History of St. Charles County, Missouri


Chapter 12
St. Charles Township

Location and Area -- Physical Features -- Early Settlers -- City of St. Charles -- Post Established -- Village Incorporated -- Board of Trustees Organized and the Village Constituted a City -- Advancement -- Newspapers -- Schools -- Francis Duquette -- Bridge -- Car Factory -- Woolen Mills -- Gas Company -- Pork Houses -- Union Fire Company -- Tobacco -- Foundry -- Flouring Mills -- Secret Orders -- A.F. and A.M. -- I.O.O.F. -- A.O.U.W. -- K. of H. -- Order of Chosen Friends -- Official Record of the City from 1849 to 1884

pages 298 - 447


St. Charles township lies south-east of Portage des Sioux, and contains about 90 square miles, including islands. The entire western portion of the township borders upon the Missouri river, and the corners of section one and two, touch the Mississippi, seven miles west of St. Charles. The township is well adapted to agricultural purposes, the soil, both bottom and upland, being excellent in quality, and highly productive, the chief products being corn and wheat. A majority of the settlers now are Germans; 60 years ago the settlers were mostly French. The farmers are generally thrifty, and their improvements, though many of them very old, are neat and substantial. There are a few small, unimportant streams in the township, and some fresh water springs; among the latter is Cave spring, which is quite a bold stream of water and located on the old farm of Judge Daniel Griffith. There are other springs along the bluffs on the Missouri river. The timber in the township is still in great abundance. Limestone rock is found almost everywhere, and is utilized for building and other purposes. Coal was discovered nearly half a century ago by Dr. Seth Millington, on his farm near the town of St. Charles. A mine is now marked for the local trade, on land near St. Charles, owned by E. C. Cunningham. There are numerous Indian mounds still to be seen at Elm Point and other places. In this township The Mamelles are located, two mounds that resemble the human breasts. These mounds have an elevation of 150 feet and afford an extensive view of a most beautiful country. Many years ago, a clergyman was conducted by a friend to Les Mamelles, by the hill route, leading through the woods. Emerging from the front, the vista opened, disclosing to his astonished vision a scene of surpassing loveliness. A beautiful level plain spread out before him for miles, east, west and north, dressed in living green, variegated with many hued prairie flowers; the whole encircled by the bluffs of the two rivers, whose crags and peaks, reflecting the rays of the evening sun, presented the appearance fo towns and villages and ruined castles. To the north lay the Marais Croche lake, like an immense mirror set in emerald. For a few moments the clergyman stood in mute astonishment. When he recovered his speech, he exclaimed, "I have never before seen anything that gave me a proper conception of the Promised Land." The Rev. Timothy Flint, in his "Ten Years' Residence in the Mississippi Valley," says: "Here is presented an imposing view of the course of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, with their bluffs and towering cliffs, their ancient meandering banks, the Marais Croche lake, the mouth of the Illinois river, and the vast prairie dotted here and there with farm houses."1

Thomas F. Bates was an early settler of Goochland county, Va. He was a Quaker, but when the War of the Revolution commenced he buried his religion in patriotism and became a soldier. He married Caroline M. Woodson, and they had twelve children: Charles, Matilda, Tarleton, Fleming, Nancy, Richard, James W., Sarah, Margaret, Susan, Frederick and Edward. Charles lived and died in Virginia, where he became eminent in the profession of law. Matilda married Capt. Gett, and died, leaving a daughter (Caroline M.) who was adopted by her uncle, Edward Bates, and died in St. Louis. Tarleton was killed in a duel at Pittsburg, Pa. Fleming lived in Northumberland county, Va., of which he was county clerk. He left several children at his death. Nancy married Thomas H. Walton, who was killed by lightning. He left one son, Robert A., who came to Missouri and married a daughter of Hon. Frederick Bates. Richard studied law, but died young. He was an intimate friend of Gen. Winfield Scott, and had the promise of becoming a distinguished man. James W. lived and died in Arkansas. He was a delegate to Congress from that Territory before its admission as a State. Sarah never married, but came with her mother to Missouri in 1818. Mrs. Bates died in 1845, aged 90 years. Margaret was married twice -- first to John Speers, and second to Dr. Orton Wharton, both of Virginia. She was left a widow the second time, and came to St. Charles county, Mo., in 1838. Susan died while a young lady, in Virginia. Frederick Bates was well educated and became a distinguished man. President Jefferson appointed him Secretary of the Territory of Michigan, and about the commencement of the Aaron Burr conspiracy he was transferred to Upper Louisiana, as Secretary of that Territory. He afterward became the Governor of the State after its admission. He married Nancy Ball, a daughter of Col. John S. Ball, who was a soldier of the War of 1812. Mr. Bates died in 1825, leaving four children: Emily C., Lucas Lee, Woodville and Frederick, Jr. During the latter part of his life he resided in Lincoln county. His daughter, Emily C., married Robert Walton, and is now living in St. Charles, a widow. Lucas Lee married a daughter of Samuel Conway, and lives in St. Louis county. Woodville died in his youth. Frederick, Jr., married Lavinia Merideth, and died, leaving one child. His widow married Samuel Conway, who also died, and she then married a Mr. Kerney. Hon. Frederick Bates was Governor of the Territory of Upper Louisiana from May, 1807, to October, 1807; from September, 1809, to September, 1810; from November 29, 1812, to December 7, 1812; and he was Governor of the Territory of Missouri from December 12, 1812, to July, 1813. He was elected second Governor of the State of Missouri in 1824, and died in 1825, before the expiration of his term. Edward Bates, brother of Frederick Bates, served as a private soldier in the War of 1812, having enlisted before he was of age; but he was promoted to sergeant before the expiration of his term. He settled in St. Charles county in 1814, and on the 29th of May, 1823, he was married to Julia D. Coalter, daughter of Hon. David Coalter. They had seventeen children. Mr. Bates was a man of a superior order of talents, and held many positions of trust and influence during his life. He studied law under Hon. Rufus Easton, and became eminent in his profession. He was distinguished for a faithful and conscientious discharge of every duty entrusted to him, whether great or small, and he possessed the confidence of all classes of his fellow-citizens in the very highest degree. He represented St. Louis as a delegate in the first Constitutional Convention of Missouri; served in the Legislature and State Senate for a number of years, and was a member of Congress in 1826. At the commencement of President Lincoln's administration he was honored with a seat in the cabinet as Attorney-General. He died in 1870, in his seventy-sixth year.

Hiram Baber married a daughter of Jesse Boone. He was sheriff of St. Charles county one term, and was a reckless, fun-loving sort of a man. He built a brick residence in St. Charles, and carved over the door, in large letters, "Root Hog, or Die." He moved from St. Charles to Jefferson City, and became one of the leading men of the State. He made a great deal of money, and spent it as freely as he made it. He would often, in braggadocio, light his pipe with bank bills, to show how easily he could make money and how little he cared for it.

The ancestors of the Coalter family, of St. Charles, were members of the Presbyterian colony that settled in Augusta county, Va., at an early date. From among them we have obtained the following names: David, John, Polly, Jane and Ann. John was married four times. His third wife was a Miss Tucker, sister of Judge Beverly Tucker, and half sister of John Randolph, of Roanoke. They had two children: St. George and Elizabeth. The latter married John Randolph Bryant, of Fluvanna county, Va. David married Ann Carmicle, of South Carolina, and the names of their children were John D., Beverly T., Maria, Catharine, Fanny, Caroline and Julia. Polly married Judge Beverly Tucker, who became eminent as a jurist. Jane married John Naylor, of Pennsylvania. They settled in Kentucky, but removed to Missouri in 1818. They had seven children, James, John, William, William, Thomas, Caroline, Sophronia and Ann. The boys all died about the same time they were grown. Ann married a Mr. Ward, of Kentucky. (Children of David Coalter.) John D. married Mary Meanes, of South Carolina, and settled in St. Charles county, where he lived until two years prior to his death, when he removed to St. Louis. He had but one child. Mr. Coalter was a talented and influential attorney, and also a leading member of the Legislature of his State. Beverly T. was a physician. He married Elizabeth McQueen, of Pike county, where he resided. They had three children, one sone and two daughters. Dr. Tucker was a gentleman of fine business qualifications. Maria married Hon. William C. Preston, of South Carolina, and died, leaving one daughter, who died when she was about grown. Catharine married Judge William Harper, of South Carolina. The Doctor removed to Missouri and remained a short time, and then returned to South Carolina, where his wife died. They had several children. Caroline married Hamilton R. Gamble, of St. Louis. They had two sons and one daughter. Julia married Hon. Edward Bates, and is now a widow, living in St. Louis. (Children of Jane Naylor nee Coalter.) Caroline Naylor married Dr. William B. Natt. They removed to Livingston, S.C. , where Dr. N. died, leaving a widow and five children. Sophronia married James W. Booth, of Pike county, Mo., who subsequently removed to St. Louis, and became a commission merchant.

The father of John and George Collier lived in the State of New Jersey, not far from the city of Philadelphia. He died when they were quite young, and their mother being an energetic, industrious woman, determined to do the best she could for herself and family. Sh purchased two milk cows with the little money that her husband had left her, and opened a small dairy. It was not long until she owned and milked one hundred cows, and in a few years had accumulated a handsome fortune. Desiring to come West, she sold her dairy and other property, and, in 1815, came to St. Charles with her two sons and $40,000 in cash. The two boys, being no less energetic than their mother, supplied themselves with a small stock of goods, and for several years followed the tiresome and dangerous calling of country peddlers, carrying their goods on their backs. They made money, and in a few years opened a store in St. Charles. Here they rapidly augmented their means, and, desiring to extend their business, they established a branch store at Troy, in Lincoln county, and shortly after another in St. Louis. Mrs. Collier bought a residence in St. Charles, and kept several negro women busy making coarse shirts and various other kinds of garments, which her sons sold in their stores. She was a devoted Methodist, and as earnest and zealous in her religion as in everything else. She always entertained the Methodist ministers when they came to St. Charles, and kept a room in her house exclusively for their benefit, no one else being allowed to use it. In 1830 she had erected upon her own grounds the frist Methodist house of worship in St. Charles, which was occupied by her congregation for religious services, free of rent. She also authorized the occupancy of the house as a common school-room, reserving, by way of rent, the privilege of sending four pupils of her own selection, at the then customary tuition price of $1 per month each. The school progressed so satisfactorily that Mrs. Collier determined to appropriate $5,000 to the building fo a school house for Protestant children in the village; and after giving the subject mature deliberation, she broached it to her son George. He not only heartily commended her plan, but desired to build the house himself -- a larger and better one than $5,000 would procure -- and that his mother's donation should constitute an endowment fund for the institution. This was agreed upon, and in 1834 the building, which has since been known as St. Charles College, was erected, at a cost, including the grounds, of $10,000. Beriah Cleland, well known to the older citizens of St. Charles, was the builder. The college was opened in 1835, under the presidency of Rev. John F. Fielding; and for many years the president's salary was paid out of Mr. Collier's private purse. The college prospered beyond expectation under the liberal patronage of its generous benefactor, who gave in all fully $50,000 to the institution. George Collier did more for the cause of education in his adopted State than any other man, and has received but little credit for it. The alumni of the college spread through Mississippi, Louisiana, and the western part of this State, and opening schools and other institutions of learning, diffused the benefits of science and knowledge throughout the immense extent of the country. Many of the leading men and educators of this State studied the sciences under the roof of this parent institution. Mrs. Collier died in 1835, but made provision in her will for the carrying out of her part of the philanthropic enterprise. By some mistake the sum donated by her was lost, but it was promptly replaced by her son, and at his death, in 1852, he left an endowment of $10,000 for the college, on condition that the county court of St. Charles county donate a similar amount for the same purpose. The court complied with the requirements of the will, and the college was promptly endowed with $20,000. George Collier married Frize Morrison, daughter of James Morrison, of St. Charles. She was a Catholic, and according to the rules of her church, could not be married by a Protestant minister; but Mr. Collier, refusing to married by a priest, the ceremony was performed by Judge Benjamin Emmons. Mrs. Morrison wanted her daughter to be re-married by a priest of her church, but Mr. Collier objected, saying that he was married well enough to suit him, and then added, good-humoredly, that if she wanted her daughter back again, she could take her. But the old lady concluded to let the matter drop, and said nothing more about the second ceremony.

Daniel Colgin was a tailor by trade, and settled in St. Charles county (where the poor-house now stands) in 1806. He made a deep cellar under his log cabin, and placed a trap-door in the floor, just inside of the door, and every night when he went to bed his trap-door was unfastened, so that if the Indians attacked the house and broke the door open they would fall into the cellar. He also kept an ax and a sledge hammer near his bed, to use in tapping Indians on the head; but his house was never attacked, and his ingenious contrivances were never brought into use. In 1812 he removed to St. Charles and opened a tailor's shop in that town. Here he dressed deer skins and manufactured them into pants and hunting shirts, from which he derived a comfortable income. In 1814 he was elected justice of the peace, and made a rather eccentric officer. (Some of his official acts were noticed under the head of "Anecdotes and Adventures.") His dwelling-house and shop were one and the same, and there was but one window in the house, which contained only two panes of glass. The old gentleman kept a pet bear chained in his yard, and the boys of the town used to torment the poor beast until it would become furious. One day while they were teasing the bear it broke the chain and ran the boys all off the place. After that they let the bear alone. Colgin's wife was a native of Kentucky, and his daughters were said to be the prettiest girls in St. Charles.

Rev. James Craig married a daughter of Col. Nathan Boone. He was a Hard-Shell Baptist preacher, and preached and taught school in St. Charles for several years. He baptized, by immersion, in the Missouri river the first person that ever received Protestant baptism in St. Charles. The candidate was a colored woman named Susan Morrison. Daniel Colgin assisted Mr. Craig to perform the ceremony by wading out into the river and measuring the depth of the water with his cane, singing as he went --
"We are goin down the river Jordan,
As our Savior went before."

Revs. John M. Peck and Timothy Flint were present, and joined in the singing.

William Christy, Sr., and William Christy, Jr., were cousins, and natives of Pittsburg, Pa. In 1800 the elder settled in St. Louis, where he opened a hotel and made a fortune. The younger was quartermaster for the troops at Bellefontaine during the War of 1812, and after the return of peace he settled in St. Charles and went into the mercantile business, which he followed for two years. He then went into politics, and was at different times clerk of the county and circuit courts. He was also receiver and county treasurer and clerk of the Supreme Court. He married Constance St. Cyr, of St. Charles, and they had nine children: William M., Ellen, Leville, Martha T., Israel R., Mary A., Eliza, Louise and Clarissa. Mrs. Christy was well educated, and did a great deal of writing for her husband. They also kept boarders while the Legislature sat in St. Charles, and had so much patronage that they were compelled to hire beds from their country friends for the accommodation of their guests. They paid 25 cents a week for the beds. Mr. Christy had an apple tree in his yard that bore 40 bushels of apples one summer, and his son, William M., who was a little fllow at the time, sold them on the street and to the members of the Legislature at 25 cents per dozen, thus reaping a handsome income from the one apple tree. William M. Christy is still living in St. Charles. He served as sheriff and deputy sheriff of the county for 16 years, and organized the first express company in St. Charles. He acted as express agent for 10 years.

Walter Charlesworth, of England, being captivated by the glowing tales of life in the New World, ran away from his parents at the age of 18 years and came to America. He remained a while at Wheeling, Va., and then went to St. Charlesville, in Ohio, where he engaged in shipping pork to New Orleans and the West India Islands. He married Mary A. Young, and in 1827 he came to St. Charles, Mo. They had two children: Walter J. and Eliza. The latter died, but the former is still living in St. Charles. Mrs. Charlesworth died sometime after the removal to St. Charles, and her husband subsequently married Mary St. Louis, of Canada, who died, leaving no children. Charles Charlesworth, a brother of Walter, came from England with his wife in 1840 and settled in St. Charles. Here his wife went blind and subsequently died, when he started on his way to England and died at New Orleans. They had six children: George, Martha, Ann, Charles, Mary and Hannah.

Peter Conoier was a Frenchman, and settled on Marais Croche lake at an early date. He was very found fo hunting wild hogs, which he lassoed, being so expert in that art that he could throw the lariat over any foot of the hog that he chose, while it was running at full speed. He was married three times, and had several children. One of his sons, named Joseph, while going to school, was chastised by the teacher for some misdemeanor, and the old gentleman was greatly incensed thereat. He determined to whip the teacher in turn, and went to the school-house next morning for that purpose. Arriving at the school-house, he drew his knife out and began to whet it on his foot, whereupon the teacher drew his knife, and invited him to "come on," if that were his game. But concluding that discretion was the better part of valor, he put up his knife, bade the teacher a polite good morning, and went home.

Andrew Davidson, of Kentuck, came to Missouri in 1811, but returned in 1813, and married Sarah Johnson. In 1830 he came back to Missouri and settled in St. Charles county. His children were Susan, Greenberry, William, Angeline, Eliza J., Salome and John. The old gentleman was a great friend of the Indians, and in order to manifest his good feelings he kept a lot of tobacco with which he would fill their pouches, when they stopped at his house. One of his sons, a mischievous lad, poured a pound of gunpowder into the tobacco, and several of the Indians got their faces and noses burnt in attempting to smoke it. This, of course, was taken as a mortal offense, and it was with the greatest difficulty that Mr. Davidson kept the Indians from killing himself and his family.

Rev. Timothy Flint, a Presbyterian minister, of Connecticut, settled in St. Charles in 1816. He was an educated man and devoted much of his time to literature. Several interesting works were written by him; but in many instances he allowed his vivd imagination to lead him aside from the facts of history, and his writings are not to relied upon in regard to accuracy. A number of his imaginary sketches of Daniel Boone have been accepted as true, and copied into leading histories of the country. One of these, representing a desperate hand-to-hand contest between Boone and two savages, in which the former slays both his antagonists, has been represented in marble and adorns the Capitol at Washington City. But the incident originated wholly in Mr. Flint's imagination. He was also a poet. He organized a church in St. Charles, and performed a great deal of laborious missionary work in different parts of Missouri and Illinois, supporting his family by teaching and preaching. In teaching he was supported by his wife, who was a highly educated and accomplished lady. He opened a farm on Marais Croche lake, where he raised cotton and made wine from wild grapes. After residing in St. Charles county a number of years, he went South and died there.

John Johnson, of Tennessee, settled on "the point" below the town of St. Charles, in 1805. His father was killed by the Indians when he was a small boy, and he grew up with a natural antipathy to the race. He became a noted Indian fighter, and never let an opportunity pass to slay a red man. On one occasion, while the people were collected in the forts, during the War of 1814, he saw an Indian hiding behind a log not far from the fort, disguised as a buffalo, with the hide, to which the horns were attached, thrown over his body. The disguise was so transparent that Johnson had no difficulty in penetrating it, and he at once decided to give the Indian a dose of lead for the benefit of his health. So he cautiously left the fort, and making a wide circuit, came in behind the savage, who was intently watching for an opportunity to pick off some one of the inmates who might come within range of his gun. But a ball from Johnson's rifle put an end to his adventures here, and sent him speeding on his way to the happy hunting grounds of the spirit land. For more than five years after his removal to Missouri Johnson dressed in the Indian garb, and never slept in a house, preferring to repose in the open air with nothing but the heavens for a shelter. He was 37 years of age when he came to Missouri, and when the Indian War commenced he joined the company of rangers commanded by Capt. Massey, and was stationed for some time at Cap-au-Gris, on the Mississippi river. Before he left Tennessee he was married to Nancy Hughlin, of Nashville, and they had six children: Daniel, Elizabeth, Levi, Dorcas, Evans and Susan. Daniel married Susan Smelzer. Elizabeth married Asa Griffith. Levi married Esther Bert. Dorcas married Thomas Fallice. Evans was married four times: first, to Susan Miller; second, to Susan Sullivan; third, to Angeline Lefaivre; and fourth, to Sarah M. McCoy. Susan married William Roberts.

Jacob Kibler, Sr., a native of Virgnia, settled in St. Charles in 1820. He married Victoire Cornoyer, who was born in St. Charles, and belonged to one of the old French families. Their children were George, William, Jacob, Jr., Catharine and Louis. George died at the age of 12 years. Jacob, Jr., married Mary L. Drury, who died in 1873. Mr. Kibler has been identified with the press of St. Charles during the greater portion of his life. He was one of the founders of the Chronotype, also of the Demokrat, one of the oldest German papers in the State, now owned and published by Mr. J. K. Bode. Arnold Krekel, now judge of the U. S. District Court, was editor of the Demokrat during Mr. Kibler's connection with the paper. Catharine Kibler died young. Louis resides in Virginia. In the early days of St. Charles, Jacob Kibler, Sr., was a hatter and dealer in furs. He died in September, 1875, at the advanced age of 85, his wife having preceded him to the grave by several years.

Joseph Louis, a Frenchman, settled in St. Charles county during the Spanish administration. He married Nancy Riggs, daughter of John Riggs, of Virginia, who also settled in Missouri during Spanish rule. They had one son, James, who was born in 1806. He married Elizabeth Gross, of Kentucky, and they had 15 children. After the death of Joseph Louis his widow married Edward Smith, and they had four children: Randall, Francis, Mildred and Lucinda.

Thomas Lindsay and his family lived in Scotland. The names of his children were Thomas, Jr., James, John, Martha, Mary, Ann and Jane. James was married in Scotland to Charlotte Kettray, and came to America and settled in St. Charles county, in 1817. His children were William, Ann, Thomas, James, Jr., John, Agnes and Isabella. Ann married John H. Stewart, and settled in Carroll county. Agnes married Addison McKnight, of Tennessee, who settled in St. Charles county in 1817. His mother settled in Missouri in 1800. She was a very brave and resolute woman, and killed several Indians during her life. On one occasion she had a horse stolen, which she followed forty miles, alone, and found it and brought it back home. Mr. McKnight was the owner of McKnight's Island on the Mississippi river. Isabella Lindsay married Nathaniel Reid, of Virginia, who settled in St. Charles county in 1839. Mr. Reid was a carpenter and contractor, and built the Insane and Blind asylums, and Westminster College at Fulton. William Lindsay died a bachelor in St. Charles county. Thomas married Margaret Garvin, and was drowned in 1841, leaving a widow and five children. James was married first to Jane Black, of Virginia, and after her death he married the widow of Dr. Benjamin F. Hawkins, whose maiden name was Sarah Fleet. Mr. Lindsay is an intelligent gentleman, and we are indebted to him for many interesting items of family history. John Lindsay married Mary Stewart, of Monroe county, Mo. Thomas Lindsay, Jr., settled in America in 1800, and in St. Charles county in 1816. He married Margeret Beckett, of South Carolina. John, son of Thomas Lindsay, Sr., settled in South Carolina, where he died. Ann, his sister, married Peter Glendy, of South Carolina, and settled in St. Charles county in 1817. They names of their children were James, Ellen, Thomas, Ann and Andrew.

James C. Lackland, a native of Montgomery county, Md., came to Missouri in the fall of 1833, and brought his family, consisting of his wife and nine boys. He settled first near Florissant, in St. Louis county, but in 1835 he removed to St. Charles, where he engaged in the saw-mill business until within a few years previous to his death, which occurred in July, 1862, at the age of 71 years. Mr. Lackland was a model man and citizen, and made friends of all who became acquainted with him. The names of his boys were Richard, James, Jeremiah, Augustus T., Benjamin F., Eli R., Norman J., Henry C., and Charles M. Jeremiah died the first year after the arrival of the family in Missouri, sometime between his sixteenth and twenty-first year. Benjamin F. was killed in St. Charles, at the age of 21, by P. W. Culver, who was intoxicated at the time. Culver was tried and sentenced ot the penitentiary, but was pardoned without serving his term. Norman J. and Charles M. lived at Mexico, Mo., the former engaged in the mercantile business, and the latter in the cattle trade. Eli is chief clerk of the Scotia Iron Mines, near Leasburg, Crawford county, Mo. Henry C. is a prominent attorney at St. Charles. He was Professor of Mathematics in St. Charles College from 1856 to 1859, and also taught classes in Greek and Latin. He held the position of School Commissioner from 1859 until the office was abolished. In 1875 he was elected a member of the State Constitutional Convention for the district composed of the counties of St. Charles, Warren and Lincoln, receiving almost the unanimous vote of the district. Only eight votes were cast against him in his own county. He was one of the leaders of that able body of men, and made an enviable record for himself as a legislator and parliamentarian.


CITY OF ST. CHARLES

In April, 1769, Louis Blanchette, by virtue of authority given him by the Governor of Upper Louisiana, established a post at this place under the Spanish government, and became, and continued for many years to be, its first civil and military Governor. The village was called Petite Cotes (Little Hills), and was so called for a long time. Blanchette died about 1793, and was succeeded by Charles Tayon, whose descendants still dwell among us. He remained in command until 1802, when he was succeeded by James Mackay, who was commandant of the post of St. Charles when it was delivered over to the United States under the purchase made by President Jefferson from the First Napoleon.

Of course, in those early days and in the circumstances then surrounding all this Western country, the progress of the village was slow. In 1781 there were but half a dozen houses here, and the succeeding 10 years only doubled their number, and those who inhabited them did so by the sufferance of the wild Indians. But gradually the march of that incroachment which had steadily pushed back the son of the forest from Plymouth Rock reached this wild region, and the red man was compelled to recede before his white brother -- if such he can be called. Those who first came engaged in a mode of life scarce less wild and roving than that of the savage whose country they had invaded, employing themselves in hunting, fishing, trapping and other congenial frontier pursuits.

It was customary for the government to grant a lot in the village for residence, and a tract of land near by for cultivation, to each head of a family, with a larger tract in common to all the villagers for pasturage and wood.

The original petition of the villagers of St. Charles for a grant of common was made January 11, 1797, and was answered favorably by Don Zenon Trudeau, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Louisiana, January 23, 1797. A curious fact crops out in the Governor's answer, which may be of interest. He says:

Having been informed that the land asked for to get some timber is by no means fit for cultivation, being subject to be overflowed every year, and that the timber that is on this land is good for nothing else but for fuel, and might be renewed in a short time, and not being subject to a total destruction like those that are on the rising hills, which experience has taught us will never rise up again, and the above lands lying in close proximity to the village of St. Charles and the different prairie land dependent on the same, they would be under the necessity of going to a great distance to procure firewood; therefore, the tract is granted.

The Commons was first enclosed about 1791. As late as 1800 there was a Water street along the river bank, with a small row of small buildings, the lots running back to Main street. The archives of 1799 make the first mention of Second street, and those of 1800 first mention Third street.

The earliest deliberative body or general assembly of the village, of which a record has come down to us, was held early in 1801. This assembly was held on a Sunday, at the request of the Syndie of the parish, and after notice had been given by Mr. Tayon, the commandant of the post, for the purpose of determining whether or not the Commons below the village should be fenced. The record states that "all inhabitants being present," and the question being submitted to them, they unanimously agreed that the lower Commons should be fenced, and the document is signed by twenty-three persons, and that number was no doubt the exact number of families then constituting the village population.

The village was first incorporated under the laws of the Territory, October 13, 1809, by the Court of Common Pleas of the District of St. Charles. Alex. McNair (afterwards the first Governor of the State of Missouri), and Dr. Reynal, being the first commissioners or trustees.

As no record of their doings in the government of the village has survived the iron tooth of time, we may suppose that their administration was satisfactory, as was evidently that of their successors nine years later -- the next entry being March 16, 1818. Pursuant to notice, an election was held for trustees of the town of St. Charles, and it appearing by the returns that Charles Phillips, Osborn Knott, Chas. Tayon, James Morrison and Baptiste Brugiere were duly elected, the board "met on the 23rd instant, and, having passed several ordinances, adjourned.

There are numerous entries of liek character with the last, sometimes the subject of the ordinance being given, but never its provisions, in process of time four trustees being elected to manage the corporate affairs. April 30, 1825, Ruluff Peck, chairman of the board, resigned his chairmanship and trusteeship, leaving Prospect K. Robbins, Antoine Janis and George Collier, trustees, who elected George Collier, chairman, and sppointed Wm. G. Pettus, secretary, and Andrew Wilson, treasurer; and the secretary was ordered to settle with the former treasurer, and turn over the assets of the town to the new treasurer, as soon as the latter should haven given bond.

From this time for several years the town seems to have gone into winter quarters, or to have had a quarter of a Rip Van Winkle sleep. There is not a syllable of record for five years; but on the 16th day of April there seems to have been an awaking out of sleep, for on that day a new board of trustees was organized by an election of a chairman and the appointment of a clerk and treasurer, and the new clerk was ordered to settle with Andrew Wilson, former treasurer, who had been appointed to that office five years before.

Under this form of government, the municipal affairs were conducted until the town was incorporated as a city. The original charter of the city was passed by the General Assembly and approved March 10, 1849, and in due time submitted to the people for ratification or rejection. The people having approved the charter, an election under its provisions was held May 7, 1849, and the first mayor and councilmen were sworn into office and organized the city government May 14, 1849. In its history of 24 years as a city, 11 gentlemen have been honored with the mayorality, one man having served the city 6 years in that office.

Since its incorporation as a city, St. Charles has advanced much more rapidly than before. A comparison of the following figures will show its progress in the way of material prosperity: --

                                                  Assessed Value of
  Years                                           Property in City.         Taxes.
  1849   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  $  192,270            $ 1,076.35
  1850   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .     245,855              1,508.28
  1855   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .     533,159              3,767.02
  1860   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .     794,720              6,429,94
  1865   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   1,069,295             11,126.95
  1870   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   1,370,666             14,171.66
  1871   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   1,580,502             16,277.02
  1872   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   2,167,727             22,178.27

These figures need no comment and no elaboration. The tale they tell is so plain, straight-forward and practical that they must carry conviction to all who examine them, showing a degree of development that is surprising even to those who have been witnesses to its growth. They show no mushroom life, which, like Jonah's gourd, coming up in a night must wither in a day; but a steady, continous increase which gives sure promise that what it attains unto it will assuredly hold.

Since 1872 St. Charles, as it had prior to that time, has had a steady and substantial growth, both in the valuation of property and the general improvement of the place. Many handsome and valuable building have been erected and important public improvements have been made. The city is well lighted with gas, the streets are graded and macadamized, and waterwords have been constructed which supply an abundance of water.

The manufacturing interests are developing into importance, and considering the advantages of the place for manufactories, it is not improbable that St. Charles will become of the important manufacturing centers in Missouri. As a market for farm products it has already taken high rank among the principal interior places of the State. Especially is this true in regard to wheat. St. Charles county, as we have noted elsewhere, is the principal wheat producing county of Missouri. In 1880 the wheat crop of the State was 24,966,627 bushels. Of this St. Charles county produced 1,124,518 bushels, or over 115,000 bushels more than any other county. St. Louis coming next, the product of which was 908,838 bushels. St. Charles is also an important trade center for cheese, of which this county is one of the principal producers. The product of St. Charles county in 1880 was 10,100. There were but four other counties in the State the products of which exceeded this. The general business of St. Charles is very large, considering the population of the place, and the fact that it is so near to St. Louis; and it is a fact worthy of remark that there have been fewer failures here in the last ten years than any other city, not exceeding it in population, in the State.


NEWSPAPERS

While St. Charles was the temporary seat of government, a newspaper, called The Missourian, was published there by Robert McCloud, a practical printer, and step-son of Joseph Charles, Sr., one of the founders of the Missouri Republican. This was succeeded by the Clarion, which was established by Nathaniel Patton, of Howard county, and published by him until his death, which occurred in 1837. After his death the paper was continued by his widow, under the editorial management of Hon. Wm. M. Campbell. (Mrs. Patton subsequently married Wilson B. Overall.) The paper was passed successively to Messrs. Julian & Carr, as the Clarion, in 1839; to Berlin & Knapp, as the Free Press, in 1840; to Overall, Julian & Karr, as the Advertiser, in 1842; to Douglas & Millington, as the Western Star, in 1846; to Orear & Kibler, as the Chronotype, in 1849; to Orear & McDearmon, in 1852; to N. C. Orear, in 1853; to King & Emmons, as the Reveille, in 1854; to Hinman & Branham, in 1856; to Hinman, in 1858; to Edwards & Stewart, in 1865; to Emmons & Orrick, as the Cosmos and Sentinel, in 1867; and to W. W. Davenport, as the Cosmos, in 1868. This paper, therefore, running back through several suspensions, and numerous changes of name and proprietors, is, perhaps, the oldest paper in the State, except the Missouri Repubican.

The St. Charles News was orignally started at Wentzville, in this county, about seven years ago, by William S. Bryan, no of the Montgomery Standard; but having developed into something requiring greater facilities, the office was removed to St. Charles and the publication continued under its present name. It passed afterwards into the possession of Edwards & Bryan, King, Keithley & Co., F. C. King & Co., and lastly James C. Holmes [See page 221]. The office is valued at $5,000. There are several presses in the office also for job work.

The Wahre Fortschritt (True Progress) was a German newspaper, Republican in politics, but did not have a very long life. It was published by the Fortschritt Association, and devoted to politics and the general interests of the county.

The Demokrat, also a German paper, is owned by Mr. John H. Bode, who has quietly and gradually worked himself into a good business. The office is valued at $10,000. There are two job presses, one hand press, one cylinder press, run by a 3-horse power engine. The Demokrat is Democratic in politics. It has passed into his thirty-third year, and is said to be the only German newspaper in Missouri that has been published continuously for that length of time.

At the Demokrat office is also printed the Friedensbote (Messenger of Peace), the denominational paper of the German Evangelical Synod. It is now in its twenty-third volume. It was first published in Femme Osage township, in this county, whence the office of publication was removed to St. Louis, and afterwards to St. Charles, where it has been issued for several years. It has a circulation of 8,000 copies and constantly on the increase.

Thus there are four newspapers printed in St. Charles, representing the various phases of political opinion, with one whose sphere is entirely beyond the pale of politics.

They all seem to be prospering, and as county papers working together, when need be, for the common weal, we hope they may grow with the growth, and strengthen with the strength of the city and county.

The circulation of the St. Charles newspapers is over 11,000 copies.


SCHOOLS

From our view of the churches it is natural to expect that a fair showing would be made in the line of schools. People who put their hands in their pockets to build churches for themselves are very apt to prepare for the intellectual and moral culture of their children.

In 1835 Mrs. Catherine Collier and her son, George Collier, founded the St. Charles College, the latter purchasing the grounds and erecting the necessary building at a cost of $10,000, and the former setting apart $5,000 for an endowment fund. In 1836 the College was opened under the presidency of Rev. John H. Fielding, he being assisted in the conduct of the college by three professors, Mr. Collier for many years paying the president's salary out of his own means. In 1838, the college having become incorporated, Mr. Collier conveyed the property to the corporation.

By a subsequent act of the Legislature the institution was in a measure placed under the control of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In 1852 Mr. Collier died, leaving a provision in his will that whenever the church should deposit with the county court of St. Chrles county $10,000 in the bonds of any State that had never repudiated it public debt, nor failed in the prompt payment of the interest on its public debt, for the use and benefit of the college, then his executors were to deposit a similar amount of similar bonds for the same use and benefit. The provisions of Mr. Collier's will were complied with, and the deposit of $20,000 in Missouri State bonds made with the St. Charles county court; and the court holds the bonds in trust now, and the interest arising from them is applied for the benefit of the college. By some blunder the $5,000 donated as an endowment by Mrs. Catherine Collier were lost, but were promptly restored by her son, George Collier, who placed the same amount in the hands of Hon. Trusten Polk for the like benefit os the original amount.

Under this organization and with these resources the college was kept in active and successful operation, under the presidency of Fielding, Ebbert, Anderson and others, until 1861. During the war, for the most part, its doors as a college were closed, the building being used for other purposes, until, by act of the Legislature, it passed to the control of other parties. The college, with all its privileges, was afterwards restored, by a decree of the Supreme Court, to its former owners, who had maintained the institution as a college. Though St. Charles College has never been one of the great ones of the earth, it has been eminently useful. The writer remembers with pleasure the days he spent within its walls, in preparation for the battle of life; and can recall the names of many of the sons of St. Charles College now filling honorable positions in various departments of human effort and usefulness.


LINDENWOOD COLLEGE

[Contributed].

It is said that in 1829 Maj. Geo. S. Sibley, connected with the army service, was bondsman for a friend to the amount of $20,000. The friend failing, the Major had to meet the obligation. The only piece of property that could be secured from the friend was 120 acres adjoining St. Charles.

This the Major and his wife came to see, and as they stood upon the brow of the hill overlooking the town and a widespread and beautiful landscape, they resolved that upon this spot they would lay the foundation of a school for young ladies. Accordingly, the following year, a log cabin was erected and the school opened with promises of speedy enlargement.

They called it "Lindenwood," from its beautiful grove of large linden trees. The land rises with a gentle ascent from the rive till it reaches the college, which crowns the summit, the altitude being about 150 feet above the Missouri river.

Its ample grounds, groves and gardens afford abundant space for exercise and recreation, and the experience of more than 50 years fully attest its heathfulness.

Soon after its opening the Lord brought its founders to the feet of Jesus, and henceforth their ambition was to honor Him in establishing a Christian college; but it was not until 1853 that their plans assumed definite shape.

In the meantime the school, under their wise management, had grown in numbers and influence. The log cabin had been added to from year to year until the building could accommodate about 50 pupils. Many young ladies were educated under the roof of this Christian home and sent out to fill honorable positions in society.

Maj. Sibley and his wife found sympathizers and helpers in Judge and Mrs. S. S. Watson, who nobly and generously came forward to aid in laying the foundation of a permanent institution.

In 1853 (January 5th), Messrs Sibley and Watson, in a formal letter, tendered to the Presbytery of St. Louis valuable gifts of land and money. The former offered the whole of his Lindenwood estate, comprising 120 acres, and valued at not less than $30,000. The last named gentleman offered to give 160 acres of land and $1,000, equal to $5,000, provided the Presbytery of St. Louis would in six months raise $20,000 for the erection of suitable buildings. Subsequently, Judge Watson gave $5,000 unconditionally. A charter was obtained in February, 1853, by which the control of the college was placed in the hands of 15 directors, appointed by the Presbytery of St. Louis.

On the 22d day of May, 1856, a contract was made for a new and commodious building, and on the 4th of July the corner-stone was laid with imposing ceremonies. The building was completed in July, 1857, being three stories high, and 73 by 48 feet.

Rev. A. V. C. Schenk was elected president, and the college opened with flattering prospects on September 6, 1857. Mr. Schenk served with acceptance until his resignation in June, 1862.

Rev. Thomas P. Barbour was elected president July 26, 1862, and served until December, 1864.

Mr. French Strother served as president from July, 1866, to 1869.

During these years and until the reorganization in 1870, the college greatly suffered from the contentions incident to the Civil War.

In 1870, the property having been decided by the Supreme Court as belonging to the General Assembly of the North, it was placed under the control of the Synod of Missouri.

Rev. J. H. Dixon, D. D., was elected president, and ample means secured for refitting and equippin the building. During his presidency, ending July, 1876, the college attained a high degree of prosperity.

During the following years (1876-1880) Miss Mary E. Jewell presided over the college, aided by an able corps of teachers.

In June, 1880, Rev. Robert Irwin, D. D., of St. Louis, was elected president, and entered with earnestness upon the work of enlarging and reorganizing the college. It was found at the beginning of the year that the accommodations were too limited for the many applicants who sought admission, and efforts were at once commenced for the erection of an additional building. The friends of the College in St. Louis generously came to the help of the enterprise, so that in September, 1881, a commodious wing, costing about $14,000, was fully completed and occupied. The capacity has been taxed to the utmost, and additional buildings are found a pressing need. The purpose of the founders have been carefully regarded, and the college maintained as a Christian institution, in which the Word of God has been regarded as the essential element in the development of character.

Many of the graduates of the college are filling important positions as missionaries and teachers, not only in this country, but in Persia, India and Japan.

The course of study is complete and thorough -- especially adapted to the broad and liberal education of women.

It is the purpose of its friends to make the college worthy of the patronage of parents who seek for their daughters a refined, womanly education.

Strother Female Institute was under the supervision of Mr. and Mrs. F. Strother, the former presiding over the literary department, and the latter over the musical department. They conducted Lindenwood Female College for four years, and upon relinguishing control of that institution, opened this Institute in the city, where the ordinary branches now usual in female schools of high grade were taught. They are now in Monroe county, near Paris.

Lindenwood Female College and the Convent of the Sacred Heart are female schools -- the others are either boys' schools or mixed.

Miss MOwatt has for many years past conducted a private school, which is still in operation.

The German Methodist Church has a school, which is held in their old church, and is intended for the tuition of the children of that congregation.

The same remark also applies to the German Evangelical Church.

The Lutheran Church has under its control five schools altogether, two of them being in the city. This congregation sometime ago erected a large and well-arranged school-house, at a very considerable expense.

The enterprise evinced by this church is commendable, and shows the deep interest its members feel in the education of their children. Each of the Catholic churches has a large and flourishing school under its supervision. That one in connection with the original Catholic Church of St. Charles, known as the Convent of the Sacred Heart, has been in operation for many years, and has achieved and still maintains among its patrons a high reputation as a female school.

Besides the private and parochial schools, which afford a means of education to those who desire and can afford to send their children to them, there are two public schools with give free tuition to all children between the ages of 5 and 21 years, living within the bounds of the city, who wish to attend. The public school has fully kept up with the growth of the city. Formerly a little school-house, which was at one time used as the Episcopal Church, and later occupied by Mr. Goebel for photographing purposes, sufficed for all the wants of those attending the public schools. It soon became too small, and the directors erected a larger and more comfortable building, with larger rooms and more of them. This soon became filled too overflowing and to accommodate the scholars residing in distant parts of the city, another building was erected and occupied. Both are constantly filled.

We can confidently point to the number and character of these churches and schools as an index of the character of the citizens, present and prospective.


FRANCIS DUQUETTE

There lived many years ago, in St. Charles, a Canadian Frenchman, named Francis Duquette, who occupied a prominent and influential position in that town during the close of the last and the beginning of the present century. It was he who transferred the old round fort into a wind-mill, and thereby converted an establishment of war into one of the most useful implements of peace. He was also the father of the Catholic Church in St. Charles, for although he was not a priest, and did not organize the church, yet he built it up from a small beginning and sustained and cultivated it for many years; and his memory is held in affectionate regard by the Catholics of St. Charles.

Francis Duquette was born in Quebec, Canada, in 1774. When quite a young man he came West, and landed first at Ste. Genevieve, then the principal town west of the Mississippi river.

While there he had the funeral rites of the Catholic Church performed over the remains of a deceased friend, and the mystery connected therewith caused universal comment and has never yet been solved. Twelve years before a young Canadian made his appearance in Ste. Genevieve and engaged in the then common occupation of hunting. No one knew him, and he took no pains to enlighten the citizens in regard to himself. In fact his presence created very little comment in the community, for it was no unusual thing for strange hunters to make their appearance there, remain a short time, and disappear as mysteriously as they came. He gave his name as Pierre Gladu, and state that he was from Canada. One day he went out to hunt and was killed by some Indians in a little prairie near the town. His remains were subsequently found and buried where he had fallen, and the incident soon ceased to be a subject of comment among the citizens of the town.

