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Gasconade County, Missouri

LOUIS AND LOUISA AUSTERMELL for information about this page contact C. Yoder

Origins and Life in Philadelphia.

Please also see the diary of Louisa Austermell


The history of a family is a part of the present of

each of its members. In fortunate families, and I believe

ours has been one, the most precious commodity is the bond

of love and affection which holds parent to child and

sibling to sibling. With the passing of each generation

members become less closely acquainted. Each distinct family

unit, however, continues to share a common heritage.

I've attempted within this brief booklet to capture a

portion of our mutual ancestry. As the years go by, more and

more of the history of a family invariably becomes lost. If

this effort had begun 20 years ago, before the death of my

great-Uncle Lewis T. Austermell at the age of 100, we could

have had personnel annecdotes about his grandparents, and

his recollections of his visits with them in Hermann,

Missouri. We may have had the answers to such puzzles as

Louisa's maiden name, and Louis' town of origin in Germany.

If we had waited 20 years longer, it may have been

impossible to contact the range of descendants involved.

I'd like to thank all those who contributed family

information to this effort. particular thanks go to Ruth and

Virginia Floyd, Barbara Bebon, Phyllis Yoder, Elizabeth

Schultz, and Edith Hall for sharing family records and

photographs which are included in this album. I'll apologize

in advance for getting any names and faces mixed up.

Hopefully the result is of interest and will be

something of value to not only its current readers, but also

to those generations which are to follow.

Christopher K Yoder

203 Lakeshire Rd

Battle Creek, MI 49015

December 1986

Dedicated with love to Amy Louise Austermell (1906-1978)...

The last of the Austermell surname.




Origins and Life in Philadelphia.

Louis Austermell was born on Dec.17~l8O5 in Germany.

Some of the records dealing with him spell his name "Lewis".

>From an inscription in a book he once owned, now in the

hands of his descendants, his middle initial appears to have

been "A."... for what is not known. The first record of him

in this country is a document he signed in the Marine Court

of the City of New York on Dec.2,1833 stating his intention

to become a citizen of the United States. He renounces all

allegiance to foreign rulers, "and particularly the king of


On Oct.4,1836, he was naturalized as a citizen of the

United States in the Philadelphia Court of Quarter Sessions.

He settled in Philadelphia early, and it isn't known if he

resided elsewhere upon his arrival.

Great-grandaughter Amy Austermell, believed that Louis

had come to America to escape the draft in Europe. She

recalled hearing that Louis could not speak a word of

English when he arrived, but was very interested in becoming

an American.

From the documents cdmpleted in conjunction with his

naturalization, it would appear that he came from

Westphalia. Later census records show his place of origin as

"Hesse-Cassel". No immigration record has yet been located,

nor has contact with the Archives in both Westphalia and

Kassel at Marburg revealed any emigration records. Further

speculation on his origins is presented later within this


Little is known about Louis' life in Philadelphia. He

was an active member of the Independant Order of Odd Fellows

and it is known from his obituary that he joined its

Teutonia Lodge (number 21) in Philadelphia on June 12,1833.

There also,on Febrary 18,1834, the twenty-seven year-old

Louis married his seventeen year-old bride, Louisa. Louisa,

Iwhose last name is not known, was born Feb.9,1817, most

probably in Philadelphia. She and Louis would spend over 50

years as man and wife.

Louis and Louisa's first child, Lewis william

Austermell, was born on Nov.25, 1837. Two years later,

second son Jefferson Hermann Austermell was born.

One of the earliest records located which mentions the

family at that time is M'Elroys Philadelphia Directory of

1840. It lists "Lewis Austermell, machinist, 148 N. 3rd,

home 21 Sterling alley". The 1841 edition also mentions

"Lewis Austermell, machinist, 21 Sterling alley".

The German-American Settlement Society

On August 27,1836 a group called the "Deutsche

Ausiedlungs-Gesellschaft zu Philadelphia" (The German

American Settlement Company of Philadelphia). Although

Philadelphia had long been a focal point for German

immigration, the members of this group were primarily

newcommers. They welL recognized the blessings of their new

country, but were disturbed by a sense that the earlier

German settlers had lost touch with their heritage. The

purpose of the Settlement Company was to work toward the

establishment in the American West of a colony where German

traditions and culture could be nurtured and preserved for

their children.

