He has been overlooked by historians and Civil War buffs for over 140 years. He is only briefly mentioned a few times in DAVIS' personal papers
and in a few other scant publications. Should his memoirs ever be found, if ever even written, he might prove to be one of the most significant
figures in the Confederate White House, shedding new insights into the person of Jefferson DAVIS, and other key figures of the Confederacy.
EGGELING was born March 6, 1823 in the town of Hannoversch-Muenden, in the state of Niedersachsen, Germany, and was baptized in St. Blasius Luthern Church as Gustav Eduard EGGELING, the son of Sophie and Bernhard Conrad EGGELING, a local barber. Back at that time, the area was part of the small Germanic country of Hannover, which was later annexed by Prussia in 1866. In 1843, at age 20, EGGELING would have been required to serve a two-year stint in the Hannoverian Army and then placed on the active reserves list for life. He probably left Germany in 1845 at age 22, and certainly before the 1848 revolutions swept throughout Europe. He purportedly came to America with his younger brother Karl Wilhelm (b.28, October, 1824, and later called "C. William EGGELING"), arriving at New York, and eventually settling in Richmond, Virginia. Since Germans used their middle name ("rufname") as their everyday name, EGGELING'S name thus became anglicized and inverted in America from Gustav Eduard EGGELING to Edward G. EGGELING. In 1847, he married Margaret BIGGAM, of a well-known, affluent Richmond family. Despite the resistance of Southerners towards foreign immigrants at that time, EGGELING used his charm and enterprise to establish himself locally as a well-known and respected horticulturalist and floral gardener, …… and the rigors of that trade he had learned back in Germany, a country renowned for it's floral beauty. It is written by the renowned Alexander HUMBOLDT, that EGGELING'S home town of Muenden (not to be confused with the other German city "Minden") is one of the 7 most beautiful cities of the world. EGGELING'S floral shop in Richmond was located in "Capital Square" on Broad Street in the downtown district of Richmond, across the street from Richmond College. Interestingly, EGGELING was listed as an "Employer and Landlord" to his black employees on the 1850 and 1860 slave schedules of Richmond … in other words, he owned no slaves. EGGELING won awards for growing the best flowers and vegetables at the annual exhibitions of the Virginia State Agricultural Society, and he became so renowned in his industry, that he was sought after as a contributing writer for various floral and gardening publications. In 1858, he wrote an article for "Southern Planter" magazine (Issue 18, pages 56-57), encouraging the ladies of the day, to become more involved in outdoor activities, especially gardening, for their personal health and enjoyment. A man ahead of his time, he even encouraged his wife's active participation in his business. EGGELING'S profession, afforded him the opportunity to become acquainted with a vast array of people in various businesses and professions, and particularly with the principles and officers of the three major banks of Richmond, who handled all the banking needs for the entire city and indeed for the whole state. This included the elderly John BROCKENBROUGH, President of the Bank of Virginia. He had also become friends with the famous James A. SEDDON, Sr. of Richmond. SEDDON was a distinguished lawyer and statesman who represented Richmond in Congress prior to the Civil War, and who later became Secretary of War on the Staff of Confederate President Jefferson DAVIS. When SEDDON bought and refurbished the old magnificent mansion (built in 1818) of Dr. John BROCKENBROUGH (previously mentioned) in Richmond, it was EGGELING who "painstakingly" designed, landscaped and maintained the grounds of this beautiful mansion. SEDDON later sold the mansion in 1857 to merchant Lewis D. CRENSHAW, who in turn, sold it 4 years later to the City of Richmond, for use as the Executive Mansion, the White House of the Confederacy. EGGELING later reminisced, "It [the SEDDON Mansion] was perfectly adapted to such use …. a splendid, roomy mansion with large grounds, [which I had] laid out with great care, and terraced and planted with wonderful painstaking, and [it was] provided with all the appendages to a gentleman's establishment in the way of greenhouses, stables and the like." One can just imagine the possibility of old-world European charm, and of fragrance, color and beauty surrounding this wonderful old mansion, as a result of the enthusiastic efforts of EGGELING'S Germanic artistic talents. And one seldom thinks in this regard, of the foreign contributions to American history. But after all, American is made up of foreigners.
