October 2010, Special
thanks once again to Jennifer Sheppard for extracting the information pertaining
to our colonists and Sir Walter Raleigh's various expeditions to the
"colony of Virginia" from Paul Heinegg's wonderful site, www.freeafricanamericans.com.
In the August Special Edition, she extracted the Hatteras Island
surnames, in September, the Lost Colony surnames and this October special
edition features the surnames of the military expedition of 1585-1586.
These men lived on Roanoke Island and other locations for nearly a year.
Some were stationed on Hatteras Island and some spent the winter in the
Chesapeake scouting a new location for the colony. They had every opportunity to leave their DNA behind, and
perhaps some did. Additionally, it
is believed by researchers that these men may well have been related to the
group of colonists who later came in 1587 that became the "Lost
from this expedition with information are:
(printed in the August special edition)
(printed in the September special edition)
Judith Clarke, the servant of Joshua Slade of York Parish, York County,
Virginia, confessed in court on 24 August 1694 that she committed the "sinn
of fornication with a Negro" [DOW 10:3, 28]. She may have been the ancestor
____, husband of Mary who was named in the 19 September 1749 York County will of
her mother Mary Roberts [W&I 20:163]. They may have been the parents
of John Clarke, a "free Mulatto" who was living in York County on 19
May 1760 when the court ordered him bound by the churchwardens of Charles Parish
to Merritt Moore [Judgments & Orders 1759-63, 143].
ii. James1, born say 1740, taxable with his
wife in Bladen County, North Carolina, in 1768 ("Mulatoes") [Byrd, Bladen
County Tax Lists, I:5], head of a Marlboro County, South Carolina household
7 "other free" in 1800 [SC:59].
iii. Cooper, born say 1743, taxable with his wife in
Bladen County, North Carolina, in 1768 ("Mulatoes") [Byrd, Bladen
County Tax Lists, I:5], head of a Marlboro County household of 2 "other
free" in 1800 [SC:59].
iv. Joseph, a "Mulato" taxable in Bladen County
in 1770 and 1772 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:44, 94].
James2, head of Sumter County, South Carolina household of 11
"other free" in 1800 [SC:935], probably related to Azana Clark, head a
Sumter County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [SC:215a], and Mary
Clark, head of a Sumter household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [SC:215a].
He may have been identical to James Clark, Sr., who purchased 300 acres on the
mouth of Cow Branch of Drowning Creek, Bladen County, North Carolina, jointly
with John Stack on 30 September 1755. He assigned all his rights to the
plantation he was living on to John Stack on 26 April 1757 [Philbeck, Bladen
County Land Entries, no. 1058; Campbell, Bladen County Wills, 2].
vi. William1, born say 1755.
vii. William2, born about 1760.
George1, born say 1762, married Levisay Evans, daughter of
Hannah Evans, 13 May 1795 Amherst County bond, Leonard Clark security. He
was taxable in Amherst County from 1783 to 1801. His estate was taxable on a
horse in 1804 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1803, frames 23, 44, 97, 102,
166, 195, 225, 326, 393, 449, 515; 1804-23, frame 21]. He and William Clark
purchased land on Mill and Porridge Creeks in Amherst County from Rawley Pinn
on 18 March 1800 [DB I:161]. His widow Loisa Clark married Charles Johns
of Bedford County by 10 October 1805 Amherst County bond, Lewis Martin security,
Susannah Clark witness. Charles Johns was a "Blackman" taxable
in Bedford County in 1800 and a "Negr." taxable on 2 tithes in 1813
[Personal Property Tax List 1800A, p.13].
ix. Fanny, born say 1763.
x. James3, born say 1764.
xi. John1, born say 1765.
