American History and Genealogy Project

Civil War

Legal Excuses From Draft

Government Employee

Office holder

River, rail, or marine transportation

Mail Carrier

Telegraph Operator

Hospital Staff

Druggist

Minister

Professor or Teacher

It is therefore reasonable to suggest that these offices became some of the most corrupt and yet, sought after, during the war along with the increase in the creation of new drug stores and schools.

Various Protection Associations

Knights of the Golden Circle

Sons of Liberty

Order of American Knights

Home Gaurd

Ladies Home Gaurd

Heros of America

Mollie Maguires

Peace and Constitutional Society

Conscription Officiers

Conscript officiers would round up "deserters" and send them to prison, however, a few jailers refused to house deserters. Jurys were consistant in not declaring guilty those who were charged with conspiring for the Union. In other places like Columbus, Mississippi there were about 150 prisoners taken from the general populus of Mississippi who were thought to express Union sentiments. Of those 150 taken to prison, 3 were preachers. The various protection organizations held secret meetings and used secret signs to help those who wished to avoid Confederate Southern sympathizers. It could be lethal to admit Union tendancies in some portions of the South, including Mississippi. F. A. P. Barnard, who was chancellor of the University of Mississippi, expressed in writing his sympathies to the Union. Citizens and associates soon made him regret it through making his life miserable and Mr. Barnard resigned his position. There were several citizens of Mississippi noted to be in Confederate and Union prisons - See Elmira, NY Prison

Slave Revolts and Black Confederates

In 1862 Mr. Howell sent a letter to the Governor of Mississippi stating that no more could be taken for Confederate service as the remainder would be necessary for the patrol of slaves. Slaves necessitated a "pass" in order to go anywhere and there were "slave patrols" roaming the countryside at night to assure that there would be no revolt. Mrs. A. Ingrahm of Vicksburg, Mississippi, was concerned of a slave rebellion or uprising on her farm stating, "I fear the blacks more than I do the Yankees."

In 1861, seventy free blacks tried to join the militia in Virginia. There were sixty more who marched with the Confederate flag. Charles Tinsley was a spokesman for the Petersburg, Virginia blacks and stated that they, "were willing to aid Virginia's cause to the upmost extent of our ability." "The Creoles of Mobile promised to form an entire regiment if called upon whereby this caused racial tension among the blacks."

In Yazoo City, Mississippi slaves set fire to the courthouse and 14 other buildings. Around Natchez, Mississippi a number of slaves on plantations laid plans to kill their owners and set themselves free. When word leaked out, local whites hanged 40 blacks and tortured more.

Source

A People's History of The Civil War, Struggles for the Meaning of Freedom, David Williams, c. 2005.




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