Caught up in the midst of the torrent of excitement at the beginning of the war, thirty-eight year old EGGELING suddenly found himself swept into the Confederate Army. "They allowed me to choose the arm of service with which my lot should be cast, and you may be sure I chose the cavalry, [as] the poor infantry always catches it", EGGELING later mused in his heavy German accent. While EGGELING was serving about Headquarters [the Confederate White House] one day in Aug or Sept 1861, Mrs. Varina DAVIS (who had remembered EGGELING'S welcoming gift to the DAVIS family of an exquisite arrangment of beautiful flowers the previous June) had summoned him, after learning that he was the one who had laid out, developed and formerly maintained the magnificent grounds of the mansion. "You may be sure that I did not go there without a fine bouquet!" EGGELING exclaimed, notorious for his great sense of quick-witted humor. "She seemed to be surprised to see such a tall, handsome fellow (for I was indeed good-looking and athletic in those days), and she received me very graciously." EGGELING was a pleasant and charming fellow, but not sparing in his pride. Mrs. DAVIS asked him about his qualifications as a gardener, but probably noticing his uncanny wit and intelligence, also mentioned that the House was in need of a Steward, a position which EGGELING was eager to accept. She suggested securing the "indorsements" of his banking friends and presenting them along with his resume before the President. "I presented myself before the President, who had already had a statement of my case from Mrs. DAVIS. The President said but little. He took my letters of indorsement, and after reading them through carefully, remarked: 'But if I should engage you, how would you propose to run this place? Our monthly expenses are about $2800, and I do not wish to be annoyed with the details of the household.' I answered: Mr. President, I would ask you to deposit in bank each month to my credit, such a sum as you desired to expend. I woud draw my individual checks upon it in payment of all the expenses of the mansion and grounds. My checks would be my receipt for the money paid out; the bills, made out and receipted in your name, would be your voucher for what had been purchased; and thus you would have no care whatever on account of the maintenance of the mansion, larder, servant hire, or anything of that nature. Mr. DAVIS said, 'You seem to be a business man, [and] I will do as you suggest. Go to that desk and write out a check for whatever sum you require, and I will sign it. Do this as often as you need money, and I will sign the checks; but do not trouble me with explanations; I do not want to hear them!' I went to the desk, drew a check for $3000, laid it before him, and he signed it, and I left the room with a salute." From thence forward, EGGELING'S job was to look after the mansion, the kitchens, the grounds and the stables, and he thus had complete charge of the entire Confederate White House, inside and out, and was responsible for all the hired help in all these departments. (Not taking away from the title belonging to 24-year old Burton N. HARRISON, EGGELING has often been referred to as "DAVIS' personal secretary"). Purportedly unbeknownst to EGGELING though, two Negro members of his staff turned out to be spies for the Union Army. William A. JACKSON had infiltrated the Confederate White House through EGGELING'S hire, and became Jefferson DAVIS' personal coachman. He gleaned pertinent information, by eavesdropping on DAVIS' conversations in the home, and especially in the presidential coach.
JACKSON was only with DAVIS for about a year, and then left Richmond and showed up with vital information at the Headquarters of the Army of the Potomac in May, 1862. He was later debriefed by Union General Marsena PATRICK, but was in Brooklyn by June, 1862, where he tried selling admission to talks about his experiences with DAVIS. He later disappeared into history. In his book, "Spies and Spymasters", author Donald E. MARKLE of Gettysburg attests that, "historians credit 'the coachman' as one of the most important of the 'intelligence contraband' ". DAVIS' subsequent coachman, James H. JONES, remained with the family until their capture at the end of the war, and throughout his life, spoke highly of the DAVISES. The other spy who had also infiltrated EGGELING'S staff, was a young black woman by the name of Mary Elizabeth BOWSER. She had worked for, and had been educated by Richmond's famous spy mistress, Elizabeth VAN LEW, who had been branded locally as "Crazy Bet". Miss VAN LEW, who was from a wealthy southern aristocratic family, secretly maintained her loyalty to the Union, and formed an extensive spy network for the Union Army in Richmond. She was successful in gaining employment for Miss BOWSER on EGGELING'S staff, as the personal waitress for the DAVIS family and as nanny to the DAVIS children. In 1977, a tree was planted in BOWSER'S memory in the Bronx, New York, and she was later inducted into the U.S. Army Intelligence Hall of Fame at Fort Huachuca in 1998. It's interesting to note, that these people were hired hands, and were not slaves. Another important fact to consider, was that Edward EGGELING had no doubt met and knew most of the key figures of the Confederate government and military, thus himself becoming a key figure in American history.
