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Lost Colony Indigenous Groups
Indian tribes may or may not be involved with the Lost Colony and/or
descendants of earlier Native tribes that may have assimilated surviving
Lost Colonists. Lots of
maybes there, but we don’t know.
This is a journey of discovery.
of the Eastern North Carolina tribes were Algonquin speaking tribes.
Some, further inland were Souian.
excellent reference for Eastern North Carolina tribes is found at http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~jmack/algonqin/rights.htm.
Christiana – An early fort built by Governor Spotswood in 1714 on the Meherrin
River in current Brunswick County, Va., 3 miles below present day Lawrenceville, often frequented by many Native
tribes to trade. By
agreement, remnants of various nations came to the fort to be educated
and converted, including the Catawba, Eno, Meherrin, Meipontsky,
Nottoway, Occaneechi, Saponi, Stenkenock, Tutalo, and others.
All of the people living at the fort were known as “Saponi”.
The fort was closed in 1717, but the 400 native people living at
the fort at the time it closed remained until 1729. After that, they dispersed, some to South Carolina, some to
Pennsylvania and then to Canada where they joined the Iroquois, some to
Louisa County and some to Amherst County ( among the Monacon).
Some headed south into Granville,
Northampton, Orange/Person Co., including, it's believed, the Flat River
Melungeon area by 1755 and Little Texas a bit later. Some
simply adopted white names and assimilated, including the names of
Collins, Bolten, Bell, Goins and Miner which would later become
associated with Melungeon families.
Some merged with freed slave
communities nearby, and some of these communities still exist in
southern and eastern Brunswick Co. today near the towns of Greentown and
– Souian speakers, they mined copper and traded with the Powhattan,
among others. There were parts of the Amherst County Monacan tribe
located today near Lynchberg found earlier in Pittsylvania
County. The area along
present day US 29 was a Seminole path from northern areas to what is now
Florida during their hunting expeditions.
There is a Monacan Indian Museum.
before the English arrived, the Indians had encountered sweeping
epidemics of disease, carried to this land by Spanish explorers in the
the Powhatans, who maintained an appearance of friendly relations with
the colonists, the Monacan people appeared to want little contact with
the English. A number of explorers visited their towns and described
them, but none remained to learn the Monacan languages, and thus the
historical record of these people is poor in contrast to Powhatan
1607 and 1720, a series of encounters are recorded, and the Monacans
gradually moved westward, away from the advancing settlers. Some stayed
for several years at Fort Christianna, in Brunswick County, and these
people eventually moved into Pennsylvania and finally to Canada, where
they were adopted by the Cayugas, a division of the Iroquois
Confederacy. Tuscaroras from North Carolina, who had fought a disastrous
war with the English and were decimated as a result, joined them.
However, some of the Monacan people stayed in Virginia, entrenched in
their ancestral home in the mountains, a place that became known as
Amherst County. Other members of their confederacy, such as Saponis,
Occaneechis, and Tutelos, joined these remaining Monacans, and the
Monacan people adopted the few Tuscaroras who chose to remain in
- The Mattamuskeet Reservation
was a creation of the Tuscarora War (1711-1715), and was inhabited by
remnants of various small groups from coastal North Carolina. The
reservation consisted of four miles square of marsh and low ridges along
Lake Mattamuskeet in Hyde County, North Carolina. The sale of
reservation lands to white neighbors began as early as 1731, and was
completed by 1761. Sporadic references to Indians persisted in Hyde
County records until the early nineteenth century. Numerous references
to individuals with Mattamuskeet surnames occurred after that time under
the general label of "free persons of color." http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~jmack/algonqin/matta3.htm
Sapponi/Sappony – One of the eastern Siouan tribes, formerly living in North Carolina
and Virginia. The tribal name was occasionally applied to the whole
group of Ft Christianna tribes, also occasionally included under Tutelo.
