History of NC
It's hard to
imagine that we're working with records in our search for the Lost
Colony that are some of the earliest records in the history of the State
of North Carolina. Actually, it was just "Carolina"
then, North and South didn't happen until 1712, and it wasn't a state,
because the Revolutionary war was still almost 100 years distant.
Sometimes taking a
look at a historical timeline, aside from being interesting, can lend
perspective to what our ancestors were doing and what was going in
around them. Here's a brief history of North Carolina before the
United States was formed.
landing was May 15, 1607
1629, a grant was made to Sir Robert Heath between the latitude
south of 36 degrees and north of 31 degrees.
1648 Roger Green was granted 10,000 acres in 2 grants near the
Chowan River which was to be divided among 100 settlers from
Virginia. At this time, the area was in the colony of
1661, George Durant purchased a tract of land from Kilcocanen, chief
of the Weapemeoc Indians between Perquimans River and Little River.
The area is still called Durant’s Neck. This was prior to NC
becoming the territory of Carolina in 1663.
1663 Charles II granted to the Lords Proprietors the territory of
NC. (Same bounds as the Heath grant.)
1665 a new charter extended NC north to 30 degrees. At that
time there were about 2000 people in Albemarle region.
1665 William Drummond of Virginia was appointed first governor of NC
by the Lords Proprietors.
first assembly met at Elizabeth City in May of 1665.
1676, Governor Jenkins jailed Thomas Miller, druggist. Miller
and Eastchurch went to England to obtain the removal of Jenkins as
governor. On the way back from England Miller and Eastchurch
stopped over in the West Indies where Eastchurch met a woman and
sent Miller back to Elizabeth City to take over as Governor until
Eastchurch returned. Miller took over and because he was also
collecting customs, the inhabitants wanted to get rid of Miller who
was appointed illegally by Eastchurch. Miller was subsequently
arrested by Durant who was his enemy. Court was then held by
40 people and Miller was removed. In 1669, Miller broke out of
jail and sailed for England.
Sothel was appointed governor by the Proprietors, but he was
captured by pirates. Later he returned in 1683 to be governor.
1690, John Gibbs proclaimed himself governor of Carolina. It
early churches in NC were Anglican, Baptist and Quaker.
1700, the first settlement occurred south of Old Albemarle County
1711, the Tuscarora killed many settlers in and around the Neuse
River, the Trent River and the Pamlico River in Hyde County.
By 1713, the Indians had been defeated and many, but not all, left
the area for New York.
1715 Edward Drummond, otherwise known as BlackBeard (the pirate)
changed his name to Edward Teach. He was a friend of Governor
1729, the remaining proprietors sold out to the Crown except for
John Carteret who kept his share in the middle of North Carolina.
From this point on, North Carolina was known as a Royal Colony.
1766, New Bern was made the capital of NC. Until this time,
there had been no official capital, although Bath was often used as
Revolutionary War occurs in 1775-1783.
1789, North Carolina ratified the constitution and became the 12th
state to sign.
1789, Raleigh became the state capital.
The Kinnekeet Bible
Hubert Price was a
genealogist and researcher who passed away some years ago.
His collective works have come to be known as the Kinnekeet
Bible. Not only did he
document the early families, with sources, he also provided extracted
data from early sources that he could not necessarily tie to the early
families. In some cases, he
was able to make the link.
His notes are chock
full of interesting information.
Precinct was the first part of North Carolina settled by Europeans.
Aside from the Native people, who had always lived here, the
first settlers arrived from Virginia and then slowly made their way down
the coast. Price extracted
this data from microfilm and his notes say “deeds to or from in
Pasquotank County 1700-1747. Camden
made from Pasquotank about 1870.”
Page 72 1746 -
Page 74 1716 -
Page 149 1716 –
Page 225 1719 –
John, Mary and Augustine Scarborough
Page 500 1727 –
Page 166 1716 –
Page 191 1718 –
Page 324 1720 –
Page 488 1727 –
Page 408 1725 –
Page 50 1752 –
Page 491 1758 –
Page 35 no year –
William Williams to Joseph Williams – NE side Pasquotank river near
Page 49 no year –
James Williams to son and daughters
Page 235 1757 –
Page 46 1727 –
Page 101 1750 –
Page 120 1750 –
Page 240 no year
– Augustine Scarborough
Page 420 no year
– Joshua Gray
Page 4 no year –
Page 298 no year
– Joseph Williams
His further notes
Just When I Thought I had the Answer….