A lengthy constitution was drafted for the society and

among the signatories was Lewis Austermell. By February of

1839 over $30,000 had been collected. The location selected

was a picturesque spot on the Missouri river, about 60 miles

upstream from St.Louis. This German-American cultural El

Dorado was given the name of Hermann.

Life in Hermann

Although Louis' obituary states that he came to Hermann

in 1839, and Louisa' 5 cites 1837, they in reality didn't

move there until 1841. The place of birth shown in census

records for their first two children, support this date.

By the time their third child, Media Mo, was born on

Apr.13,1844, the Austermells were well settled into their

new Missouri home. The cultural objectives of the Hermann

settlement are readily apparent in the naming of the

streets: Gutenberg, Shiller, Mozart, and Goethe. Also

reflected was the strong mixture of American patriotism

which so influenced Louis and Louisa in the naming of their

own children... streets named Franklin, Jefferson, and


Louis and Louisa's 4th child, Washington Thomas

Austermell, was born in Hermann Dec.26,1847, followed by

Jackson Julius around Sept. 1849.

It appears from a gravestone found in the Hermann City

cemetery that another son was born... Albert E.B.

Austermell, born Apr.20,1852 and died Jun. 18, 1853.

Youngest daughter Julia Virginia Austermell was born

Sep.1,1856 in Hermann.

Property records at the City Hall show that Lewis

Austermell bought and sold a variety of lots over a 40 year

period, with the earliest record noted one warranted in


Louis continued his Lodge involvement and was a founder

of the Robert Blum Lodge, No.46, I.O.O.F. which was formed

on April 26,1850. He was the first Noble Grand (head of the

lodge) . Robert Blum was a German patriot who was executed

Nov.9th 1848. He was a leader of a radical movement which

sought to liberate and unify Ger many. This lodge continued

as active for over 130 years until being consolidated with

the Warrenton Lodge. Louisa was a member of the distaff

organization allied with this group, the Sisters of Rebecca

for almost fifty years. The ladies' lodge at Hermann, the

Aurelia Lodge, has also recently consolidated with


The 1850 census for Hermann, Gasconade Co.,Mo taken 15

August 1850 shows:

Lewis Austermell age 44 locksmith,property

born Hesse Cassel

Louisa age 44(sic)

Lewis W. age 13 born PA

Hermann J. age 11 born PA

Amelia M. age 6 born State of Mo.

Washington age 2 born State of Mo.

Julius age l0months b.

Louis was an avid supporter of education. He and Joseph

Lessel, possibly the later father-in-law of Louis' daughter

Media, both were trustees of the Hermann town school in

1850. Louis was also a trustee in 1854 and 1855. In 1867 he

was a member of the committee which recommended the

subsequent merger of the previously separate English and

German schools, and in 1868 he served as a member of the

Hermann Board of Education. From Louisa's diary of 1883-4 it

can be seen that this family interest in the schools

continued throughout their life in Hermann.

An index to the Hermanner Wochenblatt (a local paper)

from 1847 to 1855 gives some indication of Louis1 civic

involvement during this period:

date topic

1/24/51 a reference to his business location

3/26/52 election officer

4/9/52 elected school trustee

7/23/52 referred as constable candidate

7/23/52 candidate for legislature

3/25/53 appointed to Pacific RR Commission

In the 1860 "Missouri State Gazatteer and Business

Directory" Louis was listed as an auctioneer. The 1876-7

issue shows Louis Austermell of Hermann as proprietor of a

general store. This may have been his property on the

northwest corner of Market and 5th Street which he sold in


On February 18,1884, Louis and Louisa celebrated their

Golden Wedding Anniversary at their home.

Louisa's diary for a part of 1884 begins with a listing

of some of the remembrances from friends and family on this

special occasion. A delegation of his brothers from the Odd

Fellows visited in early March to present Louis with a

special regalia which was ordered for the Golden Wedding


From the diary it is apparent that Louis, then 79, was

in poor health throughout 1884. Sons Jefferson and

Washington and their families had lived in Kansas City since

1881. Lewis and his family had just moved from St.Louis to

Chicago. Media and her husband, Hermann Lessel, had been

living in Springfield for some time. Only Julia and her

husband Dr. Freyman and son Jackson remained at home.