That this tribe belonged to the Siouan stock has been placed beyond
doubt by the investigations of Hale and Mooney. Their language appears
to have been the same as the Tutelo to the extent that the people of the
two tribes could readily understand each other. Mooney has shown that
the few Saponi words recorded are Siouan.
first pointed out by Mooney (1895), the Saponi tribe is identical with
the Monasukapanough which appears on Smith's map as though it were a
town of the Monacan and may in fact have been such. Before 1670, and
probably between 1650 and 1660, they moved to the southwest and probably
settled on Otter Creek, as above indicated. In 1670 they were visited by
Lederer in their new home and by Thomas Batts (1912) a year later.
mentions a war in which the Saponi seem to have been engaged with the
Virginia settlers as early as 1654-56, the time of the attack by the
Cherokee, probably in alliance with them. The first positive notice is
by Lederer (1670), who informs us that he stopped a few days at Sapon, a
town of the Tutelo
confederacy, situated on a tributary of the upper Roanoke. This village
was apparently on Otter river, southwest of Lynchburg, Va. Pintahae is
mentioned also as another of their villages near by. It is evident that
the Saponi and Tutelo were living at that time in close and apparently
confederated relation. In 1671 they were visited by Thomas Batts and
others accompanied by two Indian guides. After traveling nearly due west
from the mouth of the Appomattox about 140 miles, they came to Sapong,
or Saponys, town. Having been harassed by the Iroquois in this locality,
the Saponi and Tutelo at a later date removed to the junction of
Staunton and Dan rivers, where they settled near the Occaneechi, each
tribe occupying an island in the Roanoke in what is now Mecklenburg
county, Va. Lawson, who visited these Indians in 1701, found them
dwelling on Yadkin river, N. C., near the present site of Salisbury,
having removed to the south to escape the attacks of their enemies. Byrd
(1729) remarks: "They dwelt formerly not far below the mountains,
upon Yadkin river, about 200 miles west and by south from the falls of
Roanoak. But about 25 years ago they took refuge in Virginia, being no
longer in condition to make head not only against the northern Indians,
who are their implacable enemies, but also against most of those to the
south. All the nations round about, bearing in mind the havock these
Indians used formerly to make among their ancestors in the insolence of
their power, did at length avenge it home upon them, and made them glad
to apply to this Government for protection."
after Lawson's visit in 1701 the Saponi and Tutelo left their villages
on the Yadkin and moved in toward the settlements, being joined on the
way by the Occaneechi and their allied tribes. Together they crossed the
Roanoke, evidently before the Tuscarora war of 1711, and made a new
settlement, called Sapona Town, a short distance east of that river and
15 miles west of the present Windsor, Bertie County, N. C. Soon after
this they and other allied tribes were located by Gov. Spotswood near Ft
Christanna, 10 miles north of Roanoke River, about the present
Gholsonville, Brunswick county, Va. The name of Sappony Creek, in
Dinwiddie county, dating hack at least to 1733, indicates that they
sometimes extended their excursions north of Nottoway river. Their abode
here was not one of quiet, as they were at war with neighboring tribes
or their old enemies, the Iroquois. By the treaty at Albany (1722) peace
was declared between the northern Indians and the Virginia and Carolina
tribes, the Blue Ridge and the Potomac being the boundary line.
about 1740 the Saponi and Tutelo went north, stopping for a time at
Shamokin, in Pennsylvania, about the site of Sunbury, where they and
other Indians were visited by the missionary David Brainard in 1745.
band, however, remained in the south, in Granville County, N. C., until
at least 1755, when they comprised 14 men and 14 women. In 1753 the
Cayuga Iroquois formally adopted this tribe and the Tutelo.
1753 the Cayuga formally adopted the Saponi and Tutelo, who thus became
a part of the Six Nations, though all had not then removed to New York.
In 1765 the Saponi are mentioned as having 30 warriors living at Tioga,
about Sayre, Pa., and other villages on the northern branches of the
Susquehanna. Some of them
remained on the upper waters of the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania until
1778, but in 1771 the principal section had their village in the
territory of the Cayuga, about 2 miles south of Ithaca, N. Y. They are
said to have separated from the Tutelo in 1779 at Niagara, when the
latter fled to Canada, and to have become lost.
A few, a remnant at least, were living with the Cayuga on Seneca
River in Seneca County, N. Y., in 1780, based on a treaty made with the
Cayuga at Albany, after which they disappear from history.
the Person County Indians, a band of Saponi Indians remained behind in
North Carolina which seems to have fused with the Tuscarora, Meherrin,
and Machapunga and gone north with them in 1802.
