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November 2011

 

 

 

Beechland: Oral History versus Historical Records  

 

Continued

 

laborer and his wife is 39, born 1811 in NC.  Their oldest children are twins born in 1833, so their marriage probably occurred in 1832 in Tyrrell County.

Marriage records do indeed exist for this timeframe and a marriage for Wallis Twiford is not recorded.  Searching on Ancestry.com and Rootsweb.com provides (unsubstantiated) information that Nancy’s maiden name was Payne.  It provides further information that Nancy died in 1884. 

Early Tyrrell and Currituck Records

The earliest available records for Tyrrell County were actually from when it was a precinct of Albemarle County.  The 1729-1732 Quit Rent rolls exist.  Neither Payne, Paine nor Twiford are on these rolls, nor are any of the other surnames mentioned by Twiford or others.  Tyrrell was formed in 1729 but it wasn’t until 1739 that the precincts actually became counties.

Miltail district is reported on Genweb to have been in Currituck Precinct/County prior to 1739.  At this time Currituck contained the entire area along the seaboard from Albemarle Sound to the Pamlico River.   The northern portion became part of Tyrrell which is now the part of Dare County from the Alligator River to the Sound. The southern portion of Currituck County was annexed to Hyde County in 1745.[1]

Checking early Currituck County records, we find Sanderson there on the 1694-1696 rent rolls, never spelled any other way except Saunderson through the 1735 records which are the last Currituck records available before the Beechland portion of Currituck becomes part of Tyrrell. 

On the 1696 -1697 Currituck Tithable list, we find Sandersons, Mr. Courroon, Levi Smith, Samuel Barnes and William Bastett (possibly Barnett, Basnet(t) or Basnight).

On the 1714 Currituck Valuations list, we find the following:

John Neal 150 (value of property in pounds)

George Barnes 10

Richard Smith 50

Levi Smith 50

(Torn)siah White 1 year 18

(Torn)es Carroon Sr 20

(Torn)mes Carroon Jr 6

Samuel Paine 30

Capt. Richard Sanderson 400

John Smith free negro 26

Joseph Sanderson 300

Richard Sanderson Esq 750

Michael Oneal 75

James Brown 75

Jeremiah Smith 2-10-0

 

Samuel Payne is noted here, but is never listed again.  He is designated as having property, so perhaps Currituck County deeds and grants should be searched, or, the surname could be misspelled.  Searching the 1715 and 1716 lists, we discover that his last name is then spelled Poyner.  In 1716 he is in insolvent and then disappears from the record, although some years later there are other Poyner males.

In 1714/1715 a list of money paid from the treasurer, John Carron, to the names above.

The 1715 Tithable list adds Josiah and Luke White as well as Jeremiah Smith.  1715 levies received lists Sarah Smith, John Oneal and James Mann in addition to earlier names.

The 1717 Currituck Tax Levy list adds David Ambrose.

In 1717 we also find John Penny, which might be Payne misspelled, but if so, it is consistently misspelled for several years.  Matthew Migitt is also added this year.

In 1718 we find Webly Payve (sic), 3 tithables and no land. 

The 1719 Tithables list adds Thomas Seayers.  John Penny is still listed as such, but Webly is now listed as Payne with 3 tithables.

The 1719 list of Levies and Land Taxes shows Weebly Peyve again, with 3 tithes.  It also notes that Richard Sanderson has 1000 acres “for Rowneoake”.

The 1720 lands and tithables list shows Wbly Pavey with a negro man at the head of Tulls Creek.  James Caron Sr. and Jr. are at Powells Point with Richard Sanderson, James Brown, John Smith and Joseph Sanderson.  Luke White and Michael Oneal Sr. are on Currituck Shoar.  Michael Oneal Jr. is at Cowinjock.  John Penny is at Sand Banks and John Mann is noted as “Quarter: of Ronak Island”.

In 1721 Webly’s last name is Peavy.

The next records are only a fragment of the 1735 tax list, only those in arrears where we find new names of Margaret Barret, 20 acres, and William (a minor), Peter and James Pyner. 

The balance of the Currituck records available are after the 1729/1739 period when the Beechland portion of Dare County becomes Tyrrell.

The next available Tyrrell record is the 1747/1748 processioners’ book[2] which also includes some partial tax rolls for this timeframe.

James Sutton is mentioned, his lands not being processioned because the bounds of his land are unknown.  This indicates he owns land either by deed or patent and this information could possibly be located.

