Search billions of records on

1860 Issaquena County Federal Census

Instructions to the Marshals

Explanation of Schedule No. 1.-Free Inhabitants

In filling up this schedule, first enter on a sheet the pages, then fill up the blanks in the heading in their proper order, commencing with the less division, as town, township, ward, or borough; then the name of the county and State, with the date of taking; after that enter your own name and record the name of the post office of the vicinage. Every day you will change the date and on every page write your name. All the other entries are to be repeated so long as the returns apply, but the moment you enter upon another town, township, ward, borough, or county, you must change the heading to correspond. (Inasmuch as these directions are equally applicable to other schedules, as will appear on their face, they need not be repeated, although to be observed as if they were reiterated.)

1. Dwelling houses unnumbered.-- Under heading 1, insert in numerical order the number of dwelling houses occupied by free inhabitants, as they are visited. The first house you enter is to be No. 1, the second No. 2, and so on to the last house in your subdivision. The numbering of houses is to be continuously maintained, without regard to minor divisions, from the first to the last house included in your work, so that your last entry will express the whole number of dwelling houses in your subdivision. By "dwelling house" is meant a separate tenement, inhabited or uninhabited, and may contain one or more families under one roof. Where several tenements are in one block with walls to separate them, having different entrances, they are each to be numbered separately, but where not so divided they are to be enumerated as one house. Houses which are tenantable but without inhabitants, are to be returned and numbered, but represented as unoccupied, in column 3, while no number is to be entered in column No. 2. If a house is used partly for a store or other purpose and partly for a dwelling, it is to be numbered as a dwelling house. Hotels, poor houses, garrisons, hospitals, asylums, jails, penitentiaries and establishments of kindred character, are to be numbered, and if they consist of a group of several houses, each is to be numbered separately, while you will use particular care to write longitudinally in the column the designation or description of the house, and specify particularly and clearly whether it or they be poor house, hotel, hospital, etc.

2. Families.-- Under heading 2, entitled "Families numbered in the order of visitation," insert the number of families of free persons as they are visited. By the term family" is meant either one person living separately and alone in a house, or a part of a house, and providing for him- or herself, or several persons living together in a house, or part of a house," upon one common means of support and separately from others in similar circumstances. A widow living alone and separately providing for herself, or two hundred individuals living together and provided for by a common head, should each be numbered as one family. The resident inmates of a hotel, jail, garrison, hospital, or other similar institution, should be recorded as one family, unless there be several tenements or distinct families, in which case they should be separated. There may be several families in a garrison, in which case they should be recorded distinct, but should all, by a marginal note, be embraced as of or belonging to such garrison.

3. Individual Names.-- Under heading 3, entitled "The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the 1st day of June, 1860, was in this family," insert the name of every free person in each family, of every age, including the names of those temporarily absent on a journey, visit, or for the purposes of education, as well as those that were at home on that day. The name of any member of a family who may have died since the lst day of June is to be entered and the person described as if living, but the name of any person born since the lst day of June is to be omitted. The names are to be written beginning with the father and mother, or, if either or both be dead, begin with some other ostensible head of the family, to be followed, as far as practicable, with the name of the oldest child residing at home, then the next oldest, and so on to the youngest, then the other inmates, lodgers, and boarders, laborers, domestics, and servants. All landlords, jailors, superintendents of poor-houses, garrisons, hospitals, asylums, and other similar institutions, are to be considered as heads of their respective families, and the inmates under their care to be registered as members thereof, and the details concerning each, designated. in their proper columns, so distinctly as to preclude any doubt as to who for the family proper and who the guests, prisoners, or other inmates, carefully omitting all transient persons.

4. By "place of abode" is meant the house or usual lodging place of persons. Any one who is temporarily absent on a visit or journey, or for other purposes, with the intention of again returning, is to be considered a member of the family to which he belongs, and not of that where he may be temporarily sojourning; and care should be exercised to make full inquiry for such absentees, that none may be omitted on your lists whose names should properly appear there.

5. Indians.-- Indians not taxed are not to be enumerated. The families of Indians who have renounced tribal rule, and who under State or Territorial laws exercise the rights of citizens, are to be enumerated. In all such cases write "Ind." opposite their names, in column 6, under heading "Color."

