his education in the common schools. At the age of 18 he was apprenticed to learn the carpenter's trade, which he followed two years. In 1854 he went to Menominie, Wis., and entered the employ of Knapp-Stout & Co., a large and well known lumber firm, for whom he worked two years at common labor in the woods or on the river. In 1857 he was placed at Read's Landing in charge of the company's lumber yards. On December 8 the same year he was married to Eliza Kyle, of Downsville, Dunn County, Wis. He brought his young bride to Read's Landing, where he built a nice home, and it was there that his five children were born, of whom the only one now living is Mabel, wife of George F. Duerre, of Plainview. After the abandonment of the river business Mr. Cassidy purchased a fine residence in Wabasha, on the brow of the hill on the west side, which he subsequently occupied until his death. He never sought public office, but served one term as county commissioner for his district. Politicallly he was a life-long Republican. He was eminently just in all his dealings. His long residence in this region and the nature of his business brought him into contact with business men throughout the entire lumbering world, and probably no man was better known or had more friends than he. He was a conscientious christian, a loving husband, a kind father, and a true friend. His nature was cheerful, and though for several years he had been gradually failing in health, he was never known to complain. He is missed not only by his family, but by everyone who knew him.

Caswell, William (page 729), one of the best known citizens of Chester Township, where for 24 years, he has been engaged in agriculture, and for much of that time has rendered service as a public official, was born in this township December 14, 1861, son of Cyrus and Margaret (Jenkins) Caswell. The father was born in the state of Ohio and the mother in England. They came to Wabasha County, Minn., settling in Chester Township in 1856, being therefore rightly numbered among the pioneers of the county. Cyrus Caswell died December 10, 1913, his wife having previously passed away in 1910. They had eight children, John, William, Anna, Charles, Grace, Nona, Mary and Pearl, of whom three-Anna, Grace and Nona-are now deceased. William Caswell acquired his education in the district school and was reared on his parents' farm. He worked for his father until 1896, in which year he started in for himself, buying 80 acres in section 28, Chester Township. To this property he later added 40 acres more, making a total of 120 acres. He improved the place by the erection of a good set of buildings and fences, and has his own electric light plant which furnishes light for all his buildings. He has followed general farming and stock raising with success, being now a well to do citizen. His public service includes seven years as treasurer of the town board, three years as supervisor, three years as town clerk, and 15 years as treasurer of the school board of District No. 15, in which last mentioned office he is still serving. Mr. Caswell was united in marriage March 23, 1896, with Jane Krisher, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Krisher of Chester Township, Mrs. Caswell's father being the former owner of the present Caswell farm. Mr. Krisher now resides in England, N. D., Mrs. Krisher having died in 1887. They were the parents of eight children, William, Dell, Elmer, Lizzie, Nora, Thomas, Lillie and Jane.

Christian, Charles, A. (page 275), now engaged in the produce business in Plainview, was born in Illinois, October 14, 1864, son of James and Martha (Lea) Christian. The family came to Wabasha County, Minnesota, in 1866, locating at Woodland in Plainview Township, where the parents were engaged in farming until the death of Mrs. Martha Christian on August 7, 1871. In the following year James Christian moved with his family to Wytoka Township in Winona County, where he followed farming until his death in 1894. C. A. Christian was brought up on the home farm, and was associated with his father in agricultural pursuits, finally becoming owner of the farm in Winona County. After operating it until 1899, he sold it and moved to Winona, where for six years he was employed in the Winona Wagon Works. During the next five years he worked in the boiler shops of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Co. In 1914 he came to Plainview and engaged in the general retail feed business, building a good mill, and buying a house and lots. He conducted the buying, and is in the full tide of a successful business career. He is a member of Illustrious Lodge, NO. 63, A. F. & A. M., The Modern Woodmen of America, and the Woodmen of the World. His religious affiliations are with the Christian church. Mr. Christian was married, December 27, 1899, to Ida Wentworth, daughter of David and Julia (Miner) Wentworth, of Plainview, Minn., both of whom are now deceased.

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Christison, George H. (page 657), a leading representative of the agricultural interests of Plainview Township, was born in Waukesha County, Wis., November 9, 1862, son of John and Elizabeth (Allison) Christison. The parents were natives of Scotland, but were married in Wisconsin, and were engaged there in farming, an occupation which John Christison followed all his life. In the spring of 1872 he came with his family to Wabasha County, Minn., renting a farm in Plainview Township, which he operated until 1889. He then bought a farm of 80 acres in section 30, on which he resided until 1894, when he retired and moved to Owatonna, Minn., where he died. His wife died in August, 1918. They had 12 children, Margaret, wife of T. W. Morris of Brookings, S. D.; George H., of Plainview Township; Elizabeth (a twin sister of George H.), who is now Mrs. Eugene Wedge, of Plainview; William, who met an accidental death by drowning in Milwaukee; Wallace, now of Ripon, Wis.; Edward, who is residing in British Columbia; Clara, now a teacher in Great Falls, Minn; and Chester, of Swift County, Minn. George H. Christison acquired his primary education in Wisconsin and subsequently attended school in Plainview, Minn. After becoming industrially active he worked out by the month until 1893, in which year he began farming for himself, buying 80 acres of land in section 19, Plainview Township. The land comprised the entire property, as there were no buildings. These he has himself erected, including a good residence and a barn 34 by 72 feet in size, with other outbuildings necessary to a farmer. He has also installed a private electric light plant which furnishes light for all the buildings, as well as the yard. In addition to these improvements he has increased the area of his farm by the purchase of more land, and it now contains 240 acres-160 acres in section 20, and 80 acres in section 19-making his total land holdings amount to 240 acres. Such an accumulation of property indicates a prosperous career, not counting the fact that he is also a stockholder in the Plainview Co-operative Creamery Association, of which he has been the president for eight years. As a general farmer he has been energetic and far-sighted, and his operations have been more than ordinarily successful. He makes a specialty of dairying, keeping Jersey cattle, of which he has at the present time about 26; ships on an average of 80 Duroc-Jersey swine yearly; and also breeds Percheron horses and Shropshire sheep, of the latter now having a flock of about 60. He is a member of the Plainview Stock Shipping Association. His society affiliations include membership in the Old Settlers Association and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He and his family attend the Congregational church. Mr. Christison was married December 24, 1900, to Addie Horn, of Plainview, who was born in Plainview Township, daughter of John and Nancy Horn, and who died October 31, 1918. He and his wife became the parents of three children: William J., born Novermber 23, 1901; Mildred E., September 7, 1906; and Everett G., July 8, 1909. All three are residing on the home farm. William J. is a graduate of the Plainview High School in the class of 1920, while the other two are attending the public school. Such in brief outline is the sketch of one of Wabasha County's modern and most progressive farmers-a class of men who, though they have not had to contend with the difficulties experienced by their predecessors, the pioneers, have carried the science of agriculture to a point never dreamed of by those early settlers in the days of their most vigorous labors, and are enjoying a reward far beyone what they ever received.

Christison, James M. (page 469), one of the thriving farmers of Plainview Township, where he has resided for 29 years, was born in Waukesha County, Wisconsin, March 27, 1867, son of Thomas and Jane (Miller) Christison. The parents were Wisconsin farmers who were married in that state, and who are both now deceased, the father having passed away in 1908 and the mother in 1915. James M. received his education in the district schools of Waukesha County, and resided at home on his parents' farm until 22 years of age. He then worked out for two years, after which, in 1891, he came to Wabasha County. After working four years for others in this county, he began independent farming, buying 80 acres in section 30, Plainview Township. On that farm he resided until 1912, making good progress financially. When he sold it he bought his present farm of 160 acres, one-half of which lies in section 7 and the other half in section 18. Here he is following mixed farming and dairying, having a herd of 30 Guernsey cattle with a full blooded sire, and also raising Poland-China hogs. With a good practical knowledge of the business and abundant industry, he is well advanced on the road of prosperity. For three years he has served as clerk on the school board of his district. On February 13, 1901, Mr. Christison was united in marriage with Igna M. Christensen, who was born near Copenhagen, Denmark, May 16, 1879. In 1882 she came to Appleton, Minn., with her parents and resided there nine years, then went to Paynesville, Minn., where she resided until two years before her marriage. The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Christison are: Mary J., born October 24, 1902; Florence, July 19, 1904; Alice, September 14, 1906; Helen, November 6, 1908; Lester J., March 6, 1911; and Charles M., February 7, 1915. Mr. Christison and his family are members of the Congregational church. They are people of wide acquaintance, highly esteemed in Plainview Township and the vicinity.

