Colony Research Group
Genealogy ~ DNA ~ Archaeology
Christoph von Graffenried, a leader of Swiss and German Protestants,
establishes a colony in Bath County. The town of New Bern is founded at
the junction of the Trent and Neuse Rivers, displacing an American Indian
town named Chattoka.
Tuscarora Indians on the Roanoke and Tar-Pamlico Rivers send a petition to
the government of Pennsylvania protesting the seizure of their lands and
enslavement of their people by Carolina settlers.
In a series
of uprisings, the Tuscarora attempt to drive away white settlement. The
Tuscarora are upset over the practices of white traders, the capture and
enslavement of Indians by whites, and the continuing encroachment of
settlers onto Tuscarora hunting grounds.
September: Tuscarora capture surveyor John Lawson, New Bern founder Baron
von Graffenried, and two African slaves. Lawson argues with the chief, Cor
Tom, and is executed near Tuscarora village of Catechna. The Indians spare
von Graffenried and the slaves.
The Tuscarora in alliance with other displaced coastal tribes take
retribution on colonists along the Neuse River.
22: The Tuscarora War opens when Catechna Creek Tuscaroras begin attacking
colonial settlements near New Bern and Bath. Tuscarora, Neuse, Bear River,
Machapunga, and other Indians kill more than 130 whites.
Virginia refuses to send troops to help the settlers but allocates £1,000
Gov. Edward Hyde called out NC militia with assistance from SC, which
provided 600 militia and 360 allied Native Americans under Col. Barnwell.
sends assistance to her sister colony. John Barnwell, member of the SC
Assembly, leads about 30 whites and some 500 “friendly” Indians,
mostly Yamassee, to fight the Tuscarora in NC.
In a letter
dated at Ft. Narhantes, Feb. 4, 1712, Barnwell gives a list of various
tribes of Southern Indians who compose his motley army. In his own
spelling: The Yamasses, Hog Logees, Apalatchees, Corsaboy, Watterees,
Sagarees, Catawbas, Suterees, Waxams, Congarees, Sattees, Pedees, Weneaws,
Cape Feare, Hoopengs, Wareperes, Saraws, and Saxapahaws.
Barnwell said the Tuscarora can't be less than 1,200 or 1,400 [warriors],
but Gov. Spotswood of VA had placed their fighting strength at 2,000 men
24: Edward Hyde is commissioned as governor. North Carolina and South
Carolina officially become separate colonies.
20-23: Barnwell's force attacked and laid waste to villages of the
southern Tuscarora and other nations from the Pee Dee Border Lands up to
Craven Co, NC. At the Tuscarora stronghold of Fort Narhontes (also spelled
Neherooka and Neoheroka ), on the banks of the Neuse River, the Tuscarora
were defeated with great slaughter.
from South Carolina, consisting of 900 Indians and 33 whites, begins a
three-day siege on the Tuscarora stronghold of Fort Neoheroka.
Approximately 950 Tuscarora are killed or captured and sold into slavery,
effectively defeating the tribe and opening the interior of the colony to
Accounts generally record the number higher than 1000 taking into
consideration numbers from nearby villages and countryside as well as the
number of Native people sold into slavery. Those days of tragedy are
commemorated by the Fort Neoheroka Historical Marker near present day Snow
Hill, Greene Co., NC.
few renegades fight on until 1715, most surviving Tuscarora migrate north
to rejoin the Iroquois League as its sixth and smallest nation.
Barnwell‟s force, joined by 250 North Carolina militiamen, attacks
the Tuscarora at Fort Hancock on Catechna Creek. After ten days of battle,
the Tuscarora sign a truce, agreeing to stop the war.
Tuscarora rise again to fight the Yamassee, who, unsatisfied with their
plunder during earlier battles, remain in the area looting and pillaging.
The Tuscarora also fight against the continued expansion of white
8: Governor Hyde dies of yellow fever, during an outbreak that kills many
Tuscarora War, many of the Tuscarora left NC and migrated north to Penn.
and NY, over a period of 90 years. The Tuscarora that sought hidden
sanctuary in the swamps of Eastern NC are the ancestors of the present day
Tuscarora Tribe of NC/SC.
following defeat, about 1500 Tuscarora fled to NY to join the Iroquois
Confederacy. As many as 1500 additional Tuscarora sought refuge in the
colony of VA. Although some accepted tribal status in VA, the majority of
the remaining Tuscarora ultimately returned to NC.
numbers, perhaps as many as 3000 by some counts, fled into the swamps of
NC, hiding out, at times creeping back to see their homeland, but
continuing to hide out for many years to save their families
refugee pattern was such that the end of the Tuscarora War resulted in the
migration of whole Tuscarora villages or towns. As time went on, these
migrations became more of individuals and groups of different sizes.
the southern Tuscarora went to SC to assist against the Yamasee. Those 70
warriors later asked permission to have their wives and children join
them, and settled near Port Royal, SC.