Twelve years afterward another young Canadian made his appearance in Ste. Genevieve, gave his name as Francis Duquette, and immediately sought out the lone grave on the little prairie. He then caused the remains to be disinterred, and buried in the graveyard of the town with all the solemnities and ceremonies of the Catholic Church. Curiosity attracted numerous visitors, and a large procession marched from the grave to the cemetery, Duquette walking near the coffin, bareheaded, with a lighted taper in his hand. After the reinterment he caused to be placed at the head of the grave a large cross bearing the name of the deceased. He then disappeared from the country, leaving his conduct an unexplained mystery, which the inhabitants could never solve.

Duquette proceeded to St. Charles, where he purchased property and located. For a number of years he carried on business as a trader, dealing in furs, peltries, goods, etc. He also invested largely in lands, and thereby became involved in his mercantile business. His goods had been purchased in Canada, and his creditors there sent an agento to Missouri who levied on most of his property and sold it under execution. He saved enough, however, to leave him in comfortable circumstances.

He was married in 1736 of Miss Mary Louisa Bauvis, of Ste. Genevieve, but they had no children.

Mr. Duquette's house stood on the same square where the stone church was afterward erected, and the members of his church used to gather there during the Lenton season for devotional services. He planted some fruit trees near his house soon after his arrival in St. Charles, and two of these were bearing not more than three years since, and they may still for aught we know.

Duquette died February 2, 1816, and was buried in the old cemetery on Jackson and Second streets. His remains were afterward taken up and removed to the Catholic graveyard, where the church of St. Charles Borromeo now stands, and there they rested for many years. But eventually the growth of the city required the removal of the cemetery, and about 25 years ago a new one was established beyond the limits of the corporation. Duquette's remains were again disinterred and deposited in the new cemetery where a massive, old-fashioned monument marks his grave. It was erected over 60 years ago, and the sculptured work upon it is partially obliterated by the ravages of time and its frequent removals.

Mrs. Duquette died April 2, 1841. Previous to, and at the time of her decease, she lived in the house now occupied by Mrs. Walton, on Clay street. She was highly respected by the citizens of the town and vicinity, and the funeral procession that followed her remains to the grave was the largest that had ever been seen in St. Charles at that time. The bells of the various churches, irrespective of creed, were tolled in honor of the beloved dead as the hearse bore her remains to their last resting place.

In connection with the lives of these two pioneers of the Catholic religion of St. Charles, it will be appropriate to present the histories of the Academy of the Sacred Heart and Church of St. Charles Borromeo, which were prepared expressly for this work,2 the first by the secretary of the academy, and the second by Rev. John Roes, pastor of the church. These histories will be more interesting because the two institutions to which they relate date back to the very infancy of the town in which they are situated, and no public history of them has ever been published before.


ACADEMY OF THE SACRED HEART

This is the first foundation made by the religious of the Society of the Sacred Heart of Jeasus in America. On the Feast of the Sacred Heart, in the year 1818, after a perilous voyage of 100 days, Madame Duchesne, one of the first companions of the Venerated Mother Madeline Sophie Barrat, founder of the society, landed in New Orleans. For long years Madame Duchesne burned with the desire of devoting her life for the salvation of the Indians. Now she had the realization of all her hopes; a wide field lay opened before her, but one thickly strewn with difficulties. A severe illness compelled her to prolong her stay in New Orleans, yet her ardent soul sighed to begin the work. Scarcely convalescent, she proceeded with her co-laborers, Madames Eugenie Ande, Octavie Berthold and to co-adjuting sisters, Catharine and Margaret, and arrived at St. Louis the same year. While remaining in this city Madame Duchesne received the approbation of the Right Reverend Bishop Dubourg, whose pastoral cares extended over the two Louisianas, to lay the foundation. The present site at St. Charles was selected as the most desirable spont. The cure of the village, the celebrated and Rev. Gabriel Richard, who was also elected member of Congress, installed the little colony in their humble dwelling, a log hut containing two rooms; it stood in the midst of two acres of barren soil. Here and there might be seen the cabin of the Sioiux. By an authentic act, the bishop renewed his approbation, and the sovereign pontiff blessed from afar the new mission of the Sacred Heart. Too soon their little resources failed them, and extreme poverty menaced them on all sides. Incapable of supporting so rude a trial, sufficient to cause the stoutest heart to recoil, the little colony returned to St. Louis, in September, 1819; but their destined home was St. Ferdinand, Florissant. On Christmas eve they took possession of their new residence, and at midnight they had the happiness of assisting at mass, with the five pupils who had followed them from St. Charles.

At St. Ferdinand the prospects were very favorable, and brightened each year. Auxiliaries were received from the mother house in France; new colonists were sent out, and houses established in St. Louis, Grand Chouteau, and St. Michael. Madame Duchesne governed all in quality of provincial, but made St. Louis her home.

Since the departure from St. Charles all hopes were not extinguished in renewing their efforts to plant the standard of the Sacred Heart in that city. Encouraged by their success at St. Ferdinand, Madame Duchesne once more looked toward St. Charles to recommence the foundation. So on the morning of October 10, 1828, the little caravn consisting of Madame Duchesne, Octavie, Lucille and O'Connor, set out from St. Ferdinand. The Right Reverend Bishop Rosatti, nine Jesuit Fathers, and three secular priests accompanied them. His lordship was mounted on a humble courser, while the fathers walked at his side; the ladies occupied a carriage, and, consequently, arrived sooner. Their presence was announced, and the inhabitants, who were now increased by one-half, testified their joy on the return of the religions. They were conducted to their house, which consisted of boards; underneath was a cellar, the receptacle for all the animals of the village; the odor arising from this assemblage of sheep, pigs and rats was almost intolerable, but in a short time they were freed from these interlopers. A chapel adjoining the house was hastily constructed, and here nine masses were celebrated in one day.

On the 14th Madames Lucille and O'Connor were left the sole occupants. Before departing for St. Ferdinand, Madame Duchesne installed Madame Lucille as Superior of the household, assisted by Madame O'Connor. They immediately went to work to fulfill the functions of carpenters, painters, masons, etc., and by dint of industry in 15 days the house was beyond recognition.

The 29th of October the classes of the day school were opened, composed of five pupils; in November there were 12; in December, 16, and in a few months more the number amounted to 50. During the first six years 120 pupils received instructions, and many of them became excellent mothers of families.

In March of 1829, re-enforcements arrived; among them was Sister Mary Layton, the first American novice. In 1832 Sister Ann Egarty, and in 1833 Madame Guillot were sent to give them assistance. Amid this seeming prosperity privations were gathering, and some pecuniary want was on the point of forcing them to abandon once more the work; but a Divine Providence, who never forsakes those who place their confidence in Him, rescued them in this painful dilemma; and in 1838 they were enabled to begin and complete the new building contiguous to the church belonging to the Jesuit Fathers. Madame Lucille retained her office until 1840. About this time Bishop Rosatti demanded a colony of the religious of the Sacred Heart for Sugar Creek, which was peopled by the Pottawatomies. Obedience called Madame Lucille to take charge of the new mission. Here she endeared herself to the hearts of the Indians by her unwearied cares, making herself their common mother. It was the ardent desire of this devoted soul to live and die among her savage children. St. Mary's also witnessed her labors and there she passed the remainder of her days accomplishing the wish of her heart. It was only in January of 1875 that this admirable religious went to receive her reward, at the advanced age of 81 years.

For some years previous to the foundation at Sugar Creek, Madame Duchesne had been released from the burden of Superiority; her declining years requiring rest, she withdrew into her solitude at St. Charles, where she continued her prayers and sufferings for her dear Indians.

In 1840 Madame Regis Hamilton, now assistant superior in Chicago, replaced Madame Lucille; she was succeeded in 1844 by Madame St. Cyr, who governed seven years. During this time a purchase was made from Rev. Father Verhægen, pastor of the church, and the grounds were considerably enlarged.

In 1851 Madame Hamilton resumed the charge for the space of one year. Her presence was a solace to the Worthy Mother Duchesne, whom Providence had preserved until this time; but now her days were numbered, and soon her holy soul was to wing its flight toward its eternal home. Until her last she submissively obeyed the most trivial order with child-like simplicity and resignation. It was at 10 o'clock on the morning of the 18th of November, 1852, that this venerated Mother, surrounded by her sorrowing family, passed from a sweet slumber to the presence of the Master, whom she had so long and so generously served. She was aged 84 years, 34 of which were passed in the missions of America.

Madame Aloysia Jacquet relieved Madame Hamilton for a few months. She was then recalled to superintend the Community at St. Louis. In 1853 Madame Boullion was appointed superior, but in December of the same year she was sent to the Southern province, and Madame Aloysia returned to her former charge.

In 1854 the increase of the pupils was so rapid that extensive alterations were obliged to be made in the building. The new addition consisted of a large and commodious study hall, 45x35 feet, a class room, a refectory and play room beneath, with a dormitory and an infirmary above, and a spacious upper division. In 1855 the parish school was built upon the convent grounds. Here yearly about 50 or 60 children, mostly of the poorer class, are instructed in their religion and in the principles of education fitted to their station.

Madame Aloysia had made a vow to erect a shrine in honor of "Our Lady of the Pillar," if a favor she so earnestly sought for would be granted her. Heaven being propitious to her request, the chapel was constructed and the statue placed upon a pedestal over the altar. The Rev. Father De Smet blessed the first stone. This little sanctuary, now hallowed by the souvenirs connected with it, stands in the front yard, facing the right of the convent. Immediately after the completion of the work the precious remains of the beloved founder of the society in America were transferred from their former resting place and deposited in the vault. The base of the altar bears this inscription: "Pray for the Conversion of the Indians."

In 1856 Madame Tucker directed the Community, but in 1558 she was summed to St. Louis to receive again the charge of superiority. Since then she has governed some of the houses of the East. In 1870 she was named Superior Vicar of the Western Province, which comprised the houses of St. Charles, St. Louis, St. Joseph, Chicago, St. Mary's Mission and Maryville.

In 1858 Madame Jouve and Ludovica Boudreaux successively governed, and in 1860 Madame Miller was appointed superior. She endeared herself, like her predecessors, to all hearts by her devotedness to her Community.

In 1865 Madame Wall attached herself, with untiring zeal, to the new charge which was placed upon her; but in 1868 obedience called her to St. Joseph.

Then Madame Bourke assumed the care of government; she held her office five years. At the expiration of this time she was removed to Chicago, to continue her labors as superior.

In the spring of 1870 the church of the Jesuits, adjacent ot the convent, was torn down, and the land on which it was built was purchased from the Fathers; it now forms part of the garden which surrounds the house.

In September of 1873 Madame Niederkown, the present superior, was nominated. Since that period many improvements have been made on the convent and its surroundings. But in November, 1875, a fire, originated by a spark from the flue, broke out in the upper story of the middle building, and threatened destruction to the entire place. Evidently the flames had been playing for some hours between the roof and the timbers before the inmates were aware of their danger, but as soon as the alarm was made public, the kind-hearted citizens of St. Charles flocked to their assistance. To their indefatigable efforts and the interposition of a Divine Providence may be attributed the saving of the house, at a moment when all hopes were renounced. Unable to make the necessary repairs during the winter season, the religious waited for the coming spring; but a temporary roof prevented their being exposed to the inclemency of the weather. In February, 1876, the fearful tornado which almost devastated the city, augmented the damages caused by the fire. Nearly every pane of glass on the east side of the house was shattered into fragments; the fences and grape arbors were thrown down, trees uprooted and transported with the wind, and immense rocks which supported the lower wall facing the street were hurled from their places -- thus adding an expense of several hundred dollars.

In March the carpenters began their work, and notwithstanding the many interruptions, the results of the heavy rain and snow storms, in a few weeks the burnt-out attic was transformed into large and elegant apartments.


CHURCH OF ST. CHARLES BORROMEO

The first church in the town of St. Charles was built by the Roman Catholics, the year and day not known by the people now living. Pioner French priests visited these Western wilds at a very early day. The church was an humble log house, with its timbers standing upright, which consequently soon rotted down. Gov. Blanchette replaced it with a neat frame building on Second, near Jackson street, on the north-western part of block 28. This must have been before 1793, as Gov. Blanchette is reported to have died that year, as we gather from tradition, and to have been interred along the walls of the church. The records kept at the church of St. Charles Borromeo date from 1792, and indicate sufficiently the approximate date of the erection of the latter building. The first baptism recorded is that of Peter Beland, on the 21st of July, 1792; it was administered by Rev. Peter Joseph Didier, a Benedictine of the Congregation of St. Maus, of the Royal Abbey of St. Dennis, at Paris, then the acting, although not resident pastor. Father Didier was succeeded in 1798 by Rev. Father L. Lusson, a Recollect Priest. Father Lusson's name disappears from the records after October, 1804, and after that time several priests, some of whom were Trappists, ministered to the spiritual wants of the congregation; some for a longer, some for a short period of time. These came either from St. Louis or Portage, where priests resided at a much earlier date than at St. Charles. One of these, long remembered, was the Rev. Joseph Mary Dunand, a Trappist, who acted as pastor at St. Charles from the year 1809 to the year 1815. In 1814 Bishop Flaget, of Louisville, is reported to have visited St. Charles while Father Dunand was pastor.

In 1823 the Jesuits settled in the Florissant valley, on what is now generally known as the Priest's Farm. Solicited by Bishop Dubourg, they undertook the care of the missionary stations across the Missouri in St. Charles county, but had for some time no permanent residence in any of them. The first Jesuits who visited St. Charles were Father Van Quickenborn, the Superior of the Missions, and Father Timmermans.

In 1827 Father Van Quickenborn bought a new frame building on Main street, near Lewis, and the fathers took up their residence there. In 1827, also, they began the building of the stone church, corner of Second and Decatur. Completed in the fall of 1827, by the indomitable energy of the pastors, and the corresponding courage of the parishioners, it was solemnly consecrated by Bishop Rosatti on the 12th of October. On that grand occasion, Father Van Quickenborn acted as assistant priest, Fathers DeTheux and Dusosey as deacons of honors, and Fathers Smedts and DeSmet as deacon and sub-deacon. Gladly would we give here a short sketch of the fathers who in turn acted as superiors of the St. Charles Residence and as pastors of the congregation, but this would exceed the limits of the intended sketch, and would be difficult to do, for one who has not the necessary dates at command; thus, however, we must say that they were all men who knew how to make generous sacrifices for the interest of religion and education; nay, even for the temporal welfare of St. Charles. They were all men of zeal and of indomitable energy, most of them, too, were men of talent and superior education.

Before passing on there is one name, however, which is so familiar still to all people of St. Charles that we cannot pass it over in silence; it may seem invidious, but we cannot withstand giving it with a brief sketch of his life. We mean the Rev. P. J. Verhægen, whose name has left a deep impression on the Protestants as well as on the Catholics:

Born in Belguim on the 21st of June, 1800, he came to Missouri in 1821, as one of the little band of Jesuit missionaries whom Bishop Dubourg had succeeded in drawing to his vast diocese, which stood so sadly in need of clergymen to break the word of life to them. Before his ordination he had already visitied St. Charles to instruct the people and to gather them together on Sunday. Ordained in 1826, he became the regular pastor and superior, and remained until August, 1828. Incredibly hard and laborious was his position, especially during the building of the stone church, at which he worked almost as a day laborer. In 1828 he was succeeded by Father J. B. Smedts as pastor and superior of St. Charles, and Father Felix Verreydt as missionary to the surrounding country.

Father Verhægen, transferred to the St. Louis University, acted there as its president, later as superior to the missions, and later again as vicar general and administrator of the diocese of St. Louis. Relieved fo these arduous duties he returned to St. Charles in 1843, to leave it again in 1844 to become Provincial of the Jesuits in Maryland. Having there completed his term of office he returned to the West and became the first President of the College of St. Joseph at Bardstown, which the Bishop of Louisville confided to the Society in 1848. In 1851 he returned once more to St. Charles to leave it only for one year, that is the year 1857-58, which he spent at the St. Louis University to teach theology to the young scholastics, and to give the Sunday evening lectures at St. Xavier's Church; returning to St. Charles, which was the place of his choice, he acted as superior of the residence, and as first pastor until his death, and in that double capacity, he endeared himself more and more with the people of the city. In 1808 he health began visibly to give way, and after a few days of serious illness he died at the pastoral residence on Third street, on the 21st of July, regretted by all; on the 28th his mortal remains were followed to their last resting place at the Novitiate near Florissant, by many of his sorrowing spiritual children.

Father Verhægen was a man of superior mind, of profound knowledge and of genial manners; he was a friend of all who knew him, ever cheerful, and with a kind word for all who came near him. During his long career of usefulness in the high positions he so successfully filled as rector of colleges, as superior of the missions, as provincial of order and as administrator of the diocese of St. Louis he gained what he did not seek, a great name, and an extensive popularity, and promoted what was the sole object of his ambition, the good of religion and education and the greater glory of God.

On the 29th of July, 1868, he was succeeded by the Rev. J. Roes as superior of the residence and as first pastor, who holds the same office still.

A month after his appointment it was found necessary, on account of the constantly increasing number of the parishioners, to secure as soon as possible, a larger church edifice, and on the last Sunday of August, a spirited meeting of the congregation was held in the old school-house on Third street, now known as the Franklin School, at which it was determined to begin at once the new church. Permission was obtained from his grace Archbishop Kenrick and from the provincial of the Society, and soon several thousand dollars was subscribed; the foundations were begun in October, the corner stone however was only laid on the 9th of May, 1869, by his grace the Archbishop, in the midst of an immense concourse of people who had flocked together from St. Louis and from the neighborhood; they were addressed by Rev. Father Tschieder, of St. Joseph's, in St. Louis, their former pastor, in German, and Rev. Father O'Reilly, now, as then, pastor fo the Immaculate Conception, St. Louis, in English. After four years of perserving sacrifices, on the part of the people, and of struggle and toil on the part of the pastors, the splendid edifice was completed. In the beginning of October, 1872, and on the 13th of that month it was solemnly consecrated by Rt. Rev. P. J. Ryan, Coadjutor Bishop of St. Louis, assisted by a great number of clergymen from St. Louis and St. Charles counties. The crowd assisting at the beautiful and grand ceremony of consecration was very large; it was addressed by Rev. J. DeBleick, S.J., of the St. Louis University, in English, and by Rev. P. J. Tschieder of St. Joseph's, in German; both sermons were masterly pieces. The consecration was followed by a solemn high mass; Father Van Assche, of Florissant, one of the original founders of the Missouri Province, was the celebrant, and was assisted by Father J. Van Mierlo and Van Leert as deacon and sub-deacon. On the 29th of March, 1873, the church was permanently opened for divine service by a very successful mission preached by Rev. J. Coghlan, S.J., from St. Mary's, Kas., assisted by Rev. Kuhlman, S.J., from the Novitiate. The present pastors are Father J. Roes assisted by Father W. B. V. Heyden and H. Van Mierlo.

The financial crash of 1872 put the congregation to great trouble and sacrifice; but it is to be hoped this will soon end, and with the available property sold on even reasonably low figures, the congregation will find an end to their troubles and will be able to boast of their fine church and school and pastoral residence, and leave a glorious legacy to their children.2

ST. CHARLES BRIDGE.

This magnificent structure was built under the superintendence of C. Shaler Smith, chief engineer, and president of the Baltimore Bridge Company. It is the longest iron bridge in the country, consisting of three "through spans" on the Fink plan, four "Fink suspension" spans, and the iron viaduct approaches, making a total length of iron bridge, 6,535 feet. The seven river spans vary in length from 305 to 321 feet. There were eight river foundations -- most of them presenting new and extraordinary difficulties in construction -- varying from 54 to 76 feet in depth, the caissons for which had to be carried down through alternate strat of quicksand, large boulders, and tangled masses of drift logs. Add to these submarine difficulties the facts that at the bridge site the Missouri river rises and falls 40 feet; that its flood speed is 9½ miles per hour; and that drift islands drawing 20 feet of water, and which are more than 300 feet in diameter, are not frequently carried past in the heavier freshets, and an adequate idea may be formed of the character of the work.

The Fink deck spans are proportioned to carry 2,250 pounds per foot, with the following stresses, per pound per inch, on the various parts; cast-iron chord, 12,000; wrought-iron chain, 12,000; quarter chain, 11,000; eighth and sixteenth chains, 10,000; posts (Phœnix column), 6,500; laterals (of these there is a double system), 8,000.

The trellis spans are completely pin-jointed throughout, having both the rocker and roller action at the feet of end posts, and all the posts and ties are pin-jointed, in the upper chord as well as lower. There are no adjustments in the web or chord system. All the points are exact as to length. The posts, which are key-stone columns, have wrought-iron heads and feet, webbed out so as to distribute the weight over two and one half feet in length of the pins on which they rest.

The truss itself is a "double triangular girder," with inclined end posts, and no connection between the systems. The counter-brace action is secured by stiffening the middle ties and giving the braces a tensile connection. The floor-beams are composed of 12-inch channel iron, sandwiched with and forming part fo the lower chord -- the cross-ties being laid directly on these, without the interposition of a stringer. These girders are proportioned in the same manner as in the Fink, but to a working load of 2,400 pounds per foot. The weight of each Fink span is 680,000 pounds, of each trellis span, 788,000 pounds.

The cast-iron of the bridge has been replaced by wrought-iron.

The cost of the entire structure is understood to have been about $1,750,000, and stands as a monument of engineering skill, and we hope will so stand for ages to come.

It was formally opened for regular business July 4, 1871, since which time it has been in constant use.


THE BRIDGE DISASTER

On Saturday evening, November 8, 1879, at about half past eight o'clock, a span of the St. Charles bridge gave way, and precipitated a freight train, consisting of 17 cars of live stock and a caboose, into the river. At the time of the accident there were in the caboose and on the train the following persons who went down with the wreck: Josiah Wearin, Jordan W. Hyde, Fred. Davis, John Somers (all of whom were from Malvern, Mills county, Iowa), Joseph Bernhart, of Moberly, and Charles Irving, of Mount Vernon, O. (the latter two brakemen). Wearin, Hyde and Bernhart were found dead. Irving died about noon on Sunday following, and Somers died the next morning -- on Monday. J. M. Strahan, who was from Malvern, was in the caboose, but hearing the crack of the bridge, stepped off the train. Fred. Davis went down with the wreck, but barely escaped with his life, being the only person who was not fatally injured.


THE SECOND BRIDGE DISASTER

On Thursday, December 8, 1881, at half past five o'clock in the afternoon, the second bridge disaster occurred at St. Charles. The St. Charles News published two days after the event, said: --

About half past five o'clock, December 8, a heavy freight train, consisting of a large and powerful locomotive and 31 loaded cars, left the St. Charles depot and moved slowly upon the long and slender looking bridge that spans the Missouri river at this place. Many trains and heavy ones, too, have crossed the St. Charles bridge, but it was reserved for this one to be the second one to go down. The locomotive drawing its heavy burden had passed safely over the western and center spans and was, perhaps, two-thirds the way upon the eastern span, when the structure gave way, and fell with a crash and splash into the river below, carrying with it to destruction the entire train. The engineer, fireman and brakeman went down with the wreck. The former was killed or drowned, and the two latter sustained injuries. In the caboose were the conductor and two stockmen, while on the next car was the rear brakeman. All these managed to get off in safety before the fearful plunge was made. John Kirby, the engineer was killed. The crew of the train consisted of John Kirby, engineer; Chamberlin, fireman; A. Durfield, conductor, and Charles Oblinger and G. M. Metcalfe, brakemen.

After the first accident, the bridge was so quickly repaired that trains were crossing in December -- the first one on the 12th of that month at 11 minutes after 12 o'clock p.m., one month and four days after the disaster.


CAR FACTORY

On the 30th of November, 1872, the first meeting was held for the purpose of taking steps to organize a Citizens' Association for the city and county of St. Charles. Other meetings followed, and, on the 21st of December, the organization was perfected and commenced work.

At a meeting of the Board of Managers, held on January 11, 1873, the secretary was ordered to give notice in the city papers that the regular meeting of the Association would be held on the evening of the 18th; and that after the business of the Association should be completed, a mass meeting of the citizens would be held, to consider the matter of establishing a car factory at this place.

The notice was given and the meeting held, at which a committee was appointed to solicit subscriptions. Meetings were held from time to time, and subscriptions reported, that established the enterprise as a fixed fact.

At a meeting held February 8, 1873, a committee was appointed to wait upon the city council, and ask the passage of an ordinance releasing the proposed factory from the municipal taxation for a series of years. This committee performed the duty assigned them, and the city authorities agreed to release the proposed car works from city taxes for 35 years.

At a meeting held February 13, 1873, progress was reported, and additional subscription committees appointed; and the meeting adjourned to meet February 22d, for the election of directors.

The meeting was held February 22, pursuant to adjournment. The number of directors was fixed at 13. By resolution, it was ordered that the following principles be engrafted in the constitution of the company: 1. No officer of the company except president and vice-president shall belong to the directory.   2. The salary of an officer not to be increased during the term for which he was appointed, and   3. The funds of the company to be deposited equally in the three St. Charles banks.

On that evening, and the following Monday, the election was held, resulting in the choice of 13 gentlemen in whose hands the stockholders and the community could safely rest the successs of the enterprie.

The board organized February 26, and measures were taken to commence operations at once. The works are now in successful operation.


WOOLEN MILLS

The first woolen mill in St. Charles was built by Messrs. Gibbs & Broadwater, the former named having followed the business in Virginia. The mill was gradually enlarged, and passed into the hands of Gibbs & Cunningham, Paule & Walton, Paule, Walton & Co., and Robert A. Walton. During the war, when large supplies of woolen goods was needed for military use, the factory had a run of prosperity; but upon Mr. Walton's death it became idle, and so remained until recently, when it was purchased by the St. Charles Woolen Mills Company, and again put in operation.

Some years after the Walton factory was started, Messrs. Gibbs and Ross erected a brick factory in another part of the city. This was blown down by a severe storm, which did a great deal of damage in city and county. A new building arose on the site of the old one, much larger and more substantial, and filled with better machinery. This factory was operated some years by Gibbs & Ross, and afterwards by Gibbs, Field & Ross, until some time ago, when it passed to the Missouri Woolen Mills Company, the stock of which is owned principally in St. Louis.

The value of these two establishments, including grounds, buildings, engines and machinery, is probably $75,000, and the capital employed probably as much more. When in full operation, they give employment to about 75 hands. It is rumored that the last named mills will soon be set in motion again, with renewed vigor and with an increased force of operatives. It is to be hoped the rumor is true.


GAS COMPANY

The St. Charles Gas and Coal Company was organized February 20, 1871, by Sylvester Watts, Charlie Thaw, Theodore Bruere, James H. Britton and John C. Orrick, who each subscrbed 200 shares, the entire capital being $10,000, divided into 1,000 shares of $100 each.

About one-fourth of the capital is now held by others. The actual capital is $55,000, which has been consumed in paying for grounds, works, pipes, etc.

The first gas was burned September 9, 1871, and the first dividend ($2.50 per share) was declared October 15, 1872.

During the year 1872 there were consumed 1,281,200 feet of gas, and the gross receipts of the company from gas alone were $6,668. Tar and coke constitute another source. The company expects to consume 10,000 bushels of coal for the manufacture of gas, and 3,000 bushels for firing, being about double last year's consumption. The works are operated by one superintendent and two firemen, and there are 135 private consumers and 59 street lamps.

The present company, by grant from the city authorities, has exclusive privileges in the gas line, their rights and duties being prescribed with particularity, so that the public interests may not suffer.


PORK HOUSES

While all merchants in St. Charles have from time to time, as occasion offered, turned an honest penny in the purchase and sale of hogs, none of them have given this branch of industry that attention bestowed on it by Henry B. Denker, Esq. He has built up a trade and a business in this line that proves him to be a live business man, and he is entitled to the thanks of the community for the energy and pluck he has displayed.

He commenced in a small way in 1867, in which year he slaughtered about 400 hogs, putting into his business about $6,000. In each of the two following years he slaughtered about 500 hogs, and put into the business about $8,000. In 1870 he packed 800 hogs, and put into the business about $12,000; in 1871, 1,500 hogs and $16,000; and in 1872 his business increased to such an extent that he very much enlarged his pork house and its appurtenances. In this last named year he slaughtered 4,000 hogs, and had a capital of $32,000 employed.

His packing establishment is 140x35 altogether, being of brick for about 60 feet, and the balance frame. It consists of slaughter-house and smoke-house, with a room for rendering lard, which is done by steam.

The value of the house with it furniture and various appointments is about $8,000.


UNION FIRE COMPANY

For nearly a century St. Charles has existed as village, town and city without any means of extinguishing a fire, and fortunately for all that time without a serious occasion for it. It has been singularly exempt from the visits of the fire fiend. Long may it be so!

As better houses were built, and more money was invested in that kind of property, and property of all kinds increased in value, and stocks of goods of various sorts, and of great value, appeared on the streets, the want of some means of extinguishing fire, better than the rude one of the water bucket, began to be felt. This feeling found expression in the organization of the above named company, the first and only one of the kind they have ever had. It was organized February 2, 1861, by the enrollment of 31 active, and 2 honorary members and the election of a full set of officers.

The first engine owned by the company was an old, cast-off affair, made by Rogers, of Baltimore, and full of days and years of service in the St. Louis Fire Department. It cost this company $250, and did service, when required, for about 10 years, when its further use was dispensed with, and its place taken by a new engine made by Rumsey & Co., Seneca Falls, N.Y. This new engine cost $1,500, and is now in use. The company is equipped with engine, hose carriage, hose and all the usual apparatus, and has adopted a tasty uniform.

The city has provided them a substantial brick building for the storage of their apparatus, with a hall in the second story for meetings and the transaction of their business.

FOUNDRY

The first foundry established here was commenced in January and February, 1866, by Peter McHugh, who had been a brass moulder in the North Missouri Railroad Machine Shops.

B. A. Alderson became interested in the enterprise, and entered into co-partnership with McHugh in March, 1866, furnishing the capital for the completion and equipment of the establishment; and the first heat was taken off April 14, 1866, and work commenced with fair prospects. In October of the same year the partnership was dissolved, and Mr. Alderson purchased McHugh's interest, and built a substantial brick machine shop, since which time the place has been known as "The St. Charles Foundry and Machine Shop."

From April, 1867, to October, 1869, the establishment was operated by Mr. Alderson and Mr. Charles Bruere, formerly a machinist in the North Missouri Railroad Machine Shop, and from the latter date to January, 1870, by Mr. Alderson alone again. January 18, 1870, it was closed and offered for sale. But not being sold for want of a purchaser, it was leased, in October, 1870, to Messrs. Chapman & Rogers, both practical and energetic men, who together operated it to December, 1871, when Mr. Chapman sold his interest in the business to his partner, Mr. John Rogers, under whose able supervision it is now carried on. The present capacity is 8,000 weight of metal per heat, but it is in contemplation to enlarge it to meet increasing demands. It employs from 12 to 18 hands, and though not large, has sent out some very heavy castings, and has been of great value both to city and county.


FLOURING MILLS

The oldest flouring mill in St. Charles is the one known as Griffith's, built many years ago, and yet built so well and substantially as to be even now as firm and strong as it ever was. It is not now in operation, but there are four others running. Altogether they have a capacity of 1,000 barrels per run of 24 hours. On a run of 12 hours per day, for 200 days, the five mills of which we speak would consume about 500,000 bushels of wheat, which probably is something near the amount they actually do convert into flour when all are in active operation.

There is also a smaller mill which engages principally in grinding corn, which, in the hands of an energetic, enterprising man, could be made a profitable business. St. Charles county is noted for the production of the finest quality of both corn and wheat. The St. Charles flour stands at the very head of the list. The citizens have reason to feel proud, and do feel proud, of their corn, wheat and flour.

Among the other industries in St. Charles is a tobacco factory, the article here manufactured having a wide reputation and finding a ready sale in home and foreign markets.


SECRET ORDERS

For the facts referring to the early history of Freemasonry in the city of St. Charles, we are indebted to Joseph H. Alexander, who contributed a series of interesting articles upon that subject, entitled "Historical Notes of the Rise and Progress of Freemasonry in St. Charles." The first charter granted for holding a Masonic Lodge3 in St. Charles, bears date October 6, 1819, while Missouri was still a Territory. It was granted by the Grand Lodge of Tennessee. The lodge had been working under a dispensation from July 5, same year. The charter was given at Nashville, and is signed by O. B. Hayes, Grand Master; W. Tannehill, D.G.M.; S. B. Marshall, S.G.W.P.T.; Wm. G. Dickerson, J.G.W.

At the date of its organization, the lodge had 13 members. The names of only three are now known -- these are the three officers named in the charter, and their names are Benjamin Emmons, Bennett Palmer and Rowland Willard. The lodge prospered, for in 16 months after it was organized, 32 degrees were conferred -- 12 of the first, 10 of the second, and 11 of the third -- and the membership more than doubled. The lodge was granted another charter from the Grand Lodge of Missouri, October 11, 1822, and its name changed to Hiram Lodge No. 3.

From the first return made to the Grand Lodge, by Hiram Lodge, October 5, 1822, we find that considerable work was done, especially in November and December, 1821, the lodge conferring 7 degress in the former month at three meetings, and 14 in the latter at six meetings. An inspection of the returns also shows that the lodge must have been working for the benefit of others, as well as themselves, for G. W. Ash, who was raised November 26, 1821, demitted March 7, 1822; James Alcorn, Daniel Monroe, Richard H. Waters and Samuel C. Owens, raised in December, 1821, demitted in January, 1822, and Bernard O'Niel, raised January 12, 1822, demitted during the same month, these demissions in all probability being made for the purpose of organizing a lodge in some other frontier settlement.

The second report to the Grand Lodge is dated the first Monday in October, 1824, and gives the following list of officers: William G. Pettus, master; Stephen W. Foreman, S.W.; Rowland Willard, J.W.; Nathaniel Simonds, Treas.; Henry Hays, Sec.; William Smith, S.D.; John Lilly, Jr., tyler; Benjamin Walker, steward. On the 10th of April, 1826, Edward Bates, M.W.G.M., being in the chair, Archibald Gamble presented the proceedings of Hiram Lodge, with a resolution passed by said lodge, surrendering the charter, jewels and furniture. On the 13th of April, the committee to whom the matter was referred, made the report, that the Grand Lodge consent that the charter to Hiram Lodge be returned, and the lodge be dissolved.

Thus closed the history of Hiram Lodge No. 3, the second lodge opened and operated in St. Charles. The fire had ceased to burn and the light had departed from the Masonic altar in 1826, and Masonry in St. Charles had ceased to exist, except as embodied in the persons of those who had received its light and benefits. So far as any record appears there was no Masonic life in St. Charles, from 1826 (the date of the dissolving of Hiram Lodge No. 3) to 1837, a period of more than 10 years. The first sign of revival is the following petition: --

To the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the State of Missouri:
The petitions hereof, humbly showeth, that they are Ancient, Free and Accepted Master Masons. Having the prosperity of the fraternity at heart, they are willing to exert their best endeavors to promote and diffuse the genuine principles fo Masonry. For the convenience of their respective dwellings, and for other good reasons, they are desirous of forming a new lodge in the town of St. Charles, to be named St. Charles Lodge. In consequence of this desire and the good of the craft, they pray for a charter or warrant, to empower them to assemble as a lodge, to discharge the duties of Masonry in the several degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason, in a regular and constitutional manner, according to the ancient forms of the fraternity and the laws and regulations of the Grand Lodge, that they have nominated and do recommend Beriah Graham to be the first master; Alex T. Douglass, to be the frist senior warden and John Orrick to be the first junior warden of said lodge; that if the prayer of the petitioners should be granted, they promise a strict conformity to all the constitutional laws, rules and regulations of the Grand Lodge.

Joshua Grimes, Benjamin Emmons, John Orrick, Alex T. Douglass, B. Graham, James C. Lackland, James McClure, Philip A. Stockslager, John Lilly, Jr.

This paper bears no date, but it is indorsed "Petition for Lodge at St. Charles, 1837." A dispensation was granted May 3, 1837, but it is not known when the lodge was organized. It was, however, in session as early as June 7. The lodge was called St. Charles Lodge No. 23, and the jewels and furniture of Hiram Lodge which had been surrendered to the Grand Lodge were donated to the new lodge, which now bore the name "St. Charles Hiram Lodge No. 23."4 In October, 1838, the lodge had 23 members and one entered apprentice.

In October, 1841, there were 20 members; in October, 1842, there were 25 members, and in October, 1844, there were 22 members.

The lodge ceased to work after 1844, and its charter returned to the Grand Lodge. No other lodge of Masons was organized in the town until 1849, when Hiram Lodge No. 118, was formed, with the following members: E. D. Bevitt, P.M.; T. W. Cunningham, P.M.; John Orrick, P.M.; W. J. McElhiney, M.M.; Edward P. Gut, M.M.; J. C. Lackland, M.M.; Joel D. Jones, M.M.; J. W. Robinson, M.M.; Robert Spencer, M.M.; Chas. F. Fant, M.M. These were all members of Hiram Lodge No. 23, except Robinson.

The dispensation was granted June 29, 1849, and the first regular communications was held July 2, 1849. The initiatory steps for erecting a Masonic hall were taken in 1849, and the following board of trustees were elected: A. C. Orrick, J. W. Redmon, W. J. McElhiney, J. W. Robinson, E. D. Bevitt, T. W. Cunningham and J. G. Tannor. The building was erected on a lot on the east side of Main street, between Jefferson and Madison. The deed of this lot was executed by Gallaher & Orrick, May 8, 1850. The property was divided into 150 shares, and at least 45 of these were taken by parties who were not Masons. The corner stone of the hall was laid October 10, 1849. From July 2, 1849, to April 22, 1850, there were 69 degrees conferred.

In May, 1851, the lodge had 35 members. The lodge celebrated the 24th of June, 1856, and also the 27th of December, 1858.

The last meeting of Hiram Lodge No. 118 occurred July 17, 1861, and the charter was surrendered in May, 1862. During the existence of this lodge -- a period of 12 years -- 127 petitions had been presented; 22 were for admission by demit from other lodges, and 105 for initiation. Of these 105 petitions, 101 were accepted.

Mr. Alexander, in speaking of the interval of time that had elapsed between 1861 and the date of the organization of the present lodge, says: --

Nearly four years had borne their records of war and bloodshed since the light of Masonry in St. Charles and had burned to its last expiring flicker. The war was closing, and peace was again asserting her supremacy, when the minds of Masonic brethren began once more to turn instinctively, as it were, to the subject of setting up the altar of Masonry and lighting its fires once more in St. Charles.

I remember well that little meeting in the back room, where the matter was quietly talked over and conclusion reached. I remember also the visit to St. Louis made by the three who had been named to fill temporarily the three principal offices, when the Grand Secretary was interviewed on the subject, and the visit that this same three made to Bridgeton Lodge for the purpose of passing muster, according to Masonic usage, and obtaining their consent for our application for Masonic authorization.

The preliminary steps having been taken, Mr. Alexander continues by giving the record, which is as follows: --

At an assembly of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, convened in the city of St. Charles, in the county of St. Charles, in the State of Missouri, on Saturday, March 25, 1865, for the purpose of organizing a lodge of that fraternity, to be known as Palestine Lodge, were present: Joseph H. Garrett, P.M., Bridgeton Lodge No. 80, Mo., Master; David V. Baber, M.M., Bridgeton, Lodge No. 80, Mo., S.W.; S. Haynes Martin, M.M., Bridgeton, Lodge No. 80, Mo., J.W.; Joseph H. Alexander, M.M.; William W. Edwards, M.M.; Edmund Taylor, M.M.; Robert A. Harris, M.M.; John Byngton, M.M.; John S. McDowell, M.M.; James Keaton, M.M.; Samuel Gravely, M.M.; William D. Orrick, M.M.; Robert McClarin, M.M.; M. R. Goehagan, M.M., of Hiram, Lodge No. 118, charter surrendered; James G. Owens, M.M.; Isaac J. Moore, M.M.

Lodge opened in the Master's degree in due form.

The W.M. then read his commission from the M.W. John F. Houston, Grand Master of Masons in the State of Missouri, authorizing him to organize this lodge; and also read the letter of dispensation of the M.W. Grand Master aforesaid, constituting the brethren Joseph H. Alexander, William W. Edwards, Edmond Taylor, James S. Burlingame, James Keeton, John S. McDowell, Robert A. Harris, James G. Owen, Richard H. Overall, Isaac J. Moore, John H. Newby, Samuel Gravely and John Byngton into a regular lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, to be opened in the city of St. Charles by the name of Palestine Lodge, appointing Brother Joseph H. Alexander Master, Brother William H. Edwards S.W., and Brother Edmund J.W. for opening the said lodge, and governing the same in the several degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master Mason and making the requirements usual in such cases.

Our space precludes us from following this interesting history of Freemasonry in St. Charles any further.

The present officers of Palestine Lodge No. 241 are: Joseph H. Alexander, W.M.; Robert Hickman, S.W.; Albert Huber, J.W.; T. L. Rives, Treas.; John K. McDearmon, Sec.; H. G. Bode, S.D.; Fred. Burckhardt, J.D.; Christopher Bode, tyler.

Blucher Lodge No. 351, I.O.O.F. -- Was organized May 31, 1876. The charter members were Fritz Knoop, Charles F. Hafer, A. H. Hackman, Nath. Abram, George H. Senden, Julius Quade, Herman Brouns, Henry Broecker, Henry Bloebaum, George Ranch. At present the officers are Ernest Woulker, N.G.; Herman Rassfeld, V.G.; Fritz Landwehr, secretary; William H. Meier, Per. secretary; Gustave Johannpeter, treasurer.

St. Charles Lodge No. 105, A.O.U.W. -- Was organized February 6, 1879, the charter members being Joseph H. Alexander, James Boyse, George Jacobs, Dr. F. D. Jones, Philip H. Pitts, Charles Rattray, A. H. Stonebraker, E. B. Hayward, Julius Heye, Joseph James, Robert L. Luckett, James B. Pritchett, Joseph W. Ruenzi, C. A. Tripps, E. J. Tuttle. The present officers are A. H. Huning, P.M.W.; J. W. Ruenzi, M.W.; George Jacobs, F.; J. H. Bode, O.; L. H. Breker, R.; J. P. Hoehn, financier; R. H. Luckett, receiver; James Herrington, G.; William Goethe, I.W.; A. Fredricks, O.W.

Ivanhoe Lodge No. 1812, K. of H. -- Which was organized October 10, 1879, had as charter members Joseph H. Alexander, Dr. Charles M. Johnson, Charles L. Hug, Alexander Garvin, Robert F. Luckett, Rev. R. N. T. Holliday, C. A. Tripp, E. B. Hayward, Albert H. Edwards, August G. Nahan, Frank Broadbent, Julius Heye, A. H. Stonebraker, James H. Rowe, David M. Davis, August R. Huning, Joseph James, Joseph W. Ruenzi, Dr. F. D. Jones, Theodoric F. McDearmon, James P. Daugherty, Robert Gauss, F. Glover Johns, Dr. James W. Davis, William M. Castlio, Peter Little, John K. McDearmon, Charles T. Wells, Thomas B. Stonebraker, Henry Anderson, Edward J. Tuttle. The present officers are Theodoric F. McDearmon, P.D.; Louis H. Breker, D.; Joseph W. Ruenzi, V.D.; Alfred H. Payne, A.D.; Joseph James, chaplain; Joseph H. Alexander, R.; August R. Huning, F.R.; Samuel W. Temple, T.; John B. Martin, G.; Charles S. Pronge, guardian; H. G. C. Daminer, S.

