Pages 216 ~ 220
From the book
"HISTORY OF WABASHA COUNTY, MINNESOTA"
Compiled by Franklyn Curtiss-Wedge and Others
Published Winona, MN by H. C. Cooper, Jr., & Co., 1920
Republished Currently by Higginson Books
HISTORY OF HORTICULTURE IN WABASHA COUNTY
WABASHA COUNTY FARM BUREAU
HISTORY OF HORTICULTURE IN WABASHA COUNTY
Wabasha County horticulture dates back to the coming of the first settlers from the East, who very soon planted the varieties they had been accustomed to in their eastern homes. Small fruits such as currants, gooseberries, red raspberries, strawberries and grapes, and also peaches, pears and apples were found growing wild near the streams and in the woods; but the prairies only yielded the wild strawberry. It took only a short time to develop the fact that peaches and pears would not live over the severe winters and apples were but a little better. It was commonly believed that it was winter that killed them. Occasionally a Talman Sweet or Perry Russet and quite a number of Siberian Crabs stood the test and came into bearing.
About this time, in 1866, Dr. P. A. Jewell and his wife, Catherine Underwood Jewell, came into the county from Ann Arbor, Michigan. The doctor bought a beautiful location overlooking the city, where he contemplated growing fruit. Coming to this new country he at once became interested in its horticulture. He had come to Minnesota for his wife's health and they spent much time in traveling with horse and carriage through Wabasha and adjoining counties, selling nursery stock and studying the conditions.
It seemed clear that some few varieties were much more successful than other kinds. He found the Duchess of Oldenberg and the Russian Crabs growing wherever planted and he was about to go to Russia to see if he could not find other desirable varieties. Before doing so, he and his wife wet to visit a settlement of friends in Hesper, Iowa, where he found a large family of new Crabs growing. He wrote back home that he had found a New Russia and that he would come home and develop what he had found.
In the meantime other pioneers in horticulture met at the State Fair at Rochester and organized a State Horticultural Society of which Dr. and Mrs. Jewell became charter members. And to this society of enthusiastic members that has grown to be the largest Horticultural Society in the world, is due the wonderful progress that has been made. In 1867 Dr. Jewell planted on the sand prairie near Winona, 150,000 apple grafts and a like amount near the fair grounds at Rochester. In the spring of 1868, his foreman dug up what was living at Winona, consisting of 250 crabs, and took them to Lake City where Dr. Jewell had bought a home and where he started the Jewell Nursery and placed it in charge of his brother-in-law, J. M. Underwood.
Among the other men who had made a success in growing apples is J. D. Howard, near Millville. He planted a large orchard of Duchess, Wealthy, Okabena, Malinda and a number of Russian varieties, from which he harvested and sold large crops, finding a ready market in Rochester and around his home on the rolling hills adjacent to the Zumbro River. Another successful grower was Sidney Corp living on the Zumbro, seeming to demonstrate that location and soil had much to do with success. In fact it was found that on the north side of hills where trees had been planted, they did much better than on the south or on the level. Also that clay ground was better than sand. Clearly demonstrating to us who have had time to study the situation that it is a lack of moisture or drouth that causes the death of trees. Varieties differ in their ability to withstand drouth. The texture of the wood in both root and tree seems to be more close and firm in some varieties, and these do well with less moisture. Wabasha County is directly west of Rochester, New York, where the Baldwin and Northwestern Greening are at their best. But the influence of the lakes and even the ocean keeps the trees from drying out by the moist air that they furnish. While in Minnesota the air is dry and the alternate freezing and thawing expels the sap from the branches and bodies of the trees, destroys the circulation and causes the wood to turn black, and the tree is dead. Any location that helps to overcome drouth is desirable. Wabasha County is highly favored in this respect. The broken country along the Zumbro River and up along the Mississippi and Lake Pepin furnishes unlimited locations where the northern side of hills and bluffs make it ideal for growing fruit. So sure does it seem that it is drouth that does the damage, that The Jewell Nursery Company at Lake City have planted the side of a bluff looking to the north and east, by cutting off the heavy growth of oak and birch and planting apple trees. They dig large holes twelve or more feet in diameter, placing the soil on the upper side. On the lower side to make a level surface they plant the tree in the usual way. From above the tree they dig small trenches to conduct the rains to the tree and thus keep the roots of the tree supplied with moisture. In June and again in August and October the ground around the tree is spaded over and left rough to catch and hold the moisture. It is recommended by some to much the trees, but mulching has a tendency to draw the growth of the roots to the surface where they dry out and in that way are more easily injured by freezing. Limestone soil is much better than sandstone, but an application of lime to sandy locations will supply the lime needed for the health of the trees.
The reports of the State Horticultural Society furnish splendid information regarding cultivation and pruning. It has been found that intense cultivation of level ground will do very much to conserve moisture and overcome drowth conditions. Windbreaks of evergreens are the best protection that can be given an orchard or a home in Wabasha County. The White Pine does well. A Mr. James living north of Plainview propagated and planted a large number of evergreens that are a great beauty and protection to many homes in that neighborhood. They should surround the house and barns in rows twenty-five feet apart, and if cultivated and kept clean they will grow rapidly and prove to be the greatest asset on the place. The Black Hills Spruce is the hardiest and the best of all evergreens and should be planted liberally.