Clearly the old folks needed to be with family given

their advancing years and precarious health. They moved,

probably sometime after 1885, to Kansas City along with the

Freymans where the Doctors' brother had lived for several

years. Jackson went off to dental school at Vanderbilt

University in Nashville, TN and recieved his DDS in 1887. He

also joined the family in Kansas City.

Around the 27th of August 1889, Louis lapsed into a

coma. On Thursday night, Aug.29,1889 he died at his new home

in Kansas City. The Kansas City death records show his

residence as 444 Bellefontaine, old age as cause of death

and A.A. Freyman as attending physician. He had made known

his wish that his body be returned to Hermann.. .where his

many friends and neighbors rested and where he had lived

over half a lifetime. He was brought back to the town he

helped establish by express train Saturday accompanied by

Louisa, sons Lewis and Jackson, and Dr and Mrs. Freyman.

Washington and Jefferson must have been already in

California by that time as they were not present.

is brothers of the Lodge took charge of the remains

and conveyed it from the train station to a vacant store

room on the corner of Shiller and 2nd Street. There a

ceremonial funeral was held that afternoon after a religious

service by Dr. Sonwind. Dr. Ettmueller gave a lengthy eulogy

at the graveside, to which a large group of mourners had

followed the funeral procession. It was reported that at his

death Louis was the oldest Odd Fellow in the State of

Missouri, a distinction he surely would have appreciated.

Louisa lived for several more years with her children

in Kansas City. the account of her death which follows this

chapter was written by her first born child, Lewis, and told

the sad tale for the benefit of his br9thers in California.

She had been visiting for some time with Media and Hermann

in Monett and was stricken on the train while returning


Louisa is buried beside her son Jackson in the Elmwood

cemetery, 4900 Truman Rd, Kansas City,MO. (Block D, lot

384). Their records list the cause of death as apoplexy and

indicate the service was performed by the Stine Funeral


Further Speculations on Origins

From the census records, no further clue is given to

Louis Austermell's origins than "Hesse Cassel" in Germany.

This is not a town , but a province... and a rather large

one. Westphalia, indicated in the naturalization records, is

now a province somewhat northwest of Hesse.

he Index of Atlantic and Gulf Ports immigrations shows

the following arrivals at Baltimore:


E. Austermuehl 18 yr old male,laborer from Germany

arrived 6/30/1850

Wilhelm Austermuller age 21, butcher, destination

Baltimore, arrived 9/26/1850

Rosine Austermuhle age 20 of Horgeismar, destination

Phila. arrived 10/31/1851

Charles Austermuehl age 16 male from Hessia,arrived


Heinrich Austermuhl 18 yrs old, destination Washington

arrived 5/3/1853

The Hessia and Horgeismar (a town in Hessen) references

tend to support an Austermell residence in that province. An

attempt in 1981 to find an emigration record for our Louis

from the Hessen State Archives in Marburg failed to bring

any result. The archivist there did reply, however, that he

felt the name Austermuhie ("Aus der Muhie- from the mill")

points more to the Rheinland, Westfalen or Hannover. He

indicated that this name also appears in Switzerland.

With the reference in the naturalization records to

Westphalia, contacts were made in 1986 with the two State

Archives for portions of that area. No record was identified

through these efforts either.

Another item for speculation is the result of the 1850

census. Appearing with Louis and his family at that time is

one Edward Austermell, age 19, a carpenter born in Hesse.

Could he have been a nephew?... the "E. Austermell age 18"

who arrived in Baltimore two months earlier??

A record of Declarations of Intent to Become American

Citizens (1838-1849) St.Louis Mo includes a Heinrich

Ostermoller age 25 of Missiour in 1848.

The relationship of any of these family is not known.

Louisa Austermell is listed as "Louisa K." in the

records of Elmwood Cemetery. Whether this initial stood for

her maiden or middle name is not known. Her diary lists

Golden Anniversary rememberances from two neices.. a Mrs. S.

Willianson (Williamson?) of Philadelphia and a Mrs. E. Duff

of New York. These are the only clues we have on her family

at this point.


AUTHOR's NOTE IN 1998- In the early 1990's I learned the origin

of Louis Austermell. He was born Dec.17, 1805 in Liebenau, Germany

to Johannes Austermell (11/20/1763-2/27/1814 and Anna Rosina

Grosshaus (11/1/1767-4/25/1828). Johannes believed the son of

Benjamin Austermell of the same city, and Anna Rosina the daughter

of Konrad Grosshaus. This couple married 3/26/1790).