Sylvan Council No. 29, Order of Chosen Friends. -- Was organized February 20, 1884, and had as charter members Joseph Jones, J. P. Brannock, L. E. Brannock, D. Shultz, A. M. Payne, M. O. Johnson, A. R. Redmon, A. Goddard, Cordelia Payne, J. A. Goddard, William Stonebraker, Katie Stonebraker, L. Hill, William A. McKenzie, E. J. Progue, J. H. Alexander, V. R. Jones, C. F. Strathman, L. B. Strathman, W. L. Vick, M. G. Vick, D. M. Davis, J. R. Mudd, John M. Cunningham. The present officers are Joseph Jones, P.C.C.; J. P. Brannock, C.C.; L. E. Brannock, V.C.; D. Shultz, secretary; J. S. Hill, treasurer; M. L. Shultz, P.; A. H. Payne, M.; M. A. Johnson, W.; A. R. Redmon, G.; A. Goddard, S.



OFFICIAL RECORD OF THE CITY OF ST. CHARLES FROM 1849 TO 1884.

1849 -- Mayor, Ludwell E. Powell; councilmen, Thomas W. Cunningham, Thomas Ruenzi, William M. Christy, Pressley Gill, Sir Walter Rice, Louis Gerneau, Edward D. Bevitt (vide Pressley Gill resigned); register, Alexander Chauvin; marshal, John Hilbert; treasurer, Antoine Lefaivre; assessor, Isaac W. Copes.

1850 -- Mayor, Cudwell E. Powell; councilmen, Thomas W. Cunningham, Thomas Ruenzi, William M. Christy, Pressley Gill, Sir Walter Rice, Louis Gerneau; register, Isaac W. Copes; marshal, John Hilbert; treasurer, Antoine Lefaivre; assessor, S. M. Gray.

1851 -- Mayor, Edwin D. Bevitt; councilmen, Owen Andrews, Francis Tosti, John Atkinson, William M. Christy, Augustus T. Lackland, Louis Gerneau; register, Joseph H. Alexander; marshal, Robert McClarin; treasurer, Norman Lackland; attorney, Arnold Krekel; engineer, Arnold Krekel; recorder, F. W. Gatzweiler; assessor, F. W. Gatzweiler.

1852 -- Mayor, Fred W. Gatzweiler; councilmen, Herman Mallinckrodt, Ninian B. Barron, William M. Christy, Edwin D. Bevitt, Antoine Lefaivre, Louis Gerneau; register, Isaac W. Copes; marshal, John Hilbert; treasurer, Eugene Gauss; attorney, Arnold Krekel; recorder, Henry C. Lackland; assessor, Sir Walter Rice.

1853 -- Mayor, Ludwell E. Powell; councilmen, Charles H. Broadwater, Melchoir Thro, William M. Christy, Edwin D. Bevitt, Sir Walter Rice, Francis Muelle; register, Joseph H. Alexander; marshal, Robert McClarin; treasurer, Eugene Gauss; attorney, Andrew King; recorder, Robert A. King; assessor, Sir Walter Rice.

1854 -- Mayor, Samuel Overall; councilmen, Anton Meyer, Nelson C. Orear, John Paule, Edwin D. Bevitt, Lorenzo D. Holmes, Louis Gerneau; register, Joseph H. Alexander; marshal, Robert McClarin; treasurer, William M. Christy; attorney, Andrew King; engineer, B. A. Alderson; recorder and assessor, Asa N. Overall.

1855 -- Mayor, Thomas W. Cunningham; councilmen, William P. Gibbs, Peter Hausman, Fred W. Gatzweiler, John Atkinson, Henry Broemmelmeyer, Lorenzo D. Holmes, Toussaint Brunelle; register, Isaac W. Copes; marshal, Charles B. Branham; treasurer, John K. McDearmon; attorney, William M. Edwards; engineer B. A. Alderson; recorder, Sir Walter Rice; assessor, Ludwell E. Powell.

1856 -- Mayor, W. P. Gibbs, councilmen, John E. Stonebraker, Peter Hausman, Fred W. Gatzweiler, John Orrick, Christopher Weeke, Francis Nuelle, Freeman W. Hinman; register, Isaac W. Copes; marshal, Charles B. Branham; treasurer, John K. McDearmon; attorney, William W. Edwards; engineer, Theodore Bruere; recorder, O. C. Rood; assessor, Sir Walter Rice.

1857 -- Mayor, John Hilbert; councilmen, Anton Meyer, Freeman W. Hinman, Edwin D. Bevitt, Stephen H. Merten, Sir Walter Rice, Anton Haake; register, Isaac W. Copes; marshal, Charles B. Branham; treasurer, Melchoir Thro; attorney, Andrew King; engineer, Theodore Bruere; recorder, Oliver C. Rood; assessor, John Hilbert, Jr.

1858 -- Mayor, John Hilbert; councilmen, Anton Meyer, Arnold Krekel, Edwin D. Bevitt, Stephen H. Merten, Bazille Pallardie, Anton Haake; register, William A. Alexander; marshal, John A. Richey; treasurer, Melchoir Thro; attorney, Andrew King; engineer, Theodore Bruere; recorder, Oliver C. Rood; assessor, Charles Hug.

1859 -- Mayor, Ludwell E. Powell; councilmen, John Hilbert, Peter Hausman, Herman Parklage, Asa N. Overall, Henry Broemmelmeyer, Charles B. Branham, Edwin D. Bevitt; register, William A. Alexander; marshal, Rezen A. Tagart; treasurer, Charles Hug; attorney, Virginius Randolph; engineer, Joseph E. Fielding; recorder, Oliver C. Rood; assessor, Charles Hug.

1860 -- Mayor, John Hilbert; councilmen, Anton Meyer, Francis Moellenhoff, Henry C. Lackland, Peter Hausman, Asa N. Overall, Ab. Ruenzi; register, William A. Alexander; marshal, Robinson Dugan; treasurer, Charles Hug; attorney, Henry A. Cunningham; engineer, Joseph E. Fielding; recorder, Oliver C. Rood; street commissioner, Anton Meyer; assessor, John H. Platt.

1861 -- Mayor, Asa N. Overall; councilmen, Anton Meyer, John Pourie, Francis Oberkoetter, James C. Gamble, Francis Moellenhoff, Henry C. Lackland; register, Joseph H. Alexander; marshall, Rezen A. Tagart; treasurer, Charles Hug; attorney, William W. Edwards; engineer, Joseph E. Fielding; recorder, Oliver C. Rood; street commissioner, Anton Meyer; assessor, John B. Thro.

1862 -- Mayor, Peter Hansam; councilmen, Francis Oberkoetter, John H. Senden, Valentine Kock, Frederick Heye, Frederick Meyer, Francis Moellenhoff; register, Gustave Bruere; marshal, Townsend, B. Cady; treasurer, Charles Hug; attorney, William W. Edwards; engineer, Joseph E. Fielding; recorder, O. C. Rood; assessor, William E. Clauss.

1863 -- Mayor, Peter Hausam; councilmen, Valentine Kock, Frederick Heye, Francis Oberkoetter, John H. Senden, Anton Haake, Fred. Meyer; register, William E. Clauss; marshal, George H. Senden; treasurer, Charles Hug; attorney, Theodore Bruere; engineer, Joseph E. Fielding; recorder, Oliver C. Rood.

1864 -- Mayor, John C. Mittelberger; councilmen, Francis Merten, Herman Kuhlmann, John H. Senden, Stephen H. Merten, Isaac W. Copes, Henry Meyer; register, John B. Thro; marshal, George H. Senden; treasurer, E. F. Gut; attorney, Theodore Bruere; engineer, Joseph E. Fielding; recorder, Oliver C. Rood; assessor, John H. Platt.

1865 -- Mayor, Charles Hug; councilmen, Anton Meyer, Stephhen H. Merten, Christopher Weeke, Francis Marten, John H. Senden, F. Linnemann; register, John B. Thro; marshal, George H. Senden; treasurer, Anton Haake; attorney, Theodore Bruere; engineer, Joseph E. Fielding; recorder, Oliver C. Rood; assessor, Joseph E. Fielding.

1866 -- Mayor, Charles Hug; councilmen, E. H. Bloebaum, Charles Rahmoeller, Henry Meyer, Stephhen H. Merten, Anton Meyer, Christopher Weeke; register, John B. Thro; marshal, George H. Senden; treasurer, Anton Haake; attorney, Theodore Bruere; engineer, Joseph E. Fielding; recorder, O. C. Rood; assessor, Frederick Melkersmann.

1867 -- Mayor, Charles Hug; councilmen, George T. Gardiner, Christian Mittrucker, Frank Bernhoester, E. H. Bloebaum, Charles Rahmoeller, Henry Meyer; register, John B. Thro; marshal, Charles G. Johann; treasurer, H. F. Pieper; attorney, Theodore Bruere; engineer, F. Melkersmann; recorder, O. C. Rood; assessor, John B. Thro.

1868 -- Mayor, Charles Hug; councilman, H. Borgmann, George Becker, Henry Meyer, George Gardiner, Christian Mittrucker, F. Bernhoester, Charles Rahmoeller; register, John Adams; marshal, Charles G. Johann; treasurer, H. F. Pieper; attorney, Theodore Bruere; engineer, F. Melkersmann; recorder, Oliver C. Rood; assessor, Emile Thro.

1869 -- Mayor, Charles Hug; councilmen, Henry Borgmann, Charles Rahmoeller, Henry Meyer, Jacob Zeisler, Henry Kister, J. Philip Hoehn, Peter Fetch, C. F. Hafer; register, John Adams; marshal, Charles G. Johann; treasurer, H. F. Pieper; attorney, Theodore Bruere; engineer, F. Melkersmann; recorder, O. C. Rood; assessor, John B. Thro.

1870 -- Mayor, William A. Alexander; councilmen, Jacob Zeisler, Henry Kister, J. Philip Hoehn, E. Curtis Rice, Fred Neye, Peter M. Fetch, Henry Meyer, Charles F. Hafer; register, John Adams; marshal, Charles G. Johann; treasurer, H. F. Pieper; attorney, T. F. McDearmon; engineer, Joseph E. Fielding; recorder, O. C. Rood; assessor, John B. Thro.

1871 -- Mayor, William A. Alexander; councilmen, E. Curtis Rice, Ernst H. Bloebaum, Fred Neye, Peter M. Fetch, Henry Meyer, Jacob Zeisler, John Hilbert, Henry Mester, Fred Lienemann; register, Henry R. Hupe; marshal, J. Philip Hoehn; treasurer, H. F. Pieper; attorney, T. F. McDearmon; engineer, Carl C. Ertz; recorder, O. C. Rood; assessor, John T. Powell.

1872 -- Mayor, John C. Mittelberger; councilmen, Jacob Zeisler, John Hilbert, Herm. Landwehr, Henry Mester, Fred Lienemann, Ernst H. Bloebaum, J. William Kolkmeyer, John E. Stonebraker, Anton Haake; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, J. Philip Hoehn; treasurer, H. F. Pieper; attorney, T. F. McDearmon; engineer, R. G. Ross; recorder, John T. Powell; assessor, C. H. Huncker.

1873 -- Mayor, John C. Mittelberger; councilmen, Ernst H. Bloebaum, J. William Kolkmeyer, John E. Stonebraker, Anton Haake, Jacob Zeisler, Joseph W. Ruenzi, Charles F. Hafer, Fred Lienemann; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, J. Philip Hoehn; treasurer, Henry Linnemann; attorney, T. F. McDearmon; engineer, Carl C. Ertz; recorder, John T. Powell; assessor, C. H. Huncker.

1874 -- Mayor, Jacob Zeisler; councilmen, Gustave Strathmann, Joseph W. Ruenzi, Charles F. Hafer, Fred Lienemann, Ernst H. Bloebaum, J. F. Kausteiner, A. H. Stonebraker, Anton Haake; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, J. Philip Hoehn; treasurer, Henry Linnemann; attorney, T. F. McDearmon; engineer, Carl C. Ertz; superintendent of public works, Carl C. Ertz; recorder, John T. Powell; assessor, E. Curtis Rice.

1875 -- Mayor, Jacob Zeisler; councilmen, Ernst H. Bloebaum, J. F. Kausteiner, A. H. Stonebraker, Anton Haake, Gustave Strathmann, Julius Quade, John H. Senden, Casper Thro; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Joseph W. Ruenzi; treasurer, James B. Pritchett; attorney, T. F. McDearmon; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, John T. Powell; assessor, E. Curtis Rice.

1876 -- Mayor, Jacob Zeisler; councilmen, Gustave Strathmann, Julius Quade, John H. Senden, Casper Thro, Hy. E. Machens, J. H. Kansteiner, A. H. Stonebraker, Fred Lienemann; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Joseph W. Ruenzi; treasurer, James B. Pritchett; attorney, T. F. McDearmon; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, William M. Christy; assessor, E. Curtis Rice.

1877 -- Mayor, Jacob Zeisler; councilmen, Henry E. Machens, J. F. Kausteiner, A. H. Stonebraker, Frederick Lienemann, Gustave Bruere, Julius Quade, John F. Dierker, Louis H. Breker; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Joseph W. Ruenzi; treasurer, J. Phillip Hoehn; attorney, T. F. McDearmon; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, William M. Christy; assessor, E. Curtis Rice.

1878 -- Mayor, Stephen H. Merten; councilmen, G. Bruere, Julius Quade, J. F. Dierker, Louis H. Breker, Charles H. Kemper, J. F. Kausteiner, A. H. Stonebraker, Herman H. Schaberg; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Joseph W. Ruenzi; treasurer, J. Phillip Hoehn; attorney, F. W. Hinman; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, William M. Christy; assessor, William E. Clauss, John T. Powell (vice, William E. Clauss, deceased).

1879 -- Mayor, Stephen H. Merten; councilmen, C. H. Kemper, J. F. Kausteiner, A. H. Stonebraker, Herman H. Schaberg, G. Bruere, L. Ringe, G. Johannpeter, L. H. Breker; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Joseph Decker, Joseph W. Ruenzi (vice Joseph Decker, deceased); treasurer, J. Phillip Hoehn; attorney, F. W. Hinman; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, William M. Christy, Casper Thro (vice William M. Christy, deceased); assessor, John T. Powell (vice William E. Clauss, deceased).

1880 -- Mayor, A. H. Stonebraker; councilmen, G. Bruere, G. Strathmann (vice G. Bruere, resigned), L. Ringe, G. Johannpeter, L. H. Breker, Henry Hund, J. F. Hackmann, W. W. Dugan, Herman H. Schaberg; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Aug. Friedrich; treasurer, J. Phillip Hoehn; attorney, F. W. Hinman; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, J. L. Dotson; assessor, Charles G. Johann; chief of fire department, Joseph W. Ruenzi, first assistant engineer, Hubert Hachting; second assistant engineer, Herman H. Schaberg.

1881 -- Mayor, A. H. Stonebraker; councilmen, H. Hund, J. F. Hackmann, W. W. Dugan, C. A. Tripp (vice W. W. Dugan, resigned), C. L. Hug (vice C. A. Tripp, resigned), H. H. Schaberg, G. Strathmann, Louis Ringe, G. Johannpeter, L. H. Breker; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Aug. Friedrich; treasurer, J. Philip Hoehn; attorney, F. W. Hinman; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, J. L. Dotson, Casper Thro (vice J. L. Dotson, resigned); assessor, Charles G. Johann; chief of fire department, Joseph W. Ruenzi; first assistant engineer, Hubert Hachting; second assistant engineer, Herman H. Schaberg.

1882 -- Mayor, Louis H. Breker; councilmen, G. Strathmann, L. Ringe, G. Johannpeter, Aug. Paule, J. F. Hackmann, C. L. Hug, F. Lienemann, L. Heckmann (vice L. H. Breker, resigned); register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Aug. Friedrich; treasurer, J. Phillip Hoehn; attorney, H. C. Lackland; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, John Dolan; assessor, Charles G. Johann; chief of fire department, Joseph W. Ruenzi; first assistant engineer, Hubert Hachting; second assistant engineer, Herman H. Schaberg.

1883 -- Mayor, Louis H. Breker; councilmen, A. Paule, C. S. Hug, F. Lienemann, Theo. Gauss, L. Ringe, J. F. Hackmann, Herman Landwehr (vice J. F. Hackmann, resigned), G. Johannpeter, L. Heckmann; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Aug. Friedrich; treasurer, J. Philip Hoehn; attorney, H. C. Lackland; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, John Dolan; assessor, Charles G. Johann; chief of fire department, Joseph W. Ruenzi; first assistant engineer, Hubert Hachting; second assistant engineer, Herman H. Schaberg.

1884 -- Mayor, J. F. Hackmann; councilmen, Theo. Gauss, L. Ringe, G. Johannpeter, L. Heckmann, A. Paule, H. Landwehr, J. N. Mittelberger, F. Lienemann; register and ex-officio weigher, Henry B. Hupe; marshal, Aug. Friedrich; treasurer, J. Philip Hoehn; attorney, T. F. McDearmon; engineer, Washington Gill; recorder, John Dolan; assessor, Charles G. Johann; chief of fire department, Joseph W. Ruenzi; first assistant engineer, Hubert Hachting; second assistant engineer, Herman H. Schaberg.



ECCLESIASTICAL

The Presbyterian Church was the second that planted its standard in St. Charles. Ministers of that domination early made their appearance in Missouri, even while it was under Spanish rule, but showed but little strength for many years afterwards.

The church at St. Charles, consisted of nine members, John Bracken, Theophilus McPheeters, Thomas Lindsay, Margaret, his wife; James Lindsay, and Charlotte, his wife; Ebenezer Ayers and Deborah, his wife, and Elizabeth Emmons, and was organized August 30, 1818, by Rev. Salmon Giddings, assisted by Rev. Jno. Matthews, and for a short time they were cared for by Rev. Timothy Flint, then resident here, the author of a "History of the Mississippi Valley;" and upon, or perhaps before, Mr. Flint's departure to Arkansas, Rev. Chas. S. Robinson took charge of the church, being also engaged in teaching school. Some of his scholars still reside here.

Rev. Geo. C. Wood, Rev. W. W. Hall, D.D., (editor of Hall's Journal of Health), Rev. W. Nichols, Rev. H. Chamberlain, Rev. Jas. Gallaher, successively ministered to the church until the New and Old School controversy in 1837. After the controversy, Rev. A. Munson became pastor, since which time it has had the ministerial services of a number of preachers.

In 1866 the church was again divided by the unfortunate controversy growing out of the acts of the Presbytery of Louisville, and certain ministers and elders, and the acts of the General Assembly condemnatory of those acts; whereas there was before but one church building, and that one in a tumble-down condition, there are now two churches, both neat and ornamental.

The church near the corner of Fifth and Madison, of which Rev. E. Martin is pastor, has a large membership and their church property is worth about $15,000.

The church on Jefferson street numbers about 150 members, of whom about 60 reside in Point Prairie. The value of the property in the city is about $17,000, and of the church built by the Point Prairie members is worth about $3,500.

The German Evangelical congregation, whose church stands about three miles from St. Charles, was organized in 1836, and has been known ever since by the name of Frieden Gemeinde (Congregation of Peace). Up to the present time, it has had but five ministers, the present minister having served them since 1858. The first church building was of rough stone, and the first parsonage of logs, with only one room. In 1850 they built a neat brick parsonage, to which they added in time a school house, a teacher's dwelling and church. The property owned by the congregation is worth about $10,000; and the congregation itself contains about 60 families, 300 souls. Formerly the congregation comprised many families residing in the city, but in 1868 the city members organized themselves into a separate church, connecting themselves with the German Evangelical Synod of the West, to which the mother church also belonged -- the new church taking the name of St. John's Church.

They at once bought ground, which had a pastor's dwelling and school-house on it, and commenced the erection of a church, which was completed and dedicated in October, 1869. Since that time they had been steadily increasing. They own a beautiful little church and valuable grounds for parsonage and school purposes.

The Franklin Street Baptist Church, the only white Baptist Church in St. Charles, was constituted February 10, 1871, with a membership of ten persons. Preaching, Sunday-school and other services were conducted for about nine months, first in the old Masonic Hall and afterwards in the court-house. The Methodist Episcopal Church (North) had sometime before this erected a neat, brick church, 30 by 50 feet, at a cost of about $5,000, but becoming involved in debt and depleted in membership by the removal of many of its members, a large number of whom were here only during the building of the St. Charles bridge, the trustees were compelled by force of circumstances to sell. The Baptist society purchased the property at a cost of $3,000. The edifice is substantially built of brick, well seated and lighted, warmed and ventilated, and comfortable and convenient it its arrangement. The society has steadily increased in numbers and efficiency, giving promise that, though yet small and weak, it has before it a career of prosperity and usefulness.

The Evangelical Protestant (St. Paul's) Church is in connection with the Union of the Evangelical Churches of the West, which consists of two districts, the Eastern consisting of some 30 churches, and the Western, in which the church under review is situated, comprising about 16 churches. This St. Charles church was organized May 21, 1865, and at present it numbers about 80; children in Sunday-school about 75; children in day school about 60. The congregation owns their church building, school-house and parsonage, valued at about $30,000 on which there is a debt of about $8,000.

The German Methodist Church of St. Charles was organized in 1847, by the Rev. F. Horstman of the Illinois Conference, with a membership of 16. The society having increased greatly over the original number, a house of worship was erected in 1849, and a parsonage in 1850, at a cost of about $2,500. Since that time, the church has steadily increased in numbers, though many of its members have from time to time removed to other parts, the necessities becoming so urgent that in 1869 a larger and more commodious edifice was erected, being the one now occupied. The total value of the property owned by the society is about $20,000, with a total membership of 104, the present condition and future prospects being very encouraging.

The German Evangelical Lutheran Church was constituted in 1848, with some 17 members, and in 1849 its members built a small but substantial stone church. The church since its original organization has had but two pastors, the first serving till 1859, and the second who commenced his labors here in 1859, being still the pastor of the church. Like so many others, this building also soon became too straight for the congregation. They tore down the old church, and in 1867 erected the present large and commodious brick building. It is in gothic style, 56 by 110 feet in size, with accommodation for about 800 persons, having a large and powerful organ, a chime of bells, church clock, etc. They have a voting membership of 138, and over 500 communicants, controlling 5 parochial schools (2 in the city and 3 in the county), with a total attendance of over 300 children. The value of their church property is about $4,000.

The (Trinity) Episcopal Church of St. Charles was organized June 5, 1836, on the occasion of a visit of the Rev. P. R. Minard, St. Louis. Of the first vestry, none remain but the Messrs. Orrick Benjamin and John.

At that time there was no Episcopal bishop in Missouri, and services were held only occasionally until May, 1840, when Rev. Isaac Smith was elected rector. An effort was made in 1841 to build a church, but failed. The church maintained its organization, but had no services except as clergymen from abroad visited St. Charles.

In 1835 Rev. Geo. K. Dunlop became rector, and was succeeded in 1857 by Rev. McKim. In 1859, the old Methodist Church on Main street was purchased by the wardens and vestrymen, and Rev. Wm. N. Irish became pastor, and so continued to be till 1861. The church was for several years occasionally visited by various ministers, till 1867, when regular services twice a month were instituted and kept up. The congregation in the meantime had sold the old Methodist Church and purchased the old public school-house, which itself was sold, and the society built their present neat and comfortable chapel, which is 25 by 55, and can seat about 200 persons. Present membership about 20, with a Sabbath-school of about 40.

The Methodist Episcopal Church had a society in St. Charles at an early day, but the writer has not been able to ascertain the precise date. One of its faithful and constant supporters was Mrs. Catharine Collier, who was also afterward such a constant and firm friend to St. Charles College. The first church building ever owned by this denomination in the city was erected chiefly through the efforts of Mrs. Collier. That building was used by them for many years; but the society becoming stronger and abler, sold the old church to the Episcopalians, and erected the present neat and commodious house of worship. In the division of the church in 1844, the society here adhered to the Southern branch. In the last few years the Northern branch gathered a little flock and erected a neat chapel, but on the completion of the bridge all their members scattered abroad, and the house was sold to the Baptists, which is now the Franklin Street Baptist Church. With this slight exception, the old church of which we are now speaking is the only one of English-speaking Methodists they have had.

The church is prospering, maintaining public worship and Sabbath-school with regularity. They have a very neat brick parsonage which is a credit to them. The value of their home of worship and parsonage must be at least $15,000.

St. Peter's Church. -- St. Peter's German Catholic Congregation was organized in 1848. In the same year the corner-stone of a new church was laid. The pastors of the congregation have been: Rev. Jos. Rauch, January 1, 1850-1851 (during whose pastorate a parochial school for boys and girls was opened); Rev. Chr. Wapelhorst, 1857-1865 (in 1861 the present church was built, the former having been destroyed by a cyclone); Rev. P. Th. Vogg, 1865-67; Rev. Th. Krainhard, 1867-1868 (the present school building then built); Rev. Ed. Holthaus, 1868; Rev. Ed. Koch, 1868-1875; Rev. T. Meller, 1875-1881; Rev. Tr. Willmes, 1881, and now in charge.

From 1867 the pastor was generally assisted by a second priest. The congregation consists now of about 1,200 souls; 270 children visiting the parochial school, are taught by one lay teacher and five sisters of Notre Dame.

Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel Church. -- During the early settlement of the Germans about St. Charles, when their number was small, the German Protestants worshiped together in a small stone church two miles west of the city. The congregation consisted, however, of such heterogenous elements that peace and edification were impossible. After many years of strife, during which at times a minister with Lutheran tendencies, then an outspoken Nationalist, or again, a German Reformed minister occupied the pulpit. The Lutherans severed their connection with the old stone church on the Boone's Lick road, and, uniting with a few Lutherans who had settled in the city and below St. Charles, laid the foundation to what is now the large and flourishing Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel Congregation.

With the assistance of the Rev. H. Fisk, who was at the time minister of a Lutheran Church at New Melle, a Lutheran congregation was organized in the year A.D. 1848. The following members inscribed their names in the church records: --

J. Herm. Moehlenkamp, J. Henry Stumberg, J. Ch. Kuhlhoff, J. Herm. Laging, Dietrich Moehlenkamp, William Beckebrede, J. D. Holrah, Wm. Bruns, Herm. Wilke, Rudolph Moentmann, Dietrich Tumbehl, Herm. D. Sandfort, Henry Ehlmann, Dietrich Thoele, Henry Moehlenkamp, C. N. Dahmann, Friedrick Droste, Ernest Plackemeyer, Wm. Hagemann, H. D. Ehlmann -- 20 voting members.

In the same year the congregation called the candidate of the theology, Rudolph Lange, now professor in the Concordia Theological Seminary, to the ministry.

The congregation having no edifice of its own, was permitted, by the kindness and generosity of the members of the First Presbyterian Church, to use theirs in the afternoon.

For about a year regular services were conducted by the Rev. R. Lange in the Presbyterian Church, when, through his efficient labors, the congregation was able to erect a good stone building on the corner of Sixth and Jefferson streets, which was dedicated in October, 1849.

In 1858 Rev. R. Lange accepted a call to the Lutheran Concordia College at St. Louis, Mo. For successor, Rev. J. H. Ph. Graebner, of Roseville, Mich., was called, who could not come before spring, in 1859, because the congregation at Roseville disliked to dismiss him. During the vacancy which ensued, Rev. G. Gruber filled the ministerial office of the congregation. In May, 1859, Rev. Graebner entered upon his office in St. Charles, which he has attended to since then. At this time the number of voting members was 64. In the course of several years the number of members increased to so many the old church building would not contain the auditors for sacred services. In consequence thereof, the congregation erected at the same place, after removing the old building, the present spacious building at the expense of over $40,000. Later, the congregation increasing so much, and the members being dispersed so far about, the congregation called Mr. F. Sievers, then candidate of theology, as second minister. In 1876 a new congregation had been, as a branch of the mother congregation, instituted in the so-called "Point Prairie." In consequence thereof Rev. F. Sievers accepted a call to Minneapolis, Minn., leaving Rev. J. H. Ph. Graebner to attend to the congregation alone. A few months ago (August, 1884), a second new congregation of the mother congregation of the fifth district was instituted at Harvester, which has called the Rev. U. Iben, from Farmington, Francois county, Mo. After these two new congregations separated, the number of voting members of the mother congregation was 118. The congregation had, from beginning until 1866, a one-graded parochial school in the city, to which, in that year, a second grade was added. Previous to this, the congregation had already in three of their districts in the county, parochial schools. As the spaciousness of the school in the city, after adding the second grade, had become too confined, the congregation erected a large building for school purposes on Jefferson and Seventh streets. Three years ago a third grade was added. The teachers of the city school are, at present: A. Mack, H. H. Eggebrecht, and Miss P. Mohrmann. After separation of the above named two new congregations, the old Immanuels congregation has still, in one of their country districts, a parochial school. Teacher, Mr. R. Hoelscher. After Rev. J. H. Ph. Graebner had been officiating 25 years at St. Charles, the congregation, in May, 1884, celebrated his jubilee, and, at the same time, donated to him valuable gifts.




BIOGRAPHICAL


JOSEPH H. ALEXANDER
(Cashier of the Union Savings Bank, St. Charles)

A plain, unassuming and highly respected citizen of St. Charles county, one whose life thus far has been busily and worthily occupied with the duties and responsibilities his situation seemed to impose, Mr. Alexander is a man whose past is without reproach and whose career has been one of much credit for the industry, perserverance and personal worth he has shown, and for the enviable position in the community he has attained, almost alone by his own exertions and merits, and by means that have never been called in question. Free from all pretention and thoroughly averse to anything that has even the appearance of empty commendation, the greatest difficulty met with in preparing a sketch of his life for the present work is to so speak of his character and worth as to do him justice without giving offense to his almost over-sensitive distaste for all manner of public expressions of approbation. A plain, self-respecting, unassuming man, only such a sketch as shall be in consonance with his character in this respect will be ventured -- a sketch as plain as a naked statement of can render it. Mr. Alexander is a Louisianan by nativity, born in Baton Rouge parish, February 29, 1828. He was the youngest son of Isaac and Mary H. (Miller) Alexander, his father originally from Scotland, but his mother a native of Pennsylvania. Both parents died, however, when Joseph H. was quite young, and he was taken by some relatives of his mother to rear. In early youth his school advantages were very limited. Indeed, at the age of 10 years he had not yet learned the alphabet. But later along he had an opportunity to attend the Montpelier Academy, in St. Helena parish, which he improved. He studied with great assiduity at the academy and made rapid progress in his books. About this time he formed two warm and valuable friendships. Rev. W. H. Parks and Hon. Robert H. Parks kindly interested themselves in his behalf and rendered him material assistance in prosecuting his studies. They gave him instruction in the more difficult English branches and in Latin and Greek. Subsequently they removed to St. Charles county, and young Alexander, having gone to Ohio in 1842, came with his friends to Missouri in 1843 and also located with them in St. Charles county. He was now qualified to teach school, and here, accordingly, he was employed to take charge of a school, which he kept with success through one term. The confinement to the school-room, however, proved injurious to his health, and he therefore engaged in farm work. Still desiring to complete his education, in the spring of 1846 he entered college at St. Charles, where he continued until his final graduation. While taking collegiate course he taught some of the college classes a part of the time, and by so doing defrayed a part of his own expenses at college. Before his graduation young Alexander had decided to devote himself to the legal profession, and with this object in view he began the study of law under his old friend, Hon. Robert H. Parks, immediately after quitting college. After a thorough course of preparatory study he was regularly admitted to the bar in 1850. As an evidence of what his legal attainments were at that time, it is worthy of remark that immediately after his admission he was taken in as a partner in the practice by his former preceptor, Mr. Parks, who was best qualified to judge of his qualifications and ability for the practice. This partnership continued with mutual satisfaction and advantage until 1853, when Mr. Parks retired from the practice, and Mr. Alexander formed a partnership with Hon. Edward A. Lewis, a leading lawyer then and now Chief Justice of the St. Louis Court of Appeals. The practice of law, however, becoming distasteful, on account of a long spell of sickness and general ill-health and for other reasons, Mr. Alexander withdrew from his profession altogether, and in 1864 accepted the position of cashier of the First National Bank. This he continued to hold up to the organization of the present Union Savings Bank, in which he became a stockholder and of which he was elected cashier. He has been in the present bank in the capacity of cashier ever since that time continuously. Mr. Alexander, as all know who know anything about his connection with banking, has made a most efficient and popular cashier. More than this: His thorough knowledge of the people of the county, their characters, and the property standing of each, as well as his excellent business judgment and financial ability and legal training and knowledge, have been of great value to the institutions with which he has been connected. The success of the Union Savings Bank is unquestionably largely due to his good judgment, business qualifications and the thorough confidence which the public have in his personal and business honor. Mr. Alexander is a man whose word, in St. Charles county and wherever he is known, is as good as his bond. No man stands higher than he in the public confidence. He has been an earnest, exemplary member of the Presbyterian Church ever since he was 14 years of age; and he was ordained an elder at the age of 26. His private life is in strict accord with the public professions. Even in his personal habits there is nothing disagreeable, such as using tobacco and other small vices, which are not always in the codex expurgatorius of gentlemen. Mr. Alexander is of course a man of family. He was married December 9, 1851. His wife was a Miss Jane Cornforth, a daughter of William Cornforth of St. Charles, but formerly of England. Mr. and Mrs. A. have seven children: Emily A., now the wife of John B. Martin; Thornton K., now of St. Paul, Minn.; William C., now of Brooksville, Fla.; Josie, a young lady, still at home; Annie L., now attending Lindenwood Female College; Robert P. and Frankie T. Mr. Alexander has never taken any very active interest in politics, but has frequently been called to serve in official positions of a local character, including the office of public administrator of the county. During the regime of the Whig party he was a Whig in politics, but has ever since voted and acted with the Democratic party.


MAJ. BENJAMIN A. ALDERSON
(Retired Farmer and Civil Engineer, St. Charles).

In the early history of railroad building in this country the name that heads this sketch will ever occupy a well recognized and enviable position. Maj. Alderson was a member of one of the first railway surveying corps organized in Baltimore, and assisted to survey the line of one of the first great passenger roads built, the Baltimore and Ohio. He was subsequently connected with railway surveying and construction in the South and West for some 12 or 15 years. After a successful experience in railway engineering Maj. Alderson engaged in agricultural life and has continued identified with farming up to the present time. While he accumulated a comfortable property through his connection with the railroad building, he by no means amassed a large fortune as most of those prominently connected with railroads did in those early days. Opportunities for profitable speculation were abundant, but the setting of all scruples aside for the almight dollar has never been one of his characteristics. What he made, he made as the legitimate and regular reward of his services -- nothing more, nothing less -- and this was all he accumulated in his railroad experience. Maj. Alderson has been a resident of St. Charles county for over 40 years, and is well known here as one of its oldest and most highly respected citizens. He has reared a worthy family of children who have gone out into the world and become well established in life. His past life, though it has not been altogether unclouded by sorrow and misfortune, has been one, nevertheless, in which, upon the whole, there is perhaps as little to regret as usually falls to the lot of men. In the early history of railroad service in this country it was attended with some trials. Frequently citizens along the line of survey made objections, and would order off and drive away the engineer corps, sometimes committing great bodily harm, even to the taking of life. Maj. Alderson had many cases of this kind -- in Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi and Missouri. He was never known to change his line for any threat or bodily attempt to oust him. The only forcible attempt was at Midway, Ky. This physical display of science failed, and was never tried again. Many incidents in a long life, of what we call a self-made man, might be enumerated for the benefit of our young men, but cannot be added here. He is a native of Maryland, born near Jarretsville, in Harford county, November 11, 1810. His father was Judge Abel Alderson, a prominent citizen of that county, but originally from Greenbrier county, Va. His grandfather on his mother's side was the Rev. John Davis, a native of Wales, England. His mother was Miss Anna Amos, a daughter of Benjamin Amos, a well-known citizen of Harford county, Md., and a man remarkable for energy, industry and economy. He amassed a handsome property, consisting of half a dozen farms and several flouring mills, and it is said of him that in one of his earlier days he split 1,000 chestnut rails, half soled a pair of shoes and attended a ball that night. Maj. Alderson's father was for many years a judge of the county court and subsequently represented his county in the State Legislature. He died in 1841, profoundly mourned by the people of the county. Maj. Alderson, when a youth, had a great deal of the spirit of adventure, and longed to get out into the world to deal with the realities and responsibilities of life. Courage and self-reliance have always been among his leading characteristics. At the age of 16 he started out for himself with only a common-school education and his unfearing confidence in himself to make his way successfully through life. He early showed marked talent for mathematics and at school advanced in that science far beyond his years, mastering the higher branches and becoming familiar with surveying and engineering. About this time a surveying party for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad was organized and he felt that this was his opportunity. He at once joined the engineer corps, and soon displayed marked talent for railway surveying. This was only 18 months after he left home, and from this time forward, for a number of years, he was continuously connected with railway engineering and hard study and rose to a prominent position in that profession. After being with the Baltimore & Ohio for about four years he then entered the service of the Baltimore & Washington, and assisted to make the preliminary survey and location of that road, being one of its chief assistant engineers in charge of calculations and drawings. In about 1832 he was employed as assistant engineer to survey the route of the Lexington & Ohio Railroad in Kentucky, and was in the service of that company some three years. After this, in 1835, he was appointed chief of a corps of engineers on the proposed New Orleans and Nashville Railroad, and completed the survey of the route of that road in the same fall. It had now been over nine years since he left Baltimore, where he had previously had charge of a store for about a year, to engage in railway engineering; and accordingly he returned to that city where he spent the following winter. In the spring of 1836 he went to Lexington, Ky., and came thence to St. Charles county, Mo., where he entered about 900 acres of fine land. He then returned to Louisville, Ky., and entered the engineer corps on the surveys, location and construction of the Louisville and Lexington Road, in which position he served for about a year. About this time he was solicited to take charge of the construction of the Natchez & Jackson Railroad, in Mississippi, which he did, receiving a large salary for his services. While employed in this work he also surveyed and located a road from Canton to Jackson, Miss. While in Mississippi he met Miss Matilda Farrar, a highly accomplished young lady of Washington, that State, and of one of the prominent families of the State. Their acquaintance shortly ripened into a devoted attachment and they were happily married in the fall of 1838. Soon after this Maj. Alderson started a large cotton plantation in Louisiana, carried on by slave labor, which he conducted with success until his removal to Missouri, in 1844. Here he went to work improving his large body of land near St. Charles, which he had entered a number of years before. He improved an excellent farm here, and with the exception of one or two short absences has been in this county ever since. From 1848 he was engineer for the St. Louis county rock and plank roads for about three years, and was after this a member of the engineer corps of the old North Missouri, now Wabash Road, for a time. In 1850 he removed to St. Charles and has been a resident of this city ever since. He has a comfortable residence property here and rents out his agricultural lands, in the county. He has always taken a public spirited interest in the cause of education and has been one of the directors and treasurers of Lindenwood Female College for the last 25 years. Maj. Alderson is a ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church. He has been a member of the church for 35 years. Being a man of sterling, old-fashioned ideas of honesty in public affairs, he is of course a Democrat, strongly opposed to the new regime of extravagance and corruption that prevails in the government. Maj. Alderson's first wife died in 1848. There is a daughter surviving of that union. Anna, who is now the wife of Dr. G. W. Weems, of Moberly. His present wife, a niece of Gov. Gamble, of Missouri, was a Miss Mary L. Baxter, formerly of Winchester, Va., a refined and excellent lady. Six children are the fruits of his last marriage, namely: Rev. Samuel B. Alderson, for the past 11 years pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, at Maysville, Ky., but now at Washington C. H., Ohio; Bettie G., the wife of Prof. Joseph C. Watkins, principal of the Male Academy at Pleasant Hill, Mo.; William A., a leading lawyer of Kansas City, Mo.; Fannie, the wife of C. A. Durrell, of Harrisburg, Pa.; David P. and Robert F., the first being second teller and the other a clerk in the Merchants National Bank of Kansas City.


HENRY ANGERT
(Dealer in Groceries, Queen's-ware, Glassware, Etc., St. Charles).

The lesson which Mr. Angert's career teaches is that industry, close attention to business and fair dealing, directed by good business judgment and sustained by unswerving perserverance, will in the end succeed, and succeed abundantly. Squaring his life according to these principles he has come up, as the years have come and gone, from a youth without means and limited education to a prominent position among the leading and influential business men and intelligent and highly respected citizens of St. Charles. Let us then present a brief sketch of life here referred to, that the young who may read this volume may have the opportunity to profit by his example. He was born in St. Charles, November 7, 1845, and was a son of Adam and Mary (Boschert) Angert, his father originally from Hesse Darmstadt, but his mother a native of Baden. Young Angert grew up in St. Charles and had limited school advantages. He afterwards educated himself by study during his leisure hours. At the age of 14 he entered the store of Henry B. Denker as a clerk, where he received that training in business affairs which has since proved the means of his success. Saving up his wages economically, and always acting honorably, he accumulated a little cash; but better than that, won the confidence of men who were ready to advance capital which he could with advantage use. He started in business for himself as a member of the firm of Angert & Brooker, and they continued in business until his partner's death. Since then he has carried on the business alone, and has built up a large business. He carries a well selected and heavy stock of goods, and does a trade that amounts to over $30,000 a year. He has also accumulated considerable property and valuable securities. He is a stockholder in and vice-president of the First National Company, and is prominently connected with other enterprises of the city. Mr. Angert is a man of family. He was married in May, 1869, to Miss Josephine Thro. She died March 24, 1876, leaving a daughter, Mary A. He was married to his present wife in April, 1877. She was the widow of his late partner in business, August Brooker, and her maiden name was Adie Mlitzko, formerly of Vienna, Austria. She came to America unattended by any friend or relative when only 12 years of age. This shows that even then she was not lacking in courage. She has two children by her former marriage: Charles and August Brooker. By the last marriage they have one child: Eugene. Mr. and Mrs. Angert are members of the Catholic Church. Recently Mr. Angert was a candidate for the office of county treasurer, and at the election November 4, 1884, was elected by a handsome majority to this position.


J. H. HENRI BASELER
(Dealer in and Repairer of Sewing Machines, etc., and Maker of Artificial Gallinarium Incubators, St. Charles).