Christison, John (page 321), who was for over 23 years a well known farmer in Plainview Township, was born in Scotland. In Summit, Wis., he married Elizabeth Allison, who was also of Scotch birth, and in 1872 they came to Wabasha County, locating on a farm two and a half miles northwest of Plainview. There they remained for nine years, gradually making progress in the world, and at the end of that time removed to another farm, northeast of Plainview, on which they spent five years. Another removal was then made, to a farm of 80 acres in the same township, south of Plainview, where they lived until 1895. In that year they retired, selling the farm and moving to Owatonna, Minn., where John Christison died in June, 1908. His wife survived him ten years, passing away in August, 1918. They were industrious and worthy people, well respected during their residence in the county, and having a wide circle of friends. ,

Christopher, Ralph W. (page 433), a popular young business man of Millville, was born in this village, August 26, 1894, son of Ole and Bertha (French) Christopher. The father was a native of Norway and son of Christopher and Jane Christopher, who brought him to the United States at the age of seven years, in 1853. They first located in Iowa, from which state they came to Wabasha County, Minnesota in 1859, taking land in Oakwood Township, where they engaged in farming. There Christopher spent the rest of his life. After his death his son Ole took charge of the farm, which he operated until 1894, since which time he has been living retired in Millville. He and his wife Bertha have been the parents of six children, of whom four are now living, Ralph in Millville, Edson in South Dakota, Jay in Minnesota City, Minn., and Bert in Revere, Minn. Ralph W. Christopher acquired a public school education and was reared on the home farm. After being thus employed for a time he became clerk in Frish & Engel's store in Millville, which position he held for seven years. Subsequently he worked six years for J. F. McGuigan, and at the end of that time, in 1919, opened his present confectionery and ice cream parlor, which is the only store of the kind in town, and enjoys a good trade. On June 15, 1917, he enlisted in the 311th Engineers, attached to the 86th Division in France, and served 16 months, during which time he was engaged in building bridges, roads, barracks, and other military constructions. He was honorably discarged July 8, 1918. His brother Edson enlisted in the United States service May 30, 1918, and also went to France, serving four months in the infantry. He was wounded in the Argonne and sent home with an honorble record. Ralph W. Christopher is a member of the American Legion. He resides with his father and mother in Millville, being as yet unmarried.

Churchill, Eugene S. (page 572), who was for a number of years a prosperous farmer and business man of Wabasha County, was born in Freeport, Ill., of Scotch and Dutch ancestry. He came to Wabasha County, Minn., about 1880, and for some time was engaged in furnishing brush to the government for dams on the Mississippi river, doing the work under contract. After a while he bought 360 acres of land in Greenfield Township, and began farming, erecting a good set of buildings and developing his land. While so doing he still did a little contract work occasionally. In 1908 he rented the farm to a tenant and moved to Wabasha city, where he engaged in business, and where his death occurred November 6, 1912. He had had a successful career, beginning with nothing and acquiring a competence through his own efforts. As a man and citizen he stood high in the estimation of his neighbors. Mr. Churchill married Emma Brown, who was born in Pepin, Wis., in 1852, of German parentage, and who is still living in Wabasha. They had five children: A son who died in infancy; Walter, born in 1885, no deceased; Warren G., a prominent business man of Wabasha city; Anna, born March 24, 1892, now Mrs. W. S. Johnson, of Trout Valley, this county; and Reta, born June 17, 1896, who is a nurse in the Wabasha Sanitorium (sic).

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Churchill, Warren G. (page 572), a well know business man of Wabasha City, where he is engaged in the jewelry and piano business, was born on a farm in Greenfield Township, this county, September 26, 1888, son of Eugene S. and Emma (Brown) Churchill. He was reared on his parents' farm and educated in the district school, which he attended up to the age of 15. He then attended the graded school at Kellogg, from which he was graduated, and later entered the Brandrup & Nettleton Business College at Winona, which he attended for five months. He then entered the employ of Beinhorn & Meier, Winona, to learn the jeweler's trade, remaining with that concern for two years and a half. After that he took a position with the jewelry firm of Blickel Bros., of Rochester, Minn. On November 2, 1911, he started in business for himself in Wabasha, renting space for a jeweler's bench and a showcase from E. B. Kenefee. This venture met with success, and on August 17, 1912, Mr. Churchill bought out the stock and business of Charles Tryon, on Pembroke street, Wabasha, which he has since developed into a large business, having a well equipped store. He has also extended his operations to include a line of musical goods, selling Edison ph9nographs,m Raden-Bush pianos, Waltham player pianos and the Starr player pianos, in all of which he has developed a good trade covering a large territory in this section of the country. His enterprise and square business methods have made him popular, and he is now serving as president of the local commercial club, known as the Wabasha Boosters' Club. Politically he is a Republican, but places the man above the party, reserving his right to vote for any candidate whom he esteems most worthy of office. Mr. Churchill assumed the responsibilities of domestic life on February 11, 1918, when he was united in marriage with Eva Dorothy, daughter of John and Katherine Schmidt, of Wabasha City, of which place she is a native. Mr. and Mrs. Churchill are members of St. Felix Catholic parish, and are popular members of society here.

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Clemens, William A. (page 731), a well known business man of Mazeppa, was born in Zumbrota Township, Goodhue County, Minn., March 19, 1876, son of Peter and Elizabeth (Boulard) Clemens. The father was a native of Luxemburg, and the mother of Illinois. Peter Clemens first came to Minnesota in 1860 from Madison, Wis., but soon returned to that place, and in the first year of the Civil War enlisted in the 14th Wisconsin regiment. He served three years and eight months, taking part in many battles, and was with Sherman in his march to the sea. After receiving an honorable discharge, he came again to Minnesota, and took a farm in Zumbrota Township, Goodhue County, where he followed agriculture until 1893. He then moved to Bear Valley, Chester Township, Wabasha County, and in 1896 to Mazeppa, where he died in the year 1918. His wife died in 1907. Of their seven children, three are now living: Frank, of Mazeppa; Anna, wife of Allie Louck, of Motley, Minn., and William A. William A. Clemens was reared on his parents' farm, and in his boyhood attended district school and the Mazeppa public school. He accompanied his parents to town, and for a while followed the trade of a carpenter. For ten years subsequently until July, 1919, he operated a saloon, and since then has been proprietor of a billiard hall, also carrying a line of soft drinks, tobacco, and lunches. Fraternally he is affiliated with the Elks and the United Workmen. Mr. Clemens was married at Mazeppa November 22, 1898, to Edith Arnold, daughter of Andrew and Lena Arnold. Her parents, who were both born in Ohio, were early settlers in Mazeppa Township, this county, where they followed farming. Their family included seven children, one of whom, Bert, is now deceased. The survivors are: Julia, wife of James Stull, of Chester; Charlie, residing in Mazeppa; Edith, wife of W. A. Clemens; Fred, of Portland, Ore.; Wayne, of Albany, Ore.; and Glenn, of North Dakota. Mr. and Mrs. Clemens have two children living, Mildred and Hazel. Three others are now deceased, Marvin, Norman, and one who died in infancy.

Cleveland, Charles P. (page 610), a prominent representative of the agricultural industry in Glasgow Township, was born in Highland Township, Wabasha County, September 13, 1880, son of John and Cora (Hathaway) Cleveland. As a boy he attended district school in Glasgow Township, to which his parents had moved in 1889, and also went to school for awhile in Wabasha village. After working for his father for several years he took up telegraphy, which occupation he followed for 14 years, being employed by the Northern Pacific railway at Tower City, N. D. In 1913, at the time of his fathers' death, he returned home and entered into possession of the home farm, buying the interests of the other heirs. Since then he has been engaged in general farming and stock raising here, keeping a good grade of stock, his hogs being of the Poland-China breed, with a full blooded sire. Mr. Cleveland was married September 15, 1909, to Charlotte Black, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James Black, of Tower City, N. D., where Mr. worked at the blacksmith's trade for 14 years. In 1920 Mr. and Mrs. Black moved to Kellogg, Wabasha County, where he is now operating a shop. They are members of the M. E. church. Their children are Jessie C., Charlotte, Roy, Jennie and Bertha. Mr. and Mrs. Cleveland are the parents of three children: Pliny D., born July 5, 1910; and Gail and Dale (twins), born December 14, 1915.