Lewis W. Austermell

The oldest child of Louis and Louisa was Lewis W.

Austermell1 born in Philadelphia on Nov.25,1836. The 1850

census lists him with the family in Hermann, but by 1860 he

had apparently left home to make his way in the big city of

St. Louis.

He was an active church member at the 3rd Baptist

Church, and it seems that it was through those connections

that he met his future wife, Miss Elizabeth Elvira (Ella)

Thompson. Her diary records she first met him Jan.5,1865. On

July 23rd of that year she adds "He kissed me before I knew

what he was about when he bade me good night, mean fellow.".

On his father's birthday1 Dec.17, in 1867 Lewis and Ella

were married at the church by Rev.A.A. Kendrick. Ella's

record of their wedding and honeymoon trip relates how they

sailed from Cairo,Illinois for NewOrleans on Dec.21 aboard

the steamship "M.S.Mepham". in New Orleans they stayed at

the St. Charles Hotel. Lewis' weight is listed as having

been 145 pounds.

In St. Louis, Lewis was involved in business and was a

partner in the Import firm of Kennedy and Austermell,

located at number 87 North Second St. on the corner of


Lewis and Ella were to have five children---all born in

St. Louis. The first of these was Lewis Thompson Austermell

(b.Nov.l0,1868) who married Amy Mason of Chicago. He was

tragicly widowed after less than seven years of marriage

when his wife died following the birth of the child they

both wanted so badly. "Lewie" was never to remarry and lived

to celebrate his 100th birthday. Daisy Ella Austermell was

born Dec.21,1870 and married Frank Burnham Hall, living in

later life in North Quincy, Mass. Hugh Thompson Austermell

married Sarah Tilly of Shreveport, La where they made their

home. Edith Louise Austermell was born Jun.28,1878. While a

young woman she was dragged by a street car and suffered a

permanent back injury. She never married, but lived with her

brother Lewie and helped him raise his young daughter. The

baby of the family, Lilian Hayden Austermell, was born

Oct.18,1885. She married Frederick George Pamperien and was

the only one of the children to remain in the Chicago area,

in LaGrange,Illinois.

After twenty years in business in St. Louis, Lewis W.

moved to Chicago with his family following after on May

23,1884. Due to Ella's poor health, she and the children

returned to St. Louis and remained there for over a year

before returning to Chicago for good. Lewis bought a book

business known as the "Waverly Publishing Company" located

in the Lakeside Bldg, Chicago. Both sons were involved in

this concern with him when they were older.

Lewis W. Austermell died in LaGrange,Illinois on

Jun.24,1911 and is buried in the Oak Ridge Cemetery Lot 159

section 4, Oak Park,Ill. Ella's health continued to be

fragile, and she moved with son Lewie, daughter Edith and

granddaughter Amy to California for the benefit of the

climate. Ella died there on May 13, 1931 and was interred in

a mausoleum at the Hollywood Cemetery, Hollywood, California.

Jefferson Hermann Austermell

Jefferson Austermell was born in Philadelphia about

1839. He moved with his family to Hermann and is shown with

them in the 1850 census, age 11.

He studied for the ministry, and in a council meeting

at North Bay,New York on July 2,1867, Jefferson was ordained

to work in the Gospel ministry. He was then a student at

Madison University, New York and listed his church

membership as being the 3rd Baptist Church in St. Louis. He

was to spend many years in the ministry in New York,

Pennsylvania and Massachusetts as well as the mid-west

before eventually moving to California.

The year after his ordination, Jefferson was united in

marriage with Miss Alice Dunford, daughter of Thomas Dunford

"Esquire". The service was performed at the residence of the

brides' parents near Alton,Ill by the Rev. J.H. Bulkey,DD on

Oct.6,1868. Jeff was recorded as being, at that time, the

pastor of the Baptist Church in Ft. Covington, NY. His

younger brother, "Wash", was to later marry Alice's sister,

Maude Elizabeth.

No record is available of all the family's travels, but

from the diary his sister-in-law Ella kept, it is known that

on Aug.l, 1881 Jeff , Wash, and families and mother-in-law

moved to Kansas City, Mo. Maude, her mother and the children

stayed several days in St. Louis with Lewis and Ella while

in transit. A later diary entry of Ella's indicates that in

August of 1883, Jeff was getting ready to move to Topeka

"where I think he is to preach".