Masque, Maskue, Askue, Massague, Massigay, Masagy,
Maskie, Massechoes and Mashoes
where you find it. In this
case, it was laying on the steps. I
was visiting the home of Dawn Taylor and her lovely father, and I asked
to use the restroom. They
directed me to the facility, which was up the stairs on the second
level. They do what we do
at home, anything needing to go upstairs get stacked on the steps at the
bottom and the next person to go up takes it along.
On their steps was an October 1996 edition of the Tyrrell Times,
the publication of the Tyrrell County Genealogical Society.
I was immediately interested, and they loaned me the journal for
a few days. I found a very
interesting article, which proved very enlightening relative to one of
our Hatteras early families as well.
I thought I had
this particular family figured out…..just when you think you have the
answer, a left hook arrives.
In our Hatteras
neighborhood project, we’ve been reconstructing the various
neighborhoods from Buxton through Frisco in an effort to pinpoint the
Native villages and to better understand the family relationships.
Through the joint efforts of several researchers over the past
couple of years, we’ve succeeded in reconstructing these
neighborhoods. One of our
mystery families, who don’t live on the Outer Banks anymore is the
Joseph Maskue family. Joseph
is first found on Hatteras Island in 1757 when he receives a land grant
of 300 acres “on Hatteras Banks” on the sound side near John Neals.
This was then Currituck County, later Hyde, and now Dare.
In 1767, George
Masque sells the entire 300 acres patented by Joseph Masque to Benjamin
Price, and the Masque (Maskie, Maskue) family disappears from the
records of Hatteras Island.
The reason this
family was of particular interest is because the Maskue land abuts the
land grand of William Elks, the Hatteras Indian family as reflected in
the 1771 sale of part of the William Elks land.
I thought I had
this family further identified. A
1713 court record shows a Thomas Askue estate that involved Henry Davis,
Patrick McKuen, John McKuen and Francis Farrow, all Hatteras men.
Henry Davis patented the land adjacent to the land that Joseph
Maskue would patent in 1757. The
McKuen family were neighbors as well, and Francis Farrow, while not an
adjacent neighbor, was an early island pioneer as well.
Admittedly, there is more than 40 years between the estate of
Thomas Askue and the land grant of Joseph Masque, but the nearly exact
location, the neighbors and the similarity of surnames is very certainly
suggestive of a connection, especially considering that in 1713, there
were very, very few families living on the Outer Banks, probably less
than ten, judging from the early land grants and tax records. Land grants on Hatteras really didn’t begin until after the
Tuscarora War was resolved and it ended in 1713.
In the Tyrrell
Times, James L. Liverman, wrote an article about a pair of French
brothers who settled in Albemarle County at the end of the 17th
century. Unfortunately, he
didn’t give specific dates, but I’ve extracted some of what he did
“A pair of
Frenchmen came to live along the southern shore of the Albemarle Sound
somewhere toward the end of the 17th century.
Probably Huguenots strayed from one of the colonies to the south.
Stephen was 25 at his first mention in the colonial records and
seems to have located permanently just across the estuary from the Sand
Banks in a neighborhood later to become a part of Tyrrell County, then
to be lost to Dare, while the apparently more ambitious Benjamin made a
claim “about 4 or 5 miles below Scuppernong River”. This family name was variously rendered as Massague, Massigay,
Masagy and other misadventures. One
clerk wrote it as Massechoes coming pretty close to the place names of
Mashoes Creek and Mashoes in today’s mainland Dare County.
Legend has it that
a shipwrecked Frenchman came ashore near present time Manns Harbor when
that area was still completely uninhabited.
With his wife and family lost at sea, the marooned man is said to
have carved the entire account of his travail onto a cedar shingle
before he died of abandonment and grief.
(sic) Massenque abandoned his homestead below the Scuppernong probably
at the same time he married one of the two orphaned daughters of Thomas
Waller. He then embarked on
a series of lawsuits against a prominent citizen of the Albemarle by
which he eventually secured custody of the other orphaned daughter and
the Waller estate entire. He
was dead within the year.
There is nothing in
the surviving records about an heir, but a Peter Museos turns up in the
court minutes 16 years after Benjamin’s death.
Then the name disappears from the archives, except for one trace
that remains. On the left
hand side when headed out of Columbia south of NC94, you will notice in
the vicinity of Ryder’s Creek the last memorial, a green placard sign
that says “Pity My Shoe Road”.”
spells the name Micheaux.
first names don’t match. We
find Thomas Askue on Hatteras Island in 1713 and the Albemarle names
were Benjamin and Peter. The
later Hatteras first names in the mid-1700s were Joseph and George.