Mr. Baseler is a native of Maryland, born at Baltimore, November 28, 1837. He was the eldest in a family of 11 children of Christian and Helena (Woldmann) Baseler, who came to this country from Germany and settled in Baltimore in 1835. His father was a carriage maker, and followed that occupation at Baltimore until his removal to Fredericksburg, Va., in 1853, where he engaged in business until his death, which occurred in 1863. Mr. Henri Baseler was principally reared at Baltimore and Fredericksburg, Va., but was not brought up to his father's trade on account of being disabled for manual labor by a severe illness which resulted in making him a cripple for life. Furthermore, he early displayed a marked natural talent for music, and the development and cultivation of this was properly encouraged by his parents. He was given a good general education, but special attention was paid to his musical culture. He early became a fine pianist, one of the accomplished performers, in fact, of Baltimore. He was also hardly less proficient on other instruments, and soon became a teacher of music well established and wide reputation. Subsequently he followed music teaching for nearly 20 years, principally piano music. He taught at Fredericksburg, Va., and at other points in the Old Dominion, and later along in West Virginia, North Carolina, and in Missouri. For five years he was professor of music at Hillsboro College, North Carolina, and for two years afterwards he held the chair of music in the Concord Female College of Statesville, that State. In 1867 Mr. Baseler came West, to St. Louis, and there shortly received the appointment of leader of music in the Walnut Street Presbyterian Church, under the pastorate of the Rev. Dr. Brookes, a position he held with eminent satisfaction to the church for a period of some three years. After a residence in St. Louis of about six years, Prof. Baseler came up to St. Charles, where, for a time, he was book-keeper for the Singer sewing machine agency at this place. He engaged in his present business, that of dealing in and repairing sewing machines, in 1876. He also does something incidentally in his old business of repairing musical instruments and carries a stock of gasoline stoves in connection with his other business. Prof. Baseler is a natural machinist as well as an accomplished musician, and is one of the most skillful workmen in repairing the finer classes of machinery that can be had in the county. Recently he has established a gallinarium at St. Charles and thus far has had excellent success in raising poultry. He hatches or incubates his chickens by artificial means, thus greatly economizing the time and labor of his hens, as well as the expense incident to the old-fashioned system, something on the same principle of raising a baby on the bottle. He uses an incubator of his own invention and make. He has found the poultry industry quite profitable and is making it a complete success. Prof. Baseler is a man of culture and pleasant address and commands the consideration of all who know him. In 1866 he was married to Miss Mary A. Woods, a daughter of Capt. A. W. Woods, of Wheeling, W. Va., and a granddaughter of the widow of the noted Maj. McCullough, the great Indian fighter in the early history of that State. The Professor and Mrs. B. have 10 children: Louisa, Nellie, Woods, Libbie, Mary B., Anna, Berta, Harry, Lila, and Edgaretta.


VALENTINE BECKER
(Retired Business-man, St. Charles).

One of the old citizens of St. Charles county, Mr. Becker has proved himself to be also one of its most enterprising and useful citizens. Abundantly successful in business affairs, and now retired on a large property, St. Charles county, and particularly the city of St. Charles, have profited hardly less by his success than he has himself. In all enterprises for the promotion of the best interests of the place and for its growth and prosperity he has been among the foremost with his means, his business ability and his energy. Indeed, for a quarter of a century, and up to within a very recent period, or until his retirement from active affairs, no enterprise would hardly have been thought well on foot, unless he were at the head of it. A sketch of such a citizen as this is therefore well worthy of the space it occupies in the present work. Mr. Becker is a native of Darmstadt, Germany, and was born June 16, 1816. His father, John Becker, was a successful merchant and distiller. His mother's maiden name was Christina Goettlich. Up to the age of 15 young Becker spent most of his time at school. But of an enterprising, adventurous mind, in 1832 he went to Paris, France, where he obtained employment in a brewery, and afterwards worked in that and neighboring cities for about nine years. He then came to the United States in 1841, and for two years worked at the brewery business at St. Louis. In 1844 Mr. Becker came to St. Charles and has made this his home ever since that time. For about five years he was in partnership with Judge Gatzweiler, in merchandising, and then engaged in business alone. This he continued until his retirement from active affairs some years ago. He built a fine business house, where his son and son-in-law are now engaged in business, and also two other valuable business houses. He also built a handsome residence property, one of the finest in the city, a large two-story brick, handsomely set off with a beautiful lawn, ornamented with all kinds of shrubbery and relieved with large stately forest trees. From time to time he built and still owns several other residence properties in St. Charles. He also owns several valuable farms in the county, near or adjacent to the city. Mr. Becker was one of the leading organizers of the First National Bank, and was one of the presidents of that institution, a position he held until he resigned it after a service of 15 years. He also took an active part in organizing the St. Charles Mutual Fire Insurance Company, and was for a long time president of that company. The St. Charles Car Works is another enterprise in the organization of which he took a prominent part. He is still a member of its board of directors. He is now president of the gas company, in which he is a leading stockholder, and he contributed very materially to its success. In short, every enterprise of the city has received material help from his business experience, enterprise and liberality. Mr. Becker was married in 1844. His wife was a Miss Adeline Denny, a daughter of Charles Denny, of St. Charles, but formerly of Germany. They have three children: Ellen, now the wife of Charles Rechtern; Benjamin Franklin, who is in partnership with Mr. Rechtern in business, and Valentine U., who is in business in St. Louis. Mr. Becker, though now 68 years of age, is quite active and well preserved, and seems to have every hope of a long and pleasant Indian summer of life.


A. HENRY BEYL
(Retail Dealer in Liquor, Cigars, Etc., St. Charles).

Mr. Beyl's standing in St. Charles, notwithstanding the Picksniffian prejudices of some against his business, illustrates very aptly and forcibly the truth of the now trite distich of Pope, that --

"Honor and shame from no condition rise;
Act well your part, there all the honor lies."

He is proprietor of the "Bank Saloon," one of the best saloons in St. Charles, and he keeps on hand all standard brands of pure whiskys, wines, beer and other beverages, and a full line of excellent cigars, where the weary and gay and all may find inspiration and solace and comfort in a social glass and a rich fragrant Havana cigar. He also has a billiard hall and an excellent pool table, where those who like an hour's amusement may find it in a pleasant game at his quiet, orderly and respectable house. He takes the position that there is no reason why the saloon business may not be carried on with as much decency and high-tone respectibility as any other class of business, if the proprietor, himself, is a gentleman and determined to enforce gentlemanly conduct in his house. Mr. Beyl's saloon is conducted as orderly as any drug store, dry goods house or millinery shop in St. Charles, and everything is kept neat and attractive. He has been in the business a long time, and has never yet been called upon to account for any breach of decorum or the public peace by the civil authorities. A well educated, refined and civil-mannered gentleman himself, he conducts everything after the order of his own style and character, and is personally popular with all the better classes of St. Charles. A gentleman is a gentleman wherever he may be and in whatever lawful business engaged, and his conduct forcibly illustrates this fact. Mr. Beyl was born and reared in St. Charles, and a son of John Beyl and wife, Mary (Baumer) Beyl. They were from Alsace, in France, but now a part of Germany, and came to America in 1838. His father followed merchandising and died in this county in 1860. Henry was educated in the public and high schools and at the St. Charles College. In 1864 he joined the army, becoming a member of Co. G, Forty-ninth Missouri infantry, Union service, where he continued until he was honorably discharged in December, 1865. He participated in the battle of Spanish Fort and some less engagements. He was wounded once, but by accident, though not seriously. After the war he followed bar-tending until he engaged in business for himself at St. Charles. In the fall of 1874 he was married to Miss Ophelia, a daughter of Nathaniel Jose, deceased. They have four children living: Henry, Lawrence, John and Frank A. One, Willie, is deceased.


FRANK BEZZENBERGER
(County Collector, St. Charles).

Mr. Bezzenberger is one of the youngest county collectors, if he is not the youngest one, in the State, and it is no straining of the truth to say that he is one of the most popular ones. He was elected over an exceedingly strong man, and since he has been installed into office he has so managed its affairs and so borne himself personally with the people that he is far stronger now in popularity than he was when he was elected. He was born and reared in this county, and has therefore been known by the voters of the county from childhood. Well known as his record and character are, both are such as to command the respect and confidence of the public. He was born at St. Charles October 25, 1854, but was principally reared at O'Fallon. Most of his early youth was spent at school, but while still young he entered the telegraph office at that place, which was under the charge of his father, to learn telegraphy. He continued in the telegraph office for about eight years, but not all the time at O'Fallon. For some time he was in the St. Charles office and then in the office at Martinsburgh. While at O'Fallon he was also railroad and express agent. He became well known on the road as one of the best agents and operators on the entire line, and was very popular, both with officers and employes. Possessed of the qualities of personal popularity he, of course, became well acquainted over the county, and made a wide circle of friends and acquaintances. In 1880 he was induced by his friends to become a candidate for collector, and although it was his first experience in politics, he made a handsome and very creditable race, notwithstanding he was pitted against Henry Kemper, then the county collector and one of the most popular men in the county. The race he made was so encouraging to his friends that they enthusiastically groomed him for a second heat, which was made in 1882. This time he had a regular thoroughbred to measure necks with, Charles Johann, an old timer, who had run many a race in St. Charles county and had never been beaten. But as the young "flyers" come up they are gradually lowering the time of the old stages; so young Bezzenberger beat the time of his older match, Johann, by 31 points, or votes, and without once breaking wind. Mr. Bezzenberger has made a very popular collector, and will doubtless distance all the field for re-election, if any prove misguided enough to turn against him. October 17, 1877, he was married to Miss Emma Krekel, a daughter of Nicholas Krekel, Esq., of O'Fallon, and a niece of Judge Arnold Krekel, of the U. S. district court. Mr. and Mrs. Bezzenberger have three children: Laura, Bertha and Ida. Mr. B. has a good farm near O'Fallon, which he now has rented out. Mr. Bezzenberger's parents are Joseph and Catherine (Seigler) Bezzenberger, both of German ancestry, his father from Moench Roth, Wurtemberg, and his mother from Pennsylvania. His father was born June 24, 1824, and his parents were Fred W. and May (Uhl) Bezzenberger. Joseph Bezzenberger came to America in 1848, and after three years spent at New York located in St. Charles county. For a time he followed farming on the river, a short distance above St. Charles, after which he obtained a clerkship in the store of Mr. Gatzweiler, with whom he remained two years. After this he was in Mr. Hodapp's store for about ten years. Two years later, during which he was in business for himself, he became railroad and express agent at O'Fallon, and continued there for 20 years, or until he became deputy collector, in March, 1883, under his son. He was married in 1850 to Miss Catherine Seigler, a daughter of John Seigler, an early settler and respected citizen of this county, but now deceased. It should be stated by way of correction that after 1880 he was railroad agent at Richfield for about six months, and then he clerked in a store at O'Fallon for about a year. He and his good wife reared six children: Catherine, now Mrs. Peter Wildberger; Frank, referred to above; Luena, now Mrs. Antone F. Mispagel; William, of Martinsburgh; Edward, telegraph operator at St. Charles, and Josephine, still at home.


AUGUST F. BLESSE
(Retired Business-man, St. Charles).

Mr. Blesse, who has had a successful experience in the material affairs in life and is now retired on a competence, with his means profitably invested, came to America in 1848, a young man practically without a dollar. He is a native of Germany, born in the province of West Velin, December 17, 1829. He was the second in the family of six children of Frederick and Elizabeth Blesse, and was reared in his native province up to his nineteenth year. Meanwhile, his brother Carl had come to America in 1845, and was in a printing office at St. Louis. Three years after August F. also came to this county and located at St. Louis. There he engaged in steamboating which he followed for some years. He then obtained a position in the custom house where he continued until 1858, when he located at Wentzville and established a liquor and cigar store. Mr. Blesse came to St. Charles in 1861, moving his business from Wentzville to this place. Three years later he established the Western House, which he ran successfully for 18 years, or until 1881. He was quite successful in the hotel business, and his house achieved a wide and enviable reputation, not only for the excellence of the table set but for the cleanliness and comfort of its lodging accommodations, and for the general air of home comfort which characterized its management. Mr. Blesse is a prominent stockholder in the St. Charles Bank, and is a director of that institution. For over 20 years he was actively engaged in dealing in horses and mules, and he still does considerable business in this line. In the fall of 1883 Mr. Blesse took the contract for building a levee along the river from St. Charles towards St. Louis. Mr. Blesse is a man of family. He was married in 1854, June 26, to Miss Elizabeth Dierker, a daughter of Victor and Clara Dierker, formerly of Germany. Mrs. B.'s father died in Wentzville, in 1865, and her mother in 1866. Her father was a farmer by occupation. Mr. and Mrs. Blesse have reared six children, who are living: Frederick V., now cashier at the bank of Eagle Pass, Texas; Laura E., wife of John A. Koelling; William F. and George F., of Mexico, Mo.; and Henry J. and Mattie, both of whom are at home. Two besides are deceased. Mr. Blesse is a man of public spirit and liberality, and has given very generously to the church and other institutions and enterprises.


GEORGE H. BLOEBAUM
(Dealer in Coal, Wood, Etc., St. Charles).

Wilhelm H. Bloebaum was a German by nativity and a cabinet maker. Cincinnati became his first place of settlement in this country. He located there from Germany in 1840. Of course the people of all countries marry, those of one as well as of another. So Mr. Bloebaum, who was a young man when he came to this country, married some years afterwards. Miss Mary E. Scholle became his wife. They lived in Cincinnati, he engaged in his trade and she attended to her household duties, until 1859, when in obedience to a general law of the human race they moved on westward. Mr. and Mrs. Bloebaum settled in St. Charles. Subsequently they located on a farm in this county, and here Mr. Bloebaum pursued the peaceful occupation of a husbandman until the evening of life darkened into the opaqueness fo the grave. He died in 1865, respected by all who knew him and mourned deepest by those who knew him best. His good wife survived him until 1881, when she, too, passed over to the other shore of the silent and endless river. They reared a family of five children and in this family George H., the subject of the present sketch, was the fourth. He was born at Cincinnati, October 25, 1853. As George H. grew up he secured a good public school education, and before attaining his majority learned the painter's trade, which he followed with good success until 1879. He then engaged in farming, and was an energetic tiller of the soil for five years. But in 1884 Mr. Bloebaum, Jr., came to St. Charles and opened up his present business. People have to be kept warm through the cold winter months, and he who contributes to this humane service performs a good of no ordinary consideration for his fellow creatures. So Mr. Bloebaum looks at it, and while he is engaged in a profitable business, he has the satisfaction of knowing that he is at the same time engaged in a benign work of humanity. He has one of the best wood and coal yards in the city and is doing a good business. Of course the man in whom the quality of human kindness is so largely developed as it is in Mr. Bloebaum, would unavoidably marry. Accordingly, in 1880, he had the beatific felicity to be united in happy marriage with Miss Mary Huelskemper, a daughter of Henry Huelskemper, formerly of Germany. They have two children, Amanda and Dora. Mr. Bloebaum is a member of the Union Fire Company, No. 1.


JOHN HENRY BODE
(Editor and Proprietor of the St. Charles Demokrat).

Mr. Bode is a native of Germany, born in Hanover, January 25, 1844. At the age of eight years he was brought to America by his parents, who immigrated to the United States in 1852. They disembarked at New Orleans and thence came up the river to St. Louis, where they made their home for a short time. In 1853, however, they removed to St. Charles, and are still residing at this city. They had a family of 10 children, of whom four sons and a daughter are living. John H. Bode was principally reared in St. Louis and received a good common-school education. He subsequently took a course at commercial college, and when a youth learned the printing business. Prior to 1865 he traveled quite extensively, working at his trade in different cities, and then located at St. Charles permanently. Here he was married to Miss Charlotte Rahmoeller. They have eight children, two of them being deceased. In 1864 Mr. Bode took charge of the St. Charles Demokrat, and has since been conducting it as editor and proprietor. The Demokrat is a German weekly, Democratic in politics, and the leading organ of German opinion outside of St. Louis in the State. It has a large circulation, is on a good business footing and is an established and valuable piece of newspaper property. Mr. Bode is a cultured, vigorous writer, a man of honest, earnest convictions and not afraid to express them; and he has infused into the Demokrat a vigor and vitality manifest to the most casual observer. Mr. Bode is one of the public-spirited citizens of St. Charles and is an active worker for the advancement of every enterprise calculated to benefit the place. He is prominently connected with several industrial enterprises and has already taken a position among the substantial citizens of the place. In politics he is a Democrat, and in denominational preference, a Lutheran. He is a member of the A.O.U.W. His family are noted for their longevity. Both his grandparents on his father's side died at advanced ages, and his paternal uncles are still living at Osnabruck, Germany, one at the age of 80 and the other past 70.


HENRY BORGMAN
(Manufacturer of Brick, St. Charles).

Mr. Borgman came to the United States in 1835, when he was a lad of only about 11 years of age. He was born in Prussia, September 6, 1824. His father was John A. Borgman, and his mother's maiden name was Catharine Schaberg. There were eight children in the family, of whom Henry was the youngest. After residing in St. Charles county for about five years with his sister, Mrs. Gausman, young Borgman, when 16 years of age, went to St. Louis, where he obtained employment at a brick-yard as brick-bearer, and learned the brick-making business. He remained there until 1850, and in the meantime was married to Miss Marie Stahlhuth, a daughter of Ernest Stahlhuth, formerly of Hanover. In 1850, after his marriage, Mr. Borgman came to St. Charles and engaged in the brick business. He is still engaged in the same business at this place, and has made it a complete success. He runs three kilns with a capacity of 300,000 brick, and at times has worked as high as six corps of men, making nearly 1,000,000 brick. Mr. Borgman has served as city councilman, but has never sought or desired any position of political preferment. Mr. and Mrs. Borgman have four children: Sophia, wife of J. G. Gundlach, a physician of Ottawa, Ill.; Helen, the wife of Prof. D. Y. Bagby, now of Texas; Edward, now of St. Louis, whose wife was a Miss Fannie Roberts, formerly of Quincy, Ill.; and Samuel, who is still at home. Mr. and Mrs. Borgman are members of the M. E. Church.


HENRY BROEKER
(House, Sign and Ornamental Painter, St. Charles).

Mr. Broeker is a native of Germany, born in Westphalia, Prussia, in 1849. He was the second in a family of five children of Henry and Elizabeth (Reckhaus) Broeker, his father a farmer by occupation. The father died in 1856 and the mother in 1872. Henry was reared in Westphalia, and attended school until he was about 14 years of age, when he commenced the painter's trade. He learned that trade and worked at it in his native country until 1869, when he came to America and located in St. Louis. Shortly afterwards he came up to St. Charles, and has ever since followed his trade at this place. Mr. Broeker understands his trade thoroughly and receives a liberal patronage. In 1872 he was married to Miss Mary Miller, a daughter of Joseph Miller, a carpenter by trade. Mr. and Mrs. Broeker have six children: Lizzie, Henry, Allie, Frank, Eugene and Ella. he and wife are members of the Catholic Church, and Mr. Broeker is a member of the I.O.O.F and of the A.F. and A.M.


LOUIS BRUCKER
(Of Louis Brucker & Bro., Dealers in Furniture and Variety Goods, St. Charles).

Mr. Brucker started out in life for himself when a young man without means and to make his own way in the world, independent of all manner of help. As the good, old-fashioned Pedo-Baptist preacher used to say, "he has fought the fight and won the race;" and is now one of the substantial business men and responsible, well respected citizens of the community where he lives. He and his brother have a large double store filled with a heavy stock of furniture, queen's-ware, glassware and an innumerable variety of other goods and are doing an extensive and lucrative business. They are cash men in every sense of the word, both as purchasers and sellers and are therefore always on the safe side of the market, so that there is no chance to break, while they have every advantage to make money. Mr. Brucker was born in St. Louis, February 26, 1847. His father, Joseph A. Brucker, was from Baden, Germany, and came over to this country when a young man. He married in St. Louis Miss Mary Anna Schwarz of which union the subject of this sketch was born. At the age of 15, Louis began to learn the trunk-maker's trade which he acquired. He had fair school advantages and besides the ordinary and night schools, attended St. Mary's school one year. When 18 years of age he went to Montana and spent three years out there engaged in clerking and teaming. He then returned to St. Louis and worked at his trade until 1874, or for about six years. Early the next year he came to St. Charles and started a second-hand furniture store April 14, 1875, and two years later put in a stock of new goods. The business has since developed into its present respectable proportions. May 7, 1874, he was married to Miss Josephine Hodapp, a daughter of Wendelin Hodapp, deceased. Mrs. B. was born and reared in St. Charles. They have one child, Joseph W. Louis, their oldest child, died at the age of four years. Mr. and Mrs. B. are members of the Catholic Church, and Mr. Brucker is a member of the St. Charles Benevolent Society, of the Catholic Knights of America, and of the St. Charles Borromeo Sodality.


JOHN B. BRUCKER
(Of Louis Brucker & Bro., Dealers in Furniture and Variety Goods, St. Charles).

The successful business experience of the above named firm has already been spoken of in the sketch of Mr. B.'s brother, Louis Brucker. Suffice it, therefore, in this connection to give a sketch of the life and career merely of the gentleman whose name stands at the head of this short biography, one of the members of the above named firm. Mr. Brucker is a self-made man and has acquired all he has by his own energy and good business judgment. He was born in St. Louis, April 7, 1843, and received a good, ordinary English education. Three years of his boyhood were spent in a store in St. Louis, and he then came to St. Charles county, remaining at Foristell principally. In 1864 he went with some teams to Montana, where he teamed for about two years, and for two years was engaged in mining. Returning in 1868 he engaged in merchandising in the grocery and variety store lines, which he continued until 1874, when he was in the saloon business for about a year. As already stated, he and his brother began their present business here in 1875 and have had good success. April 11, 1877, Mr. Brucker was married to Miss Gaugh, a daughter of John C. Gaugh, of St. Charles. They have two children: Mary J. and Adelia T. Mr. and Mrs. B. are members of the Catholic Church, and he is also a member of the Catholic Knights of America.


HON. THEODORE BRUERE
(Attorney-at-Law and President of the St. Charles Savings Bank, St. Charles).

Among the large number of citizens of Missouri of foreign birth who, by their own exertions and deserts, have risen to positions of enviable prominence in affairs may, with entire truth and justice, be classed the subject of the present sketch. Mr. Bruere came to this country when a young man, about 19 years of age, practically penniless and a stranger. Indeed, he had but half a Prussian dollar when he first touched American soil in New York in 1850. But as the sequel has shown he possessed the qualities which enable one to make a successful career. Coming of an excellent family in Prussia, he was a young man of sterling integrity of character, bright and active intelligence, and had improved his advantages well as he grew up by securing an advanced and thorough education. His father Jean Bruere, of French-Huguenot descent, was a successful and prominent architect and builder of Cologne, and a man of culture and enviable social standing. Mr. Bruere's mother, whose maiden name was Wilhelmine Taeger, was a lady of refinement and many estimable qualities of head and heart. But while Theodore was yet a youth his father was taken away by death, leaving a family of eight children and their mother, so that young Bruere, the subject of this sketch, was to a certain extent thrown on his own resources. At the age of 19 he came to America, and after landing at New York obtained employment for a short time as civil engineer. The following fall, however, he came West to St. Louis, but finding no employment proceeded on up the river to Warren county. There he was employed for a short time as night watchman in a mill, but soon afterwards went to work at farm labor. It was not long, however, until his character and qualifications became known to those around him, and in the spring of 1852 he was employed by Judge Walter to take charge of a class, consisting of the Judge's children and some others, in Latin and the higher branches. About this time he formed the acquaintance of Judge Krekel, who was then conducting the St. Charles Demokrat, and upon whom he made a very favorable impression. The result was that he was offered a situation as editorial writer on the Demokrat, which he accepted, and in order to do that he resigned the charge of his class given him by Judge Walter. While writing for the Demokrat he also studied law under Judge Krekel, and in 1854 entered the law department of Cincinnati College, where he took a regular course and graduated in the class of '55 with distinguished honor. In his class were such men as Gen. Ewing of Ohio, Hon. W. H. Corwin, Gov. Alfred C. Jenkins and others, then young men, among the brightest in the country. But even among the young Bruere graduated among the first in his class. After his graduation he returned to Missouri and was examined for admission to the bar by Judge John F. Ryland of the Supreme court, who subjected him to a thorough examination, and at its close complimented him very highly. Immediatley following his admission to the bar Mr. Bruere entered actively upon the practice of his profession at St. Charles, in the courts of neighboring counties and in the Supreme court. Shortly afterwards he was elected surveyor of St. Charles county, an office he held for four years. He also held the office of city engineer for three years. In 1863 he was appointed city attorney of St. Charles, and the duties of that position he discharged for a period of seven years, consecutively. Three years after his appointment to the office of city attorney he was elected to the State Senate. In the Senate Mr. Bruere soon took a leading position, as an able and upright legislator, a sound lawyer and a forcible, eloquent, effective speaker. During the last two years of his term in the Senate he was chairman of the judiciary committee and was the recognized leader of his party in that body. He also held important positions on the committees on education, State University, Deaf and Dumb Asylum, etc. In 1868 he was elected a member of the Electoral College from this State on the Republican ticket, and cast his vote with the other Missouri electors for Gen. Grant. Since then he has been a prominent member of a number of conventions of the Republican party. He was the Secretary of the State convention of 1872 and a delegate of his Congressional district to the national conventions at Philadelphia in 1872, at Cincinnati in 1876, and at Chicago in 1884. Since the organization of the Republican party in Missouri he has been identified with that party. Prior to that, as was the case with most German-Americans in Missouri, including his old-time friend Judge Arnold Krekel, now of the United States District court, he voted and acted with the Democratic party. His first vote was cast in 1856 for James Buchanan. Mr. Bruere has always taken an active interest in the cause of education, and has been one of its warmest and most useful friends in this county. Himself a man of thorough education and superior mental culture, he fully appreciates the advantage and importance of learning, and believes that the means of obtaining knowledge should be placed in the reach of every youth in the land. For the last 21 years he has been a member of and the secretary of the St. Charles school board. He has made numerous trips to Europe, with an eye both to meeting old friends and to the enlargement of his general stock of information. He has traveled extensively in Europe and has been a close observer and student of affairs on the other side of the Atlantic. In his conversation and personal bearing he shows that polish and the ease and dignity of presence which almost invariably characterize the man of culture and thorough acquaintance with the world. Mr. Bruere has been actively engaged in the practice of law throughout the whole of his career from his first admission to the bar. In his profession he has been very successful, and has not only acquired a good property but has won an enviable reputation as an able and honorable lawyer. A man of more strength of mind than brilliancy, he depends not so much on display or flashy expedients for success in his practice as upon the sober, common sense soundness of the position he takes in a given case, as viewed from the standpoint of the law and the facts provided. He is what is commonly termed a hard worker in his profession, and being thoroughly honest with himself, as with all, he first satisfies himself that he is right in a cause and then leaves nothing undone which might be properly done to bring his case to a successful issue. A man of sober, sound judgment and a close student of the law, he has long since won the name of being one of the safest, best counsellors at the bar in this circuit. As a speaker, he is clear, polished and forcible; pleasant and entertaining to hear and logical and convincing in his arguments. Mr. Bruere was one of the organizers of the St. Charles Savings Bank in 1867, and has been its president ever since that time. While on a visit to Europe in 1857 he was married to Miss Minna Taeger, near the University of Heidelberg, in Southern Germany. Mr. Bruere is a man of fine social qualities, and is highly esteemed as a member of the best society at St. Charles and wherever he is known.


CAPTAIN LORENZO COTTLE
(Retired Farmer, St. Charles).

Capt. Cottle is one of the oldest living native born residents of the county,and is well known as one of the most highly respected citizens. He has served his country in two wars, but has rendered it even more valuable service as an industrious farmer and law-abiding, useful citizen. In the years of his activity he accumulated considerable property and was the founder of the town of Cottleville, in this county. He still has a modest competence, and in the Indian summer of life is comfortably situated at his home in St. Charles. What is perhaps better still, a life of sobriety and good habits have preserved to him in old age much physical vigor and his mental activity unimpaired -- these, notwithstanding the hardships he endured in the pioneer days of the country and the exposures he underwent as a soldier of the republic in the swamps and everglades of Florida and in the malarial and then uninhabited regions of the Upper Arkansas, the Red river and the extreme South-west. Capt. Cottle was born in St. Charles county, near the present site of Cottleville, September 13, 1811. He was a son of Warren Cottle and wife, nee Salome Cottle, who were cousins and pioneer settlers in St. Charles county. They came here as early as 1800 and were from Vermont. The father was a physician by profession and a man of collegiate education. The mother was likewise a lady of culture and refinement. Dr. Cottle's father was Warren Cottle, Sr., and his mother's maiden name was Relief Farnsworth. The parents of the Doctor's wife were John and Elizabeth (Allen) Cottle. Dr. Cottle obtained land in this county under a Spanish "grant" and opened a farm; he also erected a mill, one of the first ever built in the county, and followed the practice of his profession. The latter was not profitable, however, in those early days for the people had little or no money to pay a physican and 'coon skins were a "drug" on the market; he nevertheless became a man of comfortable means, for those times, and reared his family in comfort and with the limited advantages for mental improvements the country afforded. In religious sentiment he was a Universalist, and in politics an earnest, consistent Whig; he was a man of temperate habits, sterling intelligence and a kind, generous heart, and was greatly esteemed by all who knew him; he died near what is now Cottleville, in June, 1821; his good wife died on the same family homestead in 1845, having spent 24 years after her husband's death in widowhood. They had eight children, and some of them were still young at the time of their father's death, so that the responsibility of caring for them and bringing them up devolved largely upon the mother. Of this she acquitted herself with singular fidelity and devotion, and her memory is cherished as that of one of the best of mothers. The children are Alonzo, Olive, Fidelo, Alvard, Lorenzo, Pauline, Ora and Othello. Olive died in early maidenhood; Pauline is the wife of Henry Bates, of Sonoma, Cal., and Ora resides at Wellsville, Mo. The others are deceased, except the subject of this sketch, but lived to reach years of maturity and become the heads of families. Lorenzo Cottle, the subject of this sketch, was reared on his father's farm near Cottleville, and received only a primary education, including reading, writing, arithmetic, etc., in the neighborhood schools of the period. He inherited 200 acres of land from his father's estate, on which he early began the improvement of a farm. At the age of 20, early in 1831, he enlisted under Capt. Nathan Boone in a company of mounted rangers for the Black Hawk War, and served for 12 months. A sketch of the service of this company is given in Chapter VI., on a former page, the principal facts for which were furnished by Capt. Cottle himself, one of the few survivors of the company. We shall therefore not take space here to recount the events of that campaign. After the expiration of his term of service, the Black Hawk War having closed sometime before, Capt. Cottle returned home and was occupied with farming until the call of Gov. Boggs for volunteers for the Florida War. That was in 1837, and in the fall of that year he enlisted in Capt. Jackson's company of mounted militia. The campaign of the Missouri volunteers is also given in the chapter above referred to, as recounted by Capt. Cottle. It should be noted here, however, that many interesting incidents and thrilling adventures related by him, which are entirely worthy of publication, were necessarily omitted for want of space in which to give them. After the Missourians closed the Florida War by the brilliant victory of Lake Okeechobee they returned to St. Louis and were honorably mustered out of service. Capt. Cottle then came on home and bought a country store and engaged in merchandising. In 1839 he laid out the town of Cottleville on his land, including the site of that place, and sold and gave away a number of valuable lots. The place had a substantial growth and he did a good business at Cottleville or some years and until he retired from merchandising, by selling out, in order to resume farming. He then located on a farm which he bought in Lincoln county, but two years later traded that for a place in this county and moved back to old St. Charles, the county of his birth, in 1847. Meanwhile, on the 5th of February, 1840, he was married to Miss Violeta Killiam, a daughter of Elizabeth Killiam, nee McClay, of St. Charles, Mo. She survived 13 years, dying January 5, 1853. His second wife was a Miss Sarah Green, daughter of James Green and Rachel Green, nee Yarnell, to whom he was married December 15, 1853. She died May 12, 1862. To his present wife he was married November 30, 1865. After returning to this county from Lincoln county, Mr. Cottle continued farming until 1876, when he bought property in St. Charles and located where he now resides. After coming here he carried on a broom factory for some six years, but in 1883 retired from all regular business, and since then has occupied himself with attending his garden and in other light employments about his home. His retirement from active work was made necessary by a stroke of paralysis, which occurred in 1883. This was the severest physical affliction he had received since the battle of Okeechobee, and although not quite so critical as the wound he received there, it has proved far more serious in its results. From that he shortly recovered, but from this he has little hope of a thorough recovery. His wound was received in the final charge on the Seminoles, when he was shot in the neck, the ball ranging down and breaking his collar bone. It first struck the bow of his necktie, or, rather, his "stock," as it was then called, and but for that would unquestionably have proved fatal. As it was, it was quite a painful and serious wound. Capt. Cottle, although not engaged himself in active farming, has two excellent farms in the county, which are occupied by tenants. His homestead in St. Charles consists of 10 town lots, on which he has a good residence building, a good barn, a neat garden and other convenient and comfortable improvements. In political affiliations he is a conservative Democrat and in religious conviction a Universalist. After his return from the Florida War, he served as captain of militia under the old muster law. Indeed, while in Florida he was practically captain of his company, for he had seen service in the Black Hawk War, was well posted in military tactics, a good drill master and was relied upon by the captain of the company, who had had no experience in military life, to lead the men in every emergency. Capt. Cottle is a man who has always been an intelligent and discriminating reader. He takes several newspapers, reads an excellent class of literature, such as historical and religious works, and is a man of intelligence and good information. Now, in his retirement, his time is spent with his books and newspapers and in his garden and orchard. His wife is a companionable, good woman, and their married life is one of singular serenity and happiness. She was a Miss Sarah M. Barricklom, of this county, but had been married to Jerome Coonan, who died in 1857. His first wife was a native of Vermont, but came to Missouri with her parents at an early day. His second wife was born and reared in this county. Capt. Cottle's present wife is a native of Indiana, born in Dearborn county, on the 10th of November, 1830. Her father removed to St. Charles county with his family in 1839 and bought the Flanders Callaway farm, where she was reared. Mrs. Cottle was the eldest of four children, all daughters, and her father died when they were still quite young. Their opportunities for an education were, of course, very limited. She, however, and her sisters succeeded in securing a good common English education. She is a lady of fine intelligence and, considering her opportunities in early life, a woman of more than ordinary information and mental culture. In 1840 she was married to Mr. Coonan. He survived, however, only eight years, and in 1865 she was married to her present husband. Her mother is still living at the age of 85, having been born in Washington county, Pa., in 1799. Her father's parents first removed to Bourbon county, Ky., and thence, in 1829, to Dearborn county, Ind. There she was married to Charles J. Barricklom, who became the mother of Mrs. Cottle. Her father was originally from New Jersey, born in January, 1779, and a son of Conrad Barricklom, who removed to Pennsylvania in an early day. Mrs. Cottle's father was of German descent, but her mother was of English ancestry. Mr. Cottle has four children living by his first wife.


HENRY C. DALLMEYER
(Dealer in Furniture and Undertaker, St. Charles).

Mr. Dallmeyer, one of the leading business men at St. Charles in his line, was born and reared in this county, and a son of Henry and Gertrude Dallmeyer, who came from Germany in 1846. Henry C. was born September 18, 1856, and was reared and educated at this place. In 1872 he began to learn the cabinet maker's trade, and has since continued to work at it. In 1877 he opened a furniture store for himself at St. Charles on Second and Franklin Streets, where he still continues the business. Two years after opening his furniture store he established an undertaking business in connection with it. In order to obtain a knowledge of this business he attended the Cincinnati school for embalming dead bodies, where he thoroughly qualified himself for the duties of funeral undertaking. He now carries a full line of burial cases, coffins, caskets, etc., etc., and is prepared to conduct funerals with entire satisfaction on the shortest notice. In 1881 Mr. Dallmeyer was married to Miss Josephine Meinsohn, a daughter of John B. and Gertrude (Schulte) Meinsohn, formerly of Germany. Mr. and Mrs. D. have two children, Joseph and Sophia. He and wife are members of the Catholic Church.


CAPT. HENRY B. DENKER
(Grocer, Pork Packer and Vice-President of the St. Charles Car Works).

Not without justice Capt. Denker is conceded to hold an enviable position among the prominent, self-made business men of St. Charles. With but unlimited means to commence with when a young man, and with no influence to help him along except his own good name and upright conduct, with these and by untiring industry and intelligent, energetic management, he has steadily come up until he now occupies a place of marked consideration in the business affairs of the community and as a citizen. Like many of the better people of St. Charles county, he is a native of Hanover, born January 30, 1839. At the age of 20 he emigrated to America, and came directly to St. Charles county. The following year he located at the city of St. Charles, where he obtained a clerkship in a store. He was here less than a year when the war broke out, and he at once enlisted in the Union service, becoming a member of Co. A., St. Charles County Home Guards. He first served as second lieutenant. Subsequently he was elected first lieutenant, in which capacity he served until the close of his term. Enlisting again in the service, he was now elected captain of Co. E, Twenty-second Missouri infantry, continuing in the command of that company until after the close of the war. Meanwhile, however, he had become interested in merchandising as a partner in business in St. Charles, and he has ever since continued to carry on business at this place. He has been in the grocery business for many years, and has long been sole proprietor of one of the leading grocery houses, if not the leading one of St. Charles. He carries an unusually large stock of groceries, queen's-ware, glassware, wooden ware, etc., etc., and has an annual trade of from $35,000 to $50,000. Capt. Denker is a man of energy and enterprise, not to be satisfied with what the average of men would take to be enough work for one man. He is interested in different business enterprises, including pork-packing on quite an extensive scale. He packs from 3,000 to 5,000 hogs a year. He was also largely instrumental in the establishment of the car works at this place and he subscribed liberally to the stock of the company. He was elected vice-president of the company and has held that position in its management ever since. Capt. Denker has never been troubled with political aspirations, but has, nevertheless, been frequently called into service of the county in an official capacity. One of the substantial citizens of the county, and a man in whom the people have unquestioned confidence, both in point of integrity and business qualifications, he was three times elected to the office of county treasurer. He is a prominent stockholder in the Union Savings Bank, and is vice-president of that instittuion. In the fall of 1864 he was married to Miss Mary Myer, a daughter of Ludwig Myer, deceased, late of the county, but formerly of Hanover. Mrs. D. was educated at the Convent of the Sacred Heart, and is a lady of superior intelligence. Mr. and Mrs. D. have five children: Henry L., Anna, Tillie, Annette and Edwin. Mr. and Mrs. Denker are members of the German Catholic Church.


DR. JAMES WADDY DAVIS
(Editor of the Cosmos, St. Charles).

Like, perhaps, a majority of the members of American families in St. Charles county, the subject of this sketch is a native of Virginia. He was born in the city of Richmond, August 28, 1843. His parents' families on each side had long been settled in the Old Dominion. His father was Hardin Davis, and his grandfather James Davis, both born and reared in that State. His mother was Miss Mary Emily Thompson, a daughter of John Thompson, of Cumberland county. Dr. Davis' father was a contractor and builder, and died in Virginia in 1850, his first wife having preceded her husband to the grave about a year. Of their two children, the Doctor, who was the elder, is the only one living.

He was reared in Richmond, and was pursuing a collegiate course at the Baptist College there when the Civil War broke out. In 1861-62 he was a student at Randolph and Macon College, then located in Mecklenburg county, Va. In the winter of 1862 he became a student of the Medical College of Virginia at Richmond, and upon his graduation in the spring of 1864, was appointed resident physician of the college hospital. In August of the same year, he passed a successful examination before the Army Medical Board, and was appointed assistant surgeon in the Confederate army. After a service of a few months in hospital, he was assigned to the Forty-sixth Virginia infantry in Lee's army and remained there until the close of the war.

In the summer of 1865 he located in Hanover county, and followed the practice of his profession there until the spring of 1874, when he came west and located at New Melle, in St. Charles county, where he was engaged in the active practice of medicine until 1877, when he accepted the position of editor of the Cosmos, with which paper he has since been connected in that position. He has proven himself to be not only a good writer, but of excellent judgment in directing the editorial policy of the paper. One may be a ready, versatile and pointed writer, yet from lack of good judgment, wholly unfit for the management of the editorial department of a paper, where a single injudicious article, however well written, will do more to destroy its prestige than a year of hard sensible work can overcome. Dr. Davis had the good sense to see and appreciate this at the beginning, and he has always been careful to preserve a dignity and self-respect in all that he has written, as well as in the general editorial management of the paper, allowing nothing ridiculously extreme or fanatical to appear in its columns, and aiming always to give it a good moral tone. He has been careful to give no worthy man just cause of complaint for anything published of a personal nature, his view of the province of the editor being that there is enough to write about without entering into personalities, of an abusive, scurrilous or insulting character; enough to do the work for the material and general progress of the community, which his paper endeavors to serve, and for purity and impartiality in public affairs. Under this policy the Cosmos has become well established as one of the representative country journals of the State. Dr. Davis is a man of good education, gentlemanly instincts and a ready and versatile writer, eminently fitted for the position he occupies in the editorial control of the Cosmos.

On the 19th of July, 1865, he was married in Washington, D.C., to Miss Anna E. Apperson, a daughter of James L. and Mary (Burke) Apperson, of Richmond, Va. They have four children: Lawrence S., Mary E., Hardin M. and Virginia A. Two of their children, James W. and Bessie, died in infancy. Dr. Davis is a member of Ivanhoe Lodge No. 1812, Knights of Honor.


ALBERT DEEMAR
(Warden of the County Asylum, St. Charles).

Mr. Deemar was born in the province of Nassau, February 14, 1832, and was a son of Philip and Catharine (Fischer) Deemar, of the same province. He was reared there, and after he grew up learned the tavern business, or keeping hotel and bar. In 1850 he came to the United States and located in Bloomington, Ill. About 18 months later he came to St. Charles county, and was engaged in keeping hotel and bar at different points in this county almost continuously up to the time of taking charge of the asylum in 1878. He was for 14 years justice of the peace, and was also, for a time, notary public. He has had charge of the asylum ever since his appointment six years ago, and has done much to improve the condition of the institution. He is a kind-hearted man, a good manager and industrious, and is evidently the right man in the right place where he now is. May 20, 1859, he was married to Miss Mary A. Trendley, a daughter of Joseph Trendley, deceased, who located at St. Peters. They have three sons: Henry V., George A. and Herbert H. He and wife are members of the Catholic Church. He is a member of the Catholic Knights of America.


CAPT. JOHN F. DIERKER
(Liveryman and Undertaker, St. Charles).