William3, born say 1770, a "Mulatto Boy" bound apprentice
in Surry County on 28 June 1774 [Orders 1764-74, 451].
xiii. Thomas, born say 1773, married Hannah Ash, 30
June 1794 Southampton County bond, John Clark surety. He was head of a
Northampton County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1800
[NC:431] and head of an Anson County household of 2 "free colored" in
Lemuel, born say 1774, taxable in Nottoway Parish, Southampton County, in 1797,
a "Mulatto" taxable in 1799, a "free Negro" taxable on a
horse from 1800 to 1812, taxable on 2 free male tithables in 1812 [Personal
Property Tax List 1792-1806, frames 241, 343, 443, 478, 586, 658, 723, 762, 872;
1807-21, frames 11, 94, 132, 250], head of a Southampton County household of 4
"other free" in 1810 [VA:75]. He married Mary Williams, 29
January 1795 Isle of Wight bond, David Jones surety. In 1814 he brought a
Southampton County chancery suit against Aaron Byrd and his wife over his
wife Mary's part of the estate of her father John Williams [LVA Chancery
Wilson, taxable in Nottoway Parish, Southampton County, called a
"Mulatto" in 1796, a "f.n." from 1804 to 1812 [Personal
Property Tax List 1792-1806, frames 218, 724, 873; 1807-21, frames 11, 94, 133,
John/ Jack, born about 1772, registered in Southampton County on 18 September
1798: age 26, yellow man, 5 feet 9 inches, free born [Register of Free
Negroes 1794-1832, no. 123]. He was called John Clark, Jr., a
"Mulatto" taxable in Nottoway Parish, Southampton County, in 1796,
perhaps the John Clark, "free Negro," who was taxable there in 1800
[Personal Property Tax List 1792-1806, frames 218, 443].
Nancy, born say 1775, head of a Southampton County household of 5 "other
free" in 1810 [VA:78].
Edmond, a "Mulatto" ordered bound out by the churchwardens of St.
Ann's Parish in Essex County on 20 January 1772 [Orders 1770-2, 226].
William1 Clark, born say 1755, was granted 72 acres on the head
branches of Pedlar River in Amherst County on 20 July 1780 [Patents E, 1780-1,
282]. He was head of an Amherst County household of 7 whites (free persons) in
1783 [VA:48] and 8 in 1785 [VA:85]. On 3 May 1785 the Amherst County court
ordered that he, George Clark and William Ampey work on the road from
Irish Creek Gap to Mill Creek, and on 6 October 1789 he, Peter Hartless,
George Clarke, Leonard Clark, James Clark and Joseph Ailstock were
ordered to work on the road from Blue Ridge at Irish Creek Gap to the three
forks of Pedlar River [Orders 1784-7, 131; 1787-90, 590]. He was taxable in
Amherst County from 1782 to 1820: with "CM" after his name in 1800,
"Blue Ridge" from 1801-3, a "man of color" in 1811, 1812,
and 1815, a "Mulatto" in 1813, a planter over the age of 45 in a list
of "Free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1816 and 1818. He was taxable on
2 tithes in 1794, 3 from 1795-1798, 4 from 1799-1803, 3 from 1804-7, 4 from
1809-10, and 5 from 1811-12 [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1803, frames 9, 23,
44, 54, 70, 97, 136, 195, 225, 257, 326, 347, 370, 393, 419, 450, 479; 1804-23,
frames 21, 62, 103, 144, 165, 188, 209, 230, 253, 326, 403, 537, 551, 584]. He
married (second?) Nancy Williams, spinster, 3 September 1794 Amherst
County bond, Leonard Clark surety. He and George Clark purchased land in Amherst
County on Mill and Porridge Creeks from Rawley Pinn for 100 pounds on 18
March 1800 [DB I:161]. He was head of an Amherst County household of 9
"other free" in 1810 [VA:258]. He may have been the father of
?Leonard, born say 1772, taxable in Amherst County from 1791 to 1807 [Personal
Property Tax List 1782-1803, frames 225, 347, 370, 419, 450; 1804-23, frames 21,
63, 144]. He married Sally Williams, 12 March 1796 Amherst County bond,
William Clarke Surety. He was head of a Rockingham County household of 5
"other free" in 1810 [VA:290].