Jefferson and Alice had three girls. Alice (born June

30, 1870) married Fred Dorn, an architect who built the

Marsh-Strong Building between Broadway and Spring Streets in

Los Angeles. June Elizabeth (b.Jul.7,1872) married William

Brant Gard, son of former L.A. Chief of Police, Sheriff, and

U.S. Marshall Maj. George E. Gard. Florence, described by a

grandniece as being a poet, was born sometime before Jul. of

1877 and married Jack McKinley. After Jack's early death,

she married Omar Garton. Unlike her sisters, Florence left

no children.

On March 29,1912, Jefferson passed away at his home in

Edendale, California while kneeling beside his bed in

prayer. His son-in-law, Wm.B Gard, had purchased a large

family lot (#173) at the Rosedale Cemetery, Los Angeles, and

Jeff was interred there Apr.l,1912.

Alice was laid beside her husband almost seven years



Media Austermell, listed as 6 year-old "Amelia M." in

the 1850 census1 was born in Hermann on April 13,1844(?).

The 1870 census shows her as 23 year old "Emilie" keeping

house" at home, so the year of birth may be slightly off. As

the oldest girl in the family, she doubtlessly helped in

many of the domestic chores, although it is known that her

parents had hired girls living with the family at various


She was educated in the Hermann schools and attended

Almira College at Greenville, Illinois. Almira was a Baptist

College for ladies established in September of 1859. A

clipping in a family scrapbook shows that "Miss Amelia M.

Austermell" was a member of the 1866 junior class. It is

assumed that she graduated from this institution.

On Mar.28,1882, at a relatively mature age, Media

married Hermann Lessel in Gasconade County. The Lessels and

the Austermells had been long time acquaintances and Louis

and Jospeh Lessel had served together as school trustees.

Hermann Lessel worked on the railroad and he and Media

moved to Springfield,Mo. Their firstborn children were:

Jokshan Lewis ,born in March of 1883 pierce City,MO (named

after his two uncles) and Louise Media (named after her

grandmother and mother) When Media was 9 months pregnant

with their third child, tragedy struck the household.

Illness carried off Joksham on Oct.9,1886 and Louise on Oct

14,1886. A letter written by sister Julia at the time said

that the doctor had failed to tell them the illness was

contagious. Both were laid to rest in the Maple park

Cemetery in Springfield.

In the midst of this heartbreak, John Clare Lessel was

born on Oct.12, 1886. He was to be the only child who

survived them.

By the time of Louisa Austermell's death in 1891, the

Lessels were living in Monet, MO. Herman was trainmaster on

the "Frisco Road". Sometime later they followed Media's

brothers to California. By the 1910 census, they were listed

as living in Los Angeles: Hermann shown as 61 and Media as

64 (sic?). When her brother Jeff died in 1912, her residence

was listed as Garvanza.

It is not known when Media or Hermann died, but Media

probably lived into the 1920s or later. One address listinq

shows her in Long Beach1 California at one time.

Only son John Dare Lessel is said to have remained

single. A family address book shows him to have lived for a

time in the Napa County California Veterans Home at

Yountsville. In a letter from that institution in 1985, John

is reported to have served as a mess sgt in WWI from

10/3/1917 to 12/21/1918. His religion is listed as Baptist

and occupation salesman. He stayed at the Veterans Home for

a 9 month period between 1953 and 1954 before checking

himself out. Although the date or location of his death is

not known, there is a cryptic note in a family birthday book

which says "John died 1956" which may apply to him.

Washington T. Austermell

Washington Austermell was born in Hermann on Dec.26,

1847. He appears with his family in the census records for

1850, 1860, and 1870. The 1870 census shows him as a clerk,

apparently working for his father along with younger brother


Washington spent some time in St. Louis, where his

brother Lewis was in business. About 1876 he married Maude

Elizabeth Dunford of Alton, Illinois, the sister of

Jefferson's wife Alice.

"Wash" and Maude settled in Alton and their first three

children were born there. In August of 1881, he moved his

family (including mother-in-law Elizabeth Dunford) to Kansas

City, Mo. By 1887, however, they had moved to California.