When the war broke out in 1861, Capt. Dierker was engaged in merchandising at Wentzville. He had started out for himself without anything, and had worked hard and economized closely to get a start. He had been in business for some years before, and had started in the first place in Callaway township in a small way. By close attention to business and good management he had steadily progressed on the career of success until finally, removing to Wentzville, he established a good store and had a large and increasing trade, but, patiently and faithfully as he had worked to establish himself in business life, when Ft. Sumpter was fired upon his loyalty and patriotism overshadowed every consideration of self-interest, and he unhestitatingly threw himself into the conflict for the preservation of the Union. He turned his key on his store and left it to care for itself and went to work at once recruiting for the service of the Government, whose benign laws and institutions he knew so well how to appreciate, and which should be dearer than life to every patriotic man. He organized the company of independents of which he was elected captain, and after the expiration of that term of service he became captain of Co. I, of the Eighth Missouri infantry. When his second term expired he again entered the army, as did his whole company, which became a part of the Forty-ninth Missouri. Capt. Dierker led his company with courage and ability until the close of the war, and saw much hard and dangerous service in Missouri and in the far-off-sun-scorched land of cinnamon seed and sandy bottom. He was in numerous engagements in this State, and had the pleasure of swinging around the circle after Price, on the latter's last raid. He was also in the battles of Montgomery, Ala., and Augusta, Ga. After the war he returned home and found that although the "Rebs," had not gotten away with the Union, they had pretty effectually cleaned out his stock of goods, and that he had to begin again at the bottom of the ladder, so to speak. While in the army he was frequently offered promotion, but having promised his men that he would stay with them as their captain when they enlisted, he faithfully kept his word and uniformally declined all proffered advancement in the command. After his return he started a hotel, which he kept for about two years, and then engaged in the livery business, which he has ever since followed. He has been very successful. He has a large and handsome livery building, well supplied with good horses, vehicles of all kinds, etc. He also has three busses which he runs in connection with his stable from the depot on the arrival of each of the six daily trains. In the undertaker's line he has two fine hearses, so handsome and pleasant to ride in that one almost longs for the "sweet by and by" in order to enjoy the luxury for the final sepulchral tour which all must sooner or later take. His purchases were brought from Cincinnati, and cost him over $2,000. Certainly when one can ride in such a conveyance as these fro the small sum of $10, no one need to be carted off in a lumber wagon on his last earthly ride. Capt. Dierker has held the office of city councilman for several terms, and was elected to the place as long as he would accept it. In 1870 he was elected sheriff and collector, and two years later was re-elected to the same office. His majority was highly complimentary to his personal popularity and standing as a citizen. He received 672 votes more than his opponent at the first election and 784 more at his second election. Capt. Dierker is Hanoverian by nativity, born December 23, 1826, and came to this country with his parents at the age of 14, in 1840. His father, Valentine D. Dierker, died in this county in 1859, and his mother, whose maiden name was Clare E. Koenig, died here in 1865, within two days of the same age of her husband. In 1850 Capt. Dierker was married to Miss Caroline A. Auping, a daughter of Casper H. Auping, formerly of Hannibal. They have nine children: Lizzie A., wife of Henry Koenig; Louisa William Koenig; Victor D., a partner of his father; Henrietta, a young lady who is still at home; Ernest, Henry, Frank H., Matah and Ada A. Two others died at tender ages. Mrs. D. is a member of the St. Paul Protestant Church.


ANTOINE A. DORLAQUE
(Farmer, Stock-raiser and Stock-dealer, Post-office, St. Charles).

Mr. Dorlaque is a descendant of one of the early families of the settlement of what was formerly the Upper Louisiana country. The family, as it name indicates, is of French origin, and came here among the early French settlers of the country, and before ever the British or American flag was unfurled to the wind over the Missouri river country. His father was Francoix X. Dorlaque, who was born and reared in this county, and was a son of Auguste Dorlaque, who came here from St. Genevieve, St. Genevieve county. Mr. Dorlaque's mother was a Miss Emilie Tabeau before her marriage, a daughter of Antoine and Devena (Janease) Tabeau, early French settlers of St. Charles county. Mr. Dorlaque's father was a farmer by occupation and resided here until his death. He died June 16, 1874. The mother died August 16, of the same year. Antoine A. was the second in their family of 11 children, only five of whom are living and none of whom , except the subject of this sketch and one sister, the wife of Charles Hug, reside in this county. His father was in well-to-do circumstances and Antoine had good school advantages. He was educated at Lucas Grove school and at the St. Charles College. After quitting college he engaged in farming, and in a short time in buying and shipping live stock. He has been in these lines of business ever since and has been very successful. He is one of the leading stock men of the county, as well as one of its substantial property-holders. His home farm is a neat, comfortable homestead, and he also has a place of over 300 acres on an island, in the Mississippi river, opposite the St. Charles county shore. Mr. Dorlaque was married to Miss Edna Ford, a daughter of Gartrell and Susan (Manfield) Ford, formerly of Caldwell county, Ky., on the 26th of June, 1867. They have 10 children: Francois X., Edward, who died in boyhood; Emilie, Julius F., Mary A., Gartrell, Edna, Ellie, Sophie, Antonette. Mr. and Mrs. D. and family are members of the Catholic Church.


HON. ALBERT H. EDWARDS
(Attorney at Law and State Senator, St. Charles).

State Senator Edwards, though reared in St. Charles county, is a native of the Old Dominion, and came of an honored Revolutionary family. His grandfather, Ambrose Edwards, served with credit in the War for Independence under Washington, but the family had settled in Virginia long prior to that time. The founder of the family came to this county in the early days of the Colonies, and was from Wales.

State Senator Edwards' father was Henry Edwards, born and reared in Virginia, and who came to St. Charles county after his marriage, during the latter part of the "thirties." His wife's maiden name was Sarah Dabney Waller, reared in Hanover county, Va., and of the old and well known Virginia family of that name. The Wallers came to Virginia from London, England, in an early day. Her mother was a Miss Dabney, and was of French Huguenot descent.

Hon. A. H. Edwards was born in Henry county, Va., September 13, 1836, and was therefore yet in infancy when the family removed to St. Charles county, Mo. His father died here in 1844, and he, with the other children of the family, were reared by his widowed mother. She never re-married and died in January, 1884, in her eighty-sixth year. Young Edwards' youth was well occupied , either at school or in some useful employment. His education was received at the St. Charles College and at Central College, in Fayette, Howard county. He also spent a short time at a German school in Warren county.

After concluding his college studies, Mr. Edwards, who had already decided to devote himself to the profession of the law, began a regular course of legal studies under his elder brother, Hon. W. W. Edwards, now Judge of the Nineteenth Judicial Circuit. In 1863 he was admitted to the bar, and thereupon entered upon the regular practice of his profession at St. Charles. Gifted with a quick, acute legal mind, an assiduous student and a young man of steady, industrious habits, he soon succeeded in accumulating a substantial practice. From the beginning he has been highly successful at the bar in the conduct of cases intrusted to his management, and he has always so carried himself as an attorney and in private life, that he has deserved and retained the respect and confidence of all classes. His theory of the practice of law is that it should be carried on on the same high plan of personal integrity and fair dealing required in other callings, and that a lawyer, as such, should be as far from taking a questionable legal advantage, as a business man should of high standing and jealous of his credit, to defeat the payment of a just claim. In other words, he does not believe in what is commonly called "sharp practice" at the bar, and thinks that success won in that manner is less to one's credit than not to succeed at all; but that there is ample room in the profession for every honorable and industrious lawyer to at least obtain a worthy and reputable standing.

In 1870 he was solicited to become a candidate for the Legislature from this county, and consented to make the race. As was to have been expected, he was elected by a highly complimentary majority; and, in 1872, he was re-elected to the House. After serving two terms in the House of Representatives, in 1874 he became a candidate for the State Senate for the district composed of St. Charles and Warren counties. Again his candidacy was supported by a large majority of the people, and he accordingly took his seat as a member of the Senate. Since then he has been continuously re-elected to that body, and still represents this district. His high standing and popularity reveal a marked significance, when it is considered that whilst he is a Democrat his district has been largely Republican, but is now Democratic, the counties of Callaway and Montgomery having been added thereto. It is by no means a common thing in Missouri, where party lines are almost invariably drawn closely, for a constituency to choose a representative from the opposite party.

Mr. Edwards has now served 14 years, consecutively, in the State Legislature, and is the oldest member, in continuous service, in the General Assembly. His long experience and close business habits, and his ability and fidelity to the best interests of his constituents and of the State at large, render him a legislator of more than ordinary value to the people. The voters of his district justly consider that his defeat or refusal to serve would not only be a great loss to them, but to the best interests of the State, and they therefore support him, whenever he comes before them for re-election, with earnest and unfaltering devotion.

On the fifth day of March, 1873, Mr. Edwards was united in marriage to Miss Martha Ellen Whitney, a daughter of George Howe Whitney, formerly of an old and esteemed citizen of this county but now deceased. Mrs. Edwards is now, also deceased. She died August 28, 1881, leaving four children, named, Emmet W., Lucile, Sarah E. and William W. She was a lady of many excellent qualities, and was greatly esteemed as a neighbor and acquaintance, as she was devotedly loved in her own family. Her loss was a heavy bereavement to her husband, who was attached to her with more than ordinary affection. By all her memory is cherished as that of one of the queenliest and best of women.


CASPER EHRHARD
(Or Ehrhard & Thro, Merchant Tailors and Dealers in Gents' Clothing and Furnishing Goods, St. Charles).

Mr. Ehrhard came to America with his uncle, John B. Thro, Sr., when about 15 years of age, in 1863, and has made his home at St. Charles ever since that time. He is of ancient German extraction, but the family had long been settled in Alsace, France, now a part of Germany. He was born in Alsace, January 12, 1848, being his primal birthday. His boyhood days were spent principally at school, at Mollau, his native village, but when 13 years of age he obtained a situation as office boy in a manufacturing establishment at Wesserling, in which he continued until he came to this country. Here he followed clerking for his uncle, and continued with him in the dry goods business until his uncle sold out in 1868. He subsequently clerked for Clem Hoddup until his uncle engaged in the clothing business, in the summer of 1869. He then resumed clerking for him, and in 1871 bought out his uncle. After this the firm of Ehrhard & Pritchett carried on the business until 1877, when Mr. Pritchett retired and John B. Thro, Jr., succeeded him, since which the firm has been, as it is present, Ehrhard & Thro. This firm is by all odds at the head of the clothing business in St. Charles. They have a large establishment, and employ from 8 to 10 men, and their aggregate sales reaching from $35,000 to $40,000 a year. The merchant tailoring branch of their business is quite important, their house being liberally patronized in this line. They employ the best cutters and fitters to be had, and guarantee satisfaction in every instance. Their tailors are artists in their trade, and they see to it that nothing leaves their shop on which they are not willing to risk their reputation. They make a specialy of making fine clothing, and their house has obtained a wide reputation for this class of work. They also keep a heavy stock of ready-made clothing and gents' furnishing goods -- the leading stock of the city. Both are thoroughly capable and enterprising business men, and eminently deserve the excellent success they have achieved. In the spring of 1869 Mr. Ehrhard was married to Miss Mary A. Holtzcheider, a daughter of Joseph H. Holtzscheider, of St. Louis. Mr. and Mrs. Ehrhard have seven children: Joseph, Hubert R., Edward, Oliver, Paul, Angeline and Alice. He and wife are members of the Catholic Church, and he is a member of the Catholic Knights of America, in which order he has held the office of financial secretary.


JOHN B. THRO, JR.
(Of Ehrhard & Thro, Merchant Tailors and Dealers in Gents' Clothing and Furnishing Goods, St. Charles).

Mr. Thro, the junior partner in the above-named firm, like Mr. Ehrhard, is a native of Alsace, born in Mollau, February 23, 1855. His father was Bernard Thro, and his mother's maiden name Theresa Koehl, both of old Alsacian families. John B., Jr., was reared in his native country up to the age of 13 when he came to America, making the trip across the Atlantic and on to St. Charles entirely alone so far as relatives and friends are concerned. Here he obtained a situation as clerk in a dry goods store, where he continued until 1877, when he bought an interest in the firm of Pritchett & Ehrhard, taking Mr. Pritchett's interest in the firm. He has since been a partner in the firm of Ehrhard & Thro, and has contributed very materially to his enterprise, thorough business qualifications and popularity to the success of the firm. The business of this firm has already been spoken of in the sketch of Mr. Ehrhard, so that it is unnecessary to repeat here what had been said there. Suffice to say that they have one of the leading establishments in their line, outside of St. Louis, in North-east Missouri.


DAVID W. FERGUSON, M.D.
(Farmer and Stock-raiser, and Retired Physician, St. Charles).

Dr. Ferguson is a native of Ohio, born in Warren county, October 7, 1818. His father, William Ferguson, was originally from New Jersey, but his mother, whose maiden name was Mary Boal, was from Pennsylvania. They removed to Ohio as early as 1804, or rather the father went there at that time. They were married in that State in 1814. He died in Warren county, of which he was one of the pioneers, at a ripe and honored age, in 1832. Dr. Ferguson was reared in that county and received an excellent education. He took a thorough course in the ordinary schools and completed his education at the State University in Cincinnati. While there he also studied civil engineering. In the spring of 1838 he came to Missouri and located in St. Charles county. Here, after his removal to this county, he followed farming for a few years and then studied medicine under Dr. Twyman. His first and second course of lectures were taken at McDowell's College in 1843-44 and graduated there in the spring of '45. He then located in Marion county, Mo., for the practice of his profession, and after two years spent there he practiced at Macomb, McDonough, Ill., for two years. After this he returned to St. Charles county, and followed the practice here until 1856. Since then he has been engaged in farming exclusively. Dr. Ferguson has a handsome farm in the vicinity of St. Charles of 275 acres. In 1845 he was married to Miss Eliza Gallaher, a daughter of Rev. James Gallaher, who was originally from East Tennessee. There were four children by this union: Robert H., who died in 1872, at the age of 28; Mary, the wife of Albert G. McDearmon; Wilson B., now of Arizona; and Edwin, who died in 1879, at the age of 21. The mother of these died in 1861. To his present wife, formerly Miss Elizabeth G. Gallaher, a cousin of his first wife and a daughter of Rev. Allen G. Gallaher, he was married in 1864. Dr. Ferguson located on the farm where he now resides bordering on the city limits of St. Charles in 1856. He and wife are members of the Presbyterian Church. Dr. F. was a director of Lindenwood College for a number of years.


ALEXANDER GARVIN
(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, St. Charles).

In all this world there is nothing more touching and tender than the devotion of a mother, a loving, true-hearted mother, to her children. With her it is an attachment stronger than life itself. There is no sacrifice too great for her to make for their welfare and happiness, nothing within the range of possibility too difficult for her to undertake. For them she is prepared to undergo a life-time of hardship and self-denial, of humble, unceasing toil if needs be, shut off from all pleasures and diversions, and cheered only by their happiness and success. This noblest and truest and purest of all the sentiments of the human heart found a happy and striking illustration in the life of the good and devoted mother of the subject of the present sketch. A woman of singular nobility of heart, she was at the same time possessed of a mind of rare intelligence and force. She came of a worthy New England family, the Malersons, of Connecticut, a family usually marked for their intelligence and culture. she, herself, was a lady of good education, and was almost an enthusiast in the cause of education. After her marriage in Pennsylvania to Alexander Garvin, Sr., they came West to Missouri, and settled in St. Charles county, as early as 1817. Here her husband subsequently died, leaving her a widow with small means, or, rather, with an average farm, for those days, and with a large family of children. She continued to live in widowhood in this county for many years and until her death. With her children growing up around her on the farm, and with only extremely indifferent school advantages available in the neighborhood, the great difficulties in the way of their education which confronted her would have appalled any one with less courage and energy, of less parental devotion. But widow as she was and with only such means as she could make by the industry of herself and children on the farm and by her won good management, she determined to see that they were given good educations. In such circumstances it would seem worthy of great credit to her even to have kept the family together and brought them up in ordinary comfort, to say nothing of attempting to give each of the children collegiate educations, especially when the time and condition of the country are considered. But she so managed her affairs, conducted her farm with such energy and intelligence, that she not only brought up her children well and so that they always kept, and were welcomed in the best company, but gave each one the benefit of a college course. Few men of the county among its most substantial citizens did as well as this, and none did better. Her children all secured advanced educations and became well settled in life, representative and respected members of their respective communities. Such is the result of the life-work of a loving devoted mother, a work accomplished in the face of the greatest difficulties, but a work that should make her memory dear to every heart not insensible to all that is noble and true in human nature. The memory of such a mother may well be cherished by her children and her children's children as a sacred family heritage, the purest and best that could be handed down. Alexander Garvin, Sr., and Anna (Malerson) Garvin reared a family of seven children, and of these Alexander, Jr., was the sixth. He was born in Portage township, this county, July 10, 1825, and was left an orphan when a lad of six years of age by the death of his father. He was reared on the farm by his mother, and, as indicated above, was given excellent educational advantages. He took the usual courses in the primary and intermediate schools, and completed his education at St. Charles College. After returning from college he engaged in farming on the homestead, and continued in that occupation until after his marriage. Mr. Garvin was married February 9, 1854, to Miss Elizabeth J. Boyd, a daughter of William A. and Elizabeth (Poage) Boyd, highly respected residents of this county, but formerly of Indiana. Mr. Garvin's wife was educated at the Boonville Female Seminary, where she graduated after a thorough course in the class of '52. After his marriage, Mr. Garvin engaged in merchandising at St. Charles and continued in business at that city for about 16 years. He was very successful in business and accumulated a large property. In 1872 he retired to one of his farms in the county, where he is now living in comfort, and engaged in farming and managing his landed interests. He is one of the large land holders of the county. Mr. and Mrs. G. have been blessed with a family of eight children, five of whom are living: Marietta, who is a graduate of the Strother Institute, at Independence; William E., who is a graduate of Westminster College, and of the Law Department of the Washington University, and is now engaged in practicing law at St. Louis; Ulela, a graduate of the Synodical Female College at Fulton; A. Boyd and Gertrude, the last two still quite young and at home. Mr. Garvin, as the education of his children would seem to indicate, inherited to a marked degree the characteristic of his mother in regard to education; and this is unquestionably true. He has always taken an active and public-spirited interest in the cause of education, and has done as much as any man in the county to bring the people up to the public sentiment that now prevails in favor of education. His father was also a man of more than ordinary mental force and much given to reading and mental culture. He was a native of Richmond, Va., born September 15, 1784. He died in this county, April 13, 1832. The mother, born in Connecticut, April 13, 1790, died October 20, 1871. They were married in Pennsylvania, June 7, 1810. Both were exemplary members of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Garvin, the subject of this sketch, and his wife are also members of that church, and he holds the office of deacon in the church.


BENJAMIN H. GERET, M.D.
(Physician and Surgeon, St. Charles).

Dr. Geret has been engaged in the practice of his profession at St. Charles for the past 12 years. His superior skill and attainments as a physician and surgeon are well recognized by all who have an opportunity of judging of his professional standing. In point of education and a thorough knowledge of his profession, so far as light is thrown on it by the latest and best writers, it may with all fairness and frankness be said, and without disparagement of others, that he stands second to few physicians, if to any, in the State; while his experience in the practice use of extensive knowledge he has obtained in the school and by private study and investigation. Educated in Europe, both generally and professionally, he acquitted himself with distinguished honor as a student, which means a great deal in Germany, where the requirements of the universities are more exacting and severe than in any other country. Such was the distinction with which Dr. Geret graduated in medicine that he attracted general attention in Bavaria, his native country, especially in medical circles, and he was promptly offered a position as physician to the North German line of Lloyd steamers, which he accepted. He occupied that position with great credit to himself and with eminent satisfaction to the steamship management for nearly three years, or until the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war, when he resigned it to accept a surgeon-majorship in the German army. He was specially appointed to that position by royal commission, in recognition of his prominence and eminent ability in his profession. Dr. Geret served thoroughout the war, and fully met the expectations that were entertained of him. For his eminent services he was formally decorated with the highest honors conferred on members of the medical profession by both the King of Bavaria and the Emperor of Germany. After the close of the war Dr. Geret, although offered positions of distinction in the medical service of the army and in public and private institutions, decided to come to America, being ambitious to see something of the New World, about which he had read a great deal, and to gratify a naturally spirited, restless, enterprising disposition, which is one of his most marked characteristics. He accordingly set sail for America, and landed at New York May 12, 1871. His reputation in his profession had preceded him to this country, and he was at once offered a position as physician in the German Hospital at New York. He remained there about nine months, when he resigned to push on out West. Dr. Geret having acquaintances at St. Charles came directly to this city, where, after debating the matter in his own mind thoroughly, he decided to locate permanently. Here is eminent qualifications and superior professional skill soon became recognized, and he readily took a front position in his profession. He has attained all the prominence that a place like St. Charles can confer. His practice extends over a circuit of about 20 miles, and he has been very successful in the treatment of cases. In surgery he is especially remarked for his eminent skill and ability. Dr. Geret is a man of family. He was married September 17, 1874. His wife was a Miss Barbara Schneider, a daughter of the late Anton Schneider, of this city. The Doctor and Mrs. Geret have two children, Charlotte and Olga. He and wife are members of the German Catholic Church. Dr. Geret was a son of Frederick W. and Eleonore F. (Versmann) Geret, both born and reared in Bavaria. The Doctor was born there December, 1841. He received a university education, and graduated in medicine at the Medical University of Erlangen, in the class of '68. His subsequent career has been outlined above.


REV. J. H. PH. GRAEBNER
(Minister of the German Lutheran Church, St. Charles, Mo.).

Rev. Mr. Graebner is a native of Germany, born in Bavaria, July 7, 1819. His father was Johann Graebner, and his mother Eleonore Rehm before marriage. His father was a music teacher, and died when Philip, the subject of this sketch, was 14 years of age. Rev. Philip Graebner was principally reared in Bavaria, and received a good general education in the German language. In his childhood he visited private schools; then he obtained his theological education in the mission seminary of Rev. W. Loehe, at Neudettelsau, Bavaria. In 1847 he received a vocation from an emigrant colony, organized in his vicinity for settlement in Michigan, with which colony he came over during that year and settled in Saginaw county, Mich. September 5, 1847, after he came to America, he was regularly ordained a minister of the German Lutheran Church by the Missouri synod, Prof. Craemer officiating. After this he was engaged in the ministry at Frankentrost, Saginaw county, Mich., for six years, and then accepted a call to Roseville, Macomb county, Mich., where he remained until the year A.D., 1859, when he accepted a call from the Lutheran congregation at St. Charles, Mo. Rev. Mr. Graebner came to St. Charles in May, 1859, and has been located at this place ever since. He has always been recognized here as a man whose walk and talk in life are consistent with his faith in the requirement of the holy office he fills. He is an earnest, pious, Christian minister, a man well grounded in theology, a pleasant, effective speaker, and profoundly zealous in the cause of religion. In 1848 Rev. Mr. Graebner was married to Miss Jakobine Denninger, a daughter of George Denninger and Susanna (Itschmer), who came over from Germany and settled in Monroe county, Mich., in 1831. Mr. and Mrs. Graebner have seven children: August, is married and is a professor of theology in the Theological Seminary of the Lutheran synod of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wis.; Conrad, who is also married and is a resident of East Saginaw, Mich; Henry, who is likewise married and is a teacher at Milwaukee, Wis.; Frederick, who is now taking a theological course at St. Louis; William, now at the seminary; Addison, Illinois; Regine, who is now the wife of Rev. J. H. Jungkuntz, at North Judson, Ind.; Kunigunde, now the wife of H. H. Eggebrecht, teacher at St. Charles, Mo. They have lost one, Adelbert.


CAPT. JOHN F. HACKMAN
(Of S. H. Merten & Co., Proprietors of the Central Roller Flouring Mills, St. Charles).

Capt. Hackman, who has had a successful business experience in the grain trade and in milling, is of German parentage, but was himself born and reared in St. Charles county. He was a young man, just past his twentieth year, when the war broke out in 1861. Loyalty to the Union was a distinguishing and honorable characteristic of the Germans of the country during the great life-struggle of the Nation. Wherever a German was found or a man of German parentage or antecedents, a faithful Unionist was almost invariably found. Not only in principles and sympathy were they for the great government, which they had come so far and endured so many ships to live under and enjoy the personal liberty and benign equality before its just laws, but they were ready and anxious to fight for its preservation. Young Hackman was no exception to this class of his countrymen. He promptly enlisted under the old flag before the smoke of Ft. Sumpter had fairly cleared away, and he continued to do his duty in the ranks of the Union until the flag that was hauled down at Ft. Sumpter early in 1861 was unfurled in triumph at Appomattox in 1865. He entered the service as a sergeant and rose to the command of a company, which he held during most of the war and until its close. During this time, however, he became interested in the grain business at St. Charles in partnership with his brother, Wm. Hackman and Herman Mallinckrodt. This firm continued busines up to 1866, when they formed a company for the milling business and built the present roller mills. Capt. Hackman has been in the business ever since, though the firm otherwise has had several changes. They have one of the best mills of the patent roller class in the country. Their mill has a capacity of 200 barrels of flour a day, and they do a large merchant-milling business. Capt. H. is the book-keeper of the firm, and has discharged the duties of that position for the past eight years. Capt. Hackman is the mayor of St. Charles, having been elected at the last spring election. He had formerly served as a city councilman for several years.


CHARLES F. HAFER
(Of Hafer & Sons, Dealers in General Merchandise, St. Charles).

In early manhood Mr. Hafer had a varied experience and one not without hardships. A native of Prussia, he was born September 28, 1833, and at the age of 19 left his native land for the New World beyond the blue mists of the Atlantic. He took passage across the sea on a sail vessel, and, like Æneas of old, was for many days tossed about on the boundless waters at the mercy of the winds and waves. At last making haven at New Orleans he safely disembarked and soon proceeded up the turgid current of the Mississippi to St. Louis, where he spent about nine months at work in a sugar refinery. He was now employed to take control of a lot of men and to proceed to Cuba, in the West Indies, for the purpose of carrying on the sugar refinery. He was there successfully engaged in that business for about nine months, or until his men were stricken down with the yellow fever. In this emergency he did his full duty by his men, staying with them and waiting on them faithfully as a nurse until their recovery or death, and those that died where given the last sad rites as best he could perform them, a decent and Christian burial. Not until all the others had fallen under the malady was he taken down, and then he was so much exhausted by his labors and night-watchings for his men that no hope of his recovery was entertained. Meanwhile, he had started to make his way back to God's country, the United States, and through friends, although sick of the yellow fever, he was kindly smuggled into New Orleans, where the change of atmosphere and surroundings soon became manifest in his rapid recovery. After his recovery Mr. Hafer returned to St. Louis, where he had to begin life anew at the bottom of the ladder. He learned the cooper's trade, and in 1857 came to St. Charles and established a wooden-ware factory at this place. In this he was quite successful and soon had a number of men at work under him. After an experience of about nine years in the coopering business he sold out and, with a partner, engaged in merchandising. In this he has also been successful, his house soon becoming one of the leading houses in general merchandise of St. Charles. He went into business with H. H. Shaberg, under the firm of Shaberg & Hafer in 1863. In 1869 Mr. Shaberg retired, and Mr. Mathias Sholle succeeded him. The firm then was known as Hafer & Sholle. During this period Mr. Hafer was especially successful, as the great railroad bridge was then built, and Mr. H.'s store being the headquarters of the foremen and engineers, they had no difficulty in procuring the trade of the workingmen. Mr. Sholle died in January, 1872. The business was then carried on under the firm name of Chas. F. Hafer until December, 1872, when Mr. Hafer sold out his interest to Messrs. Geo. H. & Herman Brueggemann. In October, 1873, he bought the interest of Geo. H. Brueggemann and was again the leading partner of the firm under the style of Hafer & Brueggemann. In February, 1877, Mr. Brueggemann retired and was succeeded by Mr. Hafer's sons, under the name and style of Chas. T. Hafer & Sons, which it is up to present date. Hafer & Sons carry a very large stock of general merchandise, including dry goods, clothing, boots and shoes, groceries, queen's-ware, glassware, etc. They are doing a business of about $55,000 to $60,000 a year. Mr. Hafer has served twice as city councilman, once in the third and once from the fourth wards. In August, 1855, Mr. Hafer was married to Mrs. Mary Piths, widow of William Piths, formerly of Hanover. Mr. and Mrs. Hafer have two sons -- Christian F. W. and Henry F. -- both of whom are partners in the store. Mr. H. and family are members of the Lutheran Church, and he is a member of the I.O.O.F.


J. HENRY HAGEMANN
(Of Hagemann & Meiser, Carpenters, Contractors and Builders, St. Charles).

The above firm, of which Mr. Hagemann is a member, is one of the leading firms in that line, if in fact, not the leading one, at St. Charles. The partnership was formed in 1878 and has continued ever since with mutual satisfaction and profit. They do a large business in the way of contracting and building, and have a wide and enviable reputation in this class of work. Mr. Hagemann was born in St. Charles county, November 12, 1849, and was a son of John W. and Margaret (Addelheide) Hagemann, formerly of Hanover. They came to St. Charles county in 1847, where they made their permanent home. The father was a brick mason by trade and followed that at St. Charles. During the war he served with courage and patriotism in the Union army. He died July 30, 1880. They mother died September 9, 1873. Both were members of the German Lutheran Church. They had a family of nine children, the others besides J. Henry, being William, who died in childhood; Eliza, who also died at a tender age, J. Hermann, Anna, Julia, Mary, Wilhelmina and Louise. Anna and Wilhelmina reside in St. Louis. J. Henry Hagemann, who was the eldest of the family of children, was reared at St. Charles, and learned the carpenter's trade as he grew up. His education was acquired at the German Lutheran school of this place and the St. Charles College. He has followed carpentering ever since quitting college, and has built many of the better houses of St. Charles, including Mittelberger's Opera House and the Galt House. Mr. H. is unmarried and is a member of the German Lutheran Church.


JESSE HAIGLER
(Retired Farmer, St. Charles).

This venerable and respected old citizen of St. Charles county, a man whose life, to a green old age, has been well and usefully spent, and has been tarnished by no wrong, stands a worthy representative, in the third generation, of one of the gallant old soldiers of the Revolution who fought side by side with Washington for the establishment of liberty and independence in the New World, and the great nation that now stands out the brightest and most powerful in the galaxy of peoples on the globe. His grandfather was William Haigler, who was a member of the body-guard of Gen. Washington throughout the Revolution, an honor that his descendants may more justly boast of than any descendant any may of his ancestor having been a member of the "Old Guard" of Napolean. Mr. Haigler's father was Jacob Haigler, and the family is an old and respected Virginia family. Jacob Haigler married Christina Harper, and they reared 12 children to be grown and married. Of these, Jesse Haigler, the subject of this sketch, is the third. He was born in Randolph county, Virginia, November 6, 1808, and in 1831 was married to Miss Catherine Currence, a daughter of William Currence, of Virginia. Eight years afterwards Mr. Haigler came to Missouri and settled in Franklin county where he followed farming. In 1845 he crossed over into St. Charles county, where he opened a large farm, having some 400 acres in his tract. He also kept an extensive wood-yard to supply river boats and for shipment. He still owns his farm, but the shipping current of the river has swept away about half his land. In 1876 he retired from the active work of farming and removed to St. Charles, where he is spending the serene Indian summer of life in comparative ease and comfort. He rents out his farm which yields him a satisfactory income. Mr. Haigler's first wife died in 1847, leaving him six children: Cyrus R., Mahulda A., who is the wife of Dr. William West, of Chariton county; Loman H., William F., Virginia, and C. Webster. One little girl died in infancy. Mr. Haigler's second wife was a Miss Elizabeth D. Smith, who survived her marriage less than two years. She left a son, Joseph D. To his last wife, nee Miss Mary Casey, he was married in 1851. She was a daughter of Matthew and Margaret Casey, who came to America from Ireland in 1817 and from Virginia to St. Louis, Mo., in 1843. Mr. Haigler's last wife died in 1881. His son, Cyrus, was killed in Chariton county during the war. Mr. H.'s father was one of the early Methodists of Virginia, and he remembers that when he was a boy his father's house was used for church purposes for the early circuit riders, those of the ridge circuits as well as of the bottom circuits. Ministers then were not so cultured as they are now, nor so well dressed, but it is believed that there was far more piety and religious zeal in the clergy than there is at the present day. Salaries were not large, but the good sisters knew how to make good corn bread, good butter, and prepare good meat and vegetables, while there was a loom in every household for good, honest blue jeans, so that the preachers were always well fed and warmly clothed, and as a class they were generally happy and contented. Evidently those were good old times, the like of which we shall never see again. In fact, the writer himself never did see them, but then the worthy old septuagenarian whose name heads this sketch has seen them and enjoyed them, and it is a pleasure to observe with what animation and happiness he speaks of them.


MARTIN HENNEMEYER
(Proprietor of the St. Charles Feed, Seed, and Farm Machinery Store, St. Charles).

Mr. Hennemeyer's career adds another example to the many instances of success achieved by the energetic, thrifty Germans who have made their homes in this country. He was born in Prussia, September 27, 1838. Reared in his native county, he came to America in 1857 at the age of 19, and located in St. Charles county. In 1861, having been engaged in farming in the meantime, he enlisted in the Union service and served about 12 months. After this he went to work on the barracks in St. Louis, and, saving up a little means at this, he engaged in the retail liquor trade. In 1865, however, he returned to St. Charles and resumed farming. Shortly he was married to Miss Mary Miller, a daughter of Joseph and Mary Miller, who came from Prussia in 1845. Mrs. H.'s mother died here in 1878, and her father in 1880. Soon after his marriage Mr. Hennemeyer started the transfer business at St. Charles, or teaming, which he kept up continuously until 1883, when he established his present store. He carries a full stock of feed of all kinds and seed and also a full line of farm machinery. Mr. Hennemeyer is well-known in and around St. Charles and has the confidence of the entire community. He has an excellent trade and is doing well in his present business. In 1880 he was elected a member of the city council and served with satisfaction to the public for two years. Mr. and Mrs. Hennemeyer have six children: George, Henry, Mary, Ida, Freddie and Frankie. They lost two in infancy. He and wife are members of the Catholic Church, and he is a member of the Knights of America and the Catholic Benevolent Society.


THOMAS HEYE
(Dealer in Stoves and Tinware, St. Charles).

Forty-four years ago from the present fall Frederick Heye, the father of the subject of this sketch, crossed the blue waters of the Atlantic from Hanover bound for America. He came to this country believing that he could do better for himself and establish himself more comfortably in life than was possible for him to do in the Old World. He came directly to St. Louis. He was then a young man and had learned the tinner's trade in his native country. He followed this in St. Louis for about 10 years, and then came up to St. Charles, where he made his permanent home. Here he was subsequently married to Miss Louisa Fetter, whose parents were also originally from Germany. He soon opened a tin shop and finally brought on a general stock of hardware, both of which lines he carried on with success until his death. He died at this city February 2, 1881, profoundly regretted by all who knew him. He became a man of considerable local consideration and served in the city council some 12 years. He was also vice-president of the Mutual Fire Insurance Company for a period of no less than 20 years. He and his good wife were blessed with a family of eight children, most of them have become well settled in life. Thomas Heye is the fourth in the family of children and was born October 6, 1859. He was brought up to his father's business, and after the death of his father carried on business for his mother. Subsequently he secured his mother's interest and has ever since been sole proprietor of the establishment. He carries a large and well selected stock of shelf and heavy hardware, and also a full line of stoves and tinware, etc. He likewise runs a first-class tin shop in connection with his business. He has a good trade and is doing well. He is a worthy member of the A.O.U.W.


J. PHILIPP HOEHN
(Dealer in Groceries, and Late City Treasurer; also President of the St. Charles Mutual Insurance Company).

It has been nearly 30 years ago since Mr. Hoehn first made his home at St. Charles. He was then a young man early in his twenties, and had barely begun to get what may be called a foothold in life. He had received a good practical education, however, before leaving his native country, Germany, and what is equally as good, had learned a good honest trade, a calling that he could always rely upon for a comfortable support wherever his fortunes might be cast, when able to work. He was brought up in a country where honest toil is considered no badge of dishonor, but where all believe that only those should thrive and prosper who do so by worthy industry. Mr. Hoehn came to America in 1854, and after stopping for a time at New Orleans and at St. Louis for a little while, he located at St. Charles the following year, where he has ever since made his home. Here he formed a partnership for carrying on his trade, that of plasterer, with Frederick Wilhelm, which continued until after the outbreak of the war. Having left Germany and come to this country on account of his admiration for the free institutions of America, it is therefore not surprising that when the issue came whether these institutions, this free Republic, should be broken up and destroyed or maintained for those of the present generation and for posterity, he promptly trained under the flag of the Union and shouldered his musket to fight for the government that he had left his own country and come across the sea to live under. He was out from the opening until the close of the war, first in the Home Guards and then in the regular State militia volunteers. Several times he was promoted for meritorious service, and finally rose to the rank of first lieutenant, which he held until he was mustered out. He was once slightly wounded during the war. Returning home after the return of peace he resumed work at his trade, he and his former partner then engaging in business together. They had good success in their business. In 1871 Mr. Hoehn was elected city marshal and was afterwards re-elected, being also during the time ex-officio city collector. Subsequent to this he was appointed deputy sheriff, and also about this time became secretary of the car works at St. Charles. In 1876 Mr. Hoehn engaged in his present business, the grocery trade, which he has ever since followed. He carries a large stock of groceries, queen's-ware, glassware, etc., and also a stock of liquors. His trade is among the better class of customers, and is substantial and fairly profitable. About three years ago, having for some years before been a prominent member in the St. Charles Mutual Fire Insurance Company, and a member of its board of directors, he was elected president of the company, a position he still holds. This is well known as one of the reliable and well conducted insurance companies of the State, and such has been the high character and integrity of its management that it has never for a moment lost the confidence of the public, or even allowed itself to be placed in a doubtful position. Mr. Hoehn has been city treasurer, a position he held for some eight years. He has served one term in the city council, and has held other positions of local consideration. Mr. Hoehn is one of the substantial citizens and clear-headed business men of St. Charles, and commands general respect and public confidence. Since 1858 he has been blessed with a family, though his home has not escaped, through all these long years, the sorrow of the shadow of death. His first wife was a Miss Amelia Jung, a daughter of T. George Jung, formerly of Alsace, France, now a German province. She survived her marriage nearly 18 years, but was at last taken away from her loved ones on this side the silent river whose opposite shore no mortal eye has ever seen, in 1876. She left four children: Laura L., George F., Amelia and Emily. One besides, a son, and the eldest, G. Otto, died in October, 1883, aged 24 years. To his present wife, Mr. Hoehn was married in the fall of 1878. She was a Miss Adelaida Agene, formerly of Hanover. They have one child, Veronika A. Mr. Hoehn is a prominent member of the A.O.U.W. and of the Workingmen's Union.


FREDERICK W. HOLKE
(Of J. N. Mettelberger & Co., Dealers in Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Furnishing Goods, Etc., St. Charles).

From the age of 18 years Mr. Holke has given his undivied time and attention to merchandising. For 11 years he was with one house in St. Charles, and since that time he has been continuously a member of the present frim. That he thoroughly understands retail merchandising it seems, in view of these facts, unnecessary to say. As a clerk he was not only valued by his employers, but was more than ordinary popular with the public. The trade he brought to the house was a not inconsiderable item taken into account by the firm. And when he entered into his present partnership, although he put his capital into the firm, the custom his name demands was of more value to the business than the capital he put in. Mr. Holke is not only a popular salesman, but a buyer of superior judgment, and understands thoroughly the successful management of a store. He is one of the active, energetic members of the firm, and has contributed his full share to the marked success their house has achieved. Mr. Holke was born and reared in St. Charles county and is of German parentage. The family came here in an early day. His father was Herman H. Holke, and his mother nee Kate Wulfekammer, both from Prussia. His father was a farmer and had a successful experience as such in this county. Frederick W. was the eldest of the family of three sons and four daughters. His brother, Henry J., is a physican at St. Paul, Ill. His other brother, John H., is at Holstein, and also a physician. Frederick W. received a common-school education as he grew up on the farm, and at the age of 18 came to St. Charles and secured a position as clerk, which he continued for 11 years, as stated above. he not only learned the business thoroughly, but by economy saved up some means as a nucleus on which to begin business for himself. This he invested in his present business. November 28, 1879, he was married to Miss Cora H. Barron. She was educated at Lindenwood College. Mr. and Mrs. Holke have a family of three children: Emory B., Urban E. and Irene N. Mrs. H. is a member of the Presbyterian Church.


COL. JOHN D. HOLLRAH
(Farmer and Stock-raiser, and ex-Presiding Judge of the County Court; Post-office, St. Charles).

The name that heads this sketch is well known throughout the county as that of one of the old and highly respected and prominent and influential citizens of the county. Judge Hollrah has lived in this county from boyhood, and by his own industry and good management, his high character and usefulness as a citizen, has become both a leading farmer of the county and one of its prominent, representative men. Farming has been his occupation, including raising and handling stock, from youth, and he has devoted his entire time and attention to it when not otherwise employed in the military or civil service of the public. As a farmer he has accumulated a comfortable property; has become, in fact, one of the substantial property holders of the county. His homestead contains 450 acres, which is all under fence and well improved. He has other valuable farming lands in the county. Judge Hollrah was born in Hanover, Germany, September 30, 1824, and was about 11 years of age when his father, John D. Hollrah, Sr., came to this country with his family of children and settled in St. Charles county. Col. Hollrah is the only one of the five children of the family living. His father died here in 1859, but his mother, nee Mary Folbush, died in Germany in 1827. His father was a carpenter by trade, but after he came to America followed farming. He was a gallant soldier in the German army during the Napoleanic wars. After he grew up, John D. Hollrah, Jr., was married in this county, December 13, 1850, to Miss Anna Bechbrede, a daughter of Diderich and Helena Bechbrede, formerly of Hanover. Col. Hollrah engaged in farming at about the time of reaching his majority and has followed it ever since. At the outbreak of the war he organized a company for the Union service, of which he was made captain -- Co. M, Twenty-seventh Missouri State militia. In 1863 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and held that position until the close of the war. In 1866 Col. Hollrah was elected presiding justice of the county court, and was afterwards re-elected to that office as long as he would consent to serve, continuing in it until 1874. He and wife and family are members of the Lutheran Church. There are eight children: Henry, who married Miss Mary Barklage, and is engaged in farming in this county; Hermann, August, Frederick, Anna, Edward and George.


JAMES C. HOLMES
(Editor and Proprietor of the St. Charles News).

Mr. Holmes was the second of eight children of Lorenzo Dow and Margaret (Lupton) Holmes, and was born March 19, 1851, in the residence in which he now resides, which was among the first brick residences built in St. Charles. His father was born in St. Charles county near where the present village of Cottleville now stands, and resided continuously, excepting a few years in St. Louis, in St. Charles county, where from a meagre beginning he amassed a fair competence and left to his family the heritage of a good name. He was married July 8, 1847, in St. Louis to Miss Margaret Lupton, by whom he had eight children, of whom but two, James C. and William F. survive. He died in Nashville, Tenn., on March 11, 1864. Mrs. Margaret Holmes, the mother of the subject of our sketch, is still alive, and is a woman of remarkable force of character and yest susceptible of the kindliest and tenderest of sentiments. She was born in Allegheny county, near Pittsburg, Pa., of Richard and Mary (Loughy) Lupton. Her mother's ancestors, who were descendants of the kings of Ireland, came to America during the troublous times of 1798, when many of the Irish nobles and gentry were exiled from the land of their birth and their property confiscated for their adherence to the faith of their fathers. All were active participants in the War of 1812. James C. Holmes received a good general education at the public school and the college of the Christian Brothers in St. Louis. Becoming the proprietor of the St. Charles News in May, 1883, he has devoted himself to the profession of journalism. The News is the only English Democratic and is one of the leading newspapers in St. Charles county, its circulation being nearly 2,000 copies. Its large advertising patronage places it on a secure footing. On November 1, 1883, Mr. Holmes was married to Miss Catherine Cornwell, daughter of James Cornwell, of Kirkwood, St. Louis county. They were married in Bloomington, Ill., by Rev. Father Weldon, pastor of the English Catholic Church of that city. Mrs. Holmes is a lady possessed of many amiable traits of character, and is highly esteemed by a large circle of friends.