Cleveland, John (page 609), formerly identified with the agricultural development of Highland and Glasgow townships, was a native of Michigan, as was also his first wife, whose maiden name was Cora Hathaway. They settled in Highland Township, Wabasha County, Minnesota, in the fifties and there engaged in farming, which Mr. Cleveland followed uninterruptedly until after the breaking out of the Civil War, in which he took part as a soldier, enlisting from Wabasha County and becoming a member of the Third Minnesota Volunteer Infantry. His service lasted two years, and he then returned home and resumed farming in Highland Township, where he remained until 1889. He then bought 160 acres in section 24, Glasgow Township. On the latter farm he erected all the buildings and fences, and was successfully engaged in its cultivation until his death in 1913. His wife, Cora, died July 1, 1892, and in 1896 he married Jessie Chipman, who survives him and is now a resident of Wabasha village. Mr. Cleveland was the father of ten children, six by his first wife and four by his second. Those by his first wife, Cora, were: Gertrude E. (deceased); C. Grace (deceased); William L., Jessie M., Charles P., and John. The children by his second wife, Jessie, were Harold D., Esther M., Helen J., and James F., all now living.

Cliff, Joseph J. (page 721), whose death some 12 years ago deprived Chester Township of one if its leading citizens, was born in England, May 7, 1844, and came to the United States with his parents in 1865. The family settled in Chester Township, Wabasha County, Minn., and engaged in farming. Joseph worked for his father until 1873, and then started in for himself, buying 280 acres in section 23, Chester. With commendable energy he improved his place by the erection of a new set of buildings, and followed general farming and stock raising with profitable results until his death on August 28, 1908. He was a citizen held in high esteem and served as supervisor on the town board. Mr. Cliff was married in 1873 to Melissa Merrill, who died after a few years of wedding life in 1876. One June 13, 1882, Mr. Cliff married Mary Robinson, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Robinson of Mazeppa. Both her parents have passed away, the father dying in 1909, and the mother in 1907. The children of Joseph J. and Mary Cliff were as follows: Anna B., born June 21, 1884, now Mrs. Ernest Beals of St. Paul; Maude J., born March 10, 1886, who is the wife of F. C. Yotter of Mazeppa; Charles P., born April 16, 1889, who is now in North Dakota; Jessie F., born November 26, 1891, now Mrs. Alfred Rucker of Oronoco, Minn; Florence, born Oct. 6, 1893, wife of Lawrence Wassman of Lake City; Clark R., born July 17, 1894; McKinley, born February 18, 1897, and Ruth E., born August 28, 1898. The three last mentioned are still residing on the home farm with their mother, it being operated by the two sons, Clark and McKinley. The Cliff family have a good social standing and are affiliated religiously with the Congregational church. Charles C. Robinson, the father of Mrs. Cliff, was born in New York State, and came west to Illinois, where he engaged in farming. There he married Elizabeth Peeler, and at a still early day they came to Wabasha County, Minn., and engaged in farming in Chester Township. They has six children, four sons and two daughters, all of whom are now deceased except Charles of Minneapolis, Edwin of Idaho, Mary, widow of Joseph J. Cliff, and Eva, wife of Will Vilas of Denver, Colo. During the Civil War Mr. Robinson enlisted in a Minnesota regiment and served about two years.

Cliff, Menzie T. (page 629), a prosperous and representative farmer of Lake Township, residing in section 17, was born in Frederickton, New Brunswick, August 23, 1870, son of Jonathan B. and Jane (Good) Cliff. The parents, who were respectively of English and Scotch descent, settled in New Brunswick at an early day. They died before their son Menzie had finished his school course, and he had to make his own way in the world. After graduating from a business college, he was induced by friends in Menominee, Mich., to go to that place, and there he found a position as bookkeepr with the "K.C." Lumber Co., remaining with them for two years and a half. In 1894 he went to Minneapolis to take a similar position with R. B. Tomling & Son, wholesale hatters, and was with that concern for a year. While residing in that city he made the acquaintance of Adie May Spaulding, daughter of Addison Russ and Lamoile (Sanborn) Spaulding, of Lake City, Minn., and was united in marriage with her on July 15, 1894. In March of the following year he and his wife came to Wabasha County to care for her parents, both of whom died within a few years, the mother on September 15, 1901, and the father on April 15, 1902. On account of his wife's health Mr. Cliff then went to Colorado and for some time he was engaged in the real estate business at Greely, that state. The Spaulding farm, which had come into their possession, was in the meanwhile rented out to a tenant. In 1906 Mr. and Mrs. Cliff returned to Wabasha County and took up their residence on the farm in section 17, Lake Township, which he has operated ever since. It formerly contained 126 acres, but by an additional purchase he has increased its area to 226 acres, and now has 165 acres under the plow. The farm is one of the best in the county and is beautifully situated on the bluff, commanding a fine view of Lake City, Lake Pepin and Maiden Rock on the Wisconsin side of the river. Mr. Cliff follows general farming and dairying, his dairy herd consisting of pure bred Jerseys, while his swine are graded Chester-Whites. Although he has bred and owned many fine Jerseys, "Ella B." of River Lawn was the star boarder in his herd for many years. On February 13, 1914, Mr. Cliff started her on an official test for one year, although she was then 12 years of age. At the completion of her test on February 13, 1915, it was found she had given, 11,336.6 pounds of 5.42 per cent milk, which yielded 614.5 pounds of butter fat, or 722 pounds 15 ounces of butter. During this time she had dropped a living calf, which, with her record, gained her a place in Class AA, Register of Merit. This wonderful performance at her advanced age showed her to be one of the most productive Jerseys in the United States. Mr. Cliff has a good modern equipment and is conducting a profitable business. Politically he is a Republican of broad tendencies, in casting his vote usually placing the man before the party. He and his wife are the parents of a son, Ivan Spauling Cliff, who was born August 11, 1898. This son was graduated from the Lake City high school in 1917 as valedictorian of his class, and is now operating the farm with his father. During the recent war with Germany he volunteered and was three months in the S.A.T,C, at Carleton College. He is a member of Carnelian Lodge, No. 40, A.F. & A.M. Mr. Cliff and his family are members of the First Congregational Church in Lake City.

Clough, Daniel D. (page 279), was one of those sterling, substantial characters of solid worth, whose lives and characters had much to do with the shaping of Greenwood Prairie progress in the early days. He was loved, honored and respected by everyone, valued by his own generation, and looked up to by the younger ones. His great characteristic was a dignified cheerfulness. Rich in all those things which count for true worth, he was an exemplary citizen, a true Christian, and a man of great charity. He never sought honor or position, but he did seek the opportunity for the widest service. His benevolence was broad, and in his death the Christian world cost a true friend. He joined the Christian church as a boy, he was one of the pioneers of the Plainview congregation, but he never wavered in his faith and work. In addition to the great good he did, he also attained for himself material prosperity. As a farmer he was the most successful and built up a fine place, beautified with a pleasant home, where he and his family spent the happiest years of their life adding to the beauty of the surroundings, and accummulating a competency. Daniel Dunbar Clugh was born in Chardon, Ohio, May 13, 1848, and was brought to Minnesota as a boy of fifteen. He spent his entire life on the farm in Elgin Township until 1909 when he moved to Plainview, where he lived until his death June 23, 1916. His church, his family, his farm, and the community, these were his four interests, and right loyally did he serve all. Interested in education he served for many years on the school board, he was trustee and elder of the church. His life was well spent and the community is the better for his having lived in it. Mr. Clough was married October 16, 1876, to Sophia Reifkogel, born July 4, 1856, at Charlestown, Mass., daughter of J. W. and Charlotte (Young) Reifkogel. Both Mr. Clough and his wife have been active in the Old Settlers' Association of Greenwood Prairie.