DAVIS quickly warmed up to EGGELING'S charm. Daily, they would meet each other early, during their wee morning hour walks, sometimes before daylight, and always before anyone was stirring. DAVIS, who was often sickly, would always greet EGGELING with a courtly wave of the hand and a profound bow. Then he started presenting EGGELING with cigars, which EGGELING stated was a real luxury in those days, and which he considered an endearing gesture of friendship. About a year later, during one of their morning encounters, DAVIS seemed unusually gracious and chatted longer than usual, finally asking EGGELING about any news and what his plans were for the day. EGGELING responded in kind, but also (mistakenly) added, that he was just about to go in and "get a check". "Instantly the President's face became livid with passion, and he raised his hand and shook it at me in token of intense displeasure. 'Did I not tell you never to mention money to me again? Have you not always been permitted to exercise your judgment in those matters? This is an outrage - an insult, sir!' " EGGELING hastened to apologize and promised never to offend again. "This seemed to dissipate his choler, and he left me abruptly with a slight bow. I was still an enlisted man in the cavalry and could still be sent to the front (EGGELING was probably required to daily don his cavalry uniform). And you may be sure, that I never offended again in that way!"
An 1885 newspaper article in the Kansas City Star, reveals another side of DAVIS' personality. In 1865, according to the article, while the armies of Lee and Grant confronted each other below Petersburg, a gentleman identified simply as "Mr. A" came to the mansion late one night seeking President DAVIS. He came to intercede for two deserters from the other side, who were captured and condemned to execution as spies. Mr. EGGELING, who answered the door, replied to Mr. A that the President was not to be disturbed and was about to shut the door on Mr. A., when Mr. A. hurriedly explained that the two men were Germans. After hearing Mr. A.'s ardent plea, EGGELING quietly went into DAVIS' chamber, where he found the President still awake. "Mr. President, I have been in your service a long time, and have never, as you know, solicited any special favor from you. I have one to ask you now and I hope you will not refuse it." After earnestly pleading the case to DAVIS, the President asked Mr. A. to tell him (DAVIS) who had given the execution order. After explaining that General LEE had given the order, DAVIS absolutely refused to go against the commander of his Confederate armies, and bid Mr. A. adieu. Mr. A. continued to implore the President, but finally realizing that DAVIS would not budge, sadly asked the two men to kneel down and pray with him to Almighty God for the souls of the two condemned men. After the prayer, there was a pensive moment, and Mr. A. asked DAVIS to join him in one last invocation, but DAVIS refused by solemnly arising. As Mr. A. was about to leave the room, DAVIS suddenly instructed EGGELING to bring him pen and paper, and he wrote out a pardon for the two men. Mr. A. thanked the President profusely as he hurriedly left.
The activities at the Confederate White House were busy and constant, and President DAVIS' passion for horse riding, often obliged some of the house staff to join him, probably including EGGELING (who was supposedly a good horseman himself), even at the busiest times. Interestingly, despite the workload, EGGELING somehow found time to make a couple of trips back and forth to Germany, and one might suspect he was attempting to solicit the Prussian government for the cause of the Confederacy. But Professor Wolfgang HOCHBRUCK (Professor at the Institute of North American Studies at the University of Freiburg in the Black Forest, Germany … an expert on Germans in the American Civil War, and himself a Civil War re-enactor in Germany) assuredly emphasizes, that the Northern German Federation (the small Germanic countries or states that made up the Prussian government at that time) was unanimously in favor of the Union, and even signed Union war bonds, valued at one million (German) Gold Marks, a very substantial sum in those days.
The only Germanic area to officially acknowledge the Confederacy was the small Germanic duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. But even the German newspapers were openly in favor of the Union. And, the US Consulates in the major German cities, acted (although unofficially) as covert recruiting centers. Apart from German immigrants coming to America, these Consulates recruited over 20,000 active-duty German soldiers (including approximately 1500 officers) to come to America and fight in behalf of the Union. These men were granted a special leave of absence by the Prussian government to do so. There was one unusual case, in addition, where a Massachusetts recruiting agent, clandestinely solicited the services of an extra 1000 German laborers, who were unaware that their "labor" would be "fighting" in the Union Army. After arriving in America, they were immediately sent into battle at Cedar Creek, untrained and ill-equipped,, and there "they were butchered and scattered to the winds", all according to Professor HOCHBRUCK.
