Two Fathers of Confederation by Edith McWilliam MacAllister for the North Shore Leader, 1967
Hon. Peter Mitchell

The Miramichi is one of the few areas in Canada of comparable size and population which can boast of two Fathers of Confederation. Of these one, Peter Mitchell, was born in Newcastle. Mitchell, who was Premier of the Province of New Brunswick at the time of the union of his province, Nova Scotia, Upper Canada and Lower Canada in 1867, was a leading force in bringing New Brunswick into Confederation. In fact, it was Mitchell's oratory and perseverance which brought the province into the union and set the example for the other provinces to follow.


Mitchell was an abler man than Leonard Tilley, but historians have never given Mitchell the credit he deserves in luring New Brunswick into union. Tilley's gentle manners and his reputation as a teetotaller endeared him to the electorate of that day. However, his pro-union government was defeated in 1865 and he would not risk another such set-back, afraid of what such a blow would do to him personally. Thus Mitchell was forced to take over as head of the party and persuade the voters that union would be a good thing.


In this Mitchell was ably assisted by John M. Johnson, Northumberland County's other Father of Confederation and these two eloquent speakers became known as the "The Northumberland County Smashers." The result was the return of the Confederation party and Mitchell became Premier.


Born of the same sturdy stock as those Scots brought to the Miramichi Valley by William Davidson, the original grantee of the region, Mitchell was a typical product of his time and his environment. His ancestry, as well as the times, bred in him qualities of stubbornness, verve and a certain "dash" and directness unhampered by servile deference for the "higher classes". Naturally his appeal to the common people was immense. He was a strong and resolute character and a force in any place he happened to be.


Mitchell never hesitated to speak his mind to Sir John A. MacDonald and the two quarrelled more than once. He was a delegate from New Brunswick to the Quebec and London Conferences and supported Cartier against MacDonald in securing a federal rather than a legislative union. It was with reluctance that Sir John called him to the Senate when the first federal cabinet was formed. Only two portfolios were left, neither very important, and Mitchell chose that of Marine and Fisheries.


To his great credit, he organized and administered the new department on bold lines, established lighthouses and other navigation aids and set up the first fisheries protection fleet. The encroachments of both the United States and Great Britain on the east coast fisheries of Canada were curbed by the new minister and the department quickly won a prestige which it has never lost.


Mitchell was not a party man but his leanings were Liberal, tending always towards reform. He classed himself as an Independent Liberal. He was never admitted to the inner councils of the MacDonald cabinet and thus escaped the odium of the Pacific Scandal.


MacDonald treated Mitchell in a shoddy and hostile manner that showed the pettiness in MacDonald's character. He saw that Mitchell never got the chance to become a serious rival for the Prime Ministership. There was no man in the 1867 cabinet whom MacDonald had to fear except Mitchell.


Native of Newcastle

Peter Mitchell was born in Newcastle on January 4th, 1824, the son of Peter Mitchell and Barbara Grant, who came to the Miramichi from Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1818. Peter Sr. was a hotel and tavern keeper. Peter Jr. attended the local Grammar School, studied law and was called to the Bar in 1848. He and John M. Johnson formed a legal partnership and both became active in the politics of the province.


Mitchell, who made his first political speech at the age of seventeen, was popular and friendly, with a ready tongue and a quick wit. Elected first to the New Brunswick Legislature in 1856 (after an unsuccessful bid for election in 1852) he soon stood out as leader. He became a member of the government in 1858 and was an early advocate of the union of the British North American colonies, speaking in favor as early as 1862, when the suggestion was rare.


In 1861 Mitchell was appointed to the Legislative Council and held this office until Confederation. The proposed union scheme was first tested at the polls in New Brunswick in 1865 and Tilley's government went down to defeat. After a massive effort to inform and educate the electorate, the Confederation party under Mitchell was successful 14 months after the defeat. He and Johnson were said to have turned the tide.


The Intercolonial

One of the conditions of union was the building of the Intercolonial Railway and its route was a matter of prime concern to all the Maritime Provinces. Mitchell favored the route along the east coast and the Bay of Chaleur, which would pass through Newcastle. Tilley wanted the railroad to follow the St. John River route. Sanford Fleming, railway engineer in charge recommended the east coast route and the people of Northumberland County have always felt his decision was due, at least in part, to Mitchell's forceful representations. The proximity of the St. John route to the United States was also a factor as the line along the coast was not so vulnerable to attack.