?Jane, born say 1780, married Henry Heartless, 25 June 1798 Amherst
County bond, William Clarke surety.
?John2, born say 1780, taxable in Amherst County from 1805 to 1815:
called a "man of color" in 1811, 1812, 1815, a "Mulatto" in
1813 [Personal Property Tax List 1804-23, frames 62, 208, 230, 253, 326] and
head of an Amherst County household of 4 "other free" in 1810
[VA:299]. He married Mary Hartless, and he and Mary Clark were among
members of the Hartless family who sold land on Pedlar River on 8 August
1818. They were living in Ohio on 8 April 1823 when they sold an additional 141
acres on Pedlar River to Reuben Peters [DB R:39].
Nancy, daughter of William Clark, married James Clark in Amherst County on 20
September 1809 [Marriage Register, 217].
?William4, Jr., born say 1795, a "Mulatto" taxable in
Amherst County in 1813 [Personal Property Tax List 1804-23, frame 253].
?George2, a "Mulatto" taxable in 1813, a "man of
color" taxable in Amherst County in 1815 [Personal Property Tax List
1804-23, frame 326].
?Henry, a "man of color" taxable in Amherst County in 1815 [Personal
Property Tax List 1804-23, frame 326].
William2 Clark, born about 1760, married Hannah Peters, 19
March 1785 Stafford County bond, William Peters surety [Madden, We
Were Always Free, 195]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Culpeper
County from 1797 to 1801 [PPTL 1782-1802, frames 640, 684, 818] and a "Free
Mulatto" head of a Culpeper County household of 7 "other free" in
1810 [VA:18]. On 7 December 1816 he obtained "free papers" in Culpeper
County which were recorded later in Ross County, Ohio: William Clerke, a
Mulatto man, 50 or 60, 5'7", served in the Revolutionary War in 1780 and
1781...is a free man, who has a wife and several children, and wishes to visit
his mother in law in Frederick Co., at Charles Carter's place. On 12
December 1816 Sally Peters, "a free woman of color," made oath
in Rockingham County, Virginia, that Coleman, eighteen years old, and Nicholas,
thirteen years old, were the sons of William and Hannah Clerk and were free born
in Culpeper County [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto and Poor Persons,
20-21]. William (Sr.) was sixty-four years old on 22 August 1820 when he
appeared in Culpeper County court to apply for a pension for his services in the
Revolution. According to his pension records, he died on 8 December 1827 and his
children were Willis Clark, William Clark, Kitty Madden (wife of Willis
Madden), and Nicholas Clark [Madden, We Were Always Free, 191-199].
William and Hannah's children were
Coleman, born about 1798 (perhaps the same person as Willis Clark).
Kitty, born about 1800, registered as a "free Negro" in Culpeper
County on 23 September 1822: a bright Mulatto Woman above the age of twenty
one years five feet two inches high. She married Willis Madden
[Madden, We Were Always Free, 64].
William5, born about 1803.
Fanny Clark, born say 1760, was living in Cumberland County, Virginia, on 22 May
1780 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Littleton Parish to bind her
"mulattoe" son Harry Clark to Tucker Baughan [Orders 1779-84, 118].
She was the mother of
Harry, born say 1779, a "Mo" taxable in Powhatan County
from 1803 to 1814, probably married in 1813 when he was listed with 2 "free
Negroes & Mulattos" over the age of 16 in 1813 [PPTL 1787-1825, frames
254, 293, 397, 437, 456].
Peter, born say 1782, "mulatto" son of Fanny ordered bound to Tucker
Baughan on 24 May 1784 [Orders 1784-6, 22].
