Gasconade County, Missouri
LOUIS AND LOUISA AUSTERMELLfor information about this page contact C. Yoder
Origins and Life in Philadelphia.
Please also see thediary of Louisa Austermell
The history of a family is a part of the present of
each of its members. In fortunate families, and I believe
ours has been one, the most precious commodity is the bond
of love and affection which holds parent to child and
sibling to sibling. With the passing of each generation
members become less closely acquainted. Each distinct family
unit, however, continues to share a common heritage.
I've attempted within this brief booklet to capture a
portion of our mutual ancestry. As the years go by, more and
more of the history of a family invariably becomes lost. If
this effort had begun 20 years ago, before the death of my
great-Uncle Lewis T. Austermell at the age of 100, we could
have had personnel annecdotes about his grandparents, and
his recollections of his visits with them in Hermann,
Missouri. We may have had the answers to such puzzles as
Louisa's maiden name, and Louis' town of origin in Germany.
If we had waited 20 years longer, it may have been
impossible to contact the range of descendants involved.
I'd like to thank all those who contributed family
information to this effort. particular thanks go to Ruth and
Virginia Floyd, Barbara Bebon, Phyllis Yoder, Elizabeth
Schultz, and Edith Hall for sharing family records and
photographs which are included in this album. I'll apologize
in advance for getting any names and faces mixed up.
Hopefully the result is of interest and will be
something of value to not only its current readers, but also
to those generations which are to follow.
Christopher K Yoder
203 Lakeshire Rd
Battle Creek, MI 49015
Dedicated with love to Amy Louise Austermell (1906-1978)...
The last of the Austermell surname.
LOUIS AND LOUISA AUSTERMELL
Origins and Life in Philadelphia.
Louis Austermell was born on Dec.17~l8O5 in Germany.
Some of the records dealing with him spell his name "Lewis".
>From an inscription in a book he once owned, now in the
hands of his descendants, his middle initial appears to have
been "A."... for what is not known. The first record of him
in this country is a document he signed in the Marine Court
of the City of New York on Dec.2,1833 stating his intention
to become a citizen of the United States. He renounces all
allegiance to foreign rulers, "and particularly the king of
On Oct.4,1836, he was naturalized as a citizen of the
United States in the Philadelphia Court of Quarter Sessions.
He settled in Philadelphia early, and it isn't known if he
resided elsewhere upon his arrival.
Great-grandaughter Amy Austermell, believed that Louis
had come to America to escape the draft in Europe. She
recalled hearing that Louis could not speak a word of
English when he arrived, but was very interested in becoming
From the documents cdmpleted in conjunction with his
naturalization, it would appear that he came from
Westphalia. Later census records show his place of origin as
"Hesse-Cassel". No immigration record has yet been located,
nor has contact with the Archives in both Westphalia and
Kassel at Marburg revealed any emigration records. Further
speculation on his origins is presented later within this
Little is known about Louis' life in Philadelphia. He
was an active member of the Independant Order of Odd Fellows
and it is known from his obituary that he joined its
Teutonia Lodge (number 21) in Philadelphia on June 12,1833.
There also,on Febrary 18,1834, the twenty-seven year-old
Louis married his seventeen year-old bride, Louisa. Louisa,
Iwhose last name is not known, was born Feb.9,1817, most
probably in Philadelphia. She and Louis would spend over 50
years as man and wife.
Louis and Louisa's first child, Lewis william
Austermell, was born on Nov.25, 1837. Two years later,
second son Jefferson Hermann Austermell was born.
One of the earliest records located which mentions the
family at that time is M'Elroys Philadelphia Directory of
1840. It lists "Lewis Austermell, machinist, 148 N. 3rd,
home 21 Sterling alley". The 1841 edition also mentions
"Lewis Austermell, machinist, 21 Sterling alley".
The German-American Settlement Society
On August 27,1836 a group called the "Deutsche
Ausiedlungs-Gesellschaft zu Philadelphia" (The German
American Settlement Company of Philadelphia). Although
Philadelphia had long been a focal point for German
immigration, the members of this group were primarily
newcommers. They welL recognized the blessings of their new
country, but were disturbed by a sense that the earlier
German settlers had lost touch with their heritage. The
purpose of the Settlement Company was to work toward the
establishment in the American West of a colony where German
traditions and culture could be nurtured and preserved for
A lengthy constitution was drafted for the society and
among the signatories was Lewis Austermell. By February of
1839 over $30,000 had been collected. The location selected
was a picturesque spot on the Missouri river, about 60 miles
upstream from St.Louis. This German-American cultural El
Dorado was given the name of Hermann.
