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The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty - March 1994
Vol. 44 No. 3
Columns: Our Own Mad Clockwork
By Robert Zimmerman

Donated to site by Roberta Estes



The following info is from the Melungeon list. I find this extremely interesting, especially since we are finding haplogroup E and not the native haplogroups I would expect to see where I would expect to see it.  Joe, do you know if this is accurate? Do you (or does anyone) know how they determined there were only 300+ blacks in Virginia in 1650?
This is quite interesting. 

"Despite this, the citizens of Virginia in these early years did not start buying black slaves in large numbers. Neither did they treat the blacks they did buy as slaves. British law stated that all Christians were equal citizens before the law. Black men and women, if Christian and baptized, could therefore not remain slaves. They would instead become indentured servants, and like any other British citizen, be able to earn their freedom after several years of service.

Research by numerous historians clearly indicates that a large percentage of the blacks brought to the Virginia colony in the years between 1619 and 1634 were treated as bonded servants, not as slaves, and eventually earned their freedom. Of the three hundred-plus blacks estimated to live in Virginia in 1650, more than fifty were free, with many owning land the same as any other white settler. Many of these free blacks had been imported into the colony in the 1620s and 1630s, had served their time as bonded servants, and had become free"  



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