There are three Saponi bands that currently have state recognition in North
Carolina, the Occaneechi
Band of the Saponi Nation, the Haliwa-Saponi
the High Plains Sappony Indian Settlement. Mahenips Band of the Saponi
Nation is found in the remote Ozark hills of Missouri with its
headquarters in West Plains Missouri. In addition there is the Saponi
Descendents Association based in Texas, Saponi Nation of Ohio, and there
are other survivors in the United
States and Canada
who are of Saponi ancestry, including the old Carmel Community, Magoffin
County, KY Salyerville Indians and many who claim Saponi ancestry via Melungeon
lines, although this claim is controversial.
- A Iroquoian tribe formerly residing on the river of the same name in
south east Virginia. They call themselves Cheroenhaka, and were
known to the neighboring Algonquian tribes as Mangoac (Mengwe) and
Nottoway, i.e., Nadowa, 'adders,' a common Algonquian name for the
tribes of alien stock. Although never prominent in history they
kept up their organization long after the other tribes of the region
were practically extinct. As late as 1825 they still numbered 47, with a
"queen" on a reservation in Southampton county.
Linguistically they were closely cognate to Tuscarora.
1607 the tribe was called Man-goak or Men-gwe by the Powhatan
Confederation’s “Algonquian Speakers” and further listed in the
upper left hand quadrant on John Smith’s 1607 map of Virginia by the
same name in what is now Nottoway County.
The Nottoway were Iroquoian speaking.
Chowan/Chowanoc – In Algonquin, meaning “people at the South”.
The tribe formerly living on Chowan river, north east North
Carolina, about the junction of Meherrin and Nottoway rivers. In 1584-85, when
first known, they were the leading tribe in that region. Two of their villages
at that time were Ohanoak and Maraton, and they probably occupied also Catoking
and Metocaum. Ohanoak alone was said to have 700 warriors. They gradually
dwindled away before the whites, and in 1701 were reduced to a single village on
Bennetts creek. They joined in the Tuscarora war against the whites in 1711-12,
and at its close the remnant, estimated at about 240, were assigned a small
reservation on Bennetts and Catherine creeks. In 1820 they were supposed to be
extinct. In addition to the settlements named, the Chowanoc also occupied
_ The Lumbee tribal history as given on the Lumbee official web site
begins in 1703 when the Cheraw move from near Danville, Virginia to
Cheraw, South Carolina. Their
language is Souian in nature. They
were first recognized by the State of NC in 1885 as Croatan Indians,
although they do not care for this name today.
The first recorded reference as to the origins of the present-day Lumbee population was made in a petition by 36 white Robeson
County residents in 1840, in which they described ancestors of the Lumbee as being a "free colored" population that migrated
The first attempt at assigning any specific tribal
designation to them was made in 1867 when, under investigation by Lieutenant
Birney of the Freedmen's Bureau for the murder of several Lumbee ancestors,
pastors Coble and McKinnon wrote a letter claiming descent of the Lowry gang
from Tuscarora: "They are said to be descended from the Tuscarora Indians.
They have always claimed to be Indian & disdained the idea that they are in
any way connected with the African race." 
In 1872 George Alfred Townsend published "The Swamp Outlaws" in reference to the famed Lowrie Gang. Townsend described Henry Berry Lowrie, the leader of the gang, as being of mixed Tuscarora, mulatto, and white blood: "The color of his skin is of a whitish yellow sort, with an admixture of copper- such a skin as, for the nature of its components, is in color indescribable, there
being no negro blood in it except that of a far remote
generation of mulatto, and the Indian still apparent." Townsend also stated
in reference to Pop
Oxendine that "Like the rest, he had the Tuscarora Indian blood
in him...If I should describe the man by the words nearest my idea I should call
him a negro-Indian gypsy."
Townsend's statements would be reiterated three years later in both the Memoirs
of General Jno
C. Gorman and in Mary
Normant's "The Lowrie History."
In 1885, Hamilton
McMillan theorized that the Lumbees were the descendants of
Colony" who intermarried with the Hatteras,
A number of other authors subsequently repeated McMillan's speculation as fact.