None of the other Beechland surnames are on this list, indicating that the surnames of men who owned land found in Currituck were not located in the portion of Currituck that became Tyrrell in 1739, and eventually Dare, which includes the Beechland area.

Next is a 1755 tax list.  On this list we find John Braveboy, no whites and 5 blacks.  Black and white are the only two options.  A second household head listed who is not white is a man with only one name, Quomone, and he has one black, no whites.  The one black is obviously himself and Quomone looks suspiciously like a native name.  Braveboy does as well and is later associated with the Lumbee.[3]

Charles White is present with 3 whites and 2 blacks.

Ann Owens is listed with 1 white (probably not herself, probably a male as only white males were taxed).

The other Beechland names are not listed.  This tax list is not restricted to landowners and should reflect all homesteads of free men over the age of 21 or their widows.

In 1779 residents signed a petition to form a new County.  Typically petitioners had to be free, white and landowners, although this petition does not state such.

·        Martin Dunton is shown.  (Dutton?)

·        William Sutton is shown.

·        Several Sawyers are listed; Dinnis (twice), Ephram, Griffen, Isaac and James.

·        Frances Edwards is shown.

·        Adam Owens along with Thomas, Zachariah Jr. and Sr. are shown.

·        James and William Basnight Jr. are shown, along with William, Joseph and Jacob Basnet, probably a misspelling of Basnight.

The NC 1786 State Census for Tyrrell County[4] shows two very interesting tidbits.  The first district is “Miltail the Lake” and it provides us with the following families:

Family

WM
21 - 60

WM < 21
OR > 60

ALL WF

BM&F
12 - 50

BM&F > 50
& < 12

John Carroon

1

5

4

5

8

John Payne[5]

1

5

3

1

0

Joseph Hassell

1

1

2

0

0

Thomas Mann

1

1

2

1

0

John Midgett

1

2

1

1

3

George Poplewell

1

2

2

0

0

Richard Oneal

1

0

4

0

0

Daniel Wrasco[6]

1

2

5

0

0

Stephen Barnett

1

2

5

0

0

Henry Smith[7]

1

1

4

0

0

David Hill

2

3

2

0

0

Zackariah Owen, Senr

1

6

3

0

0

Thomas Owens

1

3

5

1

3

Zackariah Owens, Jun

1

0

3

0

0

Adam Owens

1

4

3

1

1

Isaac Carroon

1

2

2

3

4

William M. Daniel

1

2

2

0

0

Henry Homes

1

2

1

0

0

Henry Fountain

1

1

1

0

0

George Battin

1

1

3

0

0

Dorcas Cook

0

4

2

0

0

Dorothy Barnes

1

0

2

0

0

Zackariah Hunnings

1

4

3

4

5

William Cowell

1

1

2

3

5

William Twyford

1

1

4

1

1

Joseph Browne[8]

1

2

5

0

0

John Tweedy

2

2

4

0

0

Joseph Basnight

1

0

5

0

0

John Smith

1

2

3

0

0

Stephen Hooker

1

3

3

0

0

John Hooker, Junr

1

2

2

0

0

William Basnight

1

5

5

0

0

John Hooker, Senr

1

3

2

0

0

 

34

74

99

21

30

This district includes several of the names on the list of orally reported “Beechland families”, which are highlighted, plus, interestingly enough, William Twyford, although Marshall reports that his grandfather (Willis born in 1801) was from Kitty Hawk.  Apparently some Twiford/Twyford family member was living here was early as 1786.  Perhaps the Twiford/Twyford family was originally from Kitty Hawk, but Marshall had his generations somewhat confused[9].

The above list provides us with a comprehensive listing of Beechland in 1786.  Who was native and who was English?  Were the “native” families listed by name or were they perhaps included with the “black”, presumably enslaved, population? 

The next tidbit is extremely frustrating.  Gum Neck, a neighboring area also involved in the history and mystery of this area, located across the Alligator River from Beechland, is shown, with totals, but with no names, as follows[10]:

 



[1] North Carolina County formation information: http://www.familyhistory101.com/maps/nc_cf.html

 

[2] Processioning of the entire county was completed every year or two, depending on the local customs.  During this event, every landowner’s boundaries were walked with the landowner and witnesses, typically his neighbors, plus at least two processioners who were expected to be disinterested parties, and the boundaries were agreed upon.  Disputes were resolved on the spot or within a few days, sometimes with testimony being taken.