FREDERICK W. HUCKER
(Baker and Confectioner, St. Charles).

Mr. Hucker has been engaged in his present business at St. Charles for the last 20 years, uninterruptedly, and being a man who understands his business thoroughly, economical, and a good manager, he has, of course, succeeded to the limit that could fairly be expected for one in his line of business at a place of the size of St. Charles. He has an old and established trade, a business that may be relied on as long as it is attended to properly with as much confidence and security as a pension from the government. His close attention to business, fair dealing and good standing in the community, have brought him success, which he justly deserves. Mr. Hucker was born in Hanover March 25, 1830, and was married in the year 1857, to Miss Emilie Riemenschneider, and in 1857 emigrated with his family to the United States, having previously learned the baker's and confectioner's trade. He located there at St. Louis and carried on a bakery until 1864, when he came to St. Charles, where he has ever since resided. His wife was born in Prussia, September 17, 1831. Mr. and Mrs. Hucker have five children: Gustave H., in business with his father; Amanda, the wife of Otto Kolwey, was married July 19, 1883; Ida, Hulda and Emil; the two unmarried daughters and son being still at home. Gustave received a high school education at St. Louis, and in October, 1883, was married to Louise Gerding, from New Haven, Franklin county.


AUGUST R. HUNING
(Dealer in Dry Goods, Boots and Shoes, Carpets, Etc., St. Charles).

Mr. Huning is well known to the people of St. Charles and surrounding country as one of the leading business men and substantial citizens of the county. He is a native of St. Charles county, born in the year 1836. His father was Frederick Huning, a native of Hanover, and his mother's maiden name Catherine Wortman, also from Germany; both have long since been deceased. The father died soon after coming to this country, in about 1837; the mother, however, survived until 1854. August R. grew up in St. Charles county, and had very limited opportunities for an education. The knowledge of books he obtained he acquired mainly by self-culture, or studied at home without an instructor. In August, 1861, he enlisted in the Union service as a member of the Eighth Indiana infantry as a musician in which he served until the spring of 1862. During this time he participated in the battle of Pea Ridge and some other engagements of less importance. Prior to the war, however, he had engaged in the dry goods business at St. Charles, January, 1860, as a member of the firm of Melkersman, Kemper & Co., which firm continued until about 1865. However, they had two stores at that time. In 1867, the firm having dissolved and Mr. Huning having been in business alone for some time previous, he then took in a partner, A. W. Windhorst, who continued with him for about 10 years. Since then he has been engaged in business alone. He carries a large and complete stock of goods in his line, and has an extensive business, his aggregate sales amounting to from $55,000 to $60,000 a year. He employs four clerks in his store besides a book-keeper, and all are kept busy with their respective duties. Mr. H. has been quite successful in business life, and is in comfortable circumstances. He is a stockholder in the St. Charles car manufacturing company at St. Charles, and is also largely interested in the St. Charles tobacco factory, and is also a director in the Union Savings bank, in which he is a stockholder. He is a man of thorough experience in business affairs, and is justly regarded as one of the most enterprising and public-spirited business men of St. Charles. In 1864 Mr. Huning was married to Miss Adelhaide, a daughter of Dr. A. Morgner, of St. Charles county, but formerly of Germany. Mrs. H. was born in Saxony, but reared in St. Charles. Mr. H. is a member of the Knights of Honor and of the A.O.U.W.


REV. ROBERT IRWIN, D.D.
(President of the Lindenwood Female College, Post-office, St. Charles).

Rev. Dr. Irwin is a native of Ohio, born at Oxford in Butler county, January 1, 1833. He was a son of Rev. Robert and Mary A. Irwin, his father originally from Kentucky, and his mother from Ohio. Dr. Irwin's collegiate education was received at Hanover College, Indiana, where he graduated in 1854. He studied theology at the Western Theological Seminary of Pittsburg, Pa., where he took a course of two years, graduating in 1856, and receiving the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He was thereupon ordained a minister of the Presbyterian Church, and was called to the pastorate of the Bethlehem Presbyterian Church of Cass county, Ind. Dr. Irwin had charge of that church for a period of about eight years, or until 1864. During this time, however, in 1861, he entered the United States army and was commissioned chaplain, but continued in the army only little more than a year, resigning on account of sickness. In 1864 he was called to the charge of the Presbyterian Church at Waveland, Ind. Four years later he came to Kansas City, Mo., having accepted a call to the pastorate of the First Presbyterian Chruch. Dr. Irwin occupied this position for some five years, and was then elected to the superintendency of the Presbyterian Board of Publication for the West and South-west, his headquarters thereafter being at St. Louis. He was Superintendent of Publication in that city until his election to the presidency of Lindenwood Female College in 1880, which he accepted. He has ever since stood at the head of this institution. Dr. Irwin is a minister of learning and ability, profoundly pious and deeply solicitous for the cause of religion, the welfare of his fellow creatures and the interests of the church. A scholar of advanced culture and learning, and a man of untiring industry and energy; possessed of executive ability of a high order, and singularly gifted with the qualities which enable one to impress upon those under his instruction the information he desires to impart, he is at once an educator eminently successful as a teacher and a manager of the business affairs of the college of known and conceded superiority. Under his administration Lindenwood College has had one of the most prosperous eras in its career. In every desirable particular there has been marked improvements. Throughout North-east Missouri it is recognized as one of the best institutions devoted to the education of young ladies in this part of the State. The college and the community are to be congratulated on the success which has characterized the management of the institution for the past several years. Personally, Dr. Irwin is a man of many estimable qualities, pleasant in his address, unassuming, kind and considerate in all he says and does, and always interesting and entertaining in conversation. In a word, he is a man of good head and a better heart; one who is highly esteemed by all who know him.


LINNEUS C. JENNINGS
(Superintendent of the Gas Works, St. Charles).

Mr. Jennings is of English parentage, though he, himself, was born and reared in this country. His parents, John J. and Henrietta (Avens) Jennings, came to America in 1825 and located at Philadelphia, where they made their permanent home. The father, a florist by occupation, died at the age of 74. The mother died in 1868. Linneus C. Jennings was born in Philadelphia, January 20, 1840. Reared in the city, he received a good public school education, and later along he learned the machinist's trade and mechanical engineering. At the outbreak of the war he enlisted in the three months' service early in 1861, and his term expired while he was at Alexandria, Va. He then re-enlisted, becoming a member of Cameron's Dragoon, Co. B, commanded by Capt. Kerr of the Fifth Pennsylvania cavalry. In this command he served until the close of the war, being orderly for Gen. Blenker. He was in the battles of Ft. Mumford, Fairfax Court-house, Centralia (Va.), Sharpsburg, those in the campaign down the Rappahannock, Williamsburg, the siege of Yorktown and many others. His branch of the cavalry service was largely engaged in tearing up Confederate railroads to prevent the rapid transit of the troops of the enemy. After the close of the war Mr. Jennings returned to Pennsylvania and resumed his trade as machinist. A year later he engaged quite extensively in the manufacture of cotton yarn. This he followed for two years and then sold out and came to Missouri, locating in St. Charles. Here he was soon employed as head machinist of the North Missouri Railroad car shops, a position he held with satisfaction to the company for a period of five years and until he resigned it to accept the superintendency of the gas works. The gas company was organized in 1872, and he was elected by the board of directors superintendent of the works. He has held this position for the last 12 years and has made a popular and thoroughly efficient officer. August 4, 1865, Mr. Jennings was married to Miss Jane Moore, a daughter of J. W. Moore of Philadelphia but of Irish antecedents. Mr. and Mrs. J. have five children: Fannie, Frank, Hattie, Susie and Alfred. Mr. J. is secretary of the I.O.O.F., in which order his is vice grand master. He is likewise collector of the Mutual Aid Association, and is lodge deputy, having filled all the chairs.


JOHN JAY JOHNS
(Retired Farmer, St. Charles).

Forty years ago this last spring Mr. Johns first entered the borders of St. Charles county. Since then he has been a continuous resident of the county. A farmer by occupation, he has followed this pursuit with little or no interruption until his retirement from the more severe activities of life. Industrious, economical and a man of super intelligence, he of course succeeded in his chosen calling, though he commenced a poor man. He has not amassed a great fortune, for the pursuit of wealth has not been his controlling object. He has endeavored to lead a worthy, useful life as a private citizen. A renter when he came to the county, he soon became able to buy land of his own, and finally he became the owner of one of the choice farms and comfortable homesteads of the county and city of St. Charles. Mr. Johns is a native of the Old Dominion, born in Buckingham county, June 27, 1819. His father, Glover Johns (his wife, nee Martha Jones, having died in 1828), went to Tennessee in 1831, and thence two years later to Mississippi, in 1833, and settled in Hines county, near Jackson, the State capital. The father having died in 1834, J. J. went to live with his sister, Mrs. McCowan, in Memphis, Tenn. John J. had superior advantages for an education, to complete which he went to Miami University, at Oxford, O., in 1836, where he graduated with honor in 1840. The same year of his graduation he was married to Miss Catherine Woodruff, a daughter of Joseph Woodruff, of Oxford, O. He then returned to Mississippi, settled on a farm in that State and was engaged in planting in Mississippi until his removal to Missouri in 1844. Here, two years later, his devoted wife died. She left him two children, Louisa, who is now the wife of William Morgan, of Carroll county, Mo., and Mary, now the wife of Thomas J. Pearce, of Wentzville, Mo. In 1846 Mr. Johns bought a piece of land, partly improved, situated three miles north of St. Charles. This he finally improved into a fine farm of 250 acres, the richest land in Missouri. In 1851 Mr. Johns removed to the city of St. Charles and bought and improved a beautiful suburban residence, for the greater convenience of schools for his children. The only public office he ever held was that of school commissioner, away back in 1854, and the first school commissioner of the county. He is an exemplary member of the Presbyterian Church of long standing, and has been an elder in the church for over 40 years. In the fall of 1847 he was married a second time to Miss Jane A. Durfee, daughter of Rev. Thomas Durfee and Ann G. Durfee. Her father was an early settler in Missouri from Massachusetts, and was for a long time pastor of the Auxvasse Church, in Callaway county. Mrs. J. was educated at the Monticello Seminary, Godfrey, Ill. They have reared eight children: Mattie, a young lady now in Philadelphia with her uncle; Lizzie, who is now the wife of Henry Gauss, of San Antonio, Tex.; Fred D., a practicing physician of Leaky, Tex.; Arthur C., a lumber merchant of San Antonio, Tex.; George S., who is connected with the Post-Dispatch, of St. Louis, and a graduate of Princeton College, N.J.; and Shirley Winston. They have lost five children, three at early ages and Thomas G., a practicing lawyer, who died in Sedalia in the fall of 1881, and Anna D., who died at the age of 14, in 1868.


CHARLES M. JOHNSON, M.D.
(Physician and Surgeon, St. Charles).

One of the early families to settle in this county was that of which the subject of the present sketch is a representative. Dr. Johnson's parents, Charles M. Johnson, Sr., and wife, Harriet D., nee Ficklin, came to this county from Rappahannock county, Va., nearly 50 years ago. Mr. Johnson bought the old Daniel Boone place, which, in the meantime, had descended to the old pioneer's son, Col. Nathan Boone, from whom it was purchased. The little old cabin which the great Indian fighter built when a white man was more of a curiosity in Missouri than an Indian is now, is still standing, a historic landmark of the pioneer days of the country. To the passer-by the crickets seem to chirp as merrily now as they did in the last century, when the old fur-clad path-finder of civilization slept lightly within its walls, ready at the first footfall to grasp his trusted rifle for defense against the stealthy merciless foe of the forest. Dr. Johnson's father resided on the old Boone place for about 30 years, or until 1865, when he sold it and removed to Illinois. The old gentleman is still living, and has reached his ninety-third year. He returned to St. Charles only a few months ago, and is now living here, one of his daughters being his housekeeper. The most perceptible mark of age he bears is a slight deafness, but otherwise he is still quite active, in good health, and with a memory apparently as clear as it was before the present county was ushered in. Dr. Johnson was a mere boy when the family came to Missouri. He was born in Virginia, January 28, 1826. In youth he had a course of two years at college in St. Charles in addition to good common-school instruction previously received. At the age of 20 he began to study the medicine under the preceptorship of Dr. John G. Tannor, of St. Charles. His medical collegiate education was received in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with honor in 1850. Soon afterwards he located at Warrenton, and a few years later at Troy. He returned to St. Charles county in 1861, and located for the practice at the old family homestead in this county. But about this time the war broke out and he recruited a company for the Southern service, of which he was made captain. In the fight at Mt. Zion, in Boone county, Capt. Johnson, as he was then called, was taken prisoner and kept in confinement a few months. Being released on oath not to take up arms again, he resumed the practice in this county, where he has ever since continued. He has been located at St. Charles since 1865, and has been very successful in the practice. On the 6th of February, 1856, he was married to Miss Martha Smith, a daughter of Wright and Sarah P. Smith, formerly of Fayette county, Va. The Doctor and Mrs. Johnson have three children: Samuel R., Wright S. and Mary F. They have lost one, Strother, who died in childhood in 1862.


WILLIAM W. KIRKPATRICK
(President of the First National Bank, St. Charles).

Originally of Scotch descent, the Kirkpatrick family, of which the subject of the present sketch is a representative, early settled in South Carolina, among the colonists of that State. From South Carolina Mr. Kirkpatrick's father, Wallace Kirkpatrick, became a pioneer settler of St. Charles county when a young man. He came here when Missouri was a part of the Territory of Upper Louisiana, away back in the second decade of the present century, and his only companions, with a very few exceptions, were mainly Indians and a few Spanish and fur-trading Frenchmen. He was one of the first merchants of St. Charles, but subsequently settled on land near the city and became a successful and prominent farmer. He was married here to Miss Jane F. Mudd, a daughter of Mr. Mudd, a pioneer settler of the county. He died on his homestead, near St. Charles, in 1838. His wife, the mother of the subject of this sketch, is still living at an advanced age, and makes her home with her son, William W., at St. Charles. William W. Kirkpatrick was the youngest of five children in the family, two sons and three daughters, all of whom are living. He was born on the family homestead, near St. Charles, June 11, 1837. His early life was spent on the farm, and his school advantages were very limited. Afterwards, however, he made up for this by self-culture. He continued on the farm until 1866, meanwhile dealing to some extent in stock, and with good success. He then came to St. Charles and engaged in merchandising, establishing a grocery store, in which he had a successful experience of about five years. During this time he also continued in the stock business to a certain extent and traded in real estate, both of which he has kept up ever since. In 1872 he was elected county assessor and at the end of that term of office was appointed deputy county collector, in which capacity he served for three years. In most of his business interests Mr. Kirkpatrick has been successful, and from the beginning has made steady progress to the front as a leading business man and large property holder of the county. He became a liberal subscriber to the stock of the Novelty Manufacturing Company, of which he is vice-president, and he is also a large stockholder in the Tobacco Company, being a director fo the company. The success of the Gas Company is largely attributed to his enterprise and he has a large interest in that company. He has long been a stockholder in the First National Bank, and in 1880 he was elected vice-president of the bank, a position he held until January of the present year, when he was elected president of this institution. He and Mr. J. E. Stonebraker are among the leading land-holders of the county, and they own jointly over 2,000 acres. The present fall they are seeding nearly 1,000 acres in wheat alone. In agriculture, as in everything else, Mr. Kirkpatrick is a man of enterprise and progressive ideas. He and Mr. Stonebraker are believed to be the only men in the State who use traction steam engine gang-plows for breaking up their plow land. By the use of these plows they have found that they greatly economize both labor and expense, while the plows to better work than the ordinary horse plows, and are a complete success. November 29, 1866, Mr. Kirkpatrick was married to Miss Ursula Kestler, a daughter of John Kestler, of Macon county, Ill. Miss Kestler was partly educated at the Convent of the Sacred Heart, in St. Charles, where Mr. Kirkpatrick first met her. Mr. and Mrs. K. have three children: Angela D., Mary L. and Frances F. He and wife are members of the Catholic Church, and Mr. K. is a member of the Catholic Knights of America, of the local lodge of which he was president for some two years.


HENRY LINNEMANN
(Dealer in Hardware and Farm Implements, St. Charles).

Mr. Linnemann's parents, Carl D. and Kate (Hecker) Linnemann, came to America from Germany in 1858, and the following year settled in St. Charles, where his father engaged in mercantile business, which he continued until 1871, when he retired from all active business matters. Both parents are still residing at St. Charles. Henry Linnemann, who was the eldest of his parents' family of four children, was 12 years of age when they came to America. He received a good ordinary education in the schools of St. Louis and St. Charles. He learned merchandising under his father as he grew up, and has been engaged in the hardware business most of the time since he was 19 years of age. However, when about 19 years old, having previously taken a course at commercial college in St. Louis, he graduated in that city in 1865. He then located at Jefferson City and engaged in business. In 1867 he returned to St. Louis, but after remaining there some eight months came back to St. Charles where he has ever since been engaged in his present line of business. He has built up a large trade, and his sales now average $20,000 annually. In 1873 Mr. Linnemann was elected treasurer of St. Charles and held the office for two years with entire satisfaction to the people. Miss Matilda Hauser became his wife 14 years ago. She was a daughter of Christian Hauser, the founder of the Spring brewery, and who died in about 1867. Mr. and Mrs. Linnemann have five children: Alice, Laura, Hyda, Carl and Robert. They lost two in infancy. He and wife are members of the Lutheran Church, and he is also a member of the St. Charles fire department.


JUDGE THEODORE F. McDEARMON
(Late Democratic Nominee for Associate Judge of the Court of Appeals, St. Louis District; Residence, St. Charles).

In September, of the present year, Judge McDearmon was nominated by the Democratic party, through the convention held at St. Louis, for Associate Judge of the Court of Appeals, the district of which includes the city of St. Louis, and the counties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Lincoln, Warren and Franklin, but he was defeated by a small majority, his opponent being Judge Rombauer. Judge McDearmon is now in his forty-fifth year, and has been continuously in the active practice of his profession since he was a young man of 22 years of age. His progress at the bar has been one of steady advancement, and he has attained the enviable standing he now has as a lawyer only through solid merit, hard work, sterling native ability and strict integrity. Judge McDearmon is well fitted for any position which he might be called to occupy. In cast of mind he is sober, discriminating, just and judicial. A man of thought rather than of words, he possesses one of those large and liberal minds that deal with everything worthy of consideration from the standpoints of fixed and general principles, and that can not in any circumstances be influenced from the course of right and justice. Clear, logical and penetrating, he examines every question that comes under his attention with care and deliberation, and when once he is satisfied as to the correctness of the premises assumed or the principles involved, his reason is forcible, without sophistry and convincing, and the result reached is conclusive from the proposition stated. Few men have more just and logical minds than he, more deliberate and penetrating, or more impossible to be influenced by anything aside from the real merits of the questions in issue. Coming from an old and highly respected family in North-east Missouri, a family prominently represented in State affairs and in comfortable circumstances, Judge McDearmon had good opportunities in youth and early manhood for mental culture and to prepare himself for a successful and honorable future at the bar -- opportunities which he did not fail to improve to the best advantage. He received a college education, and afterwards took a thorough course of preparatory study for the legal profession under Judge W. W. Edwards, one of the prominent lawyers of the circuit at that time. Industrious, energetic and of studious habits, favored with a good constitution and a vigorous, active mind; ambitious to succeed, of popular manners and irreproachable character; gifted with much natural eloquence, which was improved by culture and afterwards by practice at the bar, his rise in the legal profession could not have been a question of doubt from the first. Born and reared in this county, those among whom he was reared are the witnesses to his steady advancement as a lawyer in their midst, and to them his career is not less gratifying than it is creditable and honorable to him. For years Judge McDearmon has stood at the head of the bar in his native county and among the first lawyers of his circuit; and he has been justly nominated for a position on the bench of the Court of Appeals, a court that has won an honorable distinction in the judicial annals of the State for its dignity, wisdom and incorruptability, and for the high character of its decisions. Judge McDearmon would have made a worthy and honorable member of that tribunal, but it is safe to predict that in the future his career will not be less creditable to himself and to the judiciary of the State than as a lawyer it has been to himself and to the bar. Judge McDearmon was a son of Hon. James R. McDearmon, State Auditor in 1845, and an early settler of St. Charles county, from Prince Edward county, Va. State Auditor McDearmon was of an old and well known Virginia family, and was a man of culture. His general education was received from St. Mary's College in Virginia, from which he graduated with distinction. Soon afterwards he was married to Miss Martha A. Gannaway, a daughter of Edmond Gannaway, of Buckingham county, Va. In 1831, with his wife and one child, he removed to Missouri, and purchased land in Femme Osage township, St. Charles county, where he opened an excellent farm. In a short time, however, he became quite active and prominent in politics. He was a man of many excellent qualities as a neighbor and citizen, and in every relation of life. He was very popular in the county, and although he was an uncompromising Democrat, whilst St. Charles county was largely Whig in politics, he was repeatedly elected to important local positions, including the office of county judge. After his appointment as State Auditor by Gov. John C. Edwards he continued to serve in that office until his death, which occurred in 1848. He and his excellent wife, who was a lady of education and refinement, reared a family of eight children, seven of whom were sons. Judge T. F. McDearmon, the subject of this sketch, was the fifth in this parents' family of children, and was born at St. Charles, June 14, 1840. His college education was received at the St. Charles College, from which he retired when in the senior class for the purpose of entering upon the study of law. He read law under Judge Edwards for something over two years, and was then admitted to the bar. Prior to placing himself under the instruction of Judge Edwards, however, he had studied for some time at home for the legal profession. Admitted to practice in 1862 times soon became so unsettled in this part of the country on account of the war that the practice was virtually broken up, and he decided to go further West where the effects of the war were not so disastrous. He accordingly went to Idaho in 1863. There his superior qualifications for the practice and his ability as a lawyer soon became recognized, and he was not long in building up a good practice. In a short time he was appointed probate judge of the county, a position he filled with great satisfaction to he public as long as he remained in the county.

In 1866, the war being over, he returned to his old home at St. Charles and resumed the practice of his profession in the courts of this and adjoining counties. Here he was not less successful than he had been in Idaho. In 1870 he was appointed city attorney, and for eight years following he continued to hold that office by consecutive reappointments. He has long held a leading position at the bar, not only in St. Charles, but in the courts of neighboring counties, including the Court of Appeals, and in the State Supreme Court. There has scarcely been a case of any importance tried in this county in the last 10 years in which he has not been interested as attorney on one side or the other. His practice has been general, including all classes of cases before the courts, so that he is far better fitted for the position to which he has been nominated than any specialist in the profession. Having had a large and varied practice, and having given the whole of his time for the last 20 years to his profession, it goes without saying that in view of his success and well known ability, his qualifications for any office, are of a very high order and are such as to recommend him to the hearty support of the public. Now in the very prime of life, and in the meridian of mental activity and physical vigor, Judge McDearmon has every promise of a bright future in the judiciary of the State.

October 10, 1876, Judge McDearmon was married to Miss Fannie H. Fielding, a daughter of Edward Fielding, deceased, an early settler and highly respected citizen of St. Charles county. Mrs. McDearmon's father was a first cousin to Gen. U. S. Grant. Mr. Fielding held several local offices in the county. Her grandfather, Rev. Fielding, was the first Presbyterian minister to make his home in this county. Mrs. McD. was educated at Patapsco Female Institute, Maryland, from which she was graduated. The Judge and Mrs. McDearmon have three children: Madge, Theo. and Patti. Judge McDearmon is a member of the Catholic Knights of America and of the A.O.U.W.


JOHN K. McDEARMON
(Clerk of the County Court, St. Charles).

For 25 years, and for the last 14 years continuously, Mr. McDearmon, by the vote of the people of St. Charles county, has held the office he now occupies. This fact is shown to have more than ordinary significance when it is considered that although he has always been a Democrat, he has nevertheless been elected in a county which, since the war, has generally been Republican. His repeated re-elections, therefore, are highly complimentary to his personal popularity, aside from his recognized qualifications for the office and his faithfulness and integrity as a public servant. His father, James R. McDearmon, was an early settler in this county from Virginia. He became a prominent citizen of the county and was frequently made the custodian of important trusts. He served acceptably as county judge, and such were his prominence and recognized integrity as well as business qualifications, that in 1845 he was appointed to the office of State Auditor by Gov. John C. Edwards, an office he held until his death. The McDearmon family came to America prior to the Revolution. Three brothers came over under Col. Braddock and were with him at the time of his unfortunate defeat at Ft. Duquesne, on the 8th of july, 1755, when every officer on the British or American side was killed except George Washington, afterwards the "Father of the Country." Mr. McDearmon is a lineal descendant of one of these brothers, who settled in Virginia. John K. McDearmon was born in Prince Edward county, Va., November 24, 1829. His father removing to St. Charles county, Mo., when John K. was quite young, the latter was principally reared in the county. His father gave him good educational advantages, for James R. McDearmon was himself a man of culture, having received a collegiate education (a graduate of Hampden Sidney College, Virginia), and appreciated at its full value the advantage of a thorough education. Young McDearmon took a course in the preparatory schools and then matriculated at the State University. But his course was broken off there on account of the death of his father, so that he did not continue until he graduated. After his father's death the family returned to St. Charles. In the meantime, however, John K. had obtained a position as assistant in the county and circuit clerk's offices at Jefferson City, under Gen. G. A. Parson, and father of Gen. Monroe M. Parson, who was killed since the Civil War in Mexico by Mexican soldiers; and young McDearmon continued at Jefferson City two years after the family returned to St. Charles. In 1850, however, he came back to St. Charles and began the study of law under Robert H. Parks, Esq. After a due course of study he was admitted to the bar and thereupon engaged in the practice of his profession at this place. Meanwhile, his brother, Thomas H. McDearmon, had been elected to the office of the county clerk of this county, but died before entering upon the duties of his office. Thereupon the people elected John K. for the term for which his brother had been elected, and which he filled out with such efficiency and so much to the satisfaction of the public that he was elected for a second term. Afterwards he was continuously re-elected and he held the office until 1865, when he was removed by operation of the "Ousting Ordinance," presumably adopted to place the official position under the State government and the different counties in the hands of loyal men, but really to secure a general "divide" of all the offices among those who were making a profit, as well as a virtue of loyalty. Mr. McDearmon was an earnest, consistent, unswerving Union man all during the war, but had to give way, nevertheless, to influences that were interested in making it appear that he was disloyal. Though out of office from 1865 to 1870, he never for a moment lost the confidence of the people of the county, and in 1870 he was again elected to the position, largely by Republican votes. He has ever since continued to hold the office. A writer in the "United States Biographical Dictionary" says of him: "In all his official relations and as a man and citizen, Mr. McDearmon stands high in the estimation of all parties in the county who entertain the earnest hope that he may be left to serve them many years; and his robust health preserved by temperate habits would seem to indicate that their hope is well founded." In 1854 he was married to Miss Lucy A. Orrick, a daughter of Capt. John and Urilla Orrick, old and respected residents of this county, originally from Virginia. Mr. and Mrs. McD. have six children.


HENRY E. MACHENS
(Dealer in Lumber, St. Charles).

Mr. Machens has by industry and good management risen to a position of enviable prominence in the business affairs of St. Charles, a position he has long and worthily held. He commenced for himself a young man without capital or other means except his own brawn and brain, and has made all he is worth by his own exertions and business intelligence. He has one of the leading lumber yards of the county, and sells about 1,500,000 feet of lumber per year. Mr. Machens is a native of Germany, born in Hanover, in 1829. He was the third in the family of children of Henry and Catharine Machens. Henry E. came to the United States at the age of 19 and located in St. Charles county, when he went to work as a farm hand. In 1849 he began teaming at St. Charles, and in 1850 started a bus line to St. Louis, which he ran with success. In 1854 he engaged in the hotel business at St. Charles, and four years later he had control of the transfer business for the railroad, continuing this up to 1861. He then enlisted in Co. A, St. Charles Home Guards in which he served for five months. From this time on, until the close of the war, Mr. Machens was in the State militia. He served as lieutenant and quartermaster. Meanwhile, however, in 1863, he was appointed deputy sheriff, and he served in that capacity for four years. He was then elected to the office of sheriff which he continued to hold by subsequent re-elections until 1871. He then engaged in his present business. Mr. Machens aggregate sales amount to over $30,000 a year. In 1854 he was married to Miss Mary Pieper, a daughter of Henry and Gertrude Pieper, formerly of Hanover. They have four children: Henrietta, Laura, Kate and Agnes. Two are deceased -- Missouri, who died the wife of Frederick Baumer, and Henry, who died at the age of two years. Mr. and Mrs. M. are members of the Catholic Church.


PROF. AUGUSTUS F. MACK
(Professor of Emmanuel's Lutheran School, St. Charles).

Though a native of this country Prof. Mack is of German-American parentage, and was born soon after his parents left the home of their nativity in das land von der Nibelungen Lied. His father, Friederich Mack, was from Wurtemberg, but his mother, who was a Miss Regina Baumann before her marriage, was from Bavaria. They came to America in 1849, and settled at first in Cleveland, Ohio. Finally, however, they made their permanent home at New Haven, Ind. Prof. Augustus F. Mack was born at Cleveland, Ohio, March 12, 1851. He was the second in his parents' family of 15 children, and was principally reared in Cleveland. From the age of 14 up to 1870 he attended the Lutheran German Teachers' Seminary, at Addison, Ill., where he took a complete normal course, and at the end of his five years' term he graduated with high honor. After this Prof. Mack taught for two years at Beardstown, Ill., and then three years at Aurora, Ill. In 1874 he was installed as principal of the Lutheran school, at Proviso, Ill., where he taught for four years. At the expiration of this time he came to St. Charles, where he accepted a call to take charge of the Emmanual Lutheran school at this place. Prof. Mack is a gentleman of thorough education, a teacher of ample and successful experience, and a man of unquestionable moral pulchritude and worth. Thoroughly devoted to his profession, he gives it all his best energies and takes that extreme pride in the advancement and moral training of his pupils which every specialist should in the success of his work. He is popular both in the school-room and among the patrons of the school, as well as in the community at large, for he is a man whose purpose is manifest to do right and that which is for the best interests of all. In 1872 he was married to Miss Sophie, a daughter of Caspar Moorman, formerly of Prussia. They have five children: Sarah, Mary, Louis, Henry and Hannah. He and wife are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.


W. HENRY MAERTENS
(Manufacturer of and Dealer in Cigars, St. Charles).

Dietrich Maertens, the father of the subject of this sketch, came from Sulingen, Hanover, with his family, including Henry, in 1846. He stopped for about a year at New Orleans and then for about four years in St. Louis, coming to St. Charles in 1852. He was a cabinet maker by trade, and followed that principally until his death, which occurred in 1865. His wife, who was a Miss Elizabeth Wieddey before her marriage, died in St. Charles in 1858. Henry was in his seventeenth year when he came over. He commenced working at the cigar maker's trade in New Orleans, and afterwards followed it at St. Louis and St. Charles. Here, however, he started in business for himself, manufacturing cigars, and has ever since followed it. He now works several hands and has established an enviable reputation for his brands of cigars. He was one of the organizers of the St. Charles Savings Bank, and is a stockholder in the St. Charles Mutual Fire Insurance Company, of which he was one of the first directors. Mr. Maertens has served for twenty years as a member of the school board. He has also served as postmaster at this place. He was appointed in 1869 and was afterwards reappointed, but was euchered out of the office by political skullduggery more successful than righteous. He has also held some other local offices, but has never given any time to office seeking. August 27, 1863, Mr. Maertens was married to Miss Emma Clauss, a daughter of William Clauss, formerly of Wolfenbuettel, Brunswick, Germany, where Mrs. M. was born and partly reared.


FRANCIS MARTEN
(Grain Dealer, St. Charles).

The name that heads this sketch is another one that has been added to the large list of German-Americans citizens of St. Charles county, who had achieved abundant success in life without any means to start on and by their own industry and good business management. Mr. Marten is probably the leading grain dealer of the county, and ships now about 75,000 bushels per annum. He has accumulated a good property and is in easy circumstances. Mr. Marten was born in Prussia, May 28, 1824, and was a son of John H. and Eliza (Kastien) Marten, both of old Prussian families. Francis was reared in his native country and received a good general education. His father was a merchant and distiller, and young Marten learned these pursuits. He also learned the machinist's trade and of course served in the army a regular term of two years. He held the position of corporal in the army, and after his term expired was engaged in mechanicl work until he was 23 years of age. He then came to America and worked at his trade in St. Louis for about two years. In 1849 he came to St. Charles, where he built a business house, where he is still engaged in business and engaged in merchandising. He continued merchandising up to 1865, and also bought and shipped grain during this time. He then closed out his store and bought a half interest in the flouring mills, and assisted to carry on the mills for about seven years, continuing in the grain business all the time. Selling out his interest in the mills, he has ever since that time given his whole time and attention to the grain business exclusively. In this he has had marked success, as already stated. May 8, 1848, Mr. Marten was married to Miss Catherine Weeke. She died in 1851, leaving a son, August, now in San Jose, Cal. To his present wife Mr. Marten was married over 30 years ago. She was a Miss Adeline Becker, a daughter of Philip Becker, and was educated at the Convent of the Sacred Heart, in St. Charles. They have five children: Edward, now a druggist of St. Louis; Matilda, now the wife of Franklin Becker; Louis and Lena. Mr. Marten has represented his city ward in the city council several years, also served one term as school director of the public school, and during the war was provost marshal of this city, and at the beginning of the war was appointed captain of the Home Guard.


STEPHEN HENRY MERTEN
(Of S. H. Merten & Co., Proprietors of the Central Mills, St. Charles, Mo.).

Mr. Merten's parents, Philip and Margaret (Priggemeier) Merten, were early settlers of St. Charles county. They came here from Prussia as far back as 1833, and settled three miles west of St. Charles. There the father bought land and improved a farm; he became a well-to-do farmer and well respected citizen of the county and died in St. Charles (as he had moved with S. H. Merten to St. Charles in 1856), in 1862. Stephen H. was eight years of age when the family came to America; he was born December 23, 1825, and was therefore principally reared in St. Charles county. He grew up on the farm and continued at home engaged in farming until he was 26 years of age. In the spring of 1852 he was married to Miss Catherine A. Freize and shortly afterwards he came to St. Charles, where he was engaged in teaming for about a year. He then rented the old family homestead and followed farming until about 1856, when he returned to St. Charles and resumed teaming. Three years later he became clerk and salesman in Asa N. Overall's lumber yard and continued in that for about five years. In January, 1865, Mr. Merten began buying, shipping and dealing in wheat, having formed a partnership for that purpose with his present partners, William and J. F. Hackman. Continuing this business, the following year these gentlemen and several others formed a company and bought the old stone church building, which they repaired and built to and converted into the present Central Mills. Mr. Merten has ever since been at the head of this company in running and managing the mills. He has also continued in running and managing the mills. He has also continued to buy and ship grain, and altogether has been quite successful. He was one of the organizers of the Union Savings Bank and is a prominent stockholder in that institution; he is also a stockholder and director in the car works, and a stockholder in the tobacco factory and the First National Bank. He has served as city councilman and as mayor, and is a man of recognized standing and influence in the county. Mr. and Mrs. Merten have five children: George H., now farming three miles west of town; H. F., an enterprising grocer of St. Charles; Caroline, who is the wife of J. F. Dinkmeyer, a teacher in St. John's school; Mata, a young lady still at home; Theodore, and an infant. They have lost five children, all at tender years. Mr. and Mrs. Merten are members of St. John's Evangelical Church. The Central Mills is one of the leading mills of the county and is supplied with a full and complete plant of the latest and best machinery, including the patent roller process. It has a capacity of 200 barrels of flour a day, and its flour has a wide and enviable reputation in the markets. Mr. Merten is a pleasant, agreeable gentleman in personal bearing and is held in high esteem at St. Charles. He is one of the representative, enterprising, public-spirited citizens of the place, and does his full share of the growth and prosperity of the city.


AUGUSTUS A. MEYER
(Merchant Jeweler, St. Charles).

All old residents of St. Charles well remember Mr. Meyer's father, Ludwig Meyer, who settled here from Hanover over half a century ago. He was a jeweler by trade, and also an organ building -- of pipe organs for churches, etc., on the same order that we now have them. He carried on the jeweler business mainly, however, and was fairly successful, always providing well for his family and leaving at his death a good business and some property. He died in 1874; he was a man much thought of by his neighbors and all who knew him, and served in the office of alderman. Augustus A., the subject of this sketch, was about six years of age when the family came over, having been born June 19, 1828. He learned the jeweler's trade under his father and attended the schools at St. Charles. Having a great taste for music and a marked gift in that direction, his talent was encouraged by his parents and he early became a fine musician, particularly an accomplished organist. At the age of 15 he was employed as organist at the St. Charles Borromeo Church, and he filled that position continuously for over 15 years. All his life he has made the study of music a specialty, and understands it thoroughly according to the teachings of the greatest and best masters. On attaining his majority he became his father's partner in the jewelry store, and afterwards a younger brother, Louis E., became a member of the firm. The latter, however, is now, also retired. Since then Augustus A. has carried on the business along, or rather until 1883, when Edward L. became his partner in business. They have a full line of jewelry, clocks, watches, musical instruments, etc., and command an excellent tradde. May 2, 1854, Mr. Meyer was married to Miss Lizzie C., a daughter of A. Steinbruegge, formerly of Hanover. Mr. and Mrs. M. have five children: Katie, Annie, Mary M., Edward L. and Martha. Edward L., the eldest in the family of children, is his partner in business. Mr. and Mrs. M. are members of the Catholic Church.


WILLIAM H. MEYER
(Late of W. H. Meyer & Co., Dealers in General Merchandise and Farm Implements, St. Charles).

The career of Mr. Meyer holds a striking example of success achieved and enviable standing in business affairs, as well as otherwise, by industry, ambition and perserverance, from a beginning by no means favorable. As a leading member of the above named firm, one of the prominent and remarkable business houses of St. Charles, he held a position of marked influence in the business affairs of the place and is looked upon as one of its most respected and worthy business men. Mr. Meyer, as his name indicates, is of German antecedents, and indeed is a native of Germany. He was born in Hanover, November 10, 1844. When he was a lad about seven years of age his parents came to this country and located in St. Charles. His father, Matthaus Meyer, died here three years afterwards. His mother, who was a Miss Mary Schoole, died the first year of her arrival here. William H. made his home after his parents' death in the family of Mr. Christ Bloebaum with whom he lived until the winter of 1860-62, when he enlisted in the Union Army, Co. A, First battalion Missouri State militia, in which he served for a term of 10 months. He then shortly enlisted in Co. H, Second Missouri artillery, and later along became a member of Co. C, where he served until after the war. He was not mustered out at the close of the war, but was sent for service against the Indians in which he took part in a very severe and hazardous campaign in the North-west. He was in two fights with the Indians, but the greatest danger he underwent was that of starvation, the base of supplies being so far away that it was impossible to get provisions with regularity, so that more than once the troops came very near perishing of hunger. Late in 1865, however, he was honorably discharged and at once returned to St. Charles. For a couple of years he worked at farm labor and, feeling the want of a better education than he had, he employed what means he had to attend school. Obtaining a fair general knowledge of the ordinary English branches, he was then offered and accepted a clerkship in a store at Oden, Ill., where he learned the practical details of merchandising. In 1870 he returned to St. Charles and secured a situation here in a store, where he clerked for about 12 months. Expecting to make merchandising his permanent occupation he determined to qualify himself thoroughly for it, and went to St. Louis to attend commercial college where he took a complete course of instructions. Out of employment and out of means by this time, he accepted a position temporarily on the police for of that city. In a short time, however, he returned to St. Charles, and he and Mr. Buermann formed a partnership and began merchandising in a small way, where business succeeded and with increase of their trade they steadily increased their stock until their house became one of the leading business houses of St. Charles. The firm continued thus until 1879 when John A. Meyer stepped in with Messrs. Buermann & Meyer, and the style of the firm became as it now is, W. H. Meyer & Co. On October 1, in 1881, Mr. Buermann retired. This firm carries a very large stock in their lines and has an extensive trade; their sales aggregate perhaps over $40,000 a year. Mr. Meyer is in comfortable circumstances, and is now just in the meridian of a successful career. He is of course a man of family. June 30, 1875, he was married to Miss Lizzie, a daughter of John Meyer, formerly of Hanover. Mr. and Mrs. M. have three children: John C., Leta and Hugo. He and wife are members of the Lutheran Church, and Mr. Meyer is a prominent member of the order of Odd Fellows.


JOHN A. MEYER
(Of W. H. Meyer & Co., Dealers in General Merchandise and Farm Implements, St. Charles).

Like his partner, Mr. Meyer, the subject of this sketch, is a self-made man, having commenced for himself without anything and accumulated all he has by his own energy and good management. He was only about six years of age when the family came to America, having been bron in Hanover January 12, 1854. His father was John Meyer, and his mother's maiden name Mary Boess. They came over and settled in St. Charles in 1860. Early in the following year his father enlisted in the Union army, and served until he was discharged for disability in 1864. He died two years later. Principally reared in St. Charles, John A. had the benefit of instruction in the public schools of this place, and he also attended night school. However, when 14 years of age he entered a printing office to learn type setting, at which he worked for about four years. After this he engaged in farming in the country, which he carried on until 1877. Making now a prospecting tour through Iowa and Minnesota, which lasted about four months, he then returned to St. Charles and became clerk for Buermann & Meyer, and afterwards succeeded Mr. Buermann as a member of the firm which took its present name of W. H. Meyer & Co. Mr. Meyer is a man of good business habits and thorough business qualifications. By his energy and enterprise he has added very materially to the success of the firm. October 22, 1879, he was married to Miss Julia A., a daughter of Frank Hackman, a live stock dealer of St. Charles. Mr. and Mrs. M. have three children: Edward F., Julius F. and Otto C. Mrs. M. is a member of the Evangelical Church and Mr. M. of the Lutheran Church


JOHN N. MITTELBERGER
(Of J. N. Mittelberger & Co., Dealers in Dry Goods, Boots and Shoes, Furnishing Goods, Etc., St. Charles).