However, no extant evidence exists for "Lost
Colony" origins. Of the many characteristically Lumbee names,
few are shared with members of England's failed colony. While some modern day
Lumbees continue to subscribe to this theory, the vast majority of Lumbees
discredit the notion of "Lost
County, Lumbee ancestors were only officially classified as Indian after Reconstruction
in 1885. Prior to 1885, Lumbee ancestors were usually described as colored,
free colored, other free, mullato, mustie, mustees, or mixt blood in surviving
records. Despite the lack of direct genealogical proof, various Department of
Interior representatives such as Charles F. Pierce (1912), O.M. McPherson
(1914), Fred Baker (1935), and D'Arcy McNickle (1936); various Smithsonian
Institute ethnologists such John Reed Swanton (1930s), Dr. William Sturtevant
(1960s), and Dr. Samuel Stanley (1960s); in conjunction with Anthropologists
such as Gerald Sider and Karen Blu; all acknowledge the Lumbee as a Native
In the first federal census of 1790, the ancestors of the
Lumbee were enumerated as Free Persons of Color. The U.S.
Census did not have an "American Indian" category for
non-tribal Indians until 1870. Instead, it recorded tribal censuses separately
from the federal census. Because the Lumbee ancestors were not formally
organized as an Indian tribe until 1885, they were enumerated in the federal
census, usually as "mulatto." Up until the 1960 census, census
enumerators often categorized individuals themselves, thereby determining the
race of a particular individual.
Genealogists Paul Heinegg and Dr. Virginia E. DeMarce have, using an array of primary source documents, been able to trace the migration of some primary Lumbee ancestral families from the Tidewater region in Virginia into Northeastern North Carolina and then down into present-day Robeson County, North Carolina.
Taking historic racial classifications placed on these
ancestral families at face value, Heinegg and DeMarce have theorized that
ancestral Lumbees were the descendants of mixed-race
unions of Europeans in Virginia,
who then migrated south into North
Carolina along common routes of colonial expansion.
- The Croatan were a Native
American tribe living in the coastal areas of what is now North
Carolina in an area that is now rural Dare County, NC, and
encompasses the Alligator River, Croatan Sound, Manteo Island (formerly
Roanoke Island), and parts of the Outer Banks including Hatteras Island.
They were one of the Algonquian
peoples. They were on good terms with English
settlers of the Roanoke
Island colony, and there has been speculation that the survivors of
the colony joined the Croatan.
Some Lumbee and Sapponi have an oral history of being the Lost Colonists.
In addition, the residents of Hatteras Island near Buxton also
continue to have an oral history that they are the descendants of the
Lost Colonists. The Lumbee
in 1885 were given the designation of the Croatan Indians.
Across the line in South Carolina are found a people, evidently of similar origin, designated "Redbones." In portions of west North Carolina and east Tennessee are found the " Melungeons" or "Portuguese," possibly an offshoot, and in Delaware are found the "Moors." All of these are local designations for peoples of mixed race with an Indian nucleus differing in no way from the present mixed-blood remnants known as Pamunkey, Chickahominy, and Nansemond Indians in Virginia, excepting in the more complete loss of their identity. In general, the physical features and complexion of the persons of this mixed stock incline more to the Indian than to the white or Negro.
– An Iroquoian tribe formerly residing on the river of the same name
on the Virginia-North Carolina border. Jefferson confounded them
with the Tutelo.
according to the official colonial documents they were a remnant of the
Conestoga or Susquehanna
of upper Maryland, dispersed by the Iroquois
about 1675, but this also is incorrect, as they are found noted under
the name "Menheyricks" in the census of Virginia Indians in
1669, at which time they numbered 50 bowmen, or approximately 180 souls
(Neill, Virginia, Carolorum, 326, 1886). It is possible that the influx
of refugee Conestoga a few years later may have so overwhelmed the
remnant of the original tribe as to give rise to the impression that
they were all of Conestoga blood. They were commonly regarded as
under the jurisdiction of Virginia, although their territory was claimed
also by Carolina. They were closely cognate with the Nottoway.
tribal name Meherrin first appears in the form "Maharineck" in
the account of an expedition by Edward Blande and others to North
Carolina in 1650, and next body Indian census taken in 1669. Later they
seem to have adopted a body of Conestoga or Susquehanna fleeing from
Pennsylvania after account dispersal by the Iroquois about 1675. This is
the only way to account for the fact that they are all said to have been
refugee Conestoga. They were living on Roanoke River in 1761 with the
southern bands of Tuscarora
and Saponi, and the Machapunga,
and probably went north in the last Tuscarora removal in 1802. (For
information regarding another possible band of Meherrin
– A Florida tribe in the area of present-day Jacksonville.