Life in Hermann
Although Louis' obituary states that he came to Hermann
in 1839, and Louisa' 5 cites 1837, they in reality didn't
move there until 1841. The place of birth shown in census
records for their first two children, support this date.
By the time their third child, Media Mo, was born on
Apr.13,1844, the Austermells were well settled into their
new Missouri home. The cultural objectives of the Hermann
settlement are readily apparent in the naming of the
streets: Gutenberg, Shiller, Mozart, and Goethe. Also
reflected was the strong mixture of American patriotism
which so influenced Louis and Louisa in the naming of their
own children... streets named Franklin, Jefferson, and
Louis and Louisa's 4th child, Washington Thomas
Austermell, was born in Hermann Dec.26,1847, followed by
Jackson Julius around Sept. 1849.
It appears from a gravestone found in the Hermann City
cemetery that another son was born... Albert E.B.
Austermell, born Apr.20,1852 and died Jun. 18, 1853.
Youngest daughter Julia Virginia Austermell was born
Sep.1,1856 in Hermann.
Property records at the City Hall show that Lewis
Austermell bought and sold a variety of lots over a 40 year
period, with the earliest record noted one warranted in
Louis continued his Lodge involvement and was a founder
of the Robert Blum Lodge, No.46, I.O.O.F. which was formed
on April 26,1850. He was the first Noble Grand (head of the
lodge) . Robert Blum was a German patriot who was executed
Nov.9th 1848. He was a leader of a radical movement which
sought to liberate and unify Ger many. This lodge continued
as active for over 130 years until being consolidated with
the Warrenton Lodge. Louisa was a member of the distaff
organization allied with this group, the Sisters of Rebecca
for almost fifty years. The ladies' lodge at Hermann, the
Aurelia Lodge, has also recently consolidated with
The 1850 census for Hermann, Gasconade Co.,Mo taken 15
August 1850 shows:
Lewis Austermell age 44 locksmith,property
born Hesse Cassel
Louisa age 44(sic)
Lewis W. age 13 born PA
Hermann J. age 11 born PA
Amelia M. age 6 born State of Mo.
Washington age 2 born State of Mo.
Julius age l0months b.
Louis was an avid supporter of education. He and Joseph
Lessel, possibly the later father-in-law of Louis' daughter
Media, both were trustees of the Hermann town school in
1850. Louis was also a trustee in 1854 and 1855. In 1867 he
was a member of the committee which recommended the
subsequent merger of the previously separate English and
German schools, and in 1868 he served as a member of the
Hermann Board of Education. From Louisa's diary of 1883-4 it
can be seen that this family interest in the schools
continued throughout their life in Hermann.
An index to the Hermanner Wochenblatt (a local paper)
from 1847 to 1855 gives some indication of Louis1 civic
involvement during this period:
1/24/51 a reference to his business location
3/26/52 election officer
4/9/52 elected school trustee
7/23/52 referred as constable candidate
7/23/52 candidate for legislature
3/25/53 appointed to Pacific RR Commission
In the 1860 "Missouri State Gazatteer and Business
Directory" Louis was listed as an auctioneer. The 1876-7
issue shows Louis Austermell of Hermann as proprietor of a
general store. This may have been his property on the
northwest corner of Market and 5th Street which he sold in
On February 18,1884, Louis and Louisa celebrated their
Golden Wedding Anniversary at their home.
Louisa's diary for a part of 1884 begins with a listing
of some of the remembrances from friends and family on this
special occasion. A delegation of his brothers from the Odd
Fellows visited in early March to present Louis with a
special regalia which was ordered for the Golden Wedding
From the diary it is apparent that Louis, then 79, was
in poor health throughout 1884. Sons Jefferson and
Washington and their families had lived in Kansas City since
1881. Lewis and his family had just moved from St.Louis to
Chicago. Media and her husband, Hermann Lessel, had been
living in Springfield for some time. Only Julia and her
husband Dr. Freyman and son Jackson remained at home.