No complete or just sketch of the business growth of St. Charles, covering the perod of the last twenty or twenty-five years, could be given without bearing witness to the activity and enterprise shown by the subject of the present sketch and his father, John C. Mittelberger, in the business affairs of this place. Throughout all, or nearly all, of this period one or both of them have occupied prominent positions in developing the trade of St. Charles and in movements calculated to advance its material and general interests. There has perhaps not been an enterprise calculated to benefit the place in the last twenty years in which one or both of them have not taken an active interest and leading part. Abundantly successful as business men themselves, the whole community as a business and trade-center has felt the beneficial and stimulating influence of their success and enterprise. The Mittelberger family came to St. Charles county from Virginia over half a century ago. John C. Mittelberger, the father, was born in Virginia and came to this county with his parents while he was still a youth. Here he subsequently married Miss Lucinda Mallerson and settled on a farm in the county, where he continued to reside, successfully engaged in farming, until 1860. He then removed to the town of St. Charles and formed a partnership with Christopher Weeke in the milling business. They built the Northern mills, which they ran as partners for four years. Mr. Mittelberger then retired from the firm and subsequently established the business of which his sons, John N., the subject of this sketch, is now at the head. Indeed, John N. was his father's partner in the establishment of the present business, the style of the firm then being J. C. Mittelberger & Son. The store was carried on thus until January, 1881, when their house and stock was burned, on account of which the partnership was dissolved. The father then retired from merchandising, but not from all other business. Having had a successful business career, he had of course accumulated some means, which he had invested in various interests. He was a large stockholder in the St. Charles Car Works, of the board of directors of which he was also a member. He was largely instrumental in establishing the care works at this place, being one of the first to suggest the enterprise and one of the most active and energetic in carrying it forward to a successful issue. He was also a large stockholder in the Union Savings Bank, and had valuable real estate interests at this place, all of which required his attention and good management. In 1872 he was elected mayor of St. Charles, an office he filled with ability and to the satisfaction of the public for two years. He died January 1, 1882, in the sixty-fifth year of his age, profoundly mourned by the entire community, for he was a man who was much esteemed personally, and whose life had been of great value to St. Charles. He and his son built the opera house at this place, a handsome structure that did great credit to the city. He was also identified with various enterprises, public and private, conducive to the growth and best interest of St. Charles. He was one of that class of men, enterprising, public-spirited and liberal, that always build up the place in which they live, and give it whatever prominence it obtains in business affairs and otherwise. John N. Mittelberger was born on his father's farm, February 7, 1845. He was about 15 years of age when the family came to the city, and the only son in the family. His father gave him good school advantages, giving him the benefit of a course at the St. Louis Univeristy and also a course at commercial college. From early manhood he took an active part with his father in business and in the various enterprises in which the latter was engaged. From the very beginning Mr. Mittelberger, Jr., had charge and the management of the store. After the fire of 1881 he rebuilt and organized the present firm, composed of himself, J. L. Patterson and F. W. Holke. This firm has continued in business ever since that time and is one of the leading houses, outside of a large city, in North-east Missouri. All are thoroughly experienced, progressive business men with established reputations for fair dealing, and always courteous and accommodating to the public. Personally popular as men and as citizens of the county, their house is liberally patronized, for they always keep on hand a large stock of the best classes of goods in their lines, which are sold at figures marked down to the lowest point that good business management allows. They of course do not give their goods away, for they expect to do business a long time still at St. Charles, and carry no goods bought either at fraudulent bankrupt sales, stolen, or bought on a credit never to be met and paid. They buy their goods at responsible houses and at honest, fair prices, and make a rule of selling them in the same fair, honest way. Thus they have won public confidence and thus their large trade has been built up. August 17, 1870, Mr. Mittelberger was married to Miss Mary A., a daughter of John Boyse, deceased, late of St. Charles. Mrs. M. is a lady of marked intelligence and culture, and was educated at the Convent of the Sacred Heart. There are six children: J. Austin, Agnes C., Mary E., Anna R., Angeline K. and Hattie E. Mr. and Mrs. Mittelberger are members of the English Catholic Church. Mr. Mittelberger is prominently identified with various business interests in St. Charles. He is a member of the board of directors of the Union Savings Bank, and also a director of the St. Charles tobacco factory. He is a prominent member of the Merchants' Exchange, and is now serving his second term as a member of the city council.


WILLIAM MOENTMANN
(Farmer, Post-office, St. Charles).

Germany is the country of Mr. Moentmann's nativity, and he came from there to America when two years of age with his parents, in 1840. They settled in St. Charles county and lived here until their deaths. His father was Rudolph Moentmann and his mother's maiden name was Margaret Dras. Both were members of the German Lutheran Church. The mother died, however, before coming to this country, and the father was afterwards married twice. He died in 1878. William Moentmann was the younger of two children by his father's first marriage, and was reared in this county. On the 15th of March, 1865, he was married to Miss Henrietta Moellenbrock, formerly of Germany. Before his marriage Mr. Moentmann had engaged in farming for himself in this county and he afterwards continued it. He now has 150 acres of good land, one of the comfortable farms of the county. Mr. and Mrs. Moentmann have nine children, five of whom are living, namely: Amelia, Louis, Mena, Martha and Louisa. He and wife are members of the German Lutheran Church.


JAMES A. MOORE
(Market Gardener, St. Charles).

For the last 27 years, Mr. Moore has been engaged in market gardening for the trade of St. Charles, and he also ships his products occasionally to other markets. He has 15 acres of good land devoted exclusively to raising market products in the line of garden farming, and he has had satisfactory success in this branch of horticulture. He is a native of England, born in Yorkshire, February 18, 1819. When he was about 10 years of age his parents came to America with their family of children and located in Canada. In 1840 they crossed over into the States and settled permanently in Hancock county, Ill. The father, a farmer by occupation, died there in February, 1859. The mother died September 22, 1879. They reared six children, three of whom were sons, and of the family of children, James A. was the second; he was 20 years of age when the family located in Hancock county. In 1852 he went to California; he had been previously married to Eliza Jane Long of Dayton, Ohio, and she died while crossing the plains, with the cholera, and left one child, a little boy, 12 months old. Mr. Moore took him through to California, and upon starting to return home in the spring of 1855, took passage on the steamship Yankee Blade, which was wrecked about 24 hours after starting; she had over 1,100 passengers on board, of whom about 300 were lost. Mr. Moore lost his little boy and was picked up himself insensible by a lady on the beach, where the breakers had washed him; he lost everything he had, not having even a coat and hat left. After remaining on the beach three days, he was taken off by the steamer Goliah, that ran between San Francisco and Los Angeles, in nearly a famishing condition; he was taken back to San Francisco, stayed there about one week and went again to the mines, where he soon began to do well, but having become discouraged, in six weeks he once more started home and in due time, without any serious accident, reached Hancock county, where he resided until 1857. On the 28th of June, that year, he was married to Miss Arianah, daughter of Frederick and Mary (Little) Lorine, of Hancock county, where she was reared, being educated in the schools of Carthage, Ill. Mrs. Moore is a lady of superior intelligence and marked strength of character and business aptitude and energy. She is in fact more enterprising and a better manager of business affairs than the general average of men. To her industry and business acumen is argely due the success which she and her husband have had in their present business, to which also Mr. M. has contributed the full share of a go-ahead man, a capable and energetic manager. They came to St. Charles in 1857, and have been in their present business ever since. They have a family of four children: Maria L., Mary E., John and George. He and family are members of the Trinity Episcopal Church.


JAMES R. MUDD, M.D.
(Physician and Surgeon, St. Charles).

The family of the above name, of wich Dr. Mudd is a representative, has long been well and prominently known in North-east Missouri, particularly in the medical profession. The family came originally from England, and settled in Maryland among the first colonists of that grant. The founder of the family in this country came over with Lord Baltimore. From there is has become dispersed over different States, particularly the South and West. Dr. M.'s father, James H. Mudd, was a native of Kentucky, his father in turn having immigrated to the Blue Grass State from Maryland. The Doctor's mother was a Miss Elizabeth Janes before her marriage, also a Kentuckian by nativity. The family came to Missouri in 1849, and settled in Lincoln county, where the father followed farming for many years. In 1860 he removed to Montgomery county, where he is still living at the advanced age of 85 years, and makes his home with his son, Samuel Mudd. The old gentleman, although a patriarch in years as well as appearance, is still quite vigorous, and in mind and conversation betrays but little the great weight of years he bears. His memory is still clear, and to hear him speak of the every-day affairs of life at a time when Kentucky was still a wilderness and Missouri was considered the far West, almost sounds like a voice from the grave of the distant past, bringing up circumstances and events that seem to have been long buried. Dr. Mudd was in childhood when his parents came to Missouri, having been born in Kentucky, Washington county, August 10, 1844. He was therefore reared in Lincoln county, this State. Dr. Mudd was brought up to a farm life, but early displayed a preference for the medical profession. While yet a youth he decided to make a physician of himself, and accordingly subordinated every other consideration to the attainment of that object. At the age of 18, having already received a common school education, he entered college at St. Charles, in order to take a course in more advanced studies. He had previously taught school for a year, and appreciating fully the advantage of a good education, he studied with more than ordinary zeal and assiduity at college. After a general college course of three years he began the study of medicine, and as a means of defraying his expenses while prosecuting his medical studies he taught school about five years in all. His preceptor in medicine was Dr. Samuel Overall, a leading physician of St. Charles county. In 1870 he entered the St. Louis Medical College, and graduated from that institution in the spring of 1872. Dr. Mudd then began the practice at Boschertown, on the Marais Croche lake in this county, about three miles, north of St. Charles. Having good success in building up a practice which soon extended itself to St. Charles and vicinity, he removed to this place about six years ago, where he has ever since continued to practice. Dr. Mudd occupies a position of one of the leading physicians of the place, and is highly respected as a citizen. October 10, 1875, he was married to Miss Mary C., a daughter of John Boschert, of Boschertown. Mrs. Mudd was educated at St. Charles. The Doctor and Mrs. M. have three children: Eugene J., Leo C. and Arthur D. They have lost two, Augustus and Claudine. In 1876 Dr. Mudd was elected coroner of the county and he has ever since continued to occupy that position by re-elections. He is also physician and superintendent of the St. Charles county asylum for the poor, by employment of the county court.


FRANCIS OBERKOETTER
(Dealer in Boots and Shoes, St. Charles).

For 42 years Mr. Oberkoetter has been a resident of St. Charles, and for the last 32 years continuously he has been engaged in his present line of business at his present stand. He commenced for himself a poor boy at the shoemaker's bench, and worked his way up from the last to the present enviable position he occupies as a business man, citizen, and substantial property holder, a position he has long and worthily held. Mr. Oberkoetter was born in Hanover, April 19, 1819, and was a son of Frederick and Mary (Stoelmeyer) Oberkoetter, both of old Hanovarian families. He grew up in Hanover and learned the shoemaker's trade, at which he worked in that country until 1842, when he came to the land of the free and the home of the brave and located in St. Charles. Here he resumed his trade and worked at journey work until 1845, when he began from himself in a small way. Close attention to business, fair dealing and industry prospered him from the beginning, and step by step he has progressed on a successful business career until he is now one of the substantial property holders and prominent business men of St. Charles. In 1849 he bought a business house, where he carried on a store until 1852, when he bought the building he now occupies, where he has ever since continued it. In 1867 he built one of the best business houses in St. Charles, a large handsome structure, with two sales rooms on the ground floor and offices above. This building he still owns, and he also has several valuable residence properties in town built for renting. He was one of the first stockholders in the car works, and helped to organize the fire insurance company, of which he was the first president, a position he held for seven years. He is also a large stockholder in the gas company and in the Union Savings Bank. He has held the office of councilman for several terms, but has made no object of the pursuit of office. In 1846 Mr. Oberkoetter was married to Miss Julia Yeager, formerly of Hanover. His wife died early in 1881, and Mr. Oberkoetter himself is quite feeble, having received a stroke of paralysis a short time ago, but he still superintends his business, and is a man of great vitality and energy. He and his good wife reared two children: Mary, now the widow of Daniel Reinschmidt; Anna, a young lady who is still at home; and Valentine, now 18 years of age. Their other children died at tender ages. The family are Catholics in religious faith.


CAPT. JOHN ORRICK
[Contributed].

The following is a report of the committee appointed by Palenstine Lodge No. 241, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, to prepare a minute concerning the death of Capt. John Orrick. The report was prepared by Jos. H. Alexander, W.M. of the lodge and chairman of the committee, and adopted by the lodge at a meeting held on the 19th day of August, 1879: --

John Orrick, the eighth of 12 children of Nicholas Orrick and Mary Pendleton, was born in Berkeley county, Va., January 5, 1805, and died in St. Charles, Mo., July 4, 1879, reaching an age of just 74 years and 6 months.

His early years were spent on a farm; in 1818 he became a merchant's apprentice in Reading, Pa., where he remained nine years; in 1827 he removed to Lancaster, Pa., where he remained three years, afterwards engaging in business at Pottsfield, Pa.

September 22, 1833, he married Urilla Stonebraker, of Washington county, Md., immediately coming West and settling at St. Charles, where he has resided ever since.

His business was merchandising, and in conjunction with his brother, Benjamin, who still survives, he soon established an extensive and profitable trade; but meeting with heavy losses in the fur trade and otherwise the firm suspended, coming through the trying ordeal, however, with credit and honor.

Soon afterwards he filled the office of justice of the peace at St. Charles; from 1840 to 1844 he was sheriff of St. Charles county; in 1844 he represented the county in the Lower Houes of the Missouri Legislature. He, for two years, resided on the farm now owned and occupied by E. C. Cunningham, Esq., after which he engaged in steamboating, being in command of the steamer Fayaway, plying between St. Louis and St. Charles.

In 1851 he took the United States census for St. Charles county, soon after which he engaged in the grain business with Judge Yosti. The firm of Yosti & Orrick continued in business about six years, Judge Yosti then withdrawing. The business was continued by Orrick & Barklage till Mr. Barklage's death in 1861, after which it was continued by Orrick & Stonebraker for about six years, when Mr. Orrick finally ceased from active business, spending the last 10 or 12 years of his life free from business cares.

This very brief statement shows that Mr. Orrick was actually engaged in business, from first to last, for about 49 years. In all this extended career he was scrupulous in all his dealings and transactions, and showed energy, perserverance, industry and faithfulness in the discharge of duty and the fulfillment of obligation, coming through all these years and ending his business career without a stain upon his honor or reproach upon his character.

What an amount of labor and toil is represented by a human life extending across three-quarters of a century! What an amount of energy and industry, especially in a life of unceasing activity, such as was Mr. Orrick's! What an amount of character must have been developed by a business career of 50 years. And yet, the truth is, that his life was much more than all that has been mentioned.

He was a member of the Episcopal Church, and his zeal in that relation is shown in the fact that in 1836, when he had been in St. Charles but a short time, a church of that denomination had been organized here, and he became one of its first vestrymen, and so continued ever afterwards. He maintained his connection with that church to the day of his death, a period of 43 years, and served it with his best and most unselfish service, and gave to it freely of his time, means and his heart's best affections.

He was for many years captain of the St. Charles First Troop, a military company organized and maintained here for many years, and served its interests faithfully and well, giving it much of his care and attention and accustomed energy.

He was for some time a director of the North Missouri Railroad Company, and gave diligence to the discharge of his high and responsible duties in that connection.

And last, but not least in his estimation, he gave many of his thoughts and much of his time to the ancient and honorable fraternity of Free Masons -- "ancient, as having existed from time immemorial, and honorable, as tending so to make every one who will be conformable to its precepts." His devotion to this order is shown in his early connection with it, his steadfast adherence to it and his faithful service of it.

The writer has now lying before him Brother Orrick's "mark" as a Royal Arch Mason. It reads: "John Orrick, Schuykill Mark Lodge, No. 138, June 30th, A.L. 5826," and has on it a representation of a ship in full sail surrounded by the Royal Arch letters "H.T.W.S.S.T.K.S." Brother Orrick attained the age of 21 years on the 5th day of January, 1826. The date given on the "mark" shows that within less than six months after becoming of age he had not only taken the three degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry, but had also attained the degree of Mark Master.

When he came to St. Charles in 1833, there was no lodge working here; but in 1837 he and others petitioned for authority to open a lodge, which was given, and Brother Orrick was appointed first Junior Warden of the new lodge, which was called Hiram No. 23. In 1838 and 1839 he was its Senior Warden, and in 1840 became its Master. In 1841 he occupied no position, but the honorary one of Past Master, which he had well earned; but in 1842, called again into active service, he became J.D. for two years and S.D. for one year. Hiram Lodge No. 23 ceased to work about 1845, but another, called Hiram No. 118, was established in 1849; and in the first return made by the new lodge, Brother Orrick's name is enrolled as a Past Master. He continued a member of this lodge until its dissolution in 1861. After the organization of Palestine Lodge No. 241, in 1865, he became a member of it, and so continued until his death.

The records of these several lodges and the Grand Lodge of Missouri bear testimony to his zeal for the fraternity and his faithfulness as a craftsman. Diligently and faithfully he served the brotherhood in his early manhood, in his riper years and in old age. He met the brethren of this lodge as often as his increasing infirmities would permit, and his connection with the fraternity was never severed till the bowl was broken at the fountain and the wheel broken at the cistern.

Thus briefly recapitulating the best known events of his life, we would record our appreciation of him as a man and a Mason -- as a man, filling up the measure of his days with usefulness, faithful in things, diligently discharging his duties in all the relations of life; as a Mason, earnest and zealous for 53 years, never forgetting his high and solemn responsibilities, furnishing only true work and square work for inspection, honoring his brethren and honored by them. If he had faults let us forget them and bury them forever. He had many virtues; let us imitate them. And now that he has gone -- the very oldest among us at the time of his death -- let us cherish his memory while life shall last, remembering that we, too, young and old, must soon follow him into the unseen world.


DR. SAMUEL OVERALL
[Contributed].

The following is the report of the committee appointed by Palestine Lodge No. 241, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, to prepare a minute concerning the death of Dr. Samuel Overall. The report was prepared by Joseph H. Alexander, W.M. of the Lodge and chairman of the committee, and adopted by the lodge at a meeting held on the 19th of August, 1879: --

The names of Overall and Griffith have been familiar to the records and identified with the history of St. Charles county for three-quarters of a century, ever since American immigrants began to find their way into the Territory of Louisiana. The Overalls and Griffiths emigrated from Nashville, Tenn., and settled in St. Charles in 1809, shortly after which Maj. Wilson L. Overall and Mary Griffith were united in marriage.

Dr. Samuel Overall was the fourth son of this marriage, and was born December 10, 1821, resided in the county of St. Charles all his life, and died August 3, 1879. His early years were spent upon a farm; he attended such country schools as those early years afforded, going one year to St. Charles College. Coming to manhood's years and choosing for his life-work the profession of medicine he entered upon its study, and in due time was graduated at the Ohio Medical College in 1846. His diploma is dated on the 4th of March in that year.

Immediately upon his graduation he returned to St. Charles and commenced the practice of his profession, in which he achieved more than ordinary success.

In 1851, October 8th, he was united in marriage with Miss Mary A. Robinson -- she and four children survive to mourn the loss of a kind husband and father.

His chief attention was given to the practice of his profession -- that was his life-work, and he never relinquished it; but in the midst of his absorbing duties and unceasing labors as a physician he found time for other things. In 1854 he served one term as mayor of the city of St. Charles, and did his work well. From time to time he gave his attention to various matters as a citizen -- he was alive to all matter affecting the public good.

He was for many years a member of the Methodist Church, and gave freely of his talents, his means and his time to the advancement of the interests of that church and of pure religion generally in this community.

In 1849 he became a Free Mason, completing the three degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry on the 4th day of August, 1849, precisely 30 years before the day on which his body was consigned to the grave by his brethren of the Mystic Tie.

In both these relations -- as a member of the visible church, and as a Mason -- he served long and faithfully, obtaining official position and doing diligent service in both church and lodge, and discharging with conscientious fidelity every duty required of him by his brethren.

He was a Christian -- none who knew him ever doubted the fact. He did not so much speak religion as live it, though if occasion required he could defend it by word as well as show forth it excellency and power by a godly walk and conversation.

The writer of this notice has been with him in religious meetings and been struck with the evident sincerity and child-like simplicity of his prayers as he pleaded with God for mercy on those who were perishing.

I have also been with him in Masonic convocations, and remarked his honesty of purpose, his sound sense, his superior judgment and his readiness to forget self where the welfare of others was concerned.

I remember well -- indeed, while memory continues I can never forget -- the last time the lodge had the privilege of seeing Dr. Overall within its doors. He was suffering with disease, and a very little exertion wearied him. Unknown to the Master, he had been notified to attend a meeting of the lodge. Weak in body and suffering at every step he slowly and painfully ascended the two flights of stairs leading to the lodge-room. At the proper time he asked why he was wanted. He was told that he had been notified without the knowledge of the Master, and that the Master, knowing the state of his health, would not have had him called, but that as he had come all the brethren were glad to see him and welcome him once more among them. He then remarked: "It was hard work for me to come, and I was about exhausted and nearly out of breath when I reached the top of the stairs, but I had been notified that I was wanted and I supposed the lodge was in distress and wanted help, and I thought it my duty to come." The world would be better and happier far than it is if there were in it more examples of such self-sacrificing devotion to duty. It was a little thing it is true, but it showed the principle that actuated the man -- a principle that ruled his life.

But it was as a physician that he was best known by the largest number, and as such that his character shown with a peculiar luster. He was in many and many a family in this community "the beloved physician," visiting them in their sicknesses, taking upon himself, as it were their weaknesses, suffering with them in their afflictions, administering healing remedies to their bodies, refreshing their spirits and comforting and consoling their weary souls. Though oftentimes wearied in body and overburdened with the exacting cares of his profession he was always ready with a word of cheer for the desponding -- his very presence seemed to dispel the gloom of the sick chamber and infuse new life into the wasting body and new hope in the despairing soul.

He sympathized with suffering always and everywhere; and I have heard him say that perhaps it would have been better for him if he could have been less sympathetic, for it often happened that his anxiety for his patients fairly consumed him.

He was my family physician for 24 years, and he was, in my judgment, an excellent physician for children; and yet I have heard him remark that he dreaded to undertake the treatment of their cases, because they could not inform him of their ailments, and it was more difficult to diagnose their cases and prescribe for them, and it troubled him exceedingly, and often filled him with anguish of spirit to see the litle things suffer and yet he be powerless to relieve them.

I know of no word that more exactly expresses my idea of Dr. Overall than the word sunny -- he seemed to bring the cheerfulness of sunshine with him. When one is sick it is a time of clouds and gloom with him, and Dr. Overall seemed to have the happy faculty of scattering the clouds and dispelling the gloom. His patients have been known to lie on their beds of sickness, weary and helpless, while the hours seemed to draw their slow strength along, waiting and watching for the time when the Doctor would come again, so that they might hear him talk and that they might feel the magnetism of his presence; and many and many are the times when his cheerful voice, his kind salutation and his hopeful conversation have done as much as his skillfully-administered medicines to restore the sick and dying to health and life.

And this was the feeling and fact with all. It mattered not whether he was entering the mansion or the hut -- whether he made his arrival known by the costly knocker of the richly grained door or by a rap with the knuckles on a door innocent of plane or smoothness -- whether he came to see the rich, on rich beds, in richly furnished rooms, or those lying on straw pallets in the abodes of poverty; everywhere it was the same -- the same heartfelt sympathy, the same kindly greeting, the same cheerful smile. He entwined himself in the love of those to whom and among whom he ministered to a very remarkable degree; and this was demonstrated on the day we buried him. The spacious room was filled with sorrowing and sympathizing friends, while many more on the grounds could not gain admittance into the house at all. The large assemblage had come to weep with those who wept, and to look upon the features of him who had been their true friend in sickness and in health and in all the changing scenes of life, and dropped the tear of sincere affection as they gazed upon his countenance now still and cold in death. Not only the children and mothers of the households where he had so often visited as friend and physician, but strong men, unused it may be to tears, had the fountain of emotion broken up, and their frames shook and their tears flowed as they stood by the bier of him who had so long been their strong reliance and support in the days when affliction had come to them and theirs.

As a husband, as a father, as a man, as a citizen, as a friend, as a neighbor, as a civil officer, as a Mason, as a physician, as a Christian -- in all the relations sustained to others in the course of a long and useful life -- he was true, diligent and faithful in the discharge of duty and in meeting the full measure of his obligations. He was aware of the nature of the malady that was threatening him, and for the last 10 years of his life lived from day to day as not knowing at what hour he might be called away. His lamp was kept trimmed and burning, and when at last, in the still watches of the night, the messenger came and almost literally snatched him away, he closed a useful life with a peaceful death.

How impressive the remark made by Mrs. Overall: "Oh, how we miss him! We thought we would be prepared for his departure when it should come, for we had long warning of it; but now that it has come, how we do miss him!" Ah yes, and how truthfully that remark can be made, in greater or less degree, by all who knew him! We do indeed miss him, and shall miss him for many a day to come. Till I stood beside him as he lay there so peacefully in his coffin, I did not know how great was our loss, nor had I realized how greatly I loved him. I have, indeed, lost a friend, and with tearful eyes and out of a full heart, I have penned these lines to testify in some measure my appreciation of his character and my love and affection for him as a man, a friend and a brother. It was no mean honor to have the esteem and confidence of such a man.

"And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the spirit, that they may rest from their labors; and their works do follow them."


CAPT. AUSTIN OWEN
(Proprietor of the St. Charles Ferry).

The name that heads this sketch is not an unfamiliar one to old citizens of St. Charles county and among river men of old times, on nearly all the Western rivers. Capt. Owen has been engaged in steamboating in one capacity or another for nearly 40 years, and has had a varied experience. He was born in New York City, September 9, 1926, and is the son of John and Jemima Lear Owen. His father was a manufacturer of stoves and grates in that city, and when the son was a mere lad, moved to Louisville, Ky., where he carried on a foundry, in which industry young Owen received practical instruction. The father died in 1849, but Capt. Owen's mother is still living, being a resident of St. Louis, which has been her home since 1845. At the age of 22 the subject of this notice began life on the river. He followed steamboating as an engineer on the Ohio, Mississippi, Illinois, Missouri and other rivers, during which time he met with many narrow escapes, several of the boats on which he was employed, having been accidently burned or sunk. He was also one of the few who went down with the excursion train in the Gasconade bridge disaster, in 1856, that escaped without serious injury. In 1862, he removed to Brotherton, St. Louis county, to take employment with the St. Charles Ferry Company, and had charge of the North Missouri Railroad transfer boat at that point for several years. In 1876 he purchased an interest in the St. Charles ferry, and in 1880 he became sole owner in it. His house and grounds at Brotherton were swept away by the encroachment of the Missouri river in the spring of 1881, and since that time he has resided in the city of St. Charles. He still owns the ferry at St. Charles, which makes its regular trips every day in the year, when the river is not blockaded with ice. In 1856 he was married to Miss Adaline Couzins, daughter of Maj. J. E. D. Couzins, in St. Louis, and a sister of Miss Phoebe Couzins, well known all over the country as one of the brightest and most brilliant of American ladies. Capt. Owen's wife died in 1870. Four of their children are living: George W., now in St. Louis; John C., also in St. Louis; Addie C. and Austin, who reside with their father. Capt. Owen is one of the most substantial citizens of St. Charles. He is genial, clever and popular with all classes. His residence is on Clark and Fifth streets.


JOSEPHUS L. PATTERSON
(Of Mittelberger & Co., Dealers in Dry Goods, Boots & Shoes, Furnishing Goods, Carpets, Etc., St. Charles).

Mr. Patterson of the above named firm is a native of Missouri, born in St. Louis county, September 14, 1842. His father was John Patterson also born and reared in St. Louis county, and his grandfather, Elisha Patterson, was one of the early settlers of that county from North Carolina. The subject of this sketch being reared in St. Louis Louis county, enlisted there in 1862, in the Southern service, becoming a member of the 9th Missouri infantry in which he served until the close of the war. While in service he participated in the following battles, Milliken' Bend, Pleasant Hill, Jenkin's Ferry and numerous less engagements; in both of the first named battles he was wounded but not permanently injured. After joining the army and prior to leaving St. Louis county he was taken prisoner and was held for about three months when he was exchanged and resumed his place in the Southern ranks. After the war he returned to St. Louis county, but in the spring of 1866 he went to Montana where he continued to make his home for about 14 years. He was in the manes about five years of his time, and then for some six years was engaged in freighting -- the balance of the time he followed ranching. Mr. Patterson was quite successful in his affairs in Montana and made considerable money but as times were flush out there and the people generally by no means economical, they usually spent their money as liberally as they made it, and Mr. Patterson was no exception to this rule, though he saved up some means. After returning from Montana he located at St. Charles and became a member of the present firm. They carry a large and complete stock in their line and are doing a good business. June 2, 1880, Mr. Patterson was married to Miss Elizabeth, a daughter of John C. Mittelberger, mentioned elsewhere. They have two children: Howard P. and Pansy N.; one, besides, Frederick, the oldest, is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Patterson are members of the M. E. Church South.


AUGUST PAULE
(Florist, St. Charles).

The love of music and flowers, and in fact everything that appeals to the finer sensibilities of the heart and mind, is one of the most marked characteristics of the Teutonic and Gallic races. Wherever the Germans settle music and flowers, and all that is pleasing to the ear and eye, flourish; and hardly less so where the French settle. St. Charles is largely poppulated by Germans, and it is therefore not surprising that a taste and demand prevails for flowers and floral decorations on all public occasions. Recognizing this want, Mr. Paule, very intelligently, came to the conclusion that a good flower garden could not fail to be a profitable investment. In 1879, therefore, he engaged in the florist business and has since continued to carry it on with excellent success. He has about two acres devoted to the business, which he has finely improved. He has every variety of indigenous and exotic plants, flowers, shrubs, etc. Mr. Paule makes a specialty of floral ornamentations and decorations of halls, churches, etc., for all public occasions, and has acquired a wide and enviable reputation for his skill and good taste in works of this kind. In 1884 he was elected a member of the city council, having previously held the office by former electtion. Mr. Paule was born and reared in St. Charles city; he was the fifth, in a family of nine children, of John and Caroline (Mangold) Paule, formerly of Alsace. His father was a tailor by trade, and the family came to America in 1838, residing for a time at Pittsburg, then locating permanently in St. Charles. August Paule was educated at Milwaukee and St. Louis, and while still a youth began clerking in a store which he followed, exclusively, until he engaged in the floral business.


ALFRED H. PAYNE
(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, St. Charles).

Mr. Payne's father was Benjamin H. Payne, who was brought out to Missouri by his parents from Kentucky, who removed to this State in an early day. He afterwards grew up in St. Charles county, and was married to Miss Anna M. Luckett, a daughter of the Rev. H. F. Luckett, formerly of Virginia. Alfred H. was born of this union February 11, 1854. He was the eldest of four children, the others being Nellie L., now the wife of James A. Richardson, an attorney of Memphis, Mo.; Robert H., now of the firm of Ford & Payne prominent lawyers of St. Louis, and Florida and Belle, the last one deceased. The mother of these died in the spring of 1861, and the father was subsequently married to Miss Adelia R. Gray, daughter of James S. M. Gray, former sheriff of St. Charles county. The father died in 1867, but his second wife is still living. There are still two children of their marriage, Jefferson and Fanny F. The father was a farmer by occupation, and a substantial citizen of St. Charles county. During the Mexican War he served with fidelity and courage under Gen. Doniphan until its close. Alfred H. was reared a farmer, and when he attained his majority inherited 116 acres of good land in this county, a part of his father's estate. Agriculture has been his permanent occupation, and, owing to the able assistance of Mr. Ezra Overall (who administered on his father's estate), is rapidly coming to the front as one of the successful, enterprising farmers of the county. In 1876, at the age of 22, he was married to Miss Cordelia V. Goddard, a daughter of John A. Goddard, now a merchant of St. Charles. Mr. and Mrs. P. have two children: Pearl G. and Anna M. Mr. Payne, by industry and economy, has been able to add to his landed estate until he now has about 340 acres. This is a record of exceptional success, considering that less than 10 years ago he started with little over 100 acres of land. He is a member of the Knights of Honor, the A.O.U.W., and he and his wife are members of the Chosen Friends.


HENRY F. PIEPER
(Of Pieper & Co., Grocers and Dealers in Farming Implements; also, County Treasurer of St. Charles).

In 1836 Mr. Pieper's parents, Henry and Mary Pieper, came to St. Charles county directly from Hanover, Germany. His father bought land near St. Peter, where he improved a farm, and in course of time he became one of the successful, well-to-do farmers of the county; he died in this county in 1856, widely and profoundly mourned, for he was well known and highly respected. Henry F. Pieper was born after the family settled in St. Charles county, August 3, 1840; his youth was spent at work on the farm and in attending the occasional neighborhood schools that were in reach. When 18 years old, however, he came to St. Charles, and entered upon an apprenticeship at the carpenter's trade, in which capacity he worked three years; he then did journey work at carpentering and in 1861 secured employment on the government barracks at St. Louis, where he worked until they were completed. Returning to St. Charles, he shortly enlisted in the home guards, Union service, recruited for home protection. After his term of service in the home guards, he formed a partnership with H. B. Denker in merchandising, under the firm name of Denker & Pieper. Subsequently he had different partners, and was at different times in the grain and grocery business, respectively, up to 1868, when John H. Gruer became his partner in the grocery trade. They have ever since continued the business together under the name of Pieper & Co. They have had good success in business and have one of the leading grocery houses in St. Charles. They also carry a large stock of farm implements, including steam threshers, and have a good trade in this branch of business. Mr. Pieper has became well and favorably known as one of the substantial, reliable business men of the county. For six years he was city treasurer, from 1868 to 1872, and for six years he served the people of the county as county treasurer, from 1878 to 1884. His repeated elections render any remarks as to his efficiency, fidelity and popularity as a public officer entirely supererogatory. His successor was Henry Angert. In the spring of 1868 Mr. Pieper was married to Miss Caroline Boschert, a daughter of Joseph Boschert, late of this county, but now deceased, and originally from Germany. Mr. and Mrs. P. have two children: Henry A., now entered upon his college course at St. Mary's, Kan., and Celia, a bright young girl some 10 years of age. Mr. and Mrs. Pieper are members of the Catholic Church.


REV. FATHER VICTOR VAN DER PUTTEN
(Rector of the St. Charles Borromeo Church, St. Charles).

One of the grandest and noblest features of the Holy Apostolic Church is the profound and lasting influence she exerts, and throughout its history has ever exerted, upon the hearts and consciences of all peoples among whom she carries the standard of the Cross. Wherever the holy men and devoted sisters of her following go, there is Christianity carried, pure and true and simple, to remain until the sun shall cease to shine and the order of the visible universe shall be no more. Everywhere, where the Catholic Church obtains, men and women, of whatever race or condition, are attracted to her by the irresistible power of her own truth, purity and righteousness. Some are raised up for the priesthood and others for the holy orders of noble sisters in which she abounds, -- all devoted to an undivided life for the service of the Church and the cause of the religion of Christ. No alleged church, among all the multiplicity of denominations, furnishes an example to be compared to that presented by the Holy Catholic Church, of thousands and hundreds of thousands of men and women throughout the Christian world eschewing, altogether, secular life, divorcing themselves entirely from the world, taking the vows of lasting celibacy, and committing themselves finally and conclusively to Christian work alone. Such a church and such a faith must possess something that finds a deep and lasting lodgement in the hearts and consciences of mankind; such men and women as these must be earnest, sincere and true. Only one among tens of thousands in this country to devote themselves to the service of the church is the subject of the present sketch, Rev. Father Putten. And like the others, his life and works illustrate the truth and value of the doctrines of his church. Devoted to his church, to his Maker and to the temporal and eternal welfare of his fellow-creatures, he has labored at the altar and among the people, amidst whom he has lived, in season and out of season, to forward the cause of righteousness. An earnest priest, and zealous of his great lifework, he is at the same time a kind and generous-hearted man and is esteemed by the community at large for his many estimable qualities only less than he is loved by the members of his own church. Father Putten was born in the Netherlands, February 26, 1845. He was the second son of a family of four children of Francis and Mary (Reys) Putten, both also natives of the Netherlands, his mother, however, being of French descent. Father Putten was educated in his native province of North-Braband, where he also received the priestly ordination in the magnificent cathedral of Boise-le-Duc. In 1868 he came to America to enter the Society of Jesus, and, after two years of novitiate at Florissant, Mo., went to the College of the Sacred Heart, of Woodstock, Md., where he devoted two years more to theological studies. Father Putten now became Professor in the St. Ignatius College, at Chicago, but on account of ill health was ordered, a year later (1873), to join the famous Father Damen in giving missions in various parts of this country. He continued in this office three years, and in 1876 took charge of a colored church at Cincinnati, teaching at the same time at St. Xavier's College in that city. Six years later, on July 27, 1882, he was appointed rector of the St. Charles Borromeo Church, and ever since that time he has continued to exercise the duties of rector at this church.


JULIUS F. RAUCH
(Express Agent, St. Charles).

The second eldest in a family of seven children, young Mr. Rauch was only five years of age when his parents came to St. Charles in 1865. His father, Bernard Rauch, was a native of Germany, and his mother's maiden name was Mary C. T. Beck, who was born in Northern France, and came to America when two years of age. They were married in St. Charles in 1856, and located at St. Louis, Mo. Later along, they removed to Evansville, Ill., and during the war they again returned to St. Louis, and lived there three years, and thence to St. Charles, Mo. The father was a saddler by trade, and died here March 20, 1872, at the age of 39 years. The mother is still living, a resident of St. Charles, and with her family of children. Julius F. was born in Evansville, Ill., on the 13th of September, 1859. Principally reared at St. Charles, he received a good education in English and German in the Catholic schools for this place. At the age of 17 he began work in the express office, having previously had some experience in mercantile clerking. He worked for the express company at this place for about two years, and then was promoted to a position at Moberly in the services of the company. Later along he received an appointment on the railroad for the express company, running between Kansas City and Chicago, and afterwards was transferred to the route between Chicago and St. Louis, being the express messenger on the road. In 1881 he received his present appointment at this place, and has been the express agent here ever since. These facts show that by his own merits he has risen from the bottom round of the ladder to his present enviable position. He is a young man of fine business qualifications, and is quite popular with all who know him.


CHARLES RECHTERN   AND   BENJAMIN F. BECKER
(Of Rechtern & Becker, Dealers in Dry Goods, Groceries, Boots, Shoes, etc., etc., St. Charles).

The house of the above named firm is one of the old and leading houses of St. Charles. They occupy a large building, their salesroom being 90x45 feet, in which is displayed one of the best and most complete stocks of goods in their lines in the country. An old and established house, they of course command a large trade. Their sales annually aggregate an average of over $40,000. Certainly this is a business that is worthy of more than a passing notice in the present volume. Nothing throws a truer light on any business than a correct understanding of the lives and character of the men who are at the head of it and control it. It is therefore entirely proper to give here a sketch of each of the partners of the above named firm. Charles Rechtern is a native of Prussia, born near Bremen, May 14, 1845. He was of a well respected family in the family of Bremen, and had more than average advantages as he grew up in his native country to fit himself for a successful and useful career. His parents, Henry Rechtern and wife, Charlotte Haveker, were born and reared near where Charles, the subject of this sketch, was brought up, and where they continue to make their home. The father is a man of industry and a good manager, and provided well not only for the support but the education of his children. Charles took both a general course in the German branches and the sciences and a thorough classical course. In 1863 he came to America and located first at Belleville, where he obtained a situation as clerk in a store. From there he came to St. Louis and was a salesman in a wholesale store until 1867. He then resigned and engaged in business for himself at East St. Louis, establishing a dry goods and clothing house. Two years later he sold out and came to St. Charles, where he formed a partnership in business with Valentine Becker, an old and popular merchant of this place, and the father of Benjamin F. Becker, Mr. Rechtern's present partner. Mr. Becker, Sr., retired from the firm in 1873, and his son, Benjamin F., succeeded to his interest. Mr. Rechtern is a capable, energetic and popular business man, and has achieved success by his own enterprise and business ability. November 4, 1869, he was married to Miss Ellen Becker, a sister of his present partner. Mrs. R. was educated at the Convent of the Sacred Heart. They have five children: William H., Adelia, Blanche, Charles E. and Ellen.

BENJAMIN F. BECKER, the second of the partners in the firm, is a son of Valentine Becker. As has been said, his father came from Darmstadt, Germany, when a young man, in 1840, and settled in St. Charles. He was married here to Miss Adelheid Denny, a daughter of Charles Denny, formerly of Germany. About the time of his marriage he engaged in merchandising at St. Charles and continued in active business at this place for about 30 years. He was very successful and built up a large business. He erected a business house which his son now occupies, and had previously built a business house at this place. In 1873 he retired on a competence from all active business. Benjamin F., the second in their family of children, was born at this place December 29, 1851. He was educated at college at St. Charles and in the Christian Brothers' College in St. Louis. Subsequently he took a course at commercial college. After this he was in the store with his father until the latter retired and he became a partner in the business. November 23, 1878, he was married to Miss Matilda, a daughter of Francis Martin, a well known grain dealer of St. Charles. Mr. and Mrs. Becker's only child, a bright little daughter, died in her third year, February 19, 1884.


EBENEZER C. RICE
(Sheriff of St. Charles County, St. Charles).

Mr. Rice is a native of this county, born in St. Charles, June 6, 1844. His parents were Caleb and Nancy (Bacon) Rice, his father a native of Connecticut, and his mother originally from Maine. His father was principally reared in Ohio, and came to Missouri when a young man, in about 1836. His mother came to Missouri before her marriage in company with her brother, William Bacon. The parents first met in St. Charles county and were married here in about 1839. The father was a physician by profession, a licentiate of the Botanic School of Medicine. He practiced his profession in this county for many years and until his death, which occurred January 1, 1865. His wife died in June of the same year. They left a family of six children, namely: Mary E., who is now Mrs. John Adams, of St. Louis; Ebenezer C., the subject of this sketch; Caleb W., a physician of Louisville, Ky.; Samuel A., of New York city; John T., a physician of San Antonio, Texas; George H., a physician of Castroville, Texas; Edward B., a druggist of San Antonio, Texas; Josephine, the wife of a Mr. Smith, a successful merchant of New York city. Ebenezer C. Rice was reared at St. Charles, and educated in the St. Charles College, although he did not complete the full course except in mathematics. In 1860 he obtained a clerkship in the store of Love & Co., in which his father was a silent partner, and he continued in that employment until about the time of the outbreak of the war. He then went to Montana and was engaged in mining and farming at Virginia City and in Helena for some five years. He was there during the exciting times of the reign of viligance committees, and relates many thrilling experiences through which he passed. In 1864, his brothers, Samuel and William, joined him in Montana and the three remained there together for two years. Mr. Rice returned to St. Charles county in 1866 and shortly afterwards established a broom factory at St. Charles. He carried that on with success for five or six years, and then engaged in merchandising with his brother-in-law, G. P. LaBarge, as partner. A year later, however, he resumed the manufacture of brooms. In 1875 he was appointed deputy sheriff under J. W. Ruenzi, and he continued in that office until 1882, when he was elected sheriff himself without opposition. He is now serving his second year, and will probably be re-elected without opposition for the next term. His deputy is Mr. Charles G. Johann. In 1866, May 8, Mr. Rice was married to Miss Margaret LaBarge, a daughter of Charles and Estella (Cote) LaBarge, both of early French families in Eastern Missouri. Her father was an old river pilot and died during the war. Mr. and Mrs. Rice have seven children: Mary, Ida, Josephine, Florence, Alfred, Augustus and Ella. Mrs. Rice is a member of the Catholic Church. He is a member of the A.O.U.W. Mr. Rice assisted in his official capacity at the executions of the murderers John Bland and William Barton, colored.


THOMAS J. ROBBINS
(Proprietor of the Galt House, St. Charles).