LeMoyne drew this tribe and John White may have been on one of
these expeditions as well. The
Seminole and Timuca may have traded as far north as the Carolinas and
– The place or manner of separation of the Tuscarora from the Iroquois
tribes of New York is not known, and they were found in the tract
indicated above when the country was first entered by white colonists.
John Lawson, Surveyor General of North Carolina, lived in close contact
with these Indians for many years and his History of Carolina gives us
our earliest satisfactory picture of them. It was his capture and
execution by the tribe in September 1711, however, which brought on the
first Tuscarora War, though behind it lay a series of encroachments by
the Whites on Tuscarora territory, and the kidnapping and enslavement of
numbers of Indians.
after Lawson's death, part of the Tuscarora, headed by chief Hencock,
and the Coree, Pamlico, Machapunga, and Bear River Indians conspired to
cut off the white settlers and, in consequence, on September 22, 1711,
they rose and massacred about 130 of the colonists on Trent and Pamlico
Rivers. Colonel Barnwell, with 33 white men and about 500 Indians,
marched against the hostiles, by direction of the colony of South
Carolina, drove them from one of their towns with great loss, and
invested Hencock's own town, Cotechney. But having suffered severely in
two assaults upon the place and fearing lest the white captives in the
hands of the Indians would be killed, he made peace and returned home.
with the treatment accorded him by the North Carolina authorities,
however, he violated the treaty during his retreat by seizing some
Indians and sending them away as slaves. This brought on the second
Tuscarora War, 1712-13. South Carolina was again appealed to for
assistance, and Colonel James Moore set out for the north with about 900
Indians and 33 white men, a number which was considerably swelled before
he reached the seat of trouble. March 20 to 23 he stormed the palisaded
town of Neoheroka, inflicting a loss upon the enemy of about 950.
Tuscarora became so terrified at this that part of them abandoned Fort
Cohunche, situated at Hencock's town near New Bern on the Pamlico River
and started north to join their relatives, the Iroquois. This was only
the beginning of the movement, bands of Tuscarora being noted at
intervals as moving north or as having arrived among the Five Nations.
They were adopted by the Oneida but, contrary to the general impression,
were not granted coordinate rights in the League before September 1722.
part of the Tuscarora in present day Bertie County on the Roanoke River
under a chief named Tom Blunt (or Blount), had, however, remained
neutral. They received recognition by the government of North Carolina,
and continued in their former homes under their own chiefs. In 1766, 155
removed to New York, and the 105 remaining were brought north in 1802
while a deputation of northern Tuscarora were in Carolina to obtain
payment for the lands they had formerly occupied.
were 5,000 Tuscarora in 1600 according to an estimate by Mooney (1928).
In 1708, Lawson gives 15 towns and 1,200 warriors (Lawson, 1860).
Barnwell in 1712 estimates 1,200 to 1,400 fighting men (Barnwell, 1908);
Chauvignerie in 1736, 250 warriors, not including those in North
Carolina, and on the Susquehanna and Juniata Rivers (Chauvignerie, in
Schoolcraft, 1851-57, vol. 3, p. 555). In 1752 the southern Tuscarora
were said to number 300 men; in 1754 there were said to be 100 men and
200 women and children and these figures are repeated in 1761. In 1766
there were said to be 220 to 230 all told in the south; next year we
read that 155 southern Tuscarora had removed and that 105 remained.
Other estimates place the total Tuscarora population at 1000 in 1765,
2000 in 1778, 1000 in 1783, and 400 in 1796. In 1885 there were 828
(evenly divided between New York and Canada). In 1909 there were 364 in
New York and a year later 416 in Canada, a total of 780.