6. Eating-houses, Stores, Shops, Etc.-- You will make inquiry at all stores, shops, eating-houses, and all similar places, and take the name and description of every free person who usually slept there previous to or about the Ist day of June, provided such person be not otherwise enumerated. Ships and vessels.-- Persons on board any description of ships or vessels accidentally or temporarily in port; those who are temporarily boarding at a sailor's boarding or lodging-house, if they belong to other places, are not to be enumerated in your district. All seafaring people are to be enumerated at their land homes, or usual place of abode, whether they be present or at sea; and if any free persons live on vessels or boats, acknowledging no other home, they are to be enumerated as belonging to the place where they have been engaged, shipped, or hired; and Assistants should make inquiry respecting all vessels employed in the internal navigation of the United States, and thus enumerate all who are not recorded as belonging to some family on shore; and all persons of such description, in any one vessel, are to be considered as belonging to one family and the vessel as their place of abode.

7. Ages.-- Under heading 4, entitled "Age," insert in figures what was the specific age of each person at his or her last birth day previous to the 1st day of June, opposite the name of such person. Where the exact age cannot be ascertained insert a number which shall be the nearest approximation thereto. The exact or estimated age of every individual is to be recorded. If the person be a child under one year old, born previous to the 1st day of June, the entry is to be made by the fractional parts of a year, thus: one month, 1/12; two months, 2/12; and so on to eleven months, 11/12. Omit months in all cases where the person is of one year and upwards.

8. Sex.-- Under heading 5, entitled "Sex," insert the letter "m"for male, and "f" for female, opposite the name, in all cases, as the fact may be.

9. Color.-- Under heading 6, entitled "Color," in all cases where the person is white leave the space blank; in all cases where the person is black without admixture insert the letter "B;"if a mulatto, or of mixed blood, write "M;"if an Indian, write "Ind." It is very desirable to have these directions carefully observed.

10. Profession, Trade, and Occupation-- Under head 7, entitled "Profession, occupation, or trade of each person over fifteen years of age," insert the specific profession, occupation, or trade the individual being enumerated is reputed to follow. The proprietor of a farm for the time being, who pursues agriculture professionally or practically, is to be recorded as a farmer; the men who are employed for wages by him are to be termed farm laborers. The members, or inmates, of a family employed in domestic duties at wages you will record as "servants," or "serving," or "domestic," according to the custom of the vicinage. A mechanic who employs others under him is to be termed differently from the one employed. The first is a master mechanic, and should be termed "master mason," "master carpenter," etc., as the case may be, and you should be very particular in designating the employers or master mechanics from the workmen or employed. Where persons (over 15) are learning trades or serving apprenticeship, they should be recorded as "apprentices," with the name of the trade whereunto they are apprenticed. The employment of every person over 15, having an occupation, should be asked and recorded. In every case insert the kind of labor and nature of apprenticeship. When the individual is a clergyman, insert the initials of the denomination to which he belongs -- as Meth. for Methodist; R.C. for Roman Catholic; O.S.P., Old School Presbyterian; P.E., Protestant Episcopal; or other appropriate designation, as the case may require. If a person follows several occupations, insert the name of the most prominent. If the person should be a teacher or professor, state the character of the occupation, as teacher of French, of common school; professor of mathematics, of languages, of philosophy, etc. In fine, record the occupation of every human being, male and female, (over 15,) who has an occupation or means of living, and let your record be so clear as to leave no doubt on the subject.

12. Value of Real Estate.-- Under heading 8, insert the value of real estate owned by each individual enumerated. You are to obtain this information by personal inquiry of each head of a family, and are to insert the amount in dollars, be the estate located where it may. You are not to consider any question of lien or encumbrance it is simply your duty to enter the value as given by the respondent.

13. Value of Personal Estate.-- Under heading 9, insert (in dollars) the value of personal property or estate. Here you are to include the value of all the property, possessions, or wealth of each individual which is not embraced in the column previous, consist of what it may; the value of bonds, mortgages, notes, slaves, live stock, plate, jewels, or furniture; in fine, the value of whatever constitutes the personal wealth of individuals. Exact accuracy may not be arrived at, but all persons should be encouraged to give a near and prompt estimate for your information. Should any respondent manifest hesitation or unwillingness to make a free reply on this or any other subject, you will direct attention to Nos. 6 and 13 of your general instructions and the 15th section of the law.

14. Birth Place.-- Under heading 10, you are to insert the place of birth of every individual whose name you record. If born in the State or Territory of their present residence, insert the name, abbreviation, or initials of such State or Territory. If born out of the United States, insert the name of the country of birth. Tp insert simply Germany would not be deemed a sufficiently specific localization of birth place, unless no better can be had. The particular German State should be given-- as Baden, Bavaria, Hanover. Where the birth place cannot be ascertained, write "unknown" in the proper column; but it must be of rare occurrence that the place of birth may not be understood. You should ascertain the exact birth place of children as well as of parents, and not infer because parents were born in Baden that so also were the children.