Another means of protection is to lay down Blackberries, Raspberries, Grapes and cover them with earth. This is easily and quickly done and insures a big crop for the next year. Roses can be protected by first laying a bed of dry straw or leaves, laying the vines down on it and then cover them thickly with dry rye straw in a conical form, and over this place tar roofing paper running lengthwise with the row, letting it remain until freezing weather is over in April. If the location is favorable for snow to cover the ground for six inches or more, roses can be grown to advantage by letting the snow cover the roots. The tops will kill down to the snow line and can be cut back. The rest that is green will send out new growth and bloom profusely and will continue until freezing comes again. Roses that have been in beds for cut flowers in greenhouses can be bought cheaply and are a success if grown in this way. Hedges of Dorothy Perkins and Crimson Rambler roses grown on a trellis and then covered as before described are a wonderful success. The trellis is made by driving short pieces of 3/4-inch pipe into the ground at intervals of six feet. To these couple other pipes six feet long connected to a horizontal pipe the length of the trellis, using tees at the middle posts and elbows at the ends. Stretch galvanized wire on the posts, to which fasten the vines. Hold the trellis up by means of guy wire running back a few feet and fastened to a short stake driven in the ground. In the fall just before freezing, uncouple the posts at the ground and lay the vines down with the trellis and cover as before described. The object to be attained is to keep an even temperature and prevent repeated thawing and freezing during the winter.
With these conditions, an intelligent selection of location and the right kind of protection and cultivation, Wabasha County is easily the banner county in the state for growing fruits. A number of new and improved varieties in hardiness have been discovered just outside in Winona County. A conspicuous case occurred at Pickwick on the farm of E. A. Gross, a number of years ago. A man emptied several barrels of frozen and rotten apples out where his cows had access to them. They seemed to have eaten freely of them and then as they were pastured on the northern side of a bluff, their excrement was dropped promiscuously around the pasture. Seeds from the apples took root, one and sometimes several in a place. They grew and came into bearing; all kinds in size, color and quality. Some were deliciously sweet, while some were a mild sub-acid and some sour; some were red, some yellow and some green. There were early harvest varieties and late keepers. Mr. Gross exhibited his apples at the state fair and at the meetings of the State Horticultural Society, where they attracted the attention of The Jewell Nursery Company, and they bought the right to propagate the different varieties, and many of the best kinds are being planted in Wabasha County and throughout the state. Another important addition to Wabasha County's fruit was the Homer Cherry introduced by a veteran horticulturist of Homer. He had a large orchard of them growing on his hill-side farm and when they were in blossom they colored the hill-side white and when the fruit was ripe, at a distance it looked as though it was painted red.
There is one place at the foot of Lake Pepin where the water never freezes and where the rising vapors off the water would furnish moisture for fruit growing on the adjacent land that also has a northern exposure. It is to be hoped that someone with capital will take advantage of this splendid location for a large commercial orchard.
From the State Horticultural Society's report I quote the following: "Elgin, Wabasha County, Feb. 12, 1866. Irwin W. Rollins reports: The oldest trees I have were grown from seed planted in 1856, were grafted in 1858 and planted in orchard in 1859. With my present knowledge I would plant Elgin, Malinda and Jewetts Red. Red Astrachan, Oscaloosa, Williams Favorite, Byhams Sweet, Pound Sweet would follow as next in hardiness. The varieties that have failed with me are Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Roxbury Russet, Golden Sweet, Hubbartson, None Such, Spitzenburg, Early Harvest, Porter, Gilliflower. In this section George Sylvester of Plainview and Nathan Fisher of Beaver have raised apples."
Mr. W. Golden writes: "Woodland, March 5, 1866. Mr. D. A. Robertson, Sir: In this section of the state there are several orchards in bearing. The largest is that of Mr. Stewart of Rollingstone. Mr. Geo. Sylvester has had a hundred trees in bearing for three years. Mr. Fisher of Woodland has an orchard of 100 trees that have borne for three years. My own experience is somewhat limited but I have set the Northern Spy, Yellow Bellflower, Red Astrachan, Golden Russet and Winter Greening. All are doing well."
From the above extracts we see how different the successful varieties of the day are from the kinds that were planted in those early days.
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WABASHA COUNTY FARM BUREAU
The Wabasha County Farm Bureau is a branch of a County, State and National Federation, all linked closely together, and officered by farmers and workingmen, promoting co-operative marketing, dairy improvement, better seed, better stock, and in fact "boosting" all progressive methods which are for the benefit of the farmer. The organization is non-religious, non-business and non-political, but is first, last and all the time a real agricultural organization so well organized as to command consideration before state and national legislative bodies when agricultural problems are involved. Strong efforts are being made to increase its membership, with gratifying results, the county agent working in co-operation with representatives of the Bureau through personal solicitation. The Agriculture Extension Division is recommending that wool growers of each county form an association and pool their 1920 crop, the pool sent in by each farmer to retain its identity until graded, and the wool to be sold to the highest bidder. A Testing Association is being formed around Kellogg and Weaver for the purpose of finding unprofitable cows, obtaining better feeding and an increase in the product of butter fat and milk, and it is probable that similar associations will be formed in other parts of the county. The Bureau is also purchasing a great deal of seed for farmers with the object of obtaining better crop results.