- Lawson (1860) thought the
Hatteras showed traces of White blood and therefore they may have been
Indians with whom Raleigh's colonists are supposed to have taken
refuge. They disappeared soon after as a distinct tribe and united with
the mainland Algonquians. In 1761, the Rev. Alex. Stewart baptized 7
Indians and mixed-blood children of the" Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and
Roanoke" tribes and 2 years later he baptized 21 more.
The Hatteras population has been estimated with the Machapunga
and other tribes at 1,200 in 1600; they had 16 warriors in 1701, or a
total population of about 80.
- The only village named is Mattamuskeet (probably on Mattamuskeet Lake
in Hyde County). However, we should probably add Secotan on the north
bank of Pamlico River in Beaufort County, and perhaps the town of the
Bear River Indians
Machapunga seem to have embraced the larger part of the descendants of
the Secotan, who lived between Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds when the
Raleigh colony was established on Roanoke Island (1585-86) though the
Pamlico may also have been included under the same head. They were
reduced to a single village by 1701, took part with other Indian tribes
of the region in the Tuscarora War, and at its close were settled on
Mattamuskeet Lake with the Coree. In 1761 a small number were still
living in North Carolina, evidently at the same place, and the Rev.
Alex. Stewart reported that he had baptized seven Indian and mixed-blood
children belonging to the "Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and
Roanoke." On a second visit 2 years later he baptized 21 more.
Machapunga are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 1,200,
including some smaller tribes, in 1600. In 1701 Lawson gives 30
warriors, probably less than 100 souls (Lawson, 1860). In 1775 there
were said to be 8 to 10 on the mainland and as many more on the
off-shore banks. In 1761 the number of warriors was only 7 or 8. The
Bear River Indians may have combined with these.
- When the Coree and the Whites first met is unknown, but they appear in
the records of the Raleigh colony under the name Cwarennoc. They were
greatly reduced before 1696 in a war with another people. They took part
with the Tuscarora in their war against the colonists, and in 1715 the
remnant of them and what was left of the Machapunga were assigned a
reservation on Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County, where they occupied one
village, probably until they became extinct. A few of them appear to
have remained with the Tuscarora.
- The Haliwa tribe in Warren and Halifax Co. NC, have an oral history of
being descended from the Lost Colony.
They are very indian featured, always been farmers, have last
names that match the last names of Lost Colony members and blue eyes.
The Haliwa-Saponi are a Siouan-descent
American tribe of North America's Southeastern Piedmont. In 1670, John
Lederer, a German surveyor visited a Saponi
settlement along the Staunton, now the Roanoke
River in southern Virginia.
Thirty years later, John
Lawson, commissioned by the Lords
Proprietor to survey Carolina colony's interior, encountered groups
of Saponi as they conducted trade. Throughout the post-Contact period of
increasing English colonial settlement and expansion, Southeastern Siouan
Piedmont peoples like the Saponi maintained autonomous villages in what
is now northeastern North
Carolina and southern Virginia.
During the late seventeenth century, the Saponi undertook a political
alliance with the culturally related Tottero, or Tutelo, and together
comprised the Nassaw Nation. Another related people, the Occaneechi,
who were expert traders, also lived in the region. Due to frequent
incursions into Saponi territory made by the Haudenosaunee
(Iroquois Five Nations), situated in present-day New
York, the Saponi and their allies temporarily uprooted themselves
and migrated throughout the region of present-day Virginia
Carolina while continuing to seek economically and militarily
- A confederacy of Virginian Algonquian tribes, their headquarters at
the falls of the James River. Their territory included the tidewater
section of Virginia from the Potomac to the divide between James river
and Albemarle sound, and extended into the interior as far as the falls
of the principal rivers about Fredericksburg and Richmond. They also
occupied the Virginia counties east of Chesapeake Bay and possibly
included some tribes in lower Maryland. In the piedmont region west of
them were the hostile Monacan and Manahoac, while on the south were the
Chowanoc, Nottoway, and Meherrin of Iroquoian stock. Although little is
known in regard to the language of these tribes, it is believed they
were more nearly related to the Delaware than to any of the northern or
more westerly tribes, and were derived either from them or from the same
stem. Brinton, in his tentative arrangement, placed them between the
Delaware and Nanticoke on one side and the Pamptico on the other.