Under the proprietorship and personal management of Mr. Robbins the Galt House has achieved an enviable reputation among the better class of interior hotels of the State. He took hold of it with the determination to run it as a first-class cosmopolitan hotel or to have nothing to do with it. He rightly judged that if it would not pay to run it as a first-class house it would not pay to run it at all, and he therefore started out to succeed on the right principle, or, if fail he must, to fail without any fault of his. His experience thus far has more than justified his belief that a first-class hotel can be made to pay at St. Charles. The Galt House under his management has grown rapidly in reputation and patronage, and its good name and success are steadily increasing. He sets a first-class table, regardless of cost, and keeps as neat, comfortable and desirable lodging rooms as can be found in the country. Every thing is clean and attractive and presents the air of home-like comfort. The servants are all under strict instructions to be polite, courteous and accommodating at all times and in all circumstances, and he has educated himself up to the point of keeping his physiognomy in the presentment, as the French would say of a perpetual perennial smile, the like of which it is a very joy to see. The traveling man, especially, delights to revel in the luxuries of his bounteous epicurean table and to stentorate circumtononically snugly tucked away within the folds of his immaculate sheets. In a word, he has made Galt House a first-class hotel in every respect. Mr. Robbins was born and reared in this county, his primal natal day being the 4th of May, 1854. His father was Thomas J. Robbins, formerly of Ohio, and his mother's maiden name Elizabeth E. Ewing, of the well known and prominent Ewing family of that State. They were early settlers in St. Charles county, and the father was a successful farmer and stock-raiser of this county. He died here April 7, 1859. The mother died January 5, 1875. Thomas J., the subject of the sketch, was educated in St. Charles county and at Blackburn University of Carlinville, Ill., February 2, 1875, he was married to Miss Nettie Stonebraker, a daughter of Oliver and Catharine A. (Beckley) Stonebraker, formerly of Hagarstown, Md. Mrs. Robbins was educated at Lindenwood College and at Dulin's Female College at St. Joseph, Mo. Mr. and Mrs. R. have five children: Ralph S., Lynn M., Lucy M., Edward T., and an infant, innominate.


JAMES SHORT
(Contractor for Stone-Building Work, Macadamizing and Grading, St. Charles).

The career of Mr. Short presents an example of industry, perseverance and good management, rewarded by substantial results, well worthy of imitation by young men who start out as he died without a dollar to begin on, or the influence of wealthy friends to help them along. He came to this country a poor young mechanic, from Ireland, in 1862, and was practically without a dollar. He worked at his trade for about a year in New York, and then spent a year at work in Chicago. From there he came to St. Charles, and has resided here ever since. He has become comfortably situated in life, and is one of the substantial men of the county. Besides valuable town property, he owns a handsome farm of nearly 300 acres in the county, and also has about 100 acres in Warren county. He does a large contracting business for stone-work in buildings, and also for macadamizing and grading. August 25, 1867, Mr. Short was married to Miss Anna Boil, a daughter of William and Mary (McGuire) Boil, formerly of Ireland. Mr. and Mrs. Short have eight children: Mary, John, William, Kate, Ella, Anna, Lizzie and James. He and wife and their children are members of the Catholic Church. Mr. Short was born at Limerick, Ireland. His parents were John and Mary (Hungrolin) Short, both of ancient Irish families. The family came to this country in 1864 and settled in St. Charles county, where the father followed farming until his death, which occurred in January, 1879. The mother died in December, 1882.


MILTON SPENCER
(Farmer, St. Charles).

Born in St. Charles county, October 13, 1847, Mr. Spencer was a son of Robert and Anna (Cayce) Spencer, both also native of this county. His father was a soldier in the Mexican War, and during the Civil War served in the Confederate army. He died in 1864. The mother had preceded him in 1856. Five of their family of children are living, namely: Ellen, Virginia, Sarah, George and Milton. Milton was reared in this county and partly educated in the schools of St. Charles. He then entered Blackburn University of Carlinville, Ill., where he took a course in the higher branches. In 1880 he was married to Miss Julia Zull, a daughter of Abner and Agnes Zull, of Lockport, Ill. She died July 1, 1883. She was a worthy member of the M. E. Church, and died as she had lived, fixed in the faith of her Redeemer. After leaving the university Mr. Spencer taught school for a time and then engaged in farming in this county, which he has ever since followed. He has a good farm of 120 acres.


J. H. SPINKS
(Proprietor of Spink's Barber Shop and Cold and Hot Bath-house, St. Charles).

Mr. Spinks was born in St. Louis county, March 18, 1840, and was the oldest of five children of John H. and Louisa (Barady) Spinks. His father was a farmer by occupation, and in 1849 went to California, where he remained engaged principally in mining for about 12 years; he died in Salt Lake on his return home in 1861. Mrs. Spinks is still living and makes her home with one of her children. John H., Jr., was reared in St. Charles and educated in the Catholic schools in this place. In 1861 he commenced the barber's trade, but shortly afterwards enlisted in the Southern army under Gen. Price. In 1864 he was taken prisoner and not released until the following year, when he was set at liberty under general orders from Gen. Grant. He then came home to St. Charles and has continued to reside in this city ever since engaged all the time at his trade. He stands at the head of his business in St. Charles, and is conceded to be one of the best barbers in the county. He has a good shop which is liberally patronized, and also has a complete system of hot and cold bathrooms in connection with his shop. In 1857 he was married to Miss Julia Pallarsie, a daughter of Basil Pallarsie, of this county, but now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Spinks have seven children: Venie, Nora, John, Edgar, Stephen, Allison and Antone L. He and wife are members of the Catholic Church, and he is a member of the Catholic Knights of America.


ANTONE STOLZ
(Proprietor of Stolz's Hotel and Saloon, St. Charles).

Mr. Stolz is a native of Alsace, Germany, born January 17, 1844. His parents were Balthasar and Susan (Weber) Stolz, both born and reared in Alsace. Antone Stolz grew to manhood in his native province and received a common school education; he was brought up on the farm under his father and remained with him until 1865, when he came to America. Here he first located at St. Charles and was subsequently at other points engaged in various occupations, including railroading, farming, the saloon business, etc. In June, 1871, he returned to St. Charles and was a bar-tender here for Wm. Suermer for about eight months; he then formed a partnership with Ignatz Behnert and engaged in the saloon business himself. Two years later his partner retired from the firm and he continued the business alone. He has been very successful in business, and has the largest saloon in the city; he also has a hotel in connection with his saloon, which is liberally patronized. Mr. Stolz justly prides himself on the quiet, orderly house that he keeps, everything about his premises being so conducted that any gentleman may enter at any time without seeing or hearing anything to give offense or out of taste and decency. Mr. Stolz was married September 20, 1873, to Miss Magdaline Weber, a daughter of Lawrence Weber, of St. Charles county, but formerly of Alsace, Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Stolz are members of the Catholic Church, and he is a member of the Catholic Knights of America. Mr. Stolz is a prominent stockholder in the tobacco factory of St. Charles. He is a pleasant, agreeable gentleman, well respected and quite popular among his friends and acquaintances. He is a man of good business energy and is steadily coming to the front as one of the substantial citizens of St. Charles.


JOHN E. STONEBRAKER
(Cashier of the First National Bank, St. Charles).

In business affairs Mr. Stonebraker's career has been one of marked activity, not unattended with substantial success. He has long occupied a well recognized and enviable position among experienced and successful bank officials. Prior to becoming interested in banking, he had had a successful experience in general business life, well calculated to prepare him, so far as training outside of a bank could serve in that direction, for the general banking business. Mr. Stonebraker is well known to the people of St. Charles and throughout the surrounding country, as not only a thoroughly qualified bank official, but as a citizen of business enterprise, public spirit and much usefulness to the place and the entire community; so that it is unnecessary to speak here of his standing and the influence he exerts. One of the worthy, active business men of the place, and having been closely identified with the material and other interests of St. Charles for many years, the intimate association of his name with the many enterprises conducive to the growth and prosperity of this city, afford the best record that could be given of the value of his services to the place. Known and recognized as one of the old and substantial citizens of St. Charles, always active and liberal in all movements of a public nature, designed to promote the business and general interests of the place, his name, even were it not borne on these pages, will go down in the history of the county as one of its worthiest and best citizens. Mr. Stonebraker is a native of Maryland, born in Washington county, on the 1st day of June, 1826. The grandfather has long been settled in Maryland and emigrated there direct from Germany. Mr. Stonebraker's father was John Stonebraker, and resided near Hagarstown. The mother was a Miss Naomi McCoy, and in 1843, when John E. was about 17 years of age, the family, including himself, removed to Missouri and settled at the village of St. Charles. It was then but little more than a small French trading post. However, the father improved a farm near this place, where he followed farming until his death, which occurred in 1859. John E. remained on the farm until he completed his majority. Meanwhile he had had fair educational advantages. Before the family left Maryland he had, in addition to attending the ordinary schools, taken a course at the Franklin Institute, of Pennsylvania. Before reaching his majority he had also studied book-keeping, and was therefore more than ordinarily well qualified for those times, to begin a business career. When 21 years of age he obtained employment in the Collier flouring mills at St. Charles, as book-keeper. Mr. Stonebraker remained in that position until 1851, when he bought an interest and became an equal partner with Mr. Gibbs in the St. Charles woolen mills. For five years following he was an active partner in these mills, and had mainly the business management of them. Their success was unquestioned while he was connected with them, and in 1856 he sold out to good advantage, having already made some money. About this time the walnut lumber industry began to attract attention and offered a profitable field of enterprise. He therefore engaged in it, and for three years ran a mill for the manufactory of walnut lumber, and also did something in manufacturing other lines of native hard-wood lumber. Peter Hausam was his partner, and they did a heavy business in lumber industry. This was continued until shortly prior to the war, when, having accumulated some considerable means, Mr. Stonebraker decided to engage in the banking business. Recognizing his qualifications for the position, the board of directors of the St. Charles Branch of the Southern Bank of St. Louis, in which he was a prominent stockholder, appointed him cashier of the Branch. The Southern was the original of the Third National Bank of St. Louis, of which Mr. Tutt in now president. He was cashier of the Branch for about four years. In 1863 Mr. Stonebraker was instrumental in organizing the First National Bank of St. Charles. This proved a successful enterprise, and has become one of the solid banking institutions of the State. He was elected cashier of the First National immediatley after its organization, and has ever since continued to hold that position. There is no one to question that the success of this bank is very largely due to his ability and enterprise in bank management and the high character for business integrity, which has ever been shown in all its affairs. No bank in the State stands higher than the First National of St. Charles, in the confidence of its patrons and the community where it does business, or in banking circles, generally. Mr. Stonebraker is a man of family, having married many years ago, when a young man. His wife was a Miss Julia E. Griffith, a daughter of Capt. Asa Griffith, late of this county, but now deceased, and originally from Tennessee. Mrs. S. was educated at Lindenwood College, and is a lady of superior culture and refinement. Mr. and Mrs. Stonebraker have never been blessed with a family of children of their own, but have reared several who are relatives of hers, namely: Samuel Parker Griffith, now a bank cashier at Bowling Green, Mo.; John Fielding Riggs, now a physician of Texas, and Eliza G. Twyman, who is the wife of John W. Cox, all of whom were given good advantages, both educational and otherwise, the same as if they had been the natural children of their generous and true-hearted foster-parents. The honorable settlement of each in life, and the worthy name all three bear, show that they have not failed to appreciate the kindness with which they were cared for in their early years. Mr. and Mrs. S. are members of the church, he of the Presbyterian, and she of the M. E. Church South. He has been elder in the church for over 20 years.


JUDGE JOHN B. THRO
(Of J. B. Thro & Co., Proprietors of the St. Charles Roller Mills).

Born and reared in France, Judge Thro came to America before he had reached his majority and located at St. Charles. On both the agnate and cognate sides of his parental family he is of German descent, and in France received a good ordinary education in both the French and German languages. His father was Jacob Thro and his mother's maiden name Mary A. Miller, both born and reared in France. John B. was brought up and employed in a woolen factory from the age of 12 years, his duty mainly being to assist in devising and making designs or patterns for weaving purposes, etc., for cotton goods. He was in this employment until he came to the United States. Here he learned the painter's trade, which he followed for about two years, and then engaged in merchandising in partnership with his uncle, Melchior Thro. In about 1858 he sold out his interest in the partnership with his uncle, and formed a partnership with his father-in-law, Wendell Hodapp, in the same business, continuing in with his father-in-law and brother-in-law for about five years. He then made a visit to Europe, spending a short time in both France and Germany, and after his return engaged in the dry-goods business with his cousin, Joseph H. Thro, now deceased. They were together until 1868, when the latter sold out, and Judge Thro, later along, also sold out his interest in the store. In a short time he engaged in the clothing business as a member of the firm of Thro, Pritchett & Co. Retiring from this in 1872, he bought a third interest in the roller flouring mills at this place, with which he has ever since been connected. He now owns a half interest in the mill. The firm put in the roller process in 1881. This mill has a wide and enviable reputation for the superior excellence of the flour it makes. It has a capacity of 130 barrels of flour a day. It does a general merchant business and has a large trade in North-east Missouri, particularly along the line of the Wasbash Railroad. Judge Thro has been very successful in his business affairs. He has always been one of the enterprising and public spirited citizens of St. Charles. In almost every enterprise of the place he has taken an active and useful part. He is a stockholder in the car works and also a stockholder in the Union Savings Bank, of which he is a director. To the stock of the St. Charles Fire Insurance Company he was a liberal subscriber, and is one of the directors of the company. He is also president of the St. Charles Novelty Works and is a stockholder in the tobacco factory. He was one of the organizers of the Board of Trade at this place, and is a member of its directory. Judge Thro was the presiding justice of the county court some years ago, and at another time held the office of city register fro a period of four years. He was also city assessor for a number of years. These facts show that he has long been a man of marked consideration and influence in the community. Judge Thro has been married twice. To his first wife, formerly Miss Catharine Hodapp, he was married November 11, 1856. She was a daughter of Wendell Hodapp, of this place, but formerly of Germany, and died in 1865. To his present wife, nee Mary A. Hodapp, a sister to his first wife, he was married April 10, 1866. The Judge had seven children: Edward H., now in Minnesota; Adolph, Joseph, Emma C., John W., Mary L. and Frank X. One, Louis P., died in infancy.


WILLIAM L. VICK
(Dealer in Agricultural Implements and Farm Machinery, St. Charles).

Mr. Vick was born and reared in St. Charles, and is of English parents, his father, Henry L. Vick, and mother, whose maiden name was Emily Phelps, having both been of English birth; or rather his mother was a daughter of 'Squire Phelps, who came from England in an early day. His father became a well-to-do farmer of this county, and died when William L. was quite young. William L. was born November 22, 1855, and was the fourth in a family of five children. He was reared on the farm in this county and after attending the ordinary schools, took a course at Blackburn University, in Illinois. Concluding his course at the university in 1876, he subsequently taught school for several terms, principally during the winter months. In a short time, however, he became traveling saleman for a wholesale agricultural implement house, and followed this up to the time he engaged in business at St. Charles. He established his present house at this place last spring and has a large stock in his line. Mr. Vick has met with much encouragement in his business and justly feels gratified at the success he has had. He has received a liberal patronage and his business is believed to be well established under sure and prosperous footing. In 1879 he was married to Miss Mary G. Evelen, a daughter of Alonzo Evelen, of this county, but formerly of Virginia. Mr. and Mrs. V. have two children: Edgar and Johnnie. He and wife are members of the Catholic Church. Mr. Vick is a member of the Catholic Knights of America and of the Western Commercial Travelers Association. He is also a member of Fire Company No. 1.


JULIUS WAYE
(Proprietor of the St. Charles Marble Works).

Mr. Waye, a thoroughly skilled artificer in plain and ornamental marble cutting, indeed an artist in his trade, is at the same time a business man of superior qualifications, a regular graduate of commercial college and with a successful experience in business life. Combining, as he does, these qualities and qualifications, it is, perhaps, as should have been expected, that he has had unqualified success in his present business. At his yards he is prepared to fill all kinds of orders for marble work, even on the most difficult patterns, both for general use and for cemeteries. Of the latter branch of marble work he makes a specialty, and in this line does a large business. Mr. Waye, it is gratifying to be assured, is a St. Charles boy -- to the manor born, as it were. The light of the sun, ascending up the Orient heavens, first gladdened the disc of his mortal ocularies at this place, on the 9th of January, 1857. He was the fifth in a family of eight children of Christian and Lizette (Kuhlhoff) Waye, his father and mother natives of Germany. Julius was reared at St. Charles and educated at the German Lutheran school at this place. Subsequently he took a course at Jones' Commercial College in St. Louis, graduating in 1872. He then learned the marble-cutter's trade and acquired the finest retouchers de grace of the art, making himself able to cut even the most delicate flowers to such a degree of perfection that they seem to smile like their sisters of the garden when the sun shines with gentleness and sweetness upon them. He continued as a regular workman at his trade until 1879, when he engaged in business for himself, establishing a marble yard of his own. Mr. Waye has been entirely successful in business and has a yard that is liberally patronized by the friends of the fortunate dead, whose lives are commemorated by the immaculate marble from his classic chisel. October 19, 1882, Mr. W. was married to Miss Emma Bucher, a daughter of Francis and Mary Bucher, of St. Louis. They have one child, Frank W.


HERMANN WAYE
(Tonsorial Artist, Artiste de Tonsure, or Bartscheerer, St. Charles).

There can be litt doubt that the art de tonsure is justly entitled to a representative position among the fine arts, for when properly practiced nothing requires greater skill or a finer, more aesthetic and cultivated, refined taste. The mere mechanical part of the work is nothing compared to those higher requirements of fine discriminating judgment necessary to dressing one's head and face so that the more agreeable features of his physiognomy may be brought out to the best advantage. Then, too, some considerable knowledge of pharmacy and the art of chemical combination should be had, so that the character and purpose of cosmetics may be understood, while a knowledge of hygiene and physiology is also necessary in order that the influence and effects of cosmetics on the skin and of oleaginous preparations and the different powders, etc., on hair may be properly appreciated. In Europe high schools of the art of tonsure are established for the education of young men to this profession. In this country, however, it has never been carried to that high point of culture and advancement witnessed on the other side of the Atlantic. Still, we have some very able representative artists in this profession and most of its members, who are men of intelligence, are striving to advance themselves to the utmost point of excellence in it attainable. Among this class is the subject of the present sketch, Mr. Waye, a young man of marked intelligence and thoroughly devoted to his profession. Already he has become a most skillful barber and has won an enviable reputation in St. Charles for the degree of perfection to which he has carried his art. His shop is extremely popular, or, rather, to speak more technically, his tonsorial parlors stand very high in popular esteem, and he receives a large patronage. Mr. Waye is a native of St. Charles county, born November 3, 1852. He was the second eldest in a family of six children of Christian and Leiste (Kuhlhoff) Waye, both formerly from Germany. Young Mr. Waye was reared and educated at St. Charles and commenced his profession at the early age of 13. In 1873 he opened a tonsorial establishment at the city of Moberly and conducted it with success some four years. He then returned to St. Charles and has been in the practice of his profession at this place ever since. He has built up a successful establishment and is doing extremely well. In 1879 he was married to Miss Minnie Wesemann, a daughter of Conrad Wesemann, of this city, but formerly of Hanover. Mr. and Mrs. W. have two children: Robert and Hugo.


THOMAS L. WHITE
(Farmer, Post-office, Harvester).

Mr. White has a good farm of 165 acres, on which he has resided for the last 20 years. He is a native of Virginia, born in Henrico county, April 6, 1821, and a son of Judge John P. White and wife, her maiden name having been Miss Elizabeth B. Royal. They removed to Missouri in 1841, and Thomas L. came with them. They first located in St. Louis county, where Thomas L. engaged in the carpenter's trade, and followed it for over 20 years. The family, however, came on up to St. Charles county in 1843 where they made their permanent home. The father was a farmer by occupation and died here in 1864. He had been sheriff of Henrico and Hanover counties, in Virginia, before coming to Missouri, and after coming here was a judge of the county court. Mrs. White died in 1872. He died, however, in 1864. Thomas L. was the second of six children. After the family located in St. Louis he worked at his trade there until 1864, when he came to St. Charles county. He was married October 31, 1850, to Miss Elizabeth Leak, a daughter of Emanuel and Sarah Leak, formerly of England. She died in 1883, leaving eight children: Laura E., Thomas P., James E., Harry M., William B., Joseph H., Sadie M., Charles and Lee, the last two deceased. Laura E. is the wife of Oliver Cottle, a farmer of the vicinity of Gainesville, Tex.; Thomas P. is a photographer and a crayon artist of portraits, of Quincy, Ill. The others are still at home. Mr. W. is a member of the I.O.O.F.


JEROME WHITE
(Stock Dealer, Post-office, St. Charles).

Col. John P. White, the father of the subject of this sketch, removed to Missouri from Henrico county, Va., in 1841, and located first in St. Louis county. He came to St. Charles in 1844, and followed farming and dealing in stock here until his death. He was a man of fine mental culture and received a thorough military education, graduating at the National Military Academy of West Point in early manhood. Col. White served with gallantry and distinction in the War of 1812. His wife was a Miss Elizabeth B. Ryall before her marriage, and both were natives of the Old Dominion. They reared a family of six children, five sons and one daughter. Jerome White came to Missouri with his parents when he was 19 years of age, and had received a good general education, principally from a private tutor employed by his father. He remained with his family until he was 26 years of age, and then married a Miss Laura E., a daughter of Thomas Batt, from Petersburg, Va. She died in 1854 at the age of 21. In 1855 Mr. White was married to Miss Marcia L., a daughter of William Luckett, deceased, and they have had five children; the two older ones were boys and are both dead; the surviving three are Laura E., Lucy V. and William B. In 1857 he bought a farm for himself six miles from St. Charles where he engaged in farming and raising and dealing in stock. He has made handling of stock a specialty for the last 14 years. His present residence is just outside the city limits of St. Charles, and is a well improved, comfortable homestead. He stall feeds from 25 to 100 head of cattle annually and buys and ships large numbers besides. Mrs. White is a member of the Methodist Church.


REV. FATHER PETER WIGGER
(Assistant Priest of the St. Peter's Catholic Church, St. Charles).

Father Wigger was born in Westphalia, Prussia, December 24, 1857, and was a son of Johann Wigger and wife, nee Regina Woesthof. His father was a farmer by occupation. Father Wigger was one of a family of 10 children, and was educated in the local schools in his native vicinity up to the time of entering upon a course of study for the priesthood. However, while yet a youth he came to the United States. Here he took a course at the Salesianum, St. Francis Station, Milwaukee, Wis. Following this he went to Austria and studied for two years at Insbruck, Tirol. He was now duly ordained a priest and in June, 1883, he was made assistant priest at St. Charles, having returned to the United States after his course at Insbruck.


JOHN W. WILKIE
(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, St. Charles).

When 25 years of age Mr. Wilkie was working out on monthly wages as a farm hand. Now hardly past the middle age of life, he is in easy circumstances, having several good farms, embracing over 600 acres of land, and all made by his own honest industry and good management. Every dollar he has made has been obtained by his own honest exertions and nearly everything he has is the fruit of his own hard work. Such a record would be a credit to any man and is well worthy a place in this volume. Mr. Wilkie was born in Hanover August 12, 1823, and came to this country with his mother and her family of children in the fall of 1849, his father having died several years before. They settled in St. Charles county and John W. went to work at farm labor. He continued at this on monthly wages, economizing his means all the time until 1851, when he was able to buy a tract of 140 acres of land, which he accordingly purchased. Here he made a good farm and since that time has been engaged in farming for himself. From time to time he has added to his landed estate until now he has nearly a section of fine land, most of which is improved and in several farms. In 1852 he was married ot Miss Laura Boemer, a daughter of Casper Boemer, formerly of Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Wilkie have eight children: Henry, who resides on one of his father's farms; Herman, William, Margaret, Frederick, Julius, Louisa and Lillie. Mr. and Mrs. W. are members of the Lutheran Church. Mr. Wilkie served in the militia for a time during the war. He now resides on lot 17 and 18, in the suburbs of St. Charles, where he has a comfortable homestead and is pleasantly situated.


REV. REINHARD WOBUS
(Minister of the St. John German Evangelical Church, St. Charles).

After a thorough course of preparatory study, Rev. Mr. Wobus was duly ordained a minister of the German Evangelical Church of North America at Washington, in Franklin county, Mo., July 5, 1874. He had only a few days before graduated at the German Evangelical Seminary near Marthasville, Mo., and before entering that institution had taken courses of study in both Europe and America. Rev. Mr. Wobus was born in the canton of Base, Switzerland, April 20, 1853, and was a son of John D. and Sophia (Heinimann) Wobus, his father a farmer by occupation and a native of Prussia. His father died in Switzerland in 1865, but his mother is still living, and returned home to Switzerland in the fall of 1883, after a stay here of nearly six years. Rev. Mr. Wobus had excellent school advantages in his native country. Before coming to America he had passed through all the school and college grades up to the university, graduating in each. He came to this country in 1869 and located in Illinois, where he entered Elmhurst Seminary. After two years spent there he matriculated at the German Evangelical Seminary near Marthasville, Mo., where he graduated July 2, 1874. His ordination as a minister followed a few days afterwards, as stated above. After he was ordained Rev. Mr. Wobus was called to a charge in Naperville, Ill., which he kept for two years. In 1876 he was appointed as a teacher of ancient languages in the German Evangelical Seminary near Marthasville, where he stayed till June, 1877, resigning then to return to Switzerland. On the 25th of September, 1877, he and Miss Adele Bricar were happily united in marriage. She was a daughter of Samuel and Margaret (Schneider) Bricar, both old and respected families in Switzerland. After his marriage Rev. Mr. Wobus returned with his young wife to his new home in America, and was shortly appointed to the pastorate of the church of which he still has charge. Mr. and Mrs. Wobus have two children: Adele and Reinhard. Mr. Wobus is prominently connected with various book, newspaper and periodical publishing houses of his denomination, and does a great deal for the distribution of church literature and the dissemination of useful knowledge of a religious class. Some idea of his work of this kind may be formed from the fact that in the course of the preceding year he received and attended to over 8,000 letters, and in three months of the present year over 3,300, mainly in the interest of the German Evangelical Synod of North America.


JUDGE JACOB ZEISLER
(Presiding Justice of the County Court of St. Charles).

Less than 28 years ago, Judge Zeisler came to St. Charles practically a stranger, without a dollar, and as an employe for monthly wages. These years, however, have been actively and honorably spent. Being a man of marked intelligence, steady, economical habits and irreproachable character, there could hardly be but one result expected from his industry, good management, and honorable bearing among those around him -- the result that has followed -- substantial success in material affairs and enviable prominence in public affairs. Judge Zeisler has accumulated a good property and is comfortably situated, has a profitable business, and has, from time to time, filled, with great credit to himself and to the public, different official positions. He was a son of Jacob Zeisler, Sr., and wife Catherine Halblaub, both of Baden, Germany, but who immigrated to this country in 1839, and located in St. Louis. The mother died there in 1853, but the father survived until 1877, dying at the home of his son, the Judge, in this city. Judge Zeisler was born in Baden, April 18, 1833. Reared in St. Louis, he early worked at the cooper's trade, and subsequently ran the river for a time as cabin boy. In 1849 he was employed in a soda-water factory, and learned the process of manufacturing soda water, and has been principally employed in this industry to the present time. In 1860, with H. D. Korp, an old friend of his, he started a soda-water factory at St. Charles without a dollar. The partnership existed two months. He has continued the manufacture of soda-water at St. Charles ever since that time alone, and has built up a large business. He makes the water not only for the local trade of this place, but for a large custom at other points up the river and in the interior of the State. In 1869 Judge Zeisler was elected a member of the city council for the first ward, and subsequently represented that ward for three terms. He then resigned to accept the office of Mayor, in which he served for two terms. Following this, in 1878, he was elected an associate justice of the county court, in which office he served for four years. He was then elected presiding justice of the county court, the position he now holds. Judge Zeisler is prominently mentioned for Representative in the Legislature, but has not thus far given his consent to accept the place, if it were tendered him. Certain it is that in every position he has ever held he has proved even more than equal to the capable and efficient discharge of the duties of his office, and has invariably added to his standing and popularity as a worthy official. Unquestionably there is no office in the gift of the people of the county to which he might not justly aspire with almost certain assurance of his election. Judge Zeisler has been married twice. His first wife died in May, 1864. She was a Miss Sarah Sears, formerly of Port Mahon, Isle Minorca, but reared in St. Louis. Three children are the fruits of this union: Sarah, who died at the age of 18, Isaac, also deceased, and Anna L., who died in infancy. The Judge's present wife was a Miss Margaret E. Bruns, of this county. They have seven children: Helen M., Charles E., William, Joseph, Henry (deceased), Alice, Ida and Cora.


GEORGE ROBARIS BUCKNER, M.D.
(Postmaster, St. Charles).

The Buckner family, one of the old and distinguished families of Virginia and Kentucky, is of English origin, though it has been settled in this country for many generations. Branches of the family are found in many of the Western and Southern States, and wherever any of the name reside they almost invariably occupy prominent and enviable positions in life. The subject of the present sketch is a representative of the Kentucky branch of the family. His father, Judge Richard A. Buckner, Sr., came out to Kentucky from Fauquier county, Va., and located at Greensburg, Green county, where he was subsequently married to Miss Elizabeth Lewis Buckner, a daughter of Col. William Buckner, also from Virginia, but an early settler in Green county, Ky., and one of the wealthiest planters and slave holders of that county. He came to Kentucky when a young man as a surveyor and afterwards acquired large tracts of land in Green county. At the time of his death he owned a vast estate in lands and also had about 100 negroes.

On his father's side, Dr. Buckner's grandfather, Aylett Buckner, was one of the leading planters in Virginia and an extensive slave holder. Late in life he also removed to Kentucky in order to be near his children in his old age, several of whom had preceded him to the Blue Grass State.

Dr. Buckner's father, Judge Richard Aylett Buckner, Sr., became one of the most distinguished lawyers and jurists of Kentucky. Whilst yet a young man he was honored with the office of county attorney of Green county and afterwards was made Commonwealth's attorney for his judicial district. His deep and comprehensive mind and profound knowledge of the law together with his rare legal acumen, brought him prominently before the people, and public honors were literally showered upon him. He was a number of times elected a member of the Legislature, and in 1822 he was sent to Congress, where he was continued by the people in the service of his State for a period of six years. He was then elevated to the bench of the Court of Appeals of Kentucky, the highest judicial tribunal in the State. He soon resigned this exalted office, however, to resume the practice of his profession, which for him was more lucrative than any public station. Several times afterwards he was elected to the Legislature, but always with some important special object in view. Space forbids the mention of the purposes for which he was elected each time. One instance, however, may be given. The Charleston (S.C.) & Ohio River Railroad Company were endeavoring to obtain a charter from the legislatures of South Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee and Kentucky, authorizing the construction of their road through these States and particularly conferring upon the company full banking privileges. The latter feature of the proposed charter was strenuously opposed, especially in Kentucky, and Judge Buckner consented to serve in the Legislature as the leader of the opposition in order to defeat this gigantic and overshadowing inter-state bank scheme. Gen. Memenger, one of the foremost men of South Carolina, was sent on to Kentucky by the railroad company to work the Legislature for the charter. Judge Buckner opposed the measure in that body in a speech which not only killed the bill for all time, but obtained a wide celebrity for its masterly arguments, convincing conclusions and great eloquence. It was specially printed by the opposition to the bill and scattered far and wide in every city and hamlet, and almost in every home, in the State. In 1833 Judge Buckner was the nominee of the Whig party for Governor of Kentucky, but was defeated by a small plurality against him almost exclusively on account of his position on the slavery question. Though a large slave-holder himself, he had even in that early day warmly advocated the gradual emancipation of the slaves. Nevertheless his race for the Governorship precipitated one of the most exciting and memorable campaigns ever witnessed in the State of Kentucky, a State famous for the spirit and general interest which characterize its political contests. He was twice Presidential Elect of Kentucky, and for many years adorned the circuit bench of his district by his learning, high character and courtly bearing. He died at his home in Greensburg, December 8, 1847, while still an occupant of the circuit bench. By the bar of the State he was universally regarded as one of the brightest and ablest of the profession, and was especially distinguished for the rare logical and analytical powers of his mind.

Dr. Buckner's mother, Mrs. Elizabeth Lewis Buckner, died at Memphis, Tenn., March 8, 1868, while on a visit at the residence of her daughter, Mrs. Allen. She was a lady of rare refinement and culture and a devout Christian. She was a constant attendant of the Presbyterian Church, of which she was for many years an earnest and exemplary member. She was always among the foremost in charitable works, and frequently at the bedside of the suffering, administering to their wants. She was a lady of superior intelligence, and did much to sustain her eminent husband in his social relations.

Dr. Buckner was one of a family of nine children.

The eldest was Hon. Aylett Buckner, a lawyer of eminence who served his county twice in the Legislature, and in 1847 was elected to Congress. He there boldly and fearlessly advocated the "Wilmont proviso," and on account of this, his strong free-soil tendencies were defeated for re-election, which was to have been expected in a district composed largely of slave-holders. He removed then to St. Louis, where he was engaged in the practice of law with success until 1864, when, on account of failing health, he was induced to abandon his profession and make his home with Dr. Buckner, of St. Charles county. But two years later he returned to Kentucky, and died at the residence of his brother, Richard A. Buckner, Jr., after a long and severe illness. He was never married. He was a man of fine talent and great courage.

William Buckner, the next of the family, married Miss Jane Robards, a daughter of Maj. James Robards, of Mercer county, Ky. In early life he turned his attention to mercantile pursuits, and died at Greensburg, Ky., in 1859, being at the time the leading merchant at that place.

Richard Aylett Buckner, Jr., after completion of his primary education was sent to Centre College at Danville, Ky., and afterwards St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, Ky., graduating with high honors at the latter institution in 1831. Shortly after his admission to the bar he settled in Lexington, Ky. He was appointed Commonwealth's attorney for the district, which position he held for several years, gaining considerable reputation as a fearless and able prosecutor. He also received the appointment of circuit judge, and for nine years fulfilled the arduous duties of this office with great ability and learning. In 1859 he was elected to the Legislature, and took an active and distinguished part in the exciting and memorable transactions of that body, and to him as much as any other man in the State, is due the credit of having prevented Kentucky from seceding from the Union. He was Speaker of the House of Representatives of his State in 1861. He was a strong Union man during the rebellion, and waged a bitter and successful war in the Legislature of 1859 against men who attempted to draw Kentucky into the rebellion. He has never sought any political honors since that time. He was one of the commissioners appointed by Gov. Leslie in 1876 to edit the code of practice of Kentucky. No man in Kentucky is more highly esteemed as an accomplished lawyer and learned jurist than Judge Buckner.

Arthur Presley Buckner, the fourth son, graduated St. Joseph's College, of Bardstown, Ky., in the same class with his older brother, Richard, attaining the highest honors of the class. He studied law with his father, and immediately after obtaining his license to practice, removed to Benton, Yazoo county, Miss., and whilst engaged in the practice of his profession at that place, died in 1833, in the twentieth year of his age. He was regarded as one of the brightest and most talented men of his age in that day.

Anthony Thornton Buckner, the fifth son, studied law with his father, and after several years of practice in his native place received the appointment of major in one of the Kentucky regiments, and landed at the seat of war about the time the City of Mexico was surrendered, and he went from that place to California, landing there in the gold excitement of 1849. He was, for a time, judge of the circuit court, but died soon after election to office. He was a man of intellect, great force of character, and had he lived a few years longer would undoubtedly have attained an exalted position in his profession.

Luther Arthur Buckner, the sixth son, also studied law with his father, and began the practice of his profession in his native county. He was, also, the proprietor of Green Spring Furnace, in Green county, Ky., but disposed of the business and removed to St. Louis, Mo., but after a short stay in that place as a partner of his elder brother, Aylett, in their profession of law, he left for California. Losing his riding horse on his way out he traveled the last six hundred miles of the distance on foot and landed at Sacremento after a long and tedious trip in 1852. After several years' residence in that State engaged in his profession and mining, he removed to the State of Nevada, where he is now a prominent and distinguished lawyer, having recently been Attorney-General of that State and now engaged in the practice of his profession and in managing a mine which he owns in that State.

Maria L. Buckner, the oldest sister, married Dr. Richard F. Barret, of Green county, Ky.; he removed first to the State of Illinois and some years after to St. Louis, Mo., and engaged in banking. He was a man of rare executive ability and amassed a large fortune. Though he had ceased to practice his profession to aid in building up the institution, he accepted a professorship in the McDowell School of Medicine in St. Louis, the duties of which he discharged with marked ability.

Elizabeth Robards Buckner, the youngest sister, married Dr. John R. Allen, who was also a native of Green county, Ky. Dr. Allen represented his native county in the Legislature in 1843. While there he was appointed one of the committee to visit the Eastern Lunatic Asylum, at Lexington, Ky., becoming much interested in cases of the insane, he was appointed by the Legislature superintendent of that asylum. From a prison for the insane -- for at that time it could be regarded as nothing better -- he raised the institution into a great State Asylum, and in place of the harsh and vigorous treatment of the inmates he inaugurated a system of kindness and humanity, accompanied with his skillful medical treatment and care, which rapidly increased the number of patients who were cured, making the asylum a source of pride to the State. From Lexington he went to St. Louis, Mo., where he filled a chair as professor in the medical college. He removed to Memphis, Tenn., where he rapidly rose into distinction as a physician and acquired a large and lucrative practice. He died in Memphis in 1877. He was a man of fine talent, a graceful speaker, and a learned and accomplished physician. His widow now residing in Memphis with her son-in-law, Judge M. J. Green.

George Robards Buckner was the seventh son and ninth child of R. A. Buckner, Sr., and Elizabeth Lewis Buckner. He was born in Greensburg, Green county, Ky., on the 16th day of May, 1823. After education in that place, in his sixteenth year he attended Centre College at Danville, Ky., and from that place went to the private residence of Dr. Lewis Marshall, of Woodford county, Ky., to take a course of study under that eminent teacher, who had but recently retired from the chair of professor of languages in Transylvania University at Lexington, Ky., a position he filled for many years. He was the father of the great Kentucky orator, Thomas F. Marshall, and a younger brother of Chief Justice Marshall. After the return of Dr. Buckner to his native place he studied law with his father. However, after he obtained his license and before he began the practice he abandoned law for medicine, and studied with Dr. John Hardin, who was a professor in the Louisville Medical College at Louisville, Ky., where Dr. Buckner attended his first course of lectures. After the close of the session he returned to Greensburg, and in the same year on the 17th day of September, 1845, he married Harriet A. Creel, the daughter of Elsy Creel, a merchant of Greensburg, with branch stores at Columbia in the adjoining county of Adair, and also at Creelsburg on the Cumberland river, Cumberland county, Ky. A few weeks after his marriage he was appointed clerk of the circuit court for Owen county, the largest county in the northern part of Kentucky, by Judge Mason Brown, the father of B. Gratz Brown, of Missouri. A short time before he returned from this office which he filled for about six years, he took his second course of medical lectures at the school in Lexington, Ky., and immediately thereafter he began the practice of medicine in Owenton, Owen county, where he continued until November, 1859. Shortly previous to this time from typhoid fever his health was shattered, and in March, 1857, he left Kentucky with his negroes and white foreman and settled them on a rented farm at the head of Loutre Island in Montgomery county, Mo. After a short stay with them he returned to Kentucky, and in the fall and following spring he spent several weeks on his farm in Missouri, and in the fall of 1858 he purchased a farm of about 900 acres of land in Dardenne township, St. Charles county, Mo., to which he removed his negroes in charge of the foreman, and returned to Kentucky, and in the latter part of the succeeding year he gave up his residence in Kentucky and with his white family and house servants removed to the farm in St. Charles county. He brought with him a large number of horses and other stock purchased in Kentucky, devoting his farm almost entirely to raising stock, especially trotting horses, which were greatly in demand at that time. He paid for his farm $17,500, and after the liberation of the negroes, finding the occupation unpleasant, he sold his farm in three parcels for about $34,000; the last parcel of 652 acres he sold for $2,600. He had a large number of fine horses and other stock at the time he sold, and to the purchaser of the land he disposed of $10,000 worth, including three at $1,000 each.

After Dr. Buckner sold his farm he removed to St. Louis, Mo., where he remained about a year and in April, 1870, he removed to the city of St. Charles where he now resides. He was appointed postmaster of St. Charles, Mo., in December, 1870, and continued in office until the expiration of his commission in May, 1881, continuously for more than 10 years. He was again appointed to the same position and took possession of the office in April, 1883, which he now holds. Dr. Buckner was the owner of a large number of slaves (32), but he was a staunch Union man from the inception of the war. He had been so thoroughly inculcated with the Whig doctrine by a father, prominent in politics in Kentucky, that he immediately joined the Republican party and has acted with that party up to the present time.

He has been noted in politics in Missouri and has held many places of honor. He was the first person named in the act of the Legislature of Missouri establishing the State Board of Agriculture, and he served his people as curator of the State University, supervisor of registration, member of the State Republican committee and in other public duties, all of which have been administered with ability and marked integrity. His wife was a woman of fine attainments, well educated, devoted much of her time to reading and educating her children in their younger life. She was a woman of great energy and ambition, looking forward to a high degree of attainments of her children, to whom she devoted much of her time in instructing. She died at Denver, Col., on the 1st day of September, 1882, while on her way to visit her youngest son; resided at the time at Eagle Rock, in Idaho Territory. Her remains were interred in the cemetery at Kansas City, Mo.

Dr. Buckner has three sons and a daughter. Richard Aylett Buckner, the oldest son, resides in Greensburg, Ky., where he is engaged in the practice of law; he married Anna C. Crenshaw, a daughter of R. A. W. Crenshaw, a commission merchant, of St. Louis, Mo. In the court district (circuit) in which he practices, and especially at his home, he is regarded by the profession as equal to any. He is a man of marked ability. His wife died at Greensburg, Ky., in the month of June, 1884, leaving an infant daughter, only a few days of age. She was a graduate of a Catholic school, in St. Louis, "Sisters of the Visitation." She was a woman of fine mental and social cultivation.

Charles Creel Buckner, the second son, is a resident of Arkansas City, Ark., and now engaged in the practice of medicine at that place; he is also engaged in cotton planting with his younger brother, Luther Arthur Buckner, also a physician, who resides at Dermott, Chicot county, Ark., near which place they own a plantation of 800 acres of land. Charles graduated in dentistry in St. Louis, Mo., and in medicine in Louisville, Ky. Luther graduated in dentistry and medicine in St. Louis, Mo.

Elizabeth Allen Buckner, the only daughter and third child, was educated at the "Convent of the Visitation," in St. Louis, Mo. She married George Fielder Ballingal, now residing in Kansas City, Mo., where he is engaged in the practice of law. He is one of the leading men in his profession of that place and has acquired a considerable fortune in real estate at Kansas City. He was recently a Senator of his State from Kansas City, and is at this time attorney for the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway. He is a man of ability and untiring energy and zeal in his profession. His wife is a woman of rare social and mental attainments. She is a natural artist. She has the walls of her residence covered with a number of oil paintings the production of her own genius.


1 Campbell's Gazeteer.
2 Pioneer Families of Missouri.
3 St. Charles Lodge, No. 28.
4 The Grand Lodge called it in its minutes Hiram Lodge.


Transcribed July 2003 by Deborah Heimann -- Co-ordinator for the St. Charles County, Missouri USGenWeb pages.