[3] Indians during this period were taxed only if they were not living on "Indian lands", generally a reservation, or had intermarried outside of the Indian community.  Unpublished paper of author, "Indians Not Taxed".

[4] Table, without highlighting, transcribed from the originals at  http://patriot.net/~cpbarnes/TYR1786L.HTM 

[5] Lost Colonist roster surname.

[6] Daniel Wrasco (Rascoe) reportedly came from Northampton Co. Va. between 1750 and 1759 to Bertie County.  http://genforum.genealogy.com/nc/hyde/messages/91.html.  His son is found at Mattamuskeet in 1786.

[7] Lost Colonist roster surname.

[8] Lost Colonist roster surname.

[9] Generational memory as evidenced in other projects is shown to be fairly accurate through two generations (grandparents) but fades and is somewhat distorted increasingly thereafter.  Grandparents tend to convey information first hand to grandchildren, but with each passing generation, the details become fuzzy and inaccurate until only the essence of the story is correct, but may not be conveyed connected with the proper generation, individual, timeframe or with correct details.

[10] Information transcribed on the Tyrrell County, North Carolina genweb site:  http://www.ncgenweb.us/tyrrell/TYRRELL.HTM

District: Gum Neck

Page 1 of 1

Census Taker: Col. Benj. Hassell

Family

WM
21 - 60

WM < 21
OR > 60

ALL WF

BM&F
12 - 50

BM&F > 50
& < 12

59 Households

79

129

199

25

31

Note: This 1786 census has a list of the inhabitants in each household but no family names were provided.

However, the fact that these two districts are included shows clearly that the census taker was aware of these areas, both Beechland and Gum Neck, long before the 1830/1840/1850 timeframe and also significantly before 1808 when the surveyors were reported to have entered the mainland of Dare County for the first time. 

Checking the Beechland names in the 1786 census, Thomas and William White are both enumerated in the “Old Court House Bridge to Upper end of County” district.

The Basnights; James, Jacob, Joseph and two Williams are on Little Alligator which is located on the northwest end of the Alligator River near the mouth.

The Ambrose families; James Jr. and Sr., Jesse and Shemi (sic) were shown in the district labeled “mark in poplar swamp to Scuppernog River”.

The 1786 census processioning order is by labeled districts.  The order in which those districts are recorded is as follows:

District

Enumerator

Comments

Miltail the Lake[1]

John Hooker

Includes Beechland

Little Alligator

Col. Hezekiah Spruill

 

Greater Alligator

John Poole

Names not give, 400 white, 156 black, 556 total

Gum Neck

Col. Benjamin Hassell

59 households, 407 white, 56 black, 473 total

Mark in Poplar Swamp to Scuppernog River

Stephen Swain

 

Old Court House Bridge to Upper End of County

Thomas Everitt

 

We are fortunate that the federal census was only 4 years later.

In the 1790 Tyrrell County census, there are no families that include any individuals enumerated as “other free” within white households.  This category means that the individual or family is not white, but is free.  This is the category where free negroes would be counted as well as any Indians "not taxed" and not enslaved or anyone of mixed racial heritage.

There are a few Tyrell County 1790 families who are noted as “free colored” and they are:

Page 378 - Column 2 (continued)

Free Colored Persons

Head
of
Family

Males
16 Years
and Up

Males
Under
16 years



Females

Other
Free
Persons



Slaves

Simpson, Reddin

1

0

3

0

0

Simpson, Jacob

1

1

1

0

0

Hill, Elizabeth

0

1

2

0

0

Williams, Jack

1

0

0

0

0

Foster, William

1

4

2

0

0

Dempsey, John

1

0

0

0

0

Bibbons, Philip

1

0

0

0

0

Jane Vollovay

0

0

1

0

0

Bridgett Bryan

0

0

1

0

0

Israel Pierce

1

2

3

0

0

Thomas Pierce

1

3

4

0

0

Total

8

11*

17

0

0

(*) - The census total is 10, however the total of the entries is 11.

Free colored persons would have included all “mixed” race people, including mulatto, black, Indian or mixtures between those races or of any of them with white.