On one attempted trip to Germany, EGGELING and his 22-year old niece Eugenie (pronounced like Eugenia) HAMMERMEISTER, were detained en route to New York in late 1862, and arrested as spies and prisoners of war. And this was after the Federal government's promise to the Confederacy, not to arrest any more non-combatants. Ironically, it was probably one of the aforementioned members of EGGELING'S own staff, who tipped off Union authorities, about his presence in the North. EGGELING'S motive for this particular trip to Germany is questionable. Since the beginning of the war, he had exchanged all of his savings and all of his salary for gold, and one of his banking friends warned him against this, reminding him that DAVIS had forbidden it. If EGGELING was going to persist in doing this, his friend urged him to go back to Germany with his gold, and wait until the war was over. EGGELING apparently took this advice, and attempted to go to Germany with over $3000 in gold (a sizeable amount in those days). Somehow too, he secured DAVIS' permission for this trip, but shortly after his departure, he was discovered by Federal authorities and arrested. It's interesting to note, that for some reason, Jefferson DAVIS was "anxious" for EGGELING'S release, but instructed General Robert OULD (Federal Commissioner of Prisoners for the Confederacy, and an intimate personal friend of photographer Matthew BRADY) to keep his (DAVIS') name out of the negotiations. OULD then directed Provost Marshal, General John H. WINDER to hurriedly add the EGGELING'S names to a list of 200 political prisoners about to be released by the Federal government. OULD cautioned WINDER that "the President is anxious they [the Eggelings] should get released" and reminded WINDER that the matter was "between ourselves". Did DAVIS find out about the gold, or was he truly concerned as a friend? The EGGELING'S were indeed finally released on March 18, 1863, and purportedly sent back to Richmond, according to the "Papers of Jefferson Davis".
But in a newspaper interview 30 years later, EGGELING stated that he was successful in leaving the country for Germany with his gold, where he said he remained until after the war. EGGELING was indeed successful in getting to Germany at this time, but a young newspaper man, had a different twist to the story. Charles Anderson PAGE from Palmyra, Illinois had become a celebrated war correspondent for Horace GREELEY's New York Tribune. He had accompanied the Army of the Potomac throughout the war, and wrote many interesting articles under the pseudonym of his initials "C.A.P.". He had the honor of being a member of the small media corps that accompanied President LINCOLN'S body back to Springfield, IL. And, he was present at, and reported on the "Grand Review" of the entire army as it marched through Washington at the end of the war. After the war, he and his brothers formed the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co., which was later acquired by Bordens. As Charles PAGE marched into Richmond with the triumphant Army of the Potomac, one of the first persons he claimed to have encountered, was German immigrant Edward EGGELING. Everyone in Richmond (indeed most everyone in the Confederacy), and even the Federals (thanks to EGGELING'S own staff), knew who the celebrated EGGELING was, "the personal Steward to Jeff DAVIS". EGGELING had returned to New York aboard the ship "Hansa" from Bremerhaven, Germany on June 24, 1864 with 2nd wife Mathilde Dorette KEMPE (22 years his junior) and with 9 month old son Edward, Jr. It is not understood at this time, why EGGELING didn't flee Richmond with the rest of the Confederacy. On the contrary, he openly and boldly approached the conquerors as they entered the city. PAGE recounted that the warm-hearted EGGELING graciously welcomed him with a beautiful bouquet of flowers from the local conservatory, and then attempted to use his charm to seek PAGE'S assistance in gaining a pass to the North. This cleverly charming endeavor did not work with the young PAGE, who felt that the Confederacy (and anyone associated with it) was greatly amiss.