Blount had no more than 800 by 1715.
with remaining North Carolina Tuscarora is signed. They are placed on a
reservation along the Pamlico River. The Coree and Machapunga Indians,
Tuscarora allies, settle in Hyde County near Lake Mattamuskeet. The land
will be granted to the Mattamuskeet in 1727, and a reservation will be
Carolina adopts its first slave code, which tries to define the social,
economic, and physical place of enslaved people.
Assembly enacts a law denying blacks and Indians the right to vote. The
king will repeal the law in 1737. Some free African Americans will
continue to vote until disfranchisement in 1835.
Tuscarora remaining in the colony, led by Tom Blount, are granted land on
the Roanoke River in Bertie County, near present-day Quitsna. The
Tuscarora left their reservation on the Pamlico River because of raids by
tribes from the south.
migrations continue with some stopping short of their intended NY goal.
For example, some Tuscarora settle for a time in the Juniata River valley
of Pennsylvania. At present-day Martinsburg, WV, on Tuscarora Creek,
another group of migrating Tuscarora refugees stop.
group is found in present-day Maryland along the Monocacy River.
Eventually with continued settlement by European colonists in that area
from around 1730, the Tuscarora continue on northward to join the Oneida
Nation in western NY.
become the Sixth Nation of the Iroquois Confederacy in New York. They were
originally given refuge by the Oneida and are now considered younger
brothers of the Seneca.
fighting men; along with their wives, children, and the elderly, resided
on Indian Woods
But not withstanding this and other agreements, over the next several
decades the Tuscarora were pushed progressively out of areas they had
previously inhabited .
NC Indian Trade Commission is established to regulate trade with native
smallpox epidemic decimates the Indian population in NC, especially in the
eastern part of the colony and the Cherokee. It is projected that this
epidemic decreased the number of Cherokee by about 50 percent.
Indians, decimated by smallpox, abandon their lands in present-day Union
Co and join the Catawba just to the South.
Moravian missionaries visited the Indian Woods reservation, they noted
"many had gone north to live on the Susquehanna" and that
"others are scattered as the wind scatters smoke.' Bishop August
Gottlieb Spangenberg of the Moravian Brethren visited among the Tuscaroras
in Bertie Co. while trying to secure land for the Moravians. He finds them
to be "in great poverty." At that time their land was about
twelve miles long and six miles at its greatest width.
census of 1754 placed the Tuscarora population in eastern North Carolina
at an estimated total of 300, 100 men and 201 women and children. This
reflected a loss of about 700 during the previous forty years.
census was undertaken to determine what strength could be mustered from
the Tuscarora and used in the French and Indian War for the British.
the Nottoways, the combined group was sent to Winchester, VA for guard
duty on the frontier. During this time, the North Carolina Assembly voted
forty pounds proclamation money for support of wives and children of
Tuscarora, Nottoway and Meherrin warriors.
second smallpox epidemic devastates the Catawba tribe, reducing their
population by half.
1763 and 1766 additional Tuscarora migrated north to settle with other
Iroquoian peoples in Penn and NY
17: Diagawekee, sachem of the NY Tuscaroras and a delegation of the Six
Nations arrived in NC. He had come to lead all the Tuscaroras that were
willing to march and join the Six Nations. Thus during the first week in
August of that year Diagawekee led 155 Indians northward, leaving about
100 older Indians behind.
this time many of the Tuscarora remaining in the Carolinas had migrated
into the Bladen Co., area of NC. From there they dispersed primarily into
Robeson and Richmond Co., NC and Orangeburg District, SC. By 1766 there
were about 259, but in that same year 155 removed to the north. By 1767
about 104 individuals continued to reside on the reservation in Bertie
number of 104 seems to have dwindled to about 80.
decrease of population together with increase in poverty seems to have
accelerated after the death of King Tom Blount/Blunt about 1739.
few Tuscaroras joined the Iroquois allies of the British. As a result
these allies had to leave their villages in the United States and went to
live near what is now Brantford, Ontario, Canada. About 130 Tuscaroras
went to the Grand River territory with Joseph Brant and the Mohawks where
their descendants remain today.
original reserve was granted by Frederick Haldimand under Haldimand
Proclamation of Oct to Brant and his Iroquois followers for their support
of the Crown during the American Revolution.
census showed 1,843 Natives on the reserve mentioned above. This included
448 Mohawk, 381 Cayuga, 245 Onondaga, 162 Oneida, 129 Tuscarora and 78
Seneca. There were also 400 from other tribes including Delawares,
Nanticokes, Tutelos, even some Creeks and Cherokees (Kelsay 1984). Joseph
Brant also invited members of Brant's Volunteers and Butler's Rangers to
live on the grant as well.
Tuscaroras remaining in the US eventually established a reservation by
purchasing lands near present-day Lewiston, NY.
white persons 288,204
other free persons 4,975