Interestingly, of all of the above “free colored” families, in 1800, we can only find Philip Bibbons in Washington County, NC, which was split from Tyrrell in 1799, with no white males.  This is not the area that includes Beechland or the Greater Alligator District, although he could have moved between 1790 and 1800.  In 1800 in Tyrrell County, no other 'free colored" families appear with the possible exception of Celia Hill who has some free people of color living with her.  We know however that the Bryan/Bryant family was still in the area, because they emerge later in the 1840 census with 3 Bryant males who are free people of color.

Israel Pierce is extremely interesting.  He is not found using Ancestry.com’s indexing in any county in 1800 or 1810 (nor are there any other Pierces in Tyrrell County), but in 1820 he is found in Beaufort County with 3 males engaged in agriculture, no whites or slaves, and an entire family of “free colored persons”, 1 male to 14, 1 male to 26, 1 male to 45, 1 male over 45, 2 females to 14, 1 female to 26, 1 female to 45, none over 45.

In 1840 Israel is no longer found, and no Pierces in Beaufort County, but in Martin, we find in Jameston an Ann Pierce with a white family and 9 houses away, Emmy Pierce who is “free colored”, with one female under 10 and one 10-26.

In 1850 there are both black and white Pierce families listed in Chocowinity, in Beaufort County, NC.  The black family is headed by Lucy Ann Pierce, age 30.

Perhaps the most interesting information about the Pierce family[2] comes from the 1916 report of Frank G. Speck published in the American Anthropologist Magazine.  Frank had visited Eastern North Carolina in the hopes of finding descendants of local Indian tribes with the hope of “rescuing some facts concerning their early culture and language”.  Sadly, he was disappointed, because the few people he found had no direct memory of their Native culture although he felt certain medicinal and cultural aspects of their Native heritage, such as basketmaking, specific types of tea brewing, etc., had been integrated into their daily lives with no knowledge of their origins. 

Speck says, “A visit to their old home, however, and persistent inquiry among the settlers of Albemarle and Pamlico sounds, brought to knowledge a few individuals who are descended from Indians who came originally from Pungo River near Mattamuskeet Lake, Hyde county. These are evidently remnants of the Machapunga tribe who have left their name to Pungo River. Those whom I met traced their descent from one Israel Pierce, who was known as a Pungo River Indian. That English Christian names were common among the tribes of this general region as early as 1718, is shown by a list of chief's names from the Chowan Indians, neighbors of the Machapunga given in the colonial documents.[3]  I traced Pierce's descendants through Mrs. M. H. Pugh, Pierce's granddaughter, now a very old woman, estimating her age to be about eighty[4] years, who was born and raised in the Pungo River district. Later in her life she moved to Hatteras Island. She has four sons, daughters, and numerous grandchildren. At present the dark-skinned people living on Roanoke, Hatteras, and other neighboring islands of the Pugh, Daniels, and Berry families, largely of negro blood, and some of those named Westcott, of a lighter strain, are of this blood.

In appearance they vary greatly, from individuals with pronounced Indian characteristics, through people with noticeable white or negro features, the latter sort predominating in the younger generations. Not one of these people knew a single word of the Indian language and not one knew of any definite Indian customs or traditions, not even the name of their tribe.”

Tracking the Israel Pierce family from early Tyrell County in 1790 to Beaufort County in 1830 and confirming as best we can that they are of Native heritage, begs the question of whether the rest of the individuals listed on the 1790 census of Tyrrell as “free colored persons” are also Indian, or perhaps admixed. 

Perhaps additional work on the Bibbins, Hill, Bryan/t and Pierce families, who seem to have left at least a cursory trail, would be enlightening.  The Pierce family was covered recently in the January 2011 issue of the Lost Colony Research Group newsletter.

Reconstructing the 1786 Tyrrell County Missing Gum Neck and Greater Alligator Districts

An attempt was made to reconstruct the 1786 Gum Neck and Greater Alligator districts by using the 1790 census as a basis of comparison using the following steps.

·        Matching all 1786/1790 households.  We know that if they are listed in 1786 and 1790, they do not live in Gum Neck/Greater Alligator (as the Gum neck 1786 list is missing).

·        We are searching for an entire group of people, 59 families (473 people) in 1786, that are “missing” from Gum Neck and about 69 households[5] (556 people) from the Greater Alligator District. 

·        Men who are obviously young (2 children or less, no white males under 16) should be eliminated from the calculation because they would likely not have established their own household yet in 1786.