Clearly the old folks needed to be with family given
their advancing years and precarious health. They moved,
probably sometime after 1885, to Kansas City along with the
Freymans where the Doctors' brother had lived for several
years. Jackson went off to dental school at Vanderbilt
University in Nashville, TN and recieved his DDS in 1887. He
also joined the family in Kansas City.
Around the 27th of August 1889, Louis lapsed into a
coma. On Thursday night, Aug.29,1889 he died at his new home
in Kansas City. The Kansas City death records show his
residence as 444 Bellefontaine, old age as cause of death
and A.A. Freyman as attending physician. He had made known
his wish that his body be returned to Hermann.. .where his
many friends and neighbors rested and where he had lived
over half a lifetime. He was brought back to the town he
helped establish by express train Saturday accompanied by
Louisa, sons Lewis and Jackson, and Dr and Mrs. Freyman.
Washington and Jefferson must have been already in
California by that time as they were not present.
is brothers of the Lodge took charge of the remains
and conveyed it from the train station to a vacant store
room on the corner of Shiller and 2nd Street. There a
ceremonial funeral was held that afternoon after a religious
service by Dr. Sonwind. Dr. Ettmueller gave a lengthy eulogy
at the graveside, to which a large group of mourners had
followed the funeral procession. It was reported that at his
death Louis was the oldest Odd Fellow in the State of
Missouri, a distinction he surely would have appreciated.
Louisa lived for several more years with her children
in Kansas City. the account of her death which follows this
chapter was written by her first born child, Lewis, and told
the sad tale for the benefit of his br9thers in California.
She had been visiting for some time with Media and Hermann
in Monett and was stricken on the train while returning
Louisa is buried beside her son Jackson in the Elmwood
cemetery, 4900 Truman Rd, Kansas City,MO. (Block D, lot
384). Their records list the cause of death as apoplexy and
indicate the service was performed by the Stine Funeral
Further Speculations on Origins
From the census records, no further clue is given to
Louis Austermell's origins than "Hesse Cassel" in Germany.
This is not a town , but a province... and a rather large
one. Westphalia, indicated in the naturalization records, is
now a province somewhat northwest of Hesse.
he Index of Atlantic and Gulf Ports immigrations shows
the following arrivals at Baltimore:
E. Austermuehl 18 yr old male,laborer from Germany
Wilhelm Austermuller age 21, butcher, destination
Baltimore, arrived 9/26/1850
Rosine Austermuhle age 20 of Horgeismar, destination
Phila. arrived 10/31/1851
Charles Austermuehl age 16 male from Hessia,arrived
Heinrich Austermuhl 18 yrs old, destination Washington
The Hessia and Horgeismar (a town in Hessen) references
tend to support an Austermell residence in that province. An
attempt in 1981 to find an emigration record for our Louis
from the Hessen State Archives in Marburg failed to bring
any result. The archivist there did reply, however, that he
felt the name Austermuhie ("Aus der Muhie- from the mill")
points more to the Rheinland, Westfalen or Hannover. He
indicated that this name also appears in Switzerland.
With the reference in the naturalization records to
Westphalia, contacts were made in 1986 with the two State
Archives for portions of that area. No record was identified
through these efforts either.
Another item for speculation is the result of the 1850
census. Appearing with Louis and his family at that time is
one Edward Austermell, age 19, a carpenter born in Hesse.
Could he have been a nephew?... the "E. Austermell age 18"
who arrived in Baltimore two months earlier??
A record of Declarations of Intent to Become American
Citizens (1838-1849) St.Louis Mo includes a Heinrich
Ostermoller age 25 of Missiour in 1848.
The relationship of any of these family is not known.
Louisa Austermell is listed as "Louisa K." in the
records of Elmwood Cemetery. Whether this initial stood for
her maiden or middle name is not known. Her diary lists
Golden Anniversary rememberances from two neices.. a Mrs. S.
Willianson (Williamson?) of Philadelphia and a Mrs. E. Duff
of New York. These are the only clues we have on her family
at this point.
AUTHOR's NOTE IN 1998- In the early 1990's I learned the origin
of Louis Austermell. He was born Dec.17, 1805 in Liebenau, Germany
to Johannes Austermell (11/20/1763-2/27/1814 and Anna Rosina
Grosshaus (11/1/1767-4/25/1828). Johannes believed the son of
Benjamin Austermell of the same city, and Anna Rosina the daughter
of Konrad Grosshaus. This couple married 3/26/1790).