Clough, Ephraim (page 278), the pioneer, was born in Chardon, Ohio, February 17, 1821, son of Jari and Euniec (Grey) Clough. He was married December 10, 1844, to Elizabeth Dunbar, and they moved at once to Black Swamp, Ohio. But the "fever and ague" drove them back to Chardon, where they remained for several years longer. In the fall of 1863 they came to Plainview, and the next spring bought from E. B. Eddy a farm northwest of Plainview Village. In the fall of 1895 they moved to Garden City, Minn., and took up their home with their youngest son, Merton. The wife and mother died the same fall. In 1904 Mr. Clough went to Mankato with the son, Merton, and lived there until 1908, when the family moved back to Garden City. Mr. Clough was taken ill on his eighty-eighth birthday, and died in October, 1910, at the age of 88 years and 8 months. He was buried at Garden City. Thus briefly is told the life story of a noble man, whose life was filled iwth interesting incidents. Born in Ohio, amid pioneer condtiions, he grew to sturdy manhood, and there acquired those staunch characteristics that were his predominating characteristics. Coming to Minnesota just when the Civil War was raging, he took his part in the growth and progress of Greenwood Prairie, and developed a large and excellent farm. He was a member of the Christian (Disciple) church from early youth, and was a truly good and useful man in every way. Elizabeth Dunbar Clough was the daughter of Daniel and Clarissa (Brown) Dunbar, the former born September 27, 1784, and the latter born June 19, 1795. Mr. and Mrs. Clough had three children: Daniel Dunbar Clough, Ellen A. Clough and Merton Maynard Clough. Daniel D. Clough married Sophia Riefkogel, October 16, 1876. Ellen A. Clough married Henry Horten in 1877 and has one son, Royal E., born September, 1878, and now in the grocery business in Haver, Mont. Merton M. Clough was married June 6, 1888, in Benson, Minn., to Mary F. Utter, and they have three children: Lois Irene, Emily Eunice and Maynard Fillmore. Lois Irene was born March 21, 1889, and is in the employ of the Government at Washington. Emily Eunice was born Dec. 11, 1891, and was married June 24, 1913, to William Chester Cullen, of St. James, Minn. They have one son, William Clough Cullen, born December 2, 1914. Maynard Fillmore Clough was born March 6, 1901, and works with his father on the farm at Grand Rapids, Minn.

Colburn, Fred G. (page 636), who is conducting a successful milling business at Jarretts in Hyde Park Township, was born in Jefferson County, N. Y., May 21, 1850, son of Otis and Amelia E. Colburn. The father, who was born at Champion, in the same county, on December 1, 1815, died at Carthage, N. Y., June 12, 1865. The mother was a native of Sackett's Harbor in the same New York county, born in 1823. She died at Jarretts,Wabasha County, Minn,. October 15, 1899. Mr. and Mrs. Otis Colburn were the parents of four children, only two of whom are living: Mrs. George D. Stanton, of Oak Park, Ill., and Fred G. of Jarretts. Fred G. Colburn was 15 years old when his father died, and after that event he went to Fond du Lac, where he learned the miller's trade with an uncle, Alpheus Colburn, remaining with him for three years. He then went to Brandon, Wis., where for six years he was in the employ of H. G. Matthews. From Brandon he went to Harvard, Ill., in the employ of Wood & Co. A year later he removed to Newcastle, Wis., and for three years rented a half interest in the business of A. Colburn & Son. After that until 1884 he, with C. J. Colburn & Bro., owned a half interest in the Eagle mill at Minneapolis. At the end of that time Mr. Colburn came to Wabasha County and engaged in the milling business at Jarretts, where he has since resided, his son, Judson C., being in partnership with him. He has established himself securely as a business man and is one of the prosperous and highly respected citizens of his township. He has served 25 years as treasurer of school district No. 47 and in politics is a Republican. He and his family attend the M. E. church. Mr. Colburn, was first married November 28, 1882, to Cora E. Lewis, daughter of Lucius R. and Delilah Lewis of Fond du Lac, Wis. She died at Jarretts, Wabasha County, July 10, 1897. By her Mr. Coburn had four children: Louisa A., born February 26, 1884; Ada A. December 30, 1885; Ethel M., December 29, 1889, and Judson C., June 15, 1894. Louisa A. is now the wife of George Sime of Aberdeen, S. D., and has two children, Richard C. and Rhoda. Ada A., who graduated from the Plainview high school, and was a teacher several years, is now keeping house for her father. Ethel M. who graduated from the English high school at Minneapolis and the Minneapolis Business College, is now a stenographer and bookkeeper. Judson C. Colburn, who, as above mentioned, is in business partnership with his father, enlisted for service in the world war, August 15, 1918. From St. Paul he went to the officers' training school at Camp Grant, where he was located when the armistice was signed. He was discharged November 30, 1918. On September 15, 1920, he married Lura Mae Herrick of Farm Hill, Minn., who was born March 12, 1899. Mr. Fred G. Colburn married his second wife, April 25, 1900, Annie Love, who died without issue July 24, 1914.

Colby, Gardner A. (page 284), Proprietor of a moving picture theatre and opera house in Plainview, was born in Plainview Township, January 27, 1873, son of Mr. and Mrs. L. D. Colby. He was educated in the local schools and at a business college in Minneapolis, and for some years thereafter remained on his parents' farm, working for his father, at first by the month, and during the last year on a percentage. In 1898 he enlisted in the Fourteenth Regiment Band, as trombone player, and went with the organization to Chicago. After his return he was variously employed until 1909, in which year he entered into his present business, at first renting the theatre, but later buying it, as his enterprise has proved a success. The house is provided with an elevated floor, and has a capacity of 200. Mr. Colby takes pains to secure good attractions, and that his efforts are appreciated is shown by the large number of patrons with whom the place is a favorite resort. Mr. Colby is a member of the Masonic order and of the Modern Woodmen of America. He was married, December 9, 1899, to Helma R. Christopher, who was born in Plainview, Minn., May 6, 1878, daughter of Nels and Anna Christopher. Of this union there is one child, Ruth, who was born September 21, 1905. Mr. Colby and his family attend the Methodist Episcopal church.

Colby, Jonathan (page 284), who left behind him an honored memory as one of the hardy pioneers of southeast Minnesota, was born in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, September 4, 1809. The first 46 years of his life were spent in his native state, and in 1831 he was there married to Malinda Pratt, who died in 1854. Of that union five children were born, of whom Mrs. John Q. Richardson is living. Mr. Colby continued his residence in Vermont for a year after the dear of his wife, and then he and his son, L. D. Colby, joined the throng of gold seekers on the way to California, where for two years they were engaged in mining. They then returned to Vermont, remained there a year, and in 1858 came to Minnesota, stopping at Elgin until the following spring. Jonathan Colby then took a claim in Whitewater Township, Winona County the farm later owned by David McCarty but three years later moved to a farm a few miles southeast of Plainview, in Plainview Township, Wabasha County. In 1859 he married his second wife, Azubah Melendy, and until 1897, a period of 37 years, was actively engaged in looking after his farm, being recognized as a practical and successful agriculturist, and an excellent man and citizen. His health finally began to fail, and for a year before his death he was obliged to leave business affairs to the care of his wife. On January 16, 1898, he passed away, deeply mourned by his family, friends, and fellow citizens. Before leaving his native state he had connected himself with the Freewill Baptist church, and had remained faithful to its teachings. He was a man of good principle, good business judgments, and had bettered the world by his having lived.