Unfortunately, some of the 1790 census districts are in semi-alpha order where letters of the alphabet are generally grouped together, not processioning order which is generally house by house, as follows by page:

Page Number

Processioning Order

373

Processioning

374

Processioning

375

Semi-alpha

376

Semi-alpha

377

Semi-alpha

378

Semi-alpha

379

Processioning

380

Processioning

The enumerators in 1786 appear to have lived in their district.  Therefore, the first clue would be where Col. Benjamin Hassell, the Gum Neck enumerator, is found in 1786 and 1790.

Unfortunately, Col. Benjamin Hassell is found in 1790 on page 376, an alpha page.

Looking for other known surnames and individuals, William Twyford is found located very close to John Hooker, the Miltail enumerator, on page 379 which is in processioning order.

Checking a few specific individuals in 1790 compared to their 1786 district in order to determine who fell into which districts, we find the following:

Little Alligator:

Asa Trueblood – first listing in district – page 374 – processioning order

James Perisho – towards end of district – page 379 – processioning order

Greater Alligator:

John Poole – 380 – processioning order - (enumerator of Greater Alligator in 1786)

Scuppernog:

James Devenport – first on list – 375 – alpha

Shermi Ambrose – last page on list  – 375 – alpha

Old Court House Bridge:

4 individuals checked in this district were on pages, 375, 377 and 378, all alpha.

It appears, with the exception of Col. Benjamin Hassell, that the Scuppernog and Court House districts were alpha and the Little Alligator District, Miltail Lake and possibly the Gum Neck and Greater Alligator Districts were in processioning order.  Unfortunately, with the Greater Alligator and Gum Neck appearing to be adjacent districts, it is impossible to sort out whom was in Gum Neck versus the Greater Alligator District, but we can indeed determine which households that were not enumerated in 1786.

The following lists were taken from the Tyrrell County Genweb site where the transcribed 1790 census is available.  All of the individuals highlighted in yellow, pink or blue are not present on the 1786 census.  Of course, there could be many reasons for this.  Families do move into the area from elsewhere and from place to place within the county. 

For a woman, highlighted in pink, her husband might have died, although there would likely have been a male with the same surname in 1786.   When a connection was obvious, I counted it as such.

For males, if they married in 1786, they generally would have not had more than 2 children under the age of 16 by 1790.  For families who could have fallen into this category, I have used light blue highlighting instead of yellow.   Some of the individuals highlighted in blue may not be young, they might be older, with their family mostly grown and gone.  Hints of this might be found by the number of slaves owned.  Younger men often couldn’t afford slaves.  Any family with 2 males over the age of 16 was colored yellow, not blue, although clearly there could have been an older male living with the family, so this is not absolute.

Yellow indicates the balance of the families who were present in 1790 and absent in 1786 and who had too many children to be considered “possibly young”.  Within the group of families highlighted in yellow, we will find the reconstructed Greater Alligator and Gum Neck Districts of 1786, especially where we find groups of people clustered together who are missing from the 1786 census. 

The entire grouping of pink, yellow and blue together should represent the entire group of approximately 128 households not enumerated individually in 1786 but counted in 1790.  About half would be found in the 2 missing district’s records, the rest being scattered throughout the county.  Some families of course would have moved into the area, but others were clearly already there in the Greater Alligator and Gum Neck Districts.  There are a total of 207 yellow (absent in 1786, present in 1790, not a young family) and pink families (absent 1786, female head of household 1790).  Determining which families comprise the 128 from Gum Neck and the Greater Alligator districts and which fell into other districts is challenging.

Individuals not found in 1790 but who were present in Miltail in 1786 are Henry Smith, one Zachariah Owens (Jr. and Sr. both found in 1786), Isaac Carroon, William M. Daniel, Henry Fountain, Dorcas Cook, Dorothy Barnes, Joseph Browne, and one John Hooker (Jr. and Sr. both found in 1786).  Nine of the 33 families present in 1786, or 27%, apparently died or moved away.



[1] Per the Tyrrell genweb site, the Miltail Lake district was in Currituck before 1739 and in Dare County after 1870.  Early Currituck deed, court and marriage records need to be checked for Beechland surnames to potentially provide information about family interactions and origins.

[2] For more information about the Piece family, see the article "The Pierce Family of Tyrrell County" and "Smith Pugh", both in the January 2011 issue of the Lost Colony Research Group Newsletter, at this link:  http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~molcgdrg/nl/nl01-11.htm

[3] Speck quotes the North Carolina Colonial Records, vol. IV p 33-35 where Thomas Hoytes, James Bennett, Charles Beasley, Jeremiah Pushing, chief men of the Chowan Indians sold land to the settlers in 1713.