After DAVIS' flee from Richmond, newspapers around the country, from April 5 to April 13, told of President Lincoln's visit to the Confederate White House. LINCOLN and his son had ridden Admiral PORTER's flagship to Rockett's Harbor, where they surprisingly departed alone without escort or guard. Along the way, LINCOLN asked Negroe refugees in the streets for directions to Jeff DAVIS' house. Recognizing him as "Father Abraham", they fell to their knees in tears. LINCOLN, overcome with emotion at this encounter, also fell to his knees in tears and prayed with them, according to the newspaper articles. He finally found his way to DAVIS' mansion, where Major-General Godfrey (Gottfried) WEITZEL had set up Union Headquarters. In the President's honor, WEITZEL organized a large drawing room reception with notable Union generals and officers, and the leading citizens of Richmond. "DAVIS' steward" attended to the guests, and so there's little doubt that EGGELING had met President LINCOLN and famous Union officers, and witnessed the following emotional episode. During the reception, WEITZEL called President LINCOLN over to DAVIS' chair, and invited him to sit …… an act that apparently signaled the complete downfall of the rebellion. LINCOLN was respectfully hesitant, and after a while came over to the chair and slowly sat reluctantly. Those present, probably expected to see a smile and a look of triumph in his face, but suddenly his head fell into his hands and there was "an oppressive silence". The witnesses who recounted this story with tears in their eyes, said his mind seemed to be wandering back through the dark years of bloodshed and carnage, to families, loss of treasures, and to the thousands upon thousands of new graves that dotted the whole country. LINCOLN uttered not a word, and after heaving a deep sigh, he got up and left.
EGGELING probably also had the opportunity to meet General GRANT, as on or before April 10, 1865, General WEITZEL was "forced to give up the Headquarters in DAVIS' mansion to General GRANT and wife". EGGELING and family somehow managed to gain permission to go to Germany again, shortly after this, and returned to Richmond in September, 1866 with 2nd son, 10 month old Fritz (Fred W.).
As a side note, EGGELING'S younger brother "Karl Wilhelm EGGELING" (known as C. "William" EGGELING here in America), by the way, was cited for "distinguished service" as a member of Company K of the 15th Virginia Infantry Regiment, a unit made up mostly of Germans who had settled i n and near Richmond. In early 1862, conscription was introduced and ironically, all foreigners were (temporarily) banned from the Confederate military, and as a result, Company K was not allowed to re-organize. William though, gained a commission as Lieutenant (probably partly through his brother's connection to DAVIS), and became Aide-de-camp on General Camille POLIGNAC'S staff. POLIGNAC, himself a foreigner from France, had been an officer under Generals Beauregard and Bragg. In March of 1863, POLIGNAC and EGGELING were transferred to Texas, where POLIGNAC commanded several regiments and battalions in Lt. General Richard TAYLOR'S Army, in the Trans-Mississippi theatre. Later in March of 1865, POLIGNAC went back to France and met with NAPOLEON III, seeking his help in establishing a "Southwest Confederacy" to include Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana and northern Mexico, but the war ended a month later. He later served as a Major-General in the French army during the Franco-Prussian War against Germany in 1870. POLIGNAC, who died in 1913, was the last Major-General of the Civil War to die. (After further research, there is some discrepancy as to whether this was actually EGGELING's brother or another EGGELING relative).
It's also interesting to note (after the recent discovery of an antique CDV photo of a Civil War officer , a German immigrant, playing his zither), that an "Edward G. EGGELING" purchased a zither from the award-winning Franz SCHWARZER Zither manufacturing plant in Washington, Missouri…the only establishment in the United States to ever manufacture the beautiful sweet-sounding zither. The zither was a favored musical instrument amongst German immigrants in 19th century America, and especially amongst German immigrant soldiers on both sides.