Colby, Loyal D. (page 285), pioneer, farmer, and educator, was one of those substantial men whose life was a part of the history of the county for many years, and whose character and worth won for him a high place in the regard of his fellow men. He was a man of great industry and tireless energy. No toil was too much for him, no sacrifice too great if made for his family or for the cause of humanity. He lived for home and family and for all the things worth while in life. He established a good home, brightened by the presence of a gracious wife, and together they labored to rear their children, and educate them as useful men and women. Loyal D. Colby was born in East Orange, Orange County, Vermont, April 20, 1836, son of Jonathan and Malinda (Proutt) Colby. He was reared and educated in his native town. In 1855 he and his father went to California, by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and spent two years in the mines known as Garrotte No. 2, near Big Oak Flats. Then they returned to their home in Vermont. In 1858, with other members of the family, they started for the upper Mississippi region, driving the entire distance with eight head of horses, and bringing their household goods and supplies. Upon their arrival here they settled in Whitewater Township, in Winona County. Three years later they settled in Plainview Township, a few miles southeast of the village. Here they developed a good farm. Royal D. assisted his father with the farm work, and for several years taught school, his longest service being in the Whitewater Falls district. In 1863 he purchased 80 acres in section 16, Plainview Township, and to this place in 1867 he brought his bride. Later he bought 80 acres more, making a good farm of 160 acres lying on the eastern limits of the village. Here he spent the remainder of his life, dying February 24, 1919. Mr. Colby joined the Masonic order in Plainview in 1873, and was secretary from 1883 until advancing age caused his retirement in 1901. He was one of the most faithful brothers of the order and was numbered among its most honored members. He and his family were active in the affairs of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Colby was married January 1, 1867, at the bride's home, to Orrilla Avery, born in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, daughter of Smith P. and Betsey (Nichols) Avery, substantial and well-to-do Vermont farmers. Mr. and Mrs. Colby were blessed with seven children: Lulu B., Gardner A., Carl W., Esther J., Rolla W., Albert and Nellie. Lulu B. is the wife of E. A. Carpenter, of Plainview. Gardner A. is proprietor of the moving picture theater at Plainview. Carl is editor of the Pine Co. Courier at Pipestone, this state. Esther J. is the wife of Dr. J. V. Anderson, of Red Wing, this state. Rolla W. lives in St. Paul. Albert died at thirteen months and Nellie at thirteen years. Mrs. Colby still lives in the family home, surrounded by the love and companionship of friends and relatives, and is highly esteemed by all who know her. The home has ever been a hospitable one, and has been one of the influence for good in the community.

Collier, Bratine (page 549), a pioneer of Wabasha County, was a native of Illinois, in which state he grew to manhood and was married. With his wife Collisa he came to Minnesota in 1856, during the early rush of emigration to this state, then a territory, and settled in Cook's Valley, Greenfield Township, where he took land and engaged in farming. His original trade was that of cooper, but at that time he had no opportunity to follow it here. Neither did he continue farming very long, for after a few years he engaged in the manufacture of brick at Kellogg and was occupied subsequently until his death in June, 1877. While the Civil War was in progress he served one year as private in a Minnesota regiment. His wife survived him many years, dying June 5, 1907. They had three children: Lizzie, who married E. J. Gage, lives in Minneapolis, and has two sons; Ada, who married C. H. Coleman, resides in Centralia, Wash., and has two children; and William D., proprietor of a blacksmith shop in Kellogg, Minn.

World War I
Collier, William D. (page 550), who is conducting a successful business as black smith in the village of Kellogg, and has also other business interests, was born in Cook's Valley, Greenfield Township, this county, August 4, 1860, son of Bratine and Collisa Collier. His early years were spent on his parents' farm, but while still a boy he accompanied them to Kellogg, where he attended public school until it became necessary for him to help support himself, when he took up any occupation that came handy. At the age of 13 he drove a dump cart on the Milwaukee road while it was in process of construction. When he was 17 he started to learn the trade of blacksmith, which he has followed ever since, having for many years been proprietor of one of the best equipped shops in the county, which he sold in March, 1920, and is now devoting his time to his truck farm in Kellogg, and is a stockholder in the Telephone Company. As a public spirited citizen he has taken some part in governmental affairs, having served as a member of the village board, and being now in his second term as president of the village, and at one time was acting marshal of Kellogg. For six years he has been president of School District No. 31. He belongs to the Order of Samaritans, and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Collier was married, November 9, 1886, to Augusta Weinberg, of Cook's Valley, daughter of Henry and Anna Weinberg. Her parents, natives of Hanover, Germany, settled in Greenfield Township, this county, in 1856, and were farmers there for the rest of their lives. The father died September 28, 1907, but the mother is still living. Mr. and Mrs. Collier have four children: Edward, George, Edith and Chester. Edward married Mary McGraw, of Kellogg, and is now farming in Greenfield Township. George, who lives in Minneapolis, took an active part in the recent World War, serving as sergeant in the 54th Pioneer Infantry, in France. He was 47 days on the front lines in the Argonne Forest and helped to smash the Hamburg line. He is now treasurer of the Hudson Manufacturing Co., of Minneapolis. Edith is bookkeeper in the store of Kenens & Lydon, Kellogg. Chester is attending school.

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Colling, Charles W. (page 490), who is numbered in the ranks of the active business citizens of Mazeppa, and has served a number of years as a public official, was born in New York State December 3, 1862, son of Theodore and Mary (Niles) Colling. The parents were natives of Germany who came to the United States about 1858, the father being a cabinet-maker by trade. In 1867 the family came to Minnesota, settling at Hastings, where Theodore Colling followed his trade for eight years. At the end of that time they came to Mazeppa, and here the father continued in the cabinet-making and furniture business until his death. He was survived by his wife, who passed away June 4, 1919, at the venerable age of 93 years. They had a family of five children, those now living being: Peter, a resident of Jamestown, N. D.; Charles W., of Mazeppa; and Frank, of Red Wing, Minn. The two who died were Mary and Joseph. Mary was the wife of Charles Whipple, of Zumbrota, Goodhue County. Joseph died in North Dakota in 1817. Charles W. Colling was about five years old when his parents settled in Hastings, Minn., and there he subsequently attended the public schools. He accompanied the family to Mazeppa, and a few years later engaged in the furniture and undertaking business, being thus occupied for 16 years. He then sold the furniture department of his business to George Squires, retaining the undertaking department, which he carried on for eight years longer, when he sold it to Nicholas Hilger. After that he engaged in farming, also dealing in western lands. He now owns a farm of 60 acres in Mazeppa Township, which he rents out. In April, 1919, he opened a pool hall in Mazeppa, in partnership with C. McKibbin, and in addition to the pool business they handle candy, cigars and tobacco, soft drinks and lunches. Mr. Colling has served several terms on the village board, and for one term was president. He was married in May, 1887, to Susan Schroeder, daughter of Peter and Anna Schroeder. Her father was born in Germany and was married in New York, where he first located on coming to this country. He and his wife came to Minnesota at an early day, taking a farm in Chester Township. They had seven children: Edward, May, Margaret, Mary, Susan, Victor, and Albert. Mr. and Mrs. Colling have been the parents of five children, one of whom, William, died at the age of 12 years. Those living are: Maud, wife of George Redding, of Mazeppa; Verona and Cecil, who are teachers; and Lucilie, who is residing at home.

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Cook, William (page 490), a pioneer of Elgin Township, now deceased, was born in Hull, England, November 9, 1820. He was educated in his native land, where he remained until arriving at the age of 21 years. Then in 1844 he emigrated to the United States, traveling westward until he reached Milwaukee, Wis. There he paused to look around, and soon took 40 acres of land in Washington County, Wis., which he proved up, and on it erected buildings. After remaining on that farm until 1856, he came to Wabasha County, Minn., pre-empting a claim of 160 acres in section 31, Elgin Township. On this land also he erected the necessary buildings, and also set out an apple orchard which soon became one of the best in the state. There for a quarter of a century he followed general farming successfully until his retirement in 1881. His subsequent years were spent in Rochester, Min., where he passed away May 15, 1891, after having enjoyed nearly ten years of well earned leisure. He was a member of the Congregational church and belonged fraternally to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Mr. Cook was twice married, first on November 16, 1844, to Ann Wood. The children of that union were: Sophia, born July 27, 1845, who died December 13, 1914; Joseph H., born October 2, 1847, who died March 1, 1915; Elizabeth, born September 21, 1849, who died in the fall of 1918; Ann E., born October 28, 1851, who married Fred Eastman, who is now deceased. She subsequently married Mr. Hambrook of Santa Cruz, Calif. On November 17, 1852, Mr. Cook married, secondly, Mrs. Anna B. Studley, by whom he had four children, namely: Mary J., born October 8, 1859, who died March 20, 1897; Esther M., born March 9, 1961, now Mrs. Andrew Best of Rochester; Alice C., born January 20, 1863, who is the wife of Henry Neal, of Rochester, Minn.; and Iona, born July 15, 1867, now Mrs. Charles Sheal, of Mora, Minn.