Lewis W. Austermell
The oldest child of Louis and Louisa was Lewis W.
Austermell1 born in Philadelphia on Nov.25,1836. The 1850
census lists him with the family in Hermann, but by 1860 he
had apparently left home to make his way in the big city of
He was an active church member at the 3rd Baptist
Church, and it seems that it was through those connections
that he met his future wife, Miss Elizabeth Elvira (Ella)
Thompson. Her diary records she first met him Jan.5,1865. On
July 23rd of that year she adds "He kissed me before I knew
what he was about when he bade me good night, mean fellow.".
On his father's birthday1 Dec.17, in 1867 Lewis and Ella
were married at the church by Rev.A.A. Kendrick. Ella's
record of their wedding and honeymoon trip relates how they
sailed from Cairo,Illinois for NewOrleans on Dec.21 aboard
the steamship "M.S.Mepham". in New Orleans they stayed at
the St. Charles Hotel. Lewis' weight is listed as having
been 145 pounds.
In St. Louis, Lewis was involved in business and was a
partner in the Import firm of Kennedy and Austermell,
located at number 87 North Second St. on the corner of
Lewis and Ella were to have five children---all born in
St. Louis. The first of these was Lewis Thompson Austermell
(b.Nov.l0,1868) who married Amy Mason of Chicago. He was
tragicly widowed after less than seven years of marriage
when his wife died following the birth of the child they
both wanted so badly. "Lewie" was never to remarry and lived
to celebrate his 100th birthday. Daisy Ella Austermell was
born Dec.21,1870 and married Frank Burnham Hall, living in
later life in North Quincy, Mass. Hugh Thompson Austermell
married Sarah Tilly of Shreveport, La where they made their
home. Edith Louise Austermell was born Jun.28,1878. While a
young woman she was dragged by a street car and suffered a
permanent back injury. She never married, but lived with her
brother Lewie and helped him raise his young daughter. The
baby of the family, Lilian Hayden Austermell, was born
Oct.18,1885. She married Frederick George Pamperien and was
the only one of the children to remain in the Chicago area,
After twenty years in business in St. Louis, Lewis W.
moved to Chicago with his family following after on May
23,1884. Due to Ella's poor health, she and the children
returned to St. Louis and remained there for over a year
before returning to Chicago for good. Lewis bought a book
business known as the "Waverly Publishing Company" located
in the Lakeside Bldg, Chicago. Both sons were involved in
this concern with him when they were older.
Lewis W. Austermell died in LaGrange,Illinois on
Jun.24,1911 and is buried in the Oak Ridge Cemetery Lot 159
section 4, Oak Park,Ill. Ella's health continued to be
fragile, and she moved with son Lewie, daughter Edith and
granddaughter Amy to California for the benefit of the
climate. Ella died there on May 13, 1931 and was interred in
a mausoleum at the Hollywood Cemetery, Hollywood, California.
Jefferson Hermann Austermell
Jefferson Austermell was born in Philadelphia about
1839. He moved with his family to Hermann and is shown with
them in the 1850 census, age 11.
He studied for the ministry, and in a council meeting
at North Bay,New York on July 2,1867, Jefferson was ordained
to work in the Gospel ministry. He was then a student at
Madison University, New York and listed his church
membership as being the 3rd Baptist Church in St. Louis. He
was to spend many years in the ministry in New York,
Pennsylvania and Massachusetts as well as the mid-west
before eventually moving to California.
The year after his ordination, Jefferson was united in
marriage with Miss Alice Dunford, daughter of Thomas Dunford
"Esquire". The service was performed at the residence of the
brides' parents near Alton,Ill by the Rev. J.H. Bulkey,DD on
Oct.6,1868. Jeff was recorded as being, at that time, the
pastor of the Baptist Church in Ft. Covington, NY. His
younger brother, "Wash", was to later marry Alice's sister,
No record is available of all the family's travels, but
from the diary his sister-in-law Ella kept, it is known that
on Aug.l, 1881 Jeff , Wash, and families and mother-in-law
moved to Kansas City, Mo. Maude, her mother and the children
stayed several days in St. Louis with Lewis and Ella while
in transit. A later diary entry of Ella's indicates that in
August of 1883, Jeff was getting ready to move to Topeka
"where I think he is to preach".