However, the similarity between the surnames can’t be
arbitrarily dismissed without further investigation.
I’d certainly appreciate any information that anyone has about
these or similar surnames in this region of eastern North Carolina.
Struck by Lightening
reconstructing the Hatteras families from both genealogical and historic
records, some truly remarkable historic tidbits are found.
Some of these aren’t really of any significance other than to
the families involved and as sort of a general interest historic sort of
way, but I find them fascinating regardless.
For example, did you know that lightening could strike you while
you are in bed?
of these records is about the family of Washington W. Scarborough, born
in 1862, son of Ezekiel Scarborough and his wife Catherine, thought to
be a Barnes who initially married a Price.
Washington married Bethany Miller who was born between 1852 and
1854, the daughter of Hezekiah Claughton Miller and Bethania
“Bethany” Gray. They
probably married in late 1872 or early 1873, judging from the birth of
their first child, Dorcas Rosa Scarborough in December 1873, according
to both family records and the census.
Their second child, Ezekiel Littleton Scarborough was born in
family history of both the Scarborough and the Miller families records
their deaths. Both
Washington and his wife, Bethany, were killed, in bed, by lightening,
while the small child who slept between them survived.
According to the Miller family records, Bethany died about 1885.
The Scarborough records don’t give a death date.
In the 1880 census, Cilioven, also known as Salome, was just 3
months old at the time the census was taken.
If they died shortly thereafter, she would have been the child
between them. There is no
record of a later child being born to this couple.
they died in 1885, it’s unlikely that they had no children between
1880 and 1885. Of course, if they had additional children, they could have
died, and even a child who survived the initial lightening strike could
have succumbed later to their injuries.
Dates in genealogical records that only provide a year are often
“about” dates from someone’s later recollection and are often
incorrect, so they could have died between 1880 and 1885.
sad tale indeed, but the kind of information important to genealogists.
Hatteras Island has the highest incidence of deaths from
lightening strikes in the US.
Notes on the Yuchi (Chiscas)
"The Melungeons" by Bonnie Ball
P 35 – Dr. John
Swanton a recognized authority on the Creek Indians, has said that the
earliest mention of the Yuchi (also called the Chisca) is found in early
Spanish documents, “published and unpublished.”
visited by De Soto and other early explorers.
De Soto sent soldiers to the Chisca Province, which was evidently
located in the rougher parts of what is now Tennessee.
According to Dr. Swanton, some of the Yuchi left the Appalachian
Highlands because of the colonial wars and in 1656 a part of the tribe
settled on the James River in Virginia.
They defeated the colonists in battles, but were not heard of
It appears that
they separated into distinct groups.
One remained in the north (Tennessee); a second group settled not
far from the Choctawhatchee River in western Florida; and others
established themselves on or near the Savannah River in Georgia.
Dr. Swanton points out a reference to the “Uche” or “ Round
Town People” in SC state archives.
He also mentions a legend found by Thomas Jeffery at some point
on the Savannah River above Augusta, which read “Hughchees or Hogoloes
Old Town deserted in 1715.”
supposedly means “Yuchis”.
In about 1729 the
Yuchi gathered in a settlement on the Chattahoochee River under the
protection of the Creek confederacy.
In about 1791, William Bartram, a botanist, visited that area in
search of botanical specimens. He
described the town as the largest, most compact and best situated Indian
town he had ever seen.
“The houses had
wooden frames, lathed and plastered inside and out with a reddish,
well-tempered clay, or mortar, that looked like red brick walls.
They were neatly covered with cypress bark and shingles.”
Whether this means
they had earlier been influenced by the habits of European explorers is
a matter for speculation. A
United States Commissioner to the Creeks saw something similar in 1785
and said: “These people are more civilized and orderly than their
neighbors. Their women are
more chaste, and the men are better hunters.
They have lately
begun to settle out in the villages, and are industrious compared with
their neighbors. The men
help the women with their labors and are more constant in their
attachment to the women than is usual.”
Timothy Barnard, a
British subject and a “man of affairs”, married a Yuchi and acquired
great influence in Indian affairs.
He as the first white settler in Macon, Georgia and died in 1820.
He had three sons by his Yuchi wife: Timpoochee, Michee and
Cosena. These children
later played important roles in the government of the Creek Nation,
after its removal to the Indian Territory.
P 36 - A
great-grandson of Cosena Barnard was the Reverend Noah G. Gregory, who
served as a representative from his native town to the Creek Nation,
Indian Territory. That the
“Euchees” were essentially a distinct tribe from any others is
indicated by their language, which has no resemblance to any tongue
spoken on the continent, and by their customs and personal appearance.