James3 Clark, born say 1764, was head of an Amherst County household
of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:298]. He and his wife Anny sold land to
Henry Hartless by deed proved in Amherst County on 19 July 1802 [Orders
1801-2, 217]. He was taxable in Amherst County from 1789 to 1820: taxable on 2
tithables from 1803 to 1806, 1810 and 1811, 3 in 1812, called a "man of
color" in 1811, 1812, and 1815, a "Mulatto" in 1813, in a list of
"Free Mulattoes & Negroes with his unnamed son in 1814 and in 1816 when
he was over the age of 45, living on his own plantation, and taxable on 3
tithables [Personal Property Tax List 1782-1803, frames 166, 225, 348, 419, 584;
1804-23, frames 21, 62, 103, 144, 165, 187, 209, 230, 252, 284, 326, 403, 503,
537, 549]. He married (second) Nancy Clark in Amherst County on 20 September
1809 [Marriage Register, 217]. He was the father of
Micajah, born say 1785, taxable in Amherst County from 1809 (called son of Jas.)
a "man of color" in 1811, a "Mulatto" in 1813, in a list of
"Free Mulattoes & Negroes in 1814 [Personal Property Tax List 1804-23,
frames 209, 252, 284, 328, 403]. He married Sally Duncan, on 15 November
1809 in Amherst County with the consent of Sally's parents, Ambrose and Jane
Ambrose [Marriage Register, 218, 240]. Ambrose was called Ambrose Evans
when he was head of an Amherst County household of 6 "other free" in
1810 [VA:302]. Micajah was head of an Amherst County household of 3 "other
free" in 1810 [VA:302]. He and Charles Evans were witnesses to the 7
May 1817 Amherst County marriage of Lydia Evans, daughter of Ambrose Evans,
to John Gulliver [Marriage Register, 247].
?Nelson, born about 1793, applied to the Amherst County court in April 1851 for
a certificate that he was a white man but registered as a "Free Negro"
in Amherst County on 12 July 1860: brown complexion, 67 years of age, 5 feet
11 1/2 inches high, born in Bedford [Register of Free Negroes, no.339;
McLeRoy, Strangers in Their Midst, 101, 136].
?Benjamin H., born about 1800, registered in Amherst County on 22 August 1822: a
free man of colour aged twenty two years five feet eight inches high of a bright
yellow complection grey eyes with a natural mark on his right cheek and was born
free & by occupation a waterman [Register of Free Negroes, no. 10].
?James4, born about 1801, registered on 12 July 1860: dark brown
complexion, 59 years of age ... born in Amherst [Register of Free Negroes,
John1 Clark, born say 1765, was a "Mulatto" taxable in
Nottoway Parish, Southampton County, in 1796 [Personal Property Tax List
1792-1806, frame 218]. He was surety for the Southampton County marriage bond of
(his brother?) Thomas Clark and Hannah Ash on 30 June 1794. He was head
of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 6 "other free" in
1810 [NC:12]. Perhaps his children were
Anthony, born about 1790, head of a Halifax County household of 6 "free
colored" in 1820 [NC:143] and 10 in 1830. He may have been the Anthony
Clark who was head of a Richmond City, Wayne County, Indiana, household of 12
"free colored" in 1840.
Reuben, born about 1809, described as a "child of color" when he was
ordered bound out by the 20 May 1822 Halifax County court.
Rachel Clark, born say 1730, was a "Widow Woman" who was summoned by
the Craven County, North Carolina court on 10 May 1759 to bring her children to
the next court to have them bound apprentices [Minutes 1758-61, 28a]. She died
before 10 October 1767 when Edward Franck of Craven County was ordered by the
court to receive her "Molatto Orphans" in his care until they could be
indentured by the next court [Minutes 1767-75, 52a]. Her children named in the
court order were
Joseph, born say 1755.