Jefferson and Alice had three girls. Alice (born June
30, 1870) married Fred Dorn, an architect who built the
Marsh-Strong Building between Broadway and Spring Streets in
Los Angeles. June Elizabeth (b.Jul.7,1872) married William
Brant Gard, son of former L.A. Chief of Police, Sheriff, and
U.S. Marshall Maj. George E. Gard. Florence, described by a
grandniece as being a poet, was born sometime before Jul. of
1877 and married Jack McKinley. After Jack's early death,
she married Omar Garton. Unlike her sisters, Florence left
On March 29,1912, Jefferson passed away at his home in
Edendale, California while kneeling beside his bed in
prayer. His son-in-law, Wm.B Gard, had purchased a large
family lot (#173) at the Rosedale Cemetery, Los Angeles, and
Jeff was interred there Apr.l,1912.
Alice was laid beside her husband almost seven years
Media Austermell, listed as 6 year-old "Amelia M." in
the 1850 census1 was born in Hermann on April 13,1844(?).
The 1870 census shows her as 23 year old "Emilie" keeping
house" at home, so the year of birth may be slightly off. As
the oldest girl in the family, she doubtlessly helped in
many of the domestic chores, although it is known that her
parents had hired girls living with the family at various
She was educated in the Hermann schools and attended
Almira College at Greenville, Illinois. Almira was a Baptist
College for ladies established in September of 1859. A
clipping in a family scrapbook shows that "Miss Amelia M.
Austermell" was a member of the 1866 junior class. It is
assumed that she graduated from this institution.
On Mar.28,1882, at a relatively mature age, Media
married Hermann Lessel in Gasconade County. The Lessels and
the Austermells had been long time acquaintances and Louis
and Jospeh Lessel had served together as school trustees.
Hermann Lessel worked on the railroad and he and Media
moved to Springfield,Mo. Their firstborn children were:
Jokshan Lewis ,born in March of 1883 pierce City,MO (named
after his two uncles) and Louise Media (named after her
grandmother and mother) When Media was 9 months pregnant
with their third child, tragedy struck the household.
Illness carried off Joksham on Oct.9,1886 and Louise on Oct
14,1886. A letter written by sister Julia at the time said
that the doctor had failed to tell them the illness was
contagious. Both were laid to rest in the Maple park
Cemetery in Springfield.
In the midst of this heartbreak, John Clare Lessel was
born on Oct.12, 1886. He was to be the only child who
By the time of Louisa Austermell's death in 1891, the
Lessels were living in Monet, MO. Herman was trainmaster on
the "Frisco Road". Sometime later they followed Media's
brothers to California. By the 1910 census, they were listed
as living in Los Angeles: Hermann shown as 61 and Media as
64 (sic?). When her brother Jeff died in 1912, her residence
was listed as Garvanza.
It is not known when Media or Hermann died, but Media
probably lived into the 1920s or later. One address listinq
shows her in Long Beach1 California at one time.
Only son John Dare Lessel is said to have remained
single. A family address book shows him to have lived for a
time in the Napa County California Veterans Home at
Yountsville. In a letter from that institution in 1985, John
is reported to have served as a mess sgt in WWI from
10/3/1917 to 12/21/1918. His religion is listed as Baptist
and occupation salesman. He stayed at the Veterans Home for
a 9 month period between 1953 and 1954 before checking
himself out. Although the date or location of his death is
not known, there is a cryptic note in a family birthday book
which says "John died 1956" which may apply to him.
Washington T. Austermell
Washington Austermell was born in Hermann on Dec.26,
1847. He appears with his family in the census records for
1850, 1860, and 1870. The 1870 census shows him as a clerk,
apparently working for his father along with younger brother
Washington spent some time in St. Louis, where his
brother Lewis was in business. About 1876 he married Maude
Elizabeth Dunford of Alton, Illinois, the sister of
Jefferson's wife Alice.
"Wash" and Maude settled in Alton and their first three
children were born there. In August of 1881, he moved his
family (including mother-in-law Elizabeth Dunford) to Kansas
City, Mo. By 1887, however, they had moved to California.