Washington and Maude's children were: Maybelle Maude

Austermell (b.May 18,1877) who married Arthur John Gatter;

Ruth Media Austermell (b.Jul. 20,1879) who married

Christopher Carl Lyon'. Bessie Louise Austermell (b.May 5,

1881) who married James Arthur Kelly; and Dunford Mitchell

Austermell but left no children.

What is uncertain is the identity of another small

girl, one H.L. Austermell, who died at the age of 8 months

of capillary bronchitis in Kansas City on Oct.4,1883. The

place of death is shown on the death record as 1119 Michigan

Ave., and the attending physician listed as A.A.

"Freyerman". It would seem likely that this was a child of

either Washington or Jefferson and that the doctor was the

brother of Joksham. It will take additional research to

establish whose child this was, as the dates on the other

children rule out neither.

Washington (referred to as "Uncle George" by the

children in Jefferson's family) was said by grand~niece Amy

Austermell to have owned two lots on Signal Hill but sold

them before the oil find. He died Dec.4,1939 , some four

years after the death of his wife Maude.

Jackson Julius Austermell

Jackson Austermell first makes his appearance in the

August 1850 census records where he is listed as 10 month

old "Julius". His place of birth is shown as Hermann. As

often happens with age records, people either become

creative or the census takers make careless errors. In the

1900 census, Jackson was listed as born Sep. 1853. Looking

through his mother's diary, there is no mention of a party

or gifts for Jackson in September1 but a hint around May 10

which could be referring to a birthday.

As a bachelor, living at home with his parents1

Jackson's comings and goings are alluded to constantly

throughout Louisa ledger. He seems a very devoted son and a

favorite Uncle when the grandchildren visited. His

occupation in the 1870 census was shown as "clerk".

The records of Vanderbilt university in Nashville, TN

show that he matriculated as a senior on Oct.1,1886. The

School of Dentistry had just been organized, and according

to universary history it struggled to maintain itself until

being dropped from the curiculum in 1925. Jackson received

his Doctor of Dental Surgery in early 1887 and joined his

family in Kansas City to set up practice.

The 1900 census shows him at 1127 Independance Ave,

which is also listed on his registration record at

Vanderbilt. In the 1910 census, he is shown at age "50" as

living with his sister Julia and brother-in-law Dr. Freyman.

The 1923 Vanderbilt Alumni Directory lists Jackson's

residence as 900 Admiral Blvd, Kansas City.

Correspondence from the Elwood Cemetery indicates that

it was Jackson who purchased the plot in which his mother

was buried and two adjoining. On Jan.25,1932 he was buried

by D.W. Newcomer's Son Funeral Home beside his mother (Block

Lot 384). His residence was then 508 Montgall and the

cause of his death recorded as cancer of the liver.

Julia Virginia Austermell

Julia was born Sep.111856 in Hermann. Her mother was 39

and her father 50 at the time. She's shown as the youngest

child in both the 1860, 1870, and 1880 census records.

According to microfilmed Marriage Records at St.paul's

United Church of Christ in Hermann, on her father's birthday

17 Dec 1877 she was married to "Dr. A. Jackson Freyman"

(Joksham). The ceremony was performed at her parent's home.

Joksham's brother A.A.Freyman1 and Julia's sister Media

Austermell, are recorded as the witnesses.

They apparently settled down in Hermann and their

activities are prominently mentioned in Louisa's diary. They

were not destined to be blessed with any children.

About the time that Jackson went off to Vanderbilt,

Joksham and Julia moved to Kansas City. Joksham's brother

"A.A." apparently was also a doctor and had been practicing

in Kansas City prior to 1883.

The last released census as of the time this history

was assembled was 1910. That record shows Joksham, age 58

born in Ohio, and Julia in a household with her brother

Jackson "Ostimell". Sometime after this, Julia was widowed.

According to grandniece June Williams, she married a Mr.

Fortner of Mena Arkansas. A photograph which follows shows

Mr. and Mrs. Fortner with Mrs. Williams' mother Mrs. Hugh

Austermell, and was taken near Mena Arkansas on July 4, 1924.

Julia's date or location of death are items we do not

precisely know, however the telegram announcing her death

was received by family in California on Apr.17,1937. It is

known that she left her niece Lilian half her silver and her

"favorite" nephew Lewis T. a large Chinese vase.


Copyright © 1998 by C. Yoder


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