Moses, born say 1758.
iii. ?Mariah, head of a Craven County household of 2
"free colored" in 1820 [NC:77].
of the Drake family were
i. Aaron, born say 1747, a "Mulato" taxable in
Bladen County, North Carolina, in 1768 and 1772 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax
Lists, I:5, 82]. He was probably the
ancestor of Aaron and Marie Rachel Drake. Aaron was head of a St. Landry Parish,
Louisiana household of 3 "free colored" in 1830 [LA:26]. He married
Sarah Ashworth, 26 November 1831 Opelousas marriage. Marie Rachel married
John Dial, 30 August 1822 Opelousas marriage [Opelousas Courthouse
License nos. 46, 79].
Susanna, a "Mulatto" ordered bound by the churchwardens of Washington
Parish, Westmoreland County, Virginia, to William Mitchell on 24 September 1776
[Orders 1776-86, 6].
Edward1 Edwards, born say 1720, was the slave of Merritt Sweney of
Elizabeth City County in 1746 when Ann Ellston, a "free Mulatto
woman," purhased and married him. They had two children by 1758 when their
case came before the Council of Virginia [Hillman, Executive Journals of the
Council VI:111]. Their son Elston, "son of Ned Edwards, formerly Major
Sweney's slave," was baptized in Bruton Parish, James City County, on 7
August 1748 [Bruton Parish Register, 5]. They were the parents of
Elston, born 7 August 1748.
ii. ?Edward2, born about 1762.
Edward2 B. Edwards, born about 1762, married Mary Scott,
daughter of Robert Scott, 14 February 1789 Henrico County bond, John Scott
and Edward Bowman sureties. He obtained a certificate of freedom in
Chesterfield County on 13 September 1813: fifty one years old, bright yellow
complexion, born free. And Mary Ann Edwards (probably his wife) obtained a
certificate of freedom on 13 March 1823: fifty years old, bright yellow
complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, no. 192, 482]. They
were probably the parents of
Mary Ann, born about 1794, registered in Chesterfield County on 11 July 1814: twenty
years old, bright yellow complexion, born free
John Brown, born about 1797, registered in Chesterfield County on 13 April 1818:
twenty one years old, mulatto complexion, born free.
Lucy, born about 1800, registered on 14 July 1823: twenty three years old,
Mulatto complexion, born free [Register of Free Negroes 1804-53, nos. 222, 317,
484, 492, 1174].
members of the Edwards family were
i. Isaac, born about January 1767, a "Mulatto
boy" bound apprentice to Seth Pryor for nineteen years and nine months
until the age of twenty one by the New Hanover County, North Carolina court in
April 1768 [Minutes 1738-69, 336].
ii. Edward3, born say 1772.
Hezekiel, head of a Stafford County household of 3 "other free" in
Lydda, head of a Fredericksburg, Spotsylvania County household of 3 "other
free" in 1810 [VA:112a].
Edward3 Edwards, born say 1770, was taxable in Louisa County on 3
horses from 1810 to 1814: called a "FN" in 1811, taxable on 2 free
tithes in 1812, in a list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1814
[Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1814]. He and his wife Dicy were the parents
Edmund, born 3 June 1796, registered in Louisa County on 10 June 1831: son of
Edward and Dicy Edwards who was born free, yellow man, about 5'9" high, 35
years old the 3d inst.
William, born 1 July 1801, registered in Louisa County on 12 November 1827 and 4
January 1846: a person of colour, the son of Edward Edwards who was born
free, about 5'11" high, light complexion, bushy head of hair ... son of
Edward and Dicy Edwards ... will be 45 years old 1st July 1846.
Dicy, born about 1804, registered in Louisa County on 7 September 1833: daughter
of Edward and Dicy Edwards who was free born, very bright mulatto woman 28-30
years [Abercrombie, Free Blacks of Louisa County, 29, 37, 45, 66].