Copp, Thomas H. (page 715), proprietor of one of the old pioneer homesteads of Gillford Township, which was settled by his parents in 1858, was born on this farm, situated in section 24, on July 1, 1868, son of Peter and Elizabeth Copp. He has always resided here and both as youth and man helped his father and brothers to develop the farm, in time becoming familiar with all branches of agriculture. His father died in 1895 and his mother in 1910, and he is now the sole owner of the old home. The farm contains 214 acres, of which 107 are under the plow, and is provided with fair buildings. Mr. Copp follows general farming, raising grade cattle and pure blooded Duroc-Jersey hogs, and is recognized as a capable farmer and good citizen. He was reared in the faith of the Methodist Episcopal church, and has always been a strong temperance man. Politically he is a Republican. His farm is ten miles from Lake City, seven from Zumbro Falls and six from Millville. Mr. Copp keeps bachelor house, having never married.

Copp, Henry (page 646), better known as "Harry" Copp, a well-to-do farmer living on section 24, Gillford Township, was born in this township, on the same section, November 2, 1859, son of Peter and Elizabeth Copp. His parents, of English birth, were pioneers of this locality, filing a claim on section 24, Gillford Township in 1858. Henry, as he grew up, not only worked on the home farm, acquiring a knowledge of agriculture, but also learned the painter's trade of his father, and followed it more or less for a number of years. In the spring of 1882 he went to Crookston, Minn., where for six years he had a paint shop and took contracts. Returning to Wabasha County in 1888, he took up his residence in Lake City, where he worked two years at his trade. In the following year, 1890, on September 10, he was married to Margaret A. Link, who was born in Gillford Township June 11, 1859, daughter of John and Margaret Link, her parents being also pioneers of this township. After his marriage Mr. Copp returned to farming, in which occupation he has since, for the most part, continued, having worked at his trade but very little. He now owns 200 acres in Gillford Township, section 24, including the old Link homestead, formerly the property of his wife's parents. His farm is well stocked with high grade cattle and pure-blooded Duroc-Jersey hogs, and with fertile land, good buildings, and an adequate operating equipment, he is making financial progress. The Copp farm is eleven miles from Lake City and seven miles from Millville. Mr. and Mrs. Copp are the parents of seven children: Ruth E., born December 1, 1891; Archer J., September 17, 1893; Walter H., November 16, 1895; Bessie E., July 13, 1897; Margaret May, April 3, 1899; Edwin W., December 15, 1900, and Iva Mariam, October 11, 1902. Ruth E. is now the wife of Henry Doerman, a farmer of Millaca, Minn. Archer J. married Grace Geppert, daughter of Charles Geppert of Gillford Township, and is assisting his father in operating the Copp farm. Walter H. is an auto mechanic with the Chevrolet Co. of Flint, Mich. Bessie E. is residing at home, Margaret M. and Iva M. attending the Lake City high school. Mr. Copp is a Republican in politics, and he and his family affiliate with the Oak Center congregation of the M. E. church. Since 1896 he has been a member of Lake City Camp, No. 2491, M. W. A.

Copp, Peter (page 646), one of the pioneers of Gillford Township, now deceased, was born in London, England, February 17, 1823. He came to America in 1841, at the age of about 18 years, locating in Boston, Mass., where he learned the painter's trade, binding himself to a brother as an apprentice for three years. In 1853 he was married at Bridgeton, N. J., to Elizabeth Williams, who like himself, was a native of London, England, born April 9, 1832. For about five years after his marriage Mr. Copp continued to reside in the East, but in 1858 he with his family joined the stream of emigration to the Northwest, and, arriving in Wabasha County, Minn., he filed a claim on section 24, Gillford Township. It was a claim of 160 acres of wild prairie land, and on it he built a small frame shanty and began the development of a farm. In this work he succeeded with the help of his sons, Henry and Edward W., he himself often leaving his family on the farm and living for a while at Read's Landing, where he worked at his trade of painter. These occasions were usually when such work afforded him an opportunity to earn some ready money, a commodity always scarce in pioneer days. Mr. Copp lived to the age of 72 years and finally died on his farm in Gillford Township on October 23, 1895. He was survived several years by his wife, who paased away March 12, 1910. Not a great while after first coming to this country he returned to England and spent a year there, but with that exception he never revisited his native land. He and his wife were members of the Episcopal church and in this country he was a firm adherent of the Republican party, being opposed to slavery and favoring the preservation of the Union. To Mr. and Mrs. Peter Copp were born 10 children, eight sons and two daughters. Five of these children were born in New Jersey and five in Wabasha County, Minn. They were George, Charles, one who died unnamed in infancy, Emma, Edward W., Henry, Elizabeth A., Frederick C., Thomas H. and Peter. Charles and Emma are now deceased. Edward W. is a farmer at Curlew, Wash. Henry is a farmer in Gillford Township, Wabasha County; Elizabeth is the wife of George Pipscomb of Thief River Falls, Minn., in which vicinity Frederick C. is also living. Thomas H. is on the old homestead in Gillford Township, and Peter lives at South Troy, Wabasha County.

Cornwell, Chauncy C. (page 315), for many years, a prominent hardware dealer in Plainview, was born in Erie County, New York, April 30, 1812, the son of Elihue Cornwell. From New York, the family removed to Middletown, Connecticut, and there Chauncey C. received a common school education. As a boy he learned the trade of shoemaker, and as a young man he engaged in the manufacture of boots and shoes with his brother, H. D., under the firm name of H. D. Cornwell & Co. After some two years, this partnership was dissolved, and Chauncey C. removed to Willoughby, Ohio, where he opened a similar establishment. There he successfully continued in business until 1849, when owing to ill health he disposed of his business and moved to Lovell Township, Dodge County, Wis., where he engaged in agricultural pursuits. The outdoor life greatly improved his health, and his thoughts again turned to a business career. Accordingly in 1865 he brought his growing family to Minnesota, and located in Plainview, where he engaged in the hardware business, first with E. B. Eddy, next with E. Dodge, and finally with his son, Elijah R. Energetic and industrious, he made a success of his business operations, and at the time of his demise he was in very comfortable circumstances financially, leaving a large estate to his children. He was a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church, in the work of which he took an active part. He was a Republican in politics, and foremost in movements which promised to aid the advancement of the community. He died November 14, 1901. Mr. Cornwell was married, while in Connecticut, to Rosella Young, of Haddam, Conn., by whom he had seven children, of whom four grew to adult years. Harvey D., is a retired farmer at Pine Island in this state. Elizabeth, now deceased, married Alphonso A. Poole, Alfred C. is a Plainview electrician. Elijah R. is a prominent citizen of Plainview. After the death of his first wife, Mr. Cornwell married Elizabeth Welch, a native of Ohio.