[4] Born about 1836.

[5] Using Gum Neck as a reference point each household about 8.01 individuals.  Dividing the population of Greater Alligator by 8 people gives us the approximate number of households.

Legend

Bolded surnames are those provided by Twiford and others as “Beechland names” and underscoring indicates the individuals on the 1786 “Miltail the Lake” district.

Pink indicates female households not present on the 1786 list but present in 1790.

Blue indicates families who may have been too young to have households established in 1786, are missing from the 1786 census, but present in 1790.

Yellow indicates the balance of the families who were absent on the 1786 census and are present in 1790.  Unless these families moved into the area in those 4 years, these families should have been found on the 1786 census.

Green indicates a colonist surname.

Grey indicates a surname of interest.  In some context, this surname is either proven native or closely associated with the colonist surnames.

Page 373 - Column 1



Head
of
Family

Free
White
Males
16 Years
and Up

Free
White
Males
Under
16 years



Free
White
Females



Other
Free
Persons





Slaves

John Clifton

1

4

1

0

0

Jacob Davenport

1

2

0

0

0

James Ambrus

1

2

3

0

0

Robert Clifton

3

1

5

0

0

Benjn. Tarkinton

1

2

4

0

0

Josiah Phelps

4

1

3

0

2

James Phelps

1

1

3

0

0

Rosanna Phelps

0

2

3

0

0

Isaac Barnes

1

0

1

0

0

Reuben Barnes

1

4

3

0

0

Thomas Jethro

1

2

2

0

0

Joseph Tarkinton

1

1

3

0

0

Uphaniah (?) Davis

2

2

7

0

2

Miles Spruil

1

2

1

0

0

Soloman Bateman

1

1

4

0

1

Josiah Phelps

1

1

2

0

2

Thomas Smith

1

2

3

0

0

Joshua Powers

1

1

5

0

0

Anthony Alexander

1

2

3

0

0

John Alexander

1

1

2

0

0

Alexander Oliver

1

2

2

0

0

Joseph Oliver

1

0

4

0

0

Levi Hassell

1

0

8

0

0

Asa Hill

1

2

1

0

0

John Spruil

1

1

6

0

0

Charles Skittlethorpe

1

4

3

0

0

Mecajah Ambrus

1

1

1

0

0

John Farlaw

2

3

3

0

0

Keziah McClary

0

1

3

0

0

Jesse Ambrus

1

1

4

0

0

James Long

1

3

1

0

0

Samuel Caswell

1

2

3

0

0

Andrew Oliver

1

3

2

0

1

Edward Ansley

1

0

2

0

1

Isaac Powers

1

1

4

0

0

Solomon Ansley

1

0

3

0

1

Stephen Bateman

1

3

4

0

0

Joseph Ansley, Junr.

1

0

2

0

0

Henry Hagman

2

0

2

0

0

Thomas Weatherly

1

2

1

0

0

Avery Tillit

1

1

2

0

0

Jonathan White

2

3

4

0

0

Josiah Simmons

1

0

2

0

0

John Simmons

1

2

1

0

0

William Alcock

1

0

0

0

0

Joseph Cahoon

1

0

0

0

0

Benjamin Cahoon

1

0

0

0

0

Total

54

69

126

0

10


 

 

 

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Send mail to nelda_percival@hotmail.com with questions or comments about this web site.
Copyright © 2008 Last modified: January 05, 2012

 

ART WORK

The art work on this website is my (Nelda L. Percival) original art work and has not been released to any person or organization other then for the use of Lost Colony Research Group and the store front owned by the same. My art work has never been part of the Lost Colony Center for Science and Research's property. My art used here and at the store front was drawn precisely for the projects run by Roberta Estes and ownership has not been otherwise released. This project also uses the artwork of Dr. Ana Oquendo Pabon, the copyright to which she has retained as well. Other art works are the copyrights of the originators and may not be copied without their permission.
All DNA Content on this site belongs to the individuals who tested and or their representatives . The person who tested does not give up ownership of their DNA or DNA results by posting them here.
Where Copyrighted data has been cited the source has been included........
Some Native American art work is from http://www.firstpeople.us  Some of their art was used as a bases for different creative graphics.