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by C. M. MacKensie, D. O.
Osteopathy is a System of Therapeutics
Andrew Taylor Still the Founder
Importance of the Profession at the Present Time
The First Osteopaths in Minnesota
The Practitioners in Wabasha County
In writing the local history of a comparatively new science, it might be well to give the reader a brief exposition of what Osteopathy is, who its founder was, and a word as to the scope of its application. A short but fairly comprehensive definition and description follows:
Osteopathy is the name of that system of the healing art, which places the chief emphasis on the structural integrity of body mechanism as being the most important single factor in maintaining the well being of the organism in health and disease; that nature has provided all the vital forces and chemicals necessary for the maintenance of health and the repair of diseased conditions. Health is natural, disease is unnatural. Disease or abnormal functioning is caused by an interference with the blood supply or blood drainage of the part diseased or by an interference with the normal and proper nerve impulses to that part or both.
Osteopathy has discovered that such interference is mechanical, due to contracted or tightened muscles or ligaments, or to the abnormal relations of the bones, the frame work upon which the soft tissues of the body depend for support and protection, such interference constituting what is known as an "Osteopathic Lesion." Owing to the fact that most of the nerves of the body come from the spine, and that the control of the blood supply to the various organs of the body is largely, if not wholly, through the nerves, osteopathic treatments are mainly given to the spine. It has become the duty of the Osteopathic Physician to discover the lesions in any particular case and to adjust such lesions to their normal anatomical relations, depending upon the fact that when structure has been made normal, the functioning or action of the parts will return to the normal.
The Osteopath, in treating a patient, only seeks to liberate the natural vital forces and chemicals; thereby assisting nature along natural paths to restore to normal balance, and function any parts which may be subject to disease. In the early days of Osteopathy cures were made chiefly in chronic diseases as people did not have sufficient confidence in the new system to allow the Osteopath to handle acute illnesses. But this is rapidly changing. People realize that the Osteopath can treat all acute diseases with marked results. During the Pandemic Influenza the Osteopaths had a chance to demonstrate their work to the public which showed how wonderful Osteopathy is in acute work.
Osteopathy built up its present standing by curing the incurable cases of old lines of treatment, and stands today a complete system of practice, treating successfully both acute and chronic diseases. Osteopathy then deals with the body as an intricate machine which, if kept in proper adjustments, nourished and cared for, will run smoothly into ripe and useful old age.
Osteopathy was discovered by Andrew Taylor Still. Dr. Still was a medical practitioner for many years, serving as surgeon in the Union Army during the Civil War. Being a man with an analytical mind and gifted with that rare faculty, the ability to think along original lines, Dr. Still was not satisfied to allow the many failures of his own practice and those of his colleagues to go unexplained, but worked incessantly and studied deeply into the anatomy and physiology of the human body to determine if there was not some better and more effective way to relieve suffering humanity of its pains and infirmities. In 1874 he announced to his patients at Baldwin, Kansas, that he was done with drugs forever, and that he had evolved a system of drugless healing. For eighteen years the struggle was hard and bitter. He was ridiculed, maligned, and scoffed at, and met oppositions of the most determined sort. Deserted by relatives as well as friends, he moved with his family to Kirksville, Missouri, which place was to become the theater of his greatest achievements.
In 1892 he started a school at Kirksville for the purpose of teaching the new science to others. This school, known as the American School of Osteopathy, was the first school of the new system, and with a humble beginning and its dozen or so scholars, has grown to be a large college in the twenty-two years of its existence, having nearly 900 students in attendance and over 6,000 graduates. There are now several colleges of Osteopathy located in various parts of the country, all of which maintain a high standard of requirements and belong to the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy.
There are over Ten Thousand Osteopaths practicing in every state in the Union, in Canada, Mexico and the leading countries of Europe, Asia and South America. No system of therapy was ever granted public recognition and adoption so speedily and fully. Within fifteen years practically all the states of the Union have enacted laws placing the Osteopathic Physicians on substantially the same legal plane as the old school practitioners.
There is an American Osteopathic Association with over eight thousand active members holding annual meetings in various of the large cities of the country. Among the many activities of the association is the financing and establishment of an institute for research work to be located in Chicago and to be known as the A. T. Still Research Institute. There are state associations in every state with subsidiary district, county and city societies. The first Osteopath in Minnesota was Dr. Chas. E. Still, a son of Dr. A. T. Still, who first located in Minneapolis in 1893, and afterwards practiced in Red Wing and St. Pau There are now about two hundred Osteopaths in Minnesota and the number is being constantly augmented.
The history of Osteopathy in Wabasha County is necessarily brief. The Osteopaths of Wabasha County were Dr. Tedford, Dr. Crosser, Dr. Sayler and Dr. C. N. MacKenzie.
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