Cornwell, Elijah Roscoe (page 315), veteran of the Civil War, prominent business man and influential citizen, has had a career of industry and honor in Wabasha County for over half a century. He holds the good will and esteem of the entire community, and in the afternoon of life he is enjoying the just fruits of his more than three score and ten well spent years. Elijah R. Cornwell was born in Willoughby, Lake County, Ohio, September 17, 1847, the son of Chauncey C. and Rosella Cornwell. He was brought to Lowell Township, Dodge County, Wis., when a small boy, and there attended a neighboring district school. He was but sixteen years old when, in 1864, he volunteered as a private in Co. K, 39th Wis. Vol. Inf., with which he served six months under Gen. C. C. Washburn, at Memphis, during the exciting days of the Forrest raids. With a good record as a soldier, the youth returned home, and in the spring of 1865 entered the employ of the Winnebago City Mills at Winnebago City, Minn. In 1867 he joined his father's family at Plainview, and the next year formed a partnership with Henry Horton in a wagon shop. This business was successfully continued until 1873, when the partnership was dissolved. He then entered the employ of his father in the hardware store, and in 1875 became a partner. At the time of his father's death he became the sole owner and so continued until July, 1917. He was thus connected with the hardware trade and business life of Plainview as one of its most active factors, and his story is a part of the story of the growth of the village. Busy as he has been with his work, he has found plenty of time for the development of the social and fraternal side of his nature. He was one of the charter members of the local G. A. R. and is now its secretary. In the Masonic order he is a member of the Blue Lodge at Plainview and of the Chapter and Commandery at Rochester. In politics he is a life long Republican, and is a thorough adherent of the best traditions of that party. He is known as an honorable business man and loyal friend, and few people stand higher in the regard of the community than he. Mr. Cornwell was married November 29, 1869, to Emily Adell Burchard, the daughter of Rodman and Esther A. (Davis) Burchard. Their children were as follows: Florene, born April 13, 1871; Charles B., December 25, 1872; Nellie, October 16, 1876; Florence, July 17, 1878; Frances (Frankie), August 18, 1880; Maude E., April 27, 1883; and Glenn R., March 30, 1891. Florene, now deceased, married John G. Patton, who perished in the New Richmond cyclone. She left one child, Margaret Mather Patton. Charles B. married Ella Kjerner, of Rochester, Minn., and is now a druggist at Villard, this state. He has two children, Dean and Seth Cornwell. Nellie died young. Florence is the wife of B. E. Rohweder, a Plainview druggist, and has two children, Lois and Miriam Rohweder. Frances married Charles DeWitt, a Wabasha County farmer who died. They had two children, Esther (deceased), and John Donald DeWitt. Maude E. is a trained nurse. Glenn R. engaged for some years in business with his farmer (father?), is now a hardware clerk in Lewiston. On November 28, 1916, he married Lydia Schankey.

Cornwell, F. J. (page 278), for many years an important factor in the industrial development of southern Wabasha County, as the leading drygoods and general merchant of Plainview, was born in Savannah, Georgia, in 1836, and there spent his early boyhood. At the age of thirteen he was left an orphan but with undaunted courage he took up the stern duties of life and set out to make his own living. For five years he clerked in the store of a brother-in-law, in Burk County, in his native state, and then returned to the town of his birth where he was similarly employed. With this experience in the mercantile line, he came west in 1856, and was successively employed as a clerk in Dodge County, Minn., Cordova, Ill., and Winona, Minnesota. In 1863 he entered the employ of J. Himsted at St. Charles. So thoroughly did he win the confidence of his employer that in 1865 he was given an interest in the business, and came to Plainview to open a branch store. The next year, Mr. Himsted sold out to John Taylor, and the firm continued as John Taylor & Co. In 1872, Mr. Cornwell sold out his interest to Mr. Taylor. His next employment was as an accountant for Ozias Wilcox. In 1875, while taking a vacation in the South, he was called home by Mr. Wilcox's illness. Mr. Wilcox died January 1, 1876, and on January 12 Mr. Cornwell reopened the business in the interests of the family. In June, 1876, he purchased the business and a little later moved to the brick building which had recently been erected by A. Y. Felton. This building, in 1881, he purchased. He died July 27, 1912.

Cosgrove, Patrick J. (page 433), cashier of the Millville State Bank and village treasurer, was born in Oakwood Township, Wabasha County, Minn., November 22, 1864, son of James and Mary (Behan) Cosgrove. The parents were natives of Ireland, but were married in Indiana, James Cosgrove having come to the United States in the late forties. In the spring of 1864 he and his wife came to Wabsha County, Minnesota, and on arriving here bought a farm in Oakwood Township from Alexander McBride. There he was engaged in general farming and improving his property until his death in 1882. His wife survived him about ten years, passing away in 1908. They had six children, of whom James, Andrew and Mary are now deceased. Those living are: Elizabeth, wife of James McBride, and a resident of Keegan, Oakwood Township; Bridget, widow of Charles McNulty, and a resident of St. Paul; and Patrick J., the subject of this sketch. Patrick J. Cosgrove acquired his elementary education in the district school, and subsequently pursued more advanced studies in the Lake Ctiy high school. He then engaged in teaching, in which occupation he continued in Wabasha County for 20 years. In 1904 , on the organization of the Millville State Bank, he became its cashier, a position which he still retains, and in which he has shown good business capacity, and has made many friends. A member of the Catholic church, he belongs also to the Knights of Columbus, the Red Men, and the Modern Woodmen. In politics he is independent. Mr. Cosgrove was married at West Albany, this county, in 1900, to Nellie T. McGuigan, daughter of James and Julia McGuigan, who were among the early settlers in this county. Of the six children born to Mr. and Mrs. Cosgrove, one, James Leo, died in infancy. The five living are William, now a student in the University of Minnesota; Edna, a student in St. Clare Seminary, Winona; and Helen, Loretta and Genevieve, who are residing at home.

Costello, John (page 417), banker and merchant, of Kellogg, is one of the live factors in the business world in Wabasha County, which he formerly served as a public official. He was born in Wheeling, W. Va. (Then Virginia), in 1855, son of Michael and Bridget (McDonough) Costello. In the year after his birth his parents, who had come to this country from Ireland, joined the tide of westward emigration to Minnesota, settling on land in Highland Township, Wabasha County. There he was reared, acquiring his elementary education in the district school, and later attending college at Prairie du Chien, Wis. He began industrial life by assisting his father to develop the home farm, and after his father's death in 1879, continued for some time in the same manner to help his mother. His mind, however, was set on a business career, and therefore, on a favorable opportunity, he came to Kellogg and entered the employ of J. A. Schonweiler as clerk in that merchant's store. Later, after acquiring some business experience, he went to Wabasha, where he engaged in the grocery and feed business on his own account. He thus made many acquaintances, upon whom he created so favorable an impression that it was no surprise to anybody when, in 1900, he was elected county treasurer. On the occurrence of that event he sold his business and for the next four years the length of his incumbency devoted his time to the affairs of his office. He then returned to Kellogg and, associating himself with C. C. McDonough and Peter Weimschkirch, bought out J. A. Schonweiler and engaged in the general mercantile business. Later he and Mr. McDonough bought the interests of Mr. Weimschkirsch, and in 1905 the business was incorporated. Subsequently Mr. McDonough sold out and the concern has since been conducted as the John Costello Co., with John Costello as president, and is now numbered among the important and flourishing business houses of Kellogg. In 1905 C. C. Hirschey, Linn Whitmore and John Costello started a private bank in Kellogg, which was conducted as such for three years. In 1908 it became a state bank, with Mr. Costello as cashier, which office he held until his son, John D., returned from the was in December, 1918, when the latter became cashier, John Costello taking the office of vice president, which he still retains. Mr. Costello was married at Wabasha, Minn., to Carrie Hager, daughter of Herman and _____ (Brandseit) Hager. The parents were natives of Hanover, Germany, who came to the United States at an early date, settling in Glasgow Township, this county, where they engaged in farming. Both are now deceased. Mr. And Mrs. Costello have had two children, Margaret L., and John D., the former of whom came to a sad and tragic end. She was a school teacher in Rochester, and had just stepped off the sidewalk, being about to cross the street, when she was struck by an automobile driven by a Canadian, and killed. John D. Costello, now cashier of the State Bank of Kellogg, enlisted in the United States' service in August, 1917, and was honorably discharged in December, 1918, his service having been in this country. Mr. Costello and his family are members of the Catholic church, and he belongs also to the Knights of Columbus, Modern Woodmen, and Samaritans.

Costello, Michael (page 417), one of the pioneer settlers of Highland Township, was born in county Galway, Ireland, where he grew to manhood and was married to Bridget McDonough. In 1848 they came to the United States, settling first in Vermont, whence they removed to Ohio, and from the latter state to Virginia. In 1856 they arrived in Wabasha County, Minn., locating on 160 acres of land in Highland Township, which they later homesteaded. Two other tracts of land were subsequently purchased, one of 100 acres and one of 80 acres, the latter of which, however, they sold, leaving their farm with an area of 260 acres. On this Mr. Costello began improvements, but he was not permitted to bring his labors to full fruition, as he died in 1879, 23 years after his arrival in this county. His wife died at the age of about 75 years in 1897. As one of the advance guard in the march of civilization in this region, Mr. Costello played an important part, and when he passed away he left worthy descendants to continue the work he had begun. He and his wife had in all 14 children, five of whom are still living, namely, Maria, wife of George Fox of Aberdeen, Wash.; Bridget, widow of John McNallan, and a resident of Glendive, Mon.; Daniel, a practicing physician, of Grand Rapids, Minn.; Martin J., residing in Wabasha, and John, a banker in Kellogg.