Eleanor Russell, born before 1723, was over eighteen years of age on 27 April
1741 when she appeared as a witness against Jack, "a mulatto Slave"
convicted by the Craven County, North Carolina court of killing his master,
Robert Pitts. She helped to convict him by testifying that he tried to convince
her to do it for him. The court ruled that he be
by the neck till he is Dead & then his head to be Severed from his body
& stuck upon a pole [Haun, Craven County Court Minutes,
Craven County records do not mention Eleanor's fate, but apparently she was also
convicted since she petitioned the General Assembly on 5 May 1742 for reprieve
from her death sentence. Eleanor's "Mixtd Blood" daughter Hannah
Russell was indentured later that year on 21 September [Saunders, Colonial
Records of North Carolina, III:339, 617, 653]. Her children were
2 i. ?John, a
"Mulatto" born about 1736.
ii. Hannah, daughter of Eleanor Russell, ordered bound out
to Nicholas Rutledge by the Craven court on 25 September 1742 [Haun, Craven
County Court Minutes, III: 339], perhaps identical to Ann Russell, head of a
Craven County household of 1 "other free" in 1790 [NC:131].
John1 Russell, born about 1736, a "Mulatto," no parent
named, was six years old on 21 September 1742 when the Craven County court bound
him to David Lewis. Lewis promised to teach him, "to Read & Write a
Ledgable hand & to teach him or cause to be taught the Shoemakers
trade." However, Lewis gave him to his brother, John Lewis of Chowan
County, and he sold him to Captain Hews of Suffolk County, Virginia [Haun, Craven
County Court Minutes, III:328, 653]. He may have been the John Russell who
was a "Mulato" taxable in Bladen County in 1769 [Byrd, Bladen
County Tax Lists, I:16]. He may have been the father of
i. Thomas, a taxable "Mulato" in Bladen County
in 1768 and 1776 [Byrd, Bladen County Tax Lists, I:7; II:68, 92], head of
a Georgetown District, Prince Fredericks Parish, South Carolina household of 6
"other free" in 1790.
Polly, head of a Barnwell District, South Carolina household of 3 "other
free" in 1800 [SC:65].
Anne Russell, born say 1737, was the mother of a "Mulatto" daughter
who the churchwardens of Cameron Parish, Loudoun County, were ordered to bind
out on 13 September 1757 [Orders 1757-62, 17]. She was the mother of
Jane, born say 1757.
members of the Russell family were
Thomas, a "Mulata" boy valued at 5 pounds in the inventory of the King
William County estate of William Clayborne on 17 January 1706/7 [RB 1702-6, 53].
John2, "a Negro poor person" who was assigned counsel by
the Goochland County court in January 1759 to sue the executors of Thomas
Drumwright who were detaining him as a slave [Orders 8:175].
iii. Amy, born say 1747.
iv. George, born say 1756.
Amy Russell, born say 1747, was a "free Negro" living in Norfolk
County on 16 January 1767 when the churchwardens of Elizabeth River were ordered
to bind her children James and Frank as apprentice bakers to Paul Heriter. She
complained to the court against John Halstead, Jr., in February 1774 [Orders
1766-68, 69; 1773-5, 27]. Her children were
James1, born say 1764, bound to Paul Heriter on 16 January 1767 and a
"free negro" bound to John Runsberg on 17 December 1773 [Orders
Frank, born say 1766.
?Lewis, head of a Richmond City household of 2 "other free" in 1810
?Molly, head of a Norfolk County household of 2 "other free" in 1810
George Russell, born say 1756, enlisted in the Revolution while resident in
Brunswick County, Virginia [Jackson, Virginia Negro Soldiers, 42]. He was head of a Wake County household of 11
"other free" in 1790 [NC:103] and 4 in 1800 [NC:791]. He sold 75
acres, and James Russell sold an adjoining tract of 60 acres in Wake County
about 1800 [DB Q:415]. He applied for a pension while resident in Smith County,
Tennessee. Perhaps George's children were
i. James2, head of a Wake County household of 3
"other free" in 1790 [NC:103], 9 in 1800, and 7 "free
colored" in Richmond County in 1820 [NC:200].
ii. Matthew, head of a Montgomery County household of 3
"other free" in 1790 [NC:166].
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