Pamunkeys are part of the larger Algonquian
family. This family represents a number of tribes that spoke variations
of the same language, although most of their language is lost now. By
1607 the Powhatan Confederacy was formed, of which they were the largest
and most powerful tribe. Both Chief
Powhatan himself and his famous daughter Pocahontas
Initial contact with Europeans was around 1570. “And
from  on at ever briefer intervals until the first permanent
English colony was established at Jamestown
in 1607, the Powhatan Confederacy was visited and plagued by white men:
Spanish, French, and English” (Barbour, 5). There were an estimated
14,000 members of the Confederacy by the time of English arrival.
Coastal Indians - When
English explorers and colonists first arrived on the coast of North
America, they encountered Algonkian-speaking peoples. The term Algonkian*
isn’t a tribal name; but one of the largest group of linguistically
related tribes in North America. Algonkian-speaking tribes lived in the
area from coastal North Carolina to Canada, from the Atlantic Ocean to
the Rocky Mountains. They were the peoples who met the English at
Roanoke in 1584, at Jamestown in 1607, and at Plymouth in 1620, and they
were among those who first met French explorers and colonizers in
Canada. (*Also spelled Algonquin, Algonquian, Algonkin.)
Helen Rountree’s book “Pocahontas’s People, The Powhatan Indians
of Virginia Through Four Centuries.”
(Start Here) http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/index/Rolfe
(or Dare, Bollings, Poythress, Randolf, Blair, etc) http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/index/Pocahontas
following mixed race groups, and others known as tri-racial isolates,
may be of interest relevant to various tribes and tribal migrations.
These groups are likely also admixed with African ancestors,
freed or possibly escaped slaves. There
are many other opportunities for admixture as well, which may also be
seen eventually within some indigenous groups, such as from the 400-500
Portuguese, African and Moorish slaves rescued by Francis Drake in 1785
and deposited on Roanoke Island, or by the Juan Pardo 1566 expedition
through the present day states of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina,
North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and
possibly a small portion of Texax.
good deal of information is available under the Wikipedia topic of
Melungeons relative to all of these groups.
thing is certain, the Melungeon’s are of mixed race and their origins
appear to be mixed and primarily unknown.
Melungeon families have historically claimed to be Portuguese.
Recent research by Jack Goins tracks many Melungeon families and
surnames back to the Fort Christanna geography and timeframe.
term Melungeon was first found in records in 1813 in Scott
County,.Virginia and shortly thereafter in Eastern Tennessee.
The core Melungeon families are centered in Hancock and Hawkins
County, Tennessee very near the Lee County, Virginia border, and in some
cases up the valleys into Lee County.
pockets of these original families can be found in other locations as
well and are historically documented.
researchers have increasingly begun to classify any Appalachian
individual of mixed rate heritage as Melungeon, although the primary
Melungeon researchers take exception to this practice.
Melungeon DNA project is currently underway and the Melungeons appear to
have connections to other similarly mixed race groups.
Research is ongoing and results have not been analyzed and
released by the administrators. Melungeon
DNA research is primarily focused on the original Melungeon families,
typically identified as “persons of color”, although allowed
to vote and own property, in order to attempt to identify their origins.
phrase “Black Dutch” is often used to refer to those of Melungeon
heritage, but that term does not appear to be used universally for
Melungeons, but historically has also been used to disguise or explain
other dark skinned admixture as well.
isolates have been grouped into ranges by geography.
northern range (New York - upper New Jersey - Pennsylvania) includes the
large Ramapo Mountain People and smaller groups such as the Slaughters
Potomac - West Virginia range includes the Wesorts, Guineas, Issues,
Moors and Nanticokes.
Southern Appalachian range includes the Melungeons and Ramps, Person
County Indians, Haliwa Indians, Magoffin County People and Carmel
Dead Lake People of the Florida panhandle (Wewahitchka-Blountstown) have
been called Melungeons and identified with them, and the Redbones of
Louisiana do partly derivefrom this range.
Southern range includes the Brass Ankles, Red Bones, Turks, Smilings and
many other small groups of South Carolina, the Cajans of Alabama and
Mississippi, the Dead Lake People of Florida and the Redbones (including
the Sabines and Houmas) of Louisiana.
for some of these groups follow:
Indians aka "Issues" of Amherst and Rockingham Counties, Virginia
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