Costello, Michael and Patrick E. (page 626), proprietors of a flourishing general store at Weaver, Minn., are sons of Patrick and Mary (Starr) Costello, and were both born in Wabasha County, Minn., Michael in Highland Township in 1880, and Patrick (familiarly known as "Ed"), in Glasgow Township, February 3, 1889. Patrick Costello, Sr., was born in West Virginia and came to Wabasha County, Minn., in 1856. The mother, Mary S. Costello, was born in Jamestown, N. Y., and came to this county in 1856. They were married at Wabasha in 1876, and for a number of years were engaged in farming, but only the mother is now living, she being a resident of Kellogg, this county, as Patrick Costello, Sr. died some 20 years ago, or about 1898. They had a family of nine children: Michael, now of Waver; Thomas, who resides in Watopa Township, this county, on a farm; Mary, now Mrs. W. S. O'Flaherty of Watopa Township; Nellie, wife of A. R. Strauss of Dogden, N. D.; Patrick E., of Weaver; James J., at present living on a farm near Kellogg, but who is about to remove to a farm in Highland Township; Agnes, who died young; Ignatius, who died in infancy; and Vincenza, who is living with her mother at Kellogg. The four eldest children were all born in Highland Township and the five younger in Cook's Valley, Glasgow Township, Wabasha County. Patrick E. (or "Ed") Costello acquired his elementary education in District School No. 28, Glasgow Township, subsequently attended school at Kellogg, and later at St. Thomas' College at St. Paul, Minn. Up to the age of 19 his residence was on the home farm, which he assisted in cultivating, but later he became manager of the store at Kellogg operated by his uncle, John, under the style of John Costello & Co., and was thus occupied until May 15, 1918. He then enlisted in the United States service, and was sent to the officers' training camp at Camp Dodge, Iowa, where on August 26, 1918, he was commissioned second lieutenant. He was not, however, among those who saw service overseas, but remained on this side ready to obey the call to duty, until he received an honorable discharge and the two brothers established their present business, having a well stocked general store, and handling groceries, hardware, hats and caps, boots and shoes, and also, to some extent, clothing. Though but a short while established here, they have already laid the foundation of a good reputation as general merchants and reliable business men, and have a large and increasing trade. Michael Costello, who was also well educated, and who, like his brother, received a good agricultural training, was for some years in the employ of C. A. Smith, grocer, of Winona, Minn., and there acquired good business experience. He married Frances Webber, and has two children: Ursula, who was born in October, 1915; and Margarite, born September 12, 1919. The Costellos are affiliated religiously with the Catholic Church, and the brothers with the Knights of Columbus and Ancient Order of Hibernians.

Cowles, Daniel B. (page 487), an early settler in Elgin Township, where he developed a farm of 100 acres, was born in New York State, July 17, 1837, a son of Mr. and Mrs Manus Cowles. The father moved to Wisconsin in 1844, and at Beaver Dam, that state, Daniel B. was united in marriage, November 14, 1861, to Addie M. Hutchinson, who was born August 8, 1842, and had come to Dodge County, Wisconsin, with her parents in 1854. After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Daniel B. Cowles took a farm in that locality, where they remained until the fall of 1864, when they came to Wabasha County, Minnesota, locating on a farm east of Plainview. In the spring of 1866 Mr. Cowles bought a farm of 100 acres in Elgin Township, section 25. It consisted of wild prairie land which Mr. Cowles had to break and develop. For his first residence he built a small frame house. Later he bought 40 acres more, in section 30, Plainview, which adjoined his other tract. He continued his improvements, rebuilding and enlarging his house, and erecting barns, a silo and outbuildings, until he had brought his farm into excellent condition and made it a valuable property. In 1898 he retired from active work, but continued to reside on the place until November 5, 1919, when he mved to Elgin, where he died February 26, 1920. He was a Republican in politics and for some time served as treasurer of the local school board. Religiously he was affiliated with the Congregational church. His wife died May 28, 1901. Mr. and Mrs. Daniel B. Cowles were the parents of three children: Elmer H., now operating a part of the old home farm in Elgin Township; Merton D., a farmer in Plainview Township; and Erwin M., now living retired in Elgin village.

Cowles, Merton B. (page 488), a well known and respected citizen of section 19, Plainview Township, who has made an excellent record as an agriculturist, was born on his parents' homestead in Elgin Township, Wabasha County, January 8, 1870, son of Daniel B. and Addie M. (Hutchinson) Cowles. He was educated in the district school and early acquired a practical knowledge of farming as his father's assistant. In 1902 he bought a farm of 160 acres in section 19, Plainview Township, on which he is still living. Since taking possession of it he has purchased 80 acres more, besides an additional tract of 20 acres of timber land, making in all 260 acres. Eight acres of his property lies in section 30. Besides increasing the landed area of his property, Mr. Cowles has made a number of valuable improvements on it. The original house, which was a poor structure, has been replaced with a good ten-room residence. He has also erected a modern barn, 40 by 78 feet in dimensions, with cement basement, a tile silo, which is one of the largest in the township, a tool shed, sheep barn, hen house, corn crib and granary, all good substantial structures. His work has been general and diversified, including the raising of grain and stock, truck farming and dairying, and his business, being ably managed, has yielded good returns. He has recently bought property in Plainview, where he and his wife intend to make their future home. Mr. Cowles was married January 8, 1902, in Elba, Winona County, to Amelia Stitch, daughter of William and Anna (Nienow) Stitch. Her father was born in Illois and her mother in Germany, the latter coming to this country when seven years old, and settling with her parents in Winona County, Minnesota, where she was married. Mr. and Mrs. Stitch had seven children, of whom two, Sarah and Donald, are now deceased. The five living are: Amelia L. (now Mrs. Cowles), Mathias, Elizabeth, William, Jr., and Corinne, the four last mentioned now residing on a farm in South Dakota. Mathias, who after spending ten years in South Dakota returned to Plainview in the spring of 1920, and will take charge of the M. D. Cowles' farm on a rental basis. Mr. and Mrs. Cowles are the parents of four children: Dolores, Phyllis, Orville and Vera, all of whom are attending school. The religious affiliations of the family are with the Congregational church, of which Mr. and Mrs. Cowles are members. The former also belongs to the Old Settlers' Association of Greenwood Prairie.

Cronin, Patrick (page 644), who took part in advancing the agricultural interests of Wabasha County by the development of a good farm in Gillford Township, but who some eight years ago joined the silent majority, was born in West Albany Township, this county, in March, 1862, son of Patrick and Mary Cronin. The parents came to Wabasha county, Minn., from Ireland in the latter fifties, locating in Hyde Park Township, whence after a few years, they moved to West Albany Township, near the Catholic church. Both are now deceased. Patrick Cronin (Jr.) was reared on his parent's farm and educated in the district school. He followed agriculture all his life, beginning for himself at the age of 21, when he bought 320 acres of productive land in Gillford Township, section 14. When he took possession there were no buildings, but he erected a good set, including a substantial and comfortable frame house, and all necessary barns and outbuildings. With an adequate equipment he carried on general farming successfully until his death on February 13, 1911. Politically he was a Democrat, with independent tendencies, in casting his vote placing the man above the party, and in religion was a Catholic and member of St. Patrick's congregation in West Albany Township. Mr. Cronin was married June 21, 1898, to Mary Laqua, who was born in Gillford Township, this county, January 1, 1880, daughter of William and Mary Laqua. Of this union five children were born: William P., July 12, 1899, who is now helping his mother operate the home farm; Edward James, born January 17, 1901, who died in June the same year; Edward Joseph, born November 14, 1902, who is living on the home farm; Mary Rita, born April 17, 1905; and John Sylvester, born July 6, 1908, who being the youngest members of the family, are also living at home with their mother. After her husband's death Mrs. Cronin moved to Lake City, but in 1918 returned to the farm, where she has since resided.

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