15. Married during the Year.-- Under heading 11, you are to make a dash (1) opposite the name of each person, male and female, married within the year previous to June 1; that is, of all persons who are residents, and whose names are entered on the schedule.

16. At School.-- Under heading 12, entitled "At school within the year," you should insert a (1) opposite the names of all those, whether male or female, who are or have been in educational institutions, or who have been receiving stated instruction in any manner within the year; those whose education has been limited to Sunday schools are not to be included.

17. Number who cannot Read and Write.-- Under heading 13, entitled "Persons over 20 years who cannot read and write," you should be careful to designate every person in the family of this description; and it will be your duty to inquire whether any inmate of the family, being a free person over 20 years of age, is unable to read and write, and opposite the names of all such you will make a mark thus (1). If the person can read and write in a foreign or in our own language, the space is to be left blank.

18. Deaf and Dumb, Blind, Insane, Idiotic, Pauper, Convict.-- It will be your duty to inquire whether there be any persons of the above description in the family you are enumerating, and if any, you must, under heading 14, indicate opposite the name of such person, the fact as it may be. A person is to be noted deaf and dumb who was born deaf, or who lost the faculty of hearing before acquiring the use of speech. If a person be blind from a known cause, it would be well to insert the cause in the column or on the margin. Partial blindness should not be noted. The various degrees of insanity often create a doubt as to the propriety of thus classifying individuals, and demands the exercise of discretion. A person may be reputed erratic on some subject, but if competent to manage his or her business affairs without manifesting any symptoms of insanity to an ordinary observer, such person should not be recorded as insane. Where persons are in institutions for safety or restoration, there can exist no doubt as to how you should classify them. As a general rule, the term Insanity applies to individuals who have once possessed mental faculties which have become impaired ; whereas Idiocy applies to persons who have never possessed vigorous mental faculties, but from their birth have manifested aberration. The cases wherein it may be difficult to distinguish between insanity and idiocy are not numerous; should such occur, however, you may rely on the opinion of any physician to whom the case is known. It is to be hoped you will not fail to make record respecting all these classes or persons who may be in your subdivision. In all cases of insane persons, you will write in the space where you enter the word "Insane," the cause of such insanity; and you will in every ease inquire into the cause or origin thereof, and write the word-- as intemperance, spiritualism, grief, affliction, hereditary, misfortune, etc. As nearly every case of insanity may be traced to some known cause, it is earnestly desired that you will not fail to make your return in this respect as perfect as possible. If say person whose name you record be at the time, or within the year, so indigent or destitute of the means of support as to require the support of the community, obtained either by alms-begging or public maintenance, by taxation or poor fund, you are to write the word "pauper" in column 14, on a line with the name of such person. When persons who have been convicted of crime within the year resided, on the lst of June, in any family you enumerate, the fact should be stated by giving in column 14, on a line with the name, the character of the crime; but as such an interrogatory might give offence you had better, where you can do so, refer to the county records for the information, but use care in applying the crime to the proper individual on the schedule. Of course, you are not to insert the name (or crime) of any person who died previous to the lst day of June on this schedule, but may do so on the schedule of mortality. With the county or parish record, and your own knowledge, you will be able to make this return very correctly without occasioning offence by personal inquiry of individuals. Respecting persons in confinement you will experience no difficulty. Should a poor-house, asylum for the blind, insane, idiotic, or other charitable institution, or a penitentiary, jail, house of refuge or reformation, or other place of punishment be visited, you must number each building or buildings in their regular order, and write in perpendicular column No. 1, the nature of such institution, and in column 14, opposite the name of each inmate, you must state the character of the infirmity or misfortune, in the one case, and in the other the nature of the crime for which each inmate is confined and of which the party stands convicted, and in the column with the name give the year when convicted.

The remaining columns, respecting age, sex, color, etc., you must fill with as much care as in other cases. The prison records of these institutions will generally supply the facts required, and, where they do, may be relied on.

The foregoing schedule will serve as your guide for nearly all the entries you will be required to make on the population sheet, and you are requested to study it carefully.

Back to the 1860 Census Enumeration

Back to the Issaquena Genealogy and History Project

Entire Contents Copyright © 2005 Bob Franks.
Some of the photographs on this page are courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division