They differed from other aboriginal tribes, for many of them had
gray eyes and their complexion was several shades lighter than the
full-blooded members of other nations.
The shape of their faces seemed to differ slightly too and the
women, in many instances, were exceedingly beautiful.
Yuchis, like the
Croatoans were friendly to the white man.
They even allied themselves with the US in 1814 against the
Creeks. They were led by Timpoochee Barnard, the son of the British
subject (actually a Scotchman). Timpoochee
also served in the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Yuchis were very
superstitious. As late as
1890 most of them believed implicitly in witchcraft.
They were once noted for pottery made by the women and for clay
pipes made by the men. Dr.
Swanton believed they had a distinct culture that complemented their
Some believe the
Yuchi to be survivors of the friendly native Americans who greeted
Columbus when he first landed in the New World.
They also believe Yuchis could have descended from the Lucayans,
Indians thought to have fled to Andros Island a hundred miles off the
Florida coast to escape the “fire stick” of Columbus.
In an ancient Spanish chronicle, the Lucayans of the Bahamas were
called “Yucayas”, and the Indian name for the “Columbus Indians”
Their later history
is easier to reconstruct in later years.
A prominent members of the Yuchi in the Creek nation after their
removal to the “Indian Territory” was Chief Samuel William Brown
(1843-1935). His son, Chief
Samuel William Brown Jr. visited Georgia a short time before his death.
From his father’s vivid descriptions he was able to recognize
various places. He declared
the Yuchi had inhabited Georgia for a thousand years and spoke of their
having lived in an area of the coast now submerged.
Brown also knew of a tradition that the said Indians had come
from the famous Easter Island.
The Kendall Ring
1998, East Carolina University organized "The Croatoan
Project", an archaeological investigation into the events at
Roanoke. The excavation team sent to the island uncovered a 10 carat
(42%) gold 16th century English signet ring, gun flints, and two 16th
century copper farthings at the site of the ancient Croatoan capital, 50
miles (80 km) from the old Roanoke colony.
This is particularly important, because if able to identify the
owner of the ring, the ring could show a connection between the
colonists and the Native Americans on Hatteras Island.
was subsequently reported that a researcher was able to trace the lion
crest on the signet ring to the Kendall coat of arms, and concluded that
the ring most likely belonged to one Master Kendall who is recorded as
having lived in the Ralph Lane colony on Roanoke Island from 1585 to
know from historical records that indeed there was contact between the
Croatoan and the English, and that some of the 1585 military colonists
were on Croatoan island, awaiting the arrival of a supply ship.
If indeed, the ring does belong, or did belong to Kendall, it
only confirms what historical records have already told us.
if it could be proved that the ring belonged to a family of one of the
Lost Colonists, it would bring us a step closer to perhaps revealing the
fate of those colonists.
Powell undertook to substantiate the earlier researcher's findings, but
was unable to find any connection between the Kendall family and a lion
on a coat of arms or in any other record.
feels that the two Kendall men are probably of the same family line.
research reveals that the name does originate from the town of Kendal in
what is now the county of Cumbria as early as 1097.
seems that around 1200 AD one of the family moved to Cornwall.
One has to wonder whether this was a family dispute as the two
localities are about as far apart as one can get in England!
the Kendalls of Cumbria have died out but a Kendall has brought the old
Cornish family seat at Pelyn near Lostwithiel and is in the process of
coat of arms for the Kendalls of Kendal was three eagles on a red
background with a blue and yellow chevron; the motto was “Aquila Petit
Solem” - The Eagle Seeks The Sun.
coat of arms of the Cornish Kendalls of Pelyn remains three arched
Dolphins with a chevron across the shield.
is convinced that it is this Cornish Kendall family that is responsible
for the Kendall of Raleigh's Military Colony of 1585-1586.
The father married Elizabeth Carew another great West country
family and heavily linked to Raleigh and Grenville. The Kendall family
stepchildren were Pierce’s, another name linked to the 1587 colony
through Jane Pierce.
further stated that the problem is that the emblem on the ring is not a
coat of arms, it is what would be referred to as a Moniker and may have
absolutely no bearing on anything to do with the owners family. A single
lion could represent anything, it was a popular symbol then as it is
now… the nearest heraldic emblem of any sort would be the Scottish
Lion but he is rampant (upright) not encumbant.
unfortunately, the Kendall Ring is likely not associated with the
Kendall family, nor is it likely that we will be able to use the lion
emblem to further identify the ring's former owner.