In 1874 Mitchell left the Senate and was elected to the House of Commons. He was defeated in 1878 by J. B. Snowball, then sat again in the House from 1882 to 1891. He last ran for election in 1896 and met his final defeat. This time James Robinson was the victor.


This catalogue of dates gives a poor idea of the stormy career of this restless, fighting Father of Confederation. He was impatient and stubborn and at one time held up the I.C.R. estimates for days until the Government paid a widow in Barnaby River for her cow, which had been killed by a train. A good debater, and an aggressive one, the House of Commons quickly filled when word got around the corridors that Mitchell was on his feet with "fire in his eye".


Many Interests

Besides the practice of law, Peter Mitchell engaged in shipbuilding, in partnership with John Haws and later by himself. His shipyard was located about where the road leads to the present federal government wharf in Newcastle. Mitchell Street has been named for him. His father's home on the site of the present United Church Centre burned about 1893 and there is now standing no house which Mitchell occupied while living here.


Although he was a creator and organizer Mitchell was a poor business man and his business ventures usually lost money. He sometimes had trouble launching his ships and later, when he bought The Montreal Herald it lost money too. He established a steamship line between Montreal and the Maritimes in the 1870s.


Mitchell was not in government after 1891 and lived from then on at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal. He asked for a number of appointments within the gift of the Government, but it was not until 1897 that his services were recognized and he was appointed inspector of fisheries for Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia by Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier.


Mitchell was then 73 years old and living alone in the Windsor Hotel. It was there he was found dead in his room on the morning of October 25, 1899, after suffering a seizure the previous evening. Two months before he had suffered a stroke on the steps of the Russell House in Ottawa. His body was brought to Newcastle and buried in the Mitchell family plot in St. James Churchyard. He had outlived almost all his political contemporaries.


During his years in Ottawa Mitchell was a frequent visitor to Newcastle and a room was kept for him in the home of his brother, James Mitchell. This home was removed from the site in 1955 to make way for the new St. Mary's Church on Prince William Street and was dismantled.


Mitchell's wife, whom he married in 1853, was the former Isabella Carvell, a descendant of New Jersey Loyalists and a widow of James Gough, a Saint John policeman, who died from injuries inflicted by an unknown assailant in that city in 1847. She died in Toronto in 1889 where her son, Jacob Carvell Gough was living. The only child of Peter and Isabella Mitchell was a daughter Blanche, who was a patient in the Provincial Hospital in Saint John for many years before her death in 1944.


Mrs. Michael Chandler of Chatham (the former Catherine Janette Tweedie) is a great-grand niece of Hon. Mr. Mitchell. She is a granddaughter of George Watt, whose mother was Agnes Mitchell, a sister of the Father of Confederation.


Mitchell was honored at banquets, picnics and social gatherings by his constituents on numerous occasions and many presentations were made to him. One of them was the ornate silver epergne now in the Newcastle Town Hall.


In the 68 years since his death neither the Town of Newcastle nor the County of Northumberland has seen fit to erect a monument to him. His simple epitaph is a few lines on the Mitchell family monument. In 1941 a plaque was placed on the Post Office by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada and after Lord Beaverbrook became owner of The Square a fine stone monument was erected there to his memory by the Historic Monuments Board.


Peter Mitchell's services to his country, particularly in the Department of Fisheries, cannot be too highly spoken of. It was in his political career that his genius came to flower and his influence on the tide of affairs in Canada's early years was of the greatest importance. The service of this valiant but stormy statesman, which becomes more significant with every passing year, deserves a lasting remembrance in the hearts and minds of the people of his native county.


In the words of the Miramichi poet, Michael Whelan

Gigantic work had Mitchell done
But others reaped the rich reward.
And wore the laurels he had won.


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Hon. John M. Johnson

John Mercer Johnson of Chatham was a Father of Confederation in every sense of the word. He aattended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference in December 1866. He was the only New Brunswicker besides Sir Leonard Tilley to attend all three conferences.


One school of thought says that the true Fathers of Confederation are the sixteen men who attended the London Conference and formulated the British North America Act. The Miramichi area was well represented in the persons of Newcastle's Peter Mitchell and Chatham's John M. Johnson.


Representatives were present from the Charter provinces - Ontario and Quebec (formerly Upper and Lower Canada) and New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.


It was at London's Westminster Palace Hotel that the seventy-two resolutions were fashioned into what became the British North America Act, officially proclaimed on July 1, 1867.


Peter Mitchell, just a few months earlier, had led the Confederation Party to victory and had become the Premier of New Brunswick. He and John M. Johnson had been advocates of Confederation for many years and with their fiery oratory and forceful personalities, had been instrumental in determining the course of New Brunswick's history.


John M. Johnson's career in politics had been an illustrious one. First elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1850, at the age of 32, he was a member of the first Liberal Cabinet in the province's history. He held the portfolio of Solicitor General, Postmaster General, Speaker of the House and Attorney General. The only time he was defeated was in 1865, when the Anti-Confederation party came to power for a term that lasted approximately one year.


Picture Johnson: strong, dominant, a forceful and polished speaker; mentally and physically robust. He was a hard worker and a man of the times.


Such a strong supporter of confederation was he that after the Union became official on July 1, 1867 he resigned his seat in the Legislature and ran for the federal seat, defeating Conservative Thomas Gillespie, a Foundry owner. Johnson had become Northumberland County's first member of Parliament. Along with Peter Mitchell in the Senate, he helped to start Canada on its way.


John M. Johnson was well fitted for this position, with his experience in the legal profession and his sixteen-year career in the Legislature. He had more than ordinary intellect and his quickness of repartee and punmaking ability made him conspicuous in parliament.


Gifted and Versatile

He was a highly gifted gentleman. He had a bent for poetry and one of his religious poems entitled "Crucifixion Day" is in the possession of one of his great grandsons, Leonard Johnson of Chatham.


Johnson was also a fancy skater. In London during the winter of 1867 the Thames froze over and it is said that he dazzled the spectators with his skating ability.


Another interest far removed from poetry and skating was his involvement with the Chatham Rifles which he helped organize and in which he served as a captain.


Back in Chatham in May, Mr. Johnson and Mr. Mitchell were tendered a banquet. The address was given by William Wilkinson who was Johnson's law partner at this time and later a judge who lived in the stately home in Bushville, which is now the Miramichi Golf and Country Club. William Muirhead was one of the speakers at the banquet.


His Early Life

Born in Liverpool, England in 1819, Johnson was brought to Chatham in 1821 to join his parents who had emigrated here. The community was becoming prosperous due to the efforts of Chatham's founder Francis Peabody and of Joseph Cunard, who came in 1820. John M. Johnson Sr. became prominent, holding such offices as Magistrate, Coroner, and High Sheriff of Northumberland County.


John M. Johnson Jr. attended the Northumberland County Grammar School and then studied law at the office of John A. Street, Newcastle. Admitted to the Bar in 1840, he entered into partnership with C. A. Harding of Newcastle. Each had his office in his own home town.


In 1847 he went into a similar partnership with Peter Mitchell which lasted five years. It was during this period that the "Northumberland County Smashers" got deeply interested in politics. Johnson was first elected in 1859 and Mitchell in 1856.


In 1840 Johnson married Henrietta Shirreff, daughter of A.D. Shirreff, High Sheriff of Northumberland County. They had 12 children, six of whom grew up. The Johnson home was located where the parking lot of St. Michael's Church is now.


Charles Whitty of Chatham remembers that the Johnson house stood on a bluff. In the early part of the century the Whitty family rented the house for sixteen years from the Bishop of Chatham and five of the Whitty children were born there.


"The house was surrounded by acacia trees, rose bushes and lilacs. There were English cherries, red plums and even a grapevine. The gardens were lovely and there was an apple orchard.


"The house, which was torn down in the 1920s, had large verandahs around it. The front door was of heavy oak framed by ornate glass panels above and at each side. There was a well house on the south side and I can remember people stopping for a nice cold drink of water. If you look closely you can see an indent in the pavement where the well was located," Mr. Whitty said.


An Untimely Death

John Mercer Johnson was not destined to write any more on the pages of Canadian history. Shortly after his election to the House of Commons his health began to fail. He died in Chatham on November 8, 1868 at the age of 50. He is buried at St. Paul's Anglican Churchyard, Chatham Head.


His obituary reads, in part, "New Brunswick has lost one of her most accomplished men and Northumberland County one of its brightest ornaments. When the plan for confederating these provinces was first publicly agitated he was one of its warmest supporters. He was one of the delegates that perfected the scheme in England and was soon after elected as Northumberland's first representative to the House of Commons."