In 1874, nine years after the war, 24-year old James A SEDDON, Jr. left Richmond for St. Louis, Missouri. There, following in his father's political footsteps, he became famous as a renowned attorney, local politician and judge of the circuit court, enjoying a celebrated life into his 80's, and dying in St. Louis in the 1930's. EGGELING, a friend of the SEDDON family, supposedly followed the younger SEDDON to St. Louis in 1874, where he again (at age 51) established himself as an horticulturalist and renowned floral gardener, with his gardens located at 1653 S. Grand Ave. His buildings and beautiful floral gardens had a semblance of the "old country", and were located at the northwest corner of LaFayette Ave (Interstate 44) and Grand Ave, south of the Pevely Dairy grounds (and not too far from the home of famous pianist Scott JOPLIN). EGGELING'S reputation preceded him to St. Louis, and he undoubtedly became well acquainted with others in his industry, including the SHAW'S, the BROWN'S, the MICHEL'S, the ROWE'S, the HECKER'S and others. He became friends with other well-known St. Louisans, such as the KIRCKOFF'S, owners of Pevely Dairy, and the SCHNUR'S, who owned local undertaking firms. EGGELING also became dear friends with Capt. James W. ALLEN. A LLEN had served with the Missouri State Guard and his father George W. ALLEN was an officer on the staff of Missouri's Confederate General Sterling PRICE. ALLEN'S father was killed at the Battle of Oak Hills (Wilson's Creek), and the younger ALLEN himself was shot through the lungs at the Battle of Boonville. Refusing to leave the army, he was (ironically) taken to Richmond, Virginia where he recuperated (somewhat) from his near-fatal wounds, and later worked in the ordnance department. He was later transferred to the ordnance department of Missouri, achieving the rank of Captain before war's end. After the war, he became famous in St. Louis as a local and state politician.
In 1875, about a year after EGGELING'S arrival in St. Louis, former Confederate President Jefferson DAVIS came to St. Louis during a speaking tour throughout the State. EGGELING called on DAVIS at the Southern Hotel, where DAVIS was staying. The EGGELING family states, that Jeff DAVIS gave EGGELING an ornate walking cane some time during or after this engagement. This purported historic artifact, remained with the EGGELING family in St. Louis for nearly 50 years. It is now proudly displayed by a descendant in a Washington, DC law firm. EGGELING became somewhat involved in politics, and was the local precinct captain and registration officer of the 9th precinct of the 27th ward, with headquarters in his home. For nearly 17 years, from 1878 until 1894, EGGELING was appointed by St. Louis Mayor Henry OVERSTOLZ and later by Mayor Cyrus WALBRIDGE, as General Superintendent of St. Louis City Parks and Gardens, with his offices in City Hall downtown. He and his crews had charge of all the landscape gardening and maintenance for the entire city. With the help of his 2nd wife Mathilde (nee KEMPE, who was also from EGGELING'S hometown of Hannoversch-Muenden, and interestingly, Varina DAVIS' mother was a KEMPE) and sons, the floral business thrived in his absence while superintendent, and his family was thus still able to sell their plants, flowers and produce to the surrounding affluent communities, particularly in the Compton Heights area. After his retirement as Superintendent of Parks, EGGELING and his ole pal ALLEN were daily visitors to their old haunts at City Hall, where they entertained politicians, office workers and visitors with intriguing stories of their lives and their war experiences. At the age of 73, and after a "job well done", the warm-hearted Edward Gustav EGGELING succumbed to "laryngeal tuberculosis", and gave up his life to his Creator, at his home at midnight on Monday evening, October 13, 1896. He was buried in an unmarked grave in Bellefontaine Cemetery on Wednesday October 15th. The St. Louis Globe-Democrat newspaper reported "Member of Jeff Davis' Family Dead" and the St. Louis Post simply reported, "Jeff Davis' Gardener Dead"!
Nearly 110 years later in July, 2005, the Missouri Civil War Museum, in conjunction with the Sons of Confederate Veterans (Sterling Price Camp) and Sons of Union Veterans, held an elaborate graveside ceremony, honoring Mr. EGGELING, which included a tremendous 3-cannon salute and the placing of a distinguished SCV marker on the grave of Edward G. EGGELING in historic Bellefontaine Cemetery, with his descendants in attendance. Eggeling Lane in Sunset Hills, Missouri (a suburb of St. Louis) was named in honor of Edward EGGELING'S family. To his soul….."Pax et bonum!" "You have read it here first, at the Missouri Civil War Museum"
By: John L. MAURATH. Copyright © 2004
This story wouldn't have been possible without Marjorie F. SCHWANINGER. Marge is the great-granddaughter of Edward G. and Mathilde EGGELING, and provided much information, and many great leads for this story.
John MAURATH is a family genealogist and historian, and tombstone restorationist. He grew up in the old Eggeling home in Sunset Hills, a suburb of St. Louis, where he currently lives. He is a staff member of the Missouri Civil War Museum at Jefferson Barracks National Historic Site, a member of the Sunset Hills (Missouri) Historical Society, Millstadt (IL) Historical Society, and the St. Louis Genealogical Society.
SOURCES FOR THIS STORY
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