Washington and Maude's children were: Maybelle Maude
Austermell (b.May 18,1877) who married Arthur John Gatter;
Ruth Media Austermell (b.Jul. 20,1879) who married
Christopher Carl Lyon'. Bessie Louise Austermell (b.May 5,
1881) who married James Arthur Kelly; and Dunford Mitchell
Austermell but left no children.
What is uncertain is the identity of another small
girl, one H.L. Austermell, who died at the age of 8 months
of capillary bronchitis in Kansas City on Oct.4,1883. The
place of death is shown on the death record as 1119 Michigan
Ave., and the attending physician listed as A.A.
"Freyerman". It would seem likely that this was a child of
either Washington or Jefferson and that the doctor was the
brother of Joksham. It will take additional research to
establish whose child this was, as the dates on the other
children rule out neither.
Washington (referred to as "Uncle George" by the
children in Jefferson's family) was said by grand~niece Amy
Austermell to have owned two lots on Signal Hill but sold
them before the oil find. He died Dec.4,1939 , some four
years after the death of his wife Maude.
Jackson Julius Austermell
Jackson Austermell first makes his appearance in the
August 1850 census records where he is listed as 10 month
old "Julius". His place of birth is shown as Hermann. As
often happens with age records, people either become
creative or the census takers make careless errors. In the
1900 census, Jackson was listed as born Sep. 1853. Looking
through his mother's diary, there is no mention of a party
or gifts for Jackson in September1 but a hint around May 10
which could be referring to a birthday.
As a bachelor, living at home with his parents1
Jackson's comings and goings are alluded to constantly
throughout Louisa ledger. He seems a very devoted son and a
favorite Uncle when the grandchildren visited. His
occupation in the 1870 census was shown as "clerk".
The records of Vanderbilt university in Nashville, TN
show that he matriculated as a senior on Oct.1,1886. The
School of Dentistry had just been organized, and according
to universary history it struggled to maintain itself until
being dropped from the curiculum in 1925. Jackson received
his Doctor of Dental Surgery in early 1887 and joined his
family in Kansas City to set up practice.
The 1900 census shows him at 1127 Independance Ave,
which is also listed on his registration record at
Vanderbilt. In the 1910 census, he is shown at age "50" as
living with his sister Julia and brother-in-law Dr. Freyman.
The 1923 Vanderbilt Alumni Directory lists Jackson's
residence as 900 Admiral Blvd, Kansas City.
Correspondence from the Elwood Cemetery indicates that
it was Jackson who purchased the plot in which his mother
was buried and two adjoining. On Jan.25,1932 he was buried
by D.W. Newcomer's Son Funeral Home beside his mother (Block
Lot 384). His residence was then 508 Montgall and the
cause of his death recorded as cancer of the liver.
Julia Virginia Austermell
Julia was born Sep.111856 in Hermann. Her mother was 39
and her father 50 at the time. She's shown as the youngest
child in both the 1860, 1870, and 1880 census records.
According to microfilmed Marriage Records at St.paul's
United Church of Christ in Hermann, on her father's birthday
17 Dec 1877 she was married to "Dr. A. Jackson Freyman"
(Joksham). The ceremony was performed at her parent's home.
Joksham's brother A.A.Freyman1 and Julia's sister Media
Austermell, are recorded as the witnesses.
They apparently settled down in Hermann and their
activities are prominently mentioned in Louisa's diary. They
were not destined to be blessed with any children.
About the time that Jackson went off to Vanderbilt,
Joksham and Julia moved to Kansas City. Joksham's brother
"A.A." apparently was also a doctor and had been practicing
in Kansas City prior to 1883.
The last released census as of the time this history
was assembled was 1910. That record shows Joksham, age 58
born in Ohio, and Julia in a household with her brother
Jackson "Ostimell". Sometime after this, Julia was widowed.
According to grandniece June Williams, she married a Mr.
Fortner of Mena Arkansas. A photograph which follows shows
Mr. and Mrs. Fortner with Mrs. Williams' mother Mrs. Hugh
Austermell, and was taken near Mena Arkansas on July 4, 1924.
Julia's date or location of death are items we do not
precisely know, however the telegram announcing her death
was received by family in California on Apr.17,1937. It is
known that she left her niece Lilian half her silver and her
"favorite" nephew Lewis T. a large Chinese vase.
Copyright © 1998 by C. Yoder
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Keith & Nancy Strassner - - - - last updated January 8, 1999
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