Text by Craig Walsh
The original parish boundaries in New Brunswick were established by the new province's first General Assembly, which commenced meeting on 3 January 1786. The act (26 Geo. III, c. 1) was entitled An Act for the better ascertaining and confirming the Boundaries of the several Counties within this Province, and for subdividing them into Towns or Parishes. The boundaries of Saint Patrick Parish were given as follows:
The fourth Town or Parish to be called, known and distinguished by the name of Saint Patrick, bounded westerly by the said Town of Saint Andrews, northerly by the southerly line of the Cape Ann Association, and the continuation thereof until it meets the line bounding the surveys, allotments and grants, on the western side the Maggaugaudavick, to the rear or westward, easterly by the continuation of the last described line, following its several courses until it meets the bay of Passamaquoddy, there forming the western bounds of Land granted Philip Bailey and others, southerly by the shores of Passamaquoddy Bay, from the last bounds to the eastern bounds of said Town of Saint Andrews, including all the Islands within two miles of the shore in this extent. (Berton, p. 5)The boundaries of Saint Andrews are needed to fully describe the western boundary. Saint Andrews was bounded:
. . . southerly by the shores of Passamaquoddy Bay, to the division line between Lot number twenty and Lands reserved for a Glebe, Minister and School, including Champcook [sic] Island, easterly by a line running from the rear line of said Lot number twenty, to the southerly line of the Cape Ann Association, the said line dividing in its extent two ranges of Lots laid out in the back location, and northerly by a part of the southerly line of Cape Ann Association. (Berton, pp. 4-5)1814: Extension to the Northern County Line
In 1814 the boundaries of Saint Patrick and Saint George Parishes were extended north to the County line by An Act to enlarge the limits of the Parishes of Saint Patrick and Saint George, in the County of Charlotte (54 Geo. III, c. 15) which was passed 7 March 1814. It states:
I. BE it enacted by the President, Council and Assembly, That all that tract of Land in the County of Charlotte, lying Westward of the prolongation of the Westerly line of the Parish of Saint George, to the Northerly line of the County, and bounded Northerly by the said Northerly line of the County, Westerly by the Easterly line of the Parish of Saint David, and its prolongation to the said County line; and Southwardly by the line as described in the original formation of the Parish of Saint Patrick, be, and the same is hereby annexed to, and made a part and parcel of the said Parish of Saint Patrick. (Berton, p. 215)It is necessary to refer to the boundaries of Saint David, as established by the original Act of 1786, to complete the description of the extension:
the second Town or Parish to be called, known and distinguished by the name of Saint David, bounded westerly by the said Town of Saint Stephen, and the westerly lines of a grant to the Cape Ann Association, northerly and easterly by the lines of said grant, and the back line of the Lots laid out on the east side of Oak Point Bay, and the continuation of that line 'till it meets the southerly line of the Cape Ann Association, . . . (Berton, p. 4)1856: Separation of Dumbarton
In 1856, the Parish of Dumbarton was created by separating
the 1814 extension from Saint Patrick. The act (19 Vict., c. 25) was passed
April 12 and came into effect September 1:
|An Act to erect the upper part of the Parish of Saint
Patrick, in the County of Charlotte, into a separate
Town or Parish.
Passed 12th April 1856.BE it enacted by the Lieutenant Governor, Legislative
Council, and Assembly, as follows :-
1. All that part of the Parish of Saint Patrick,
2. The said Town or Parish shall have the same privileges,
3. This Act shall not come into operation or be in
The population of the original Saint Patrick had been 2263 in the 1851 census. The 1861 census, which was the first one after the division, showed populations of 1461 and 938 for the reduced Saint Patrick and the new Dumbarton respectively, for a total of 2399.
The present-day boundaries of Saint Patrick Parish are defined by Section 19(m) of the Territorial Division Act (Chapter T-3, Revised Statutes of New Brunswick, 1973) as follows:
(m) SAINT PATRICK PARISH.- West and northwest by Saint Andrews Parish and Saint Croix Parish; east by the west line of the grant to Philip Bailey and others, and its northerly prolongation; north by a line commencing at the most southern angle of lot number five, granted to John Gilman, on the southwestern side of Digdequash [sic] River; thence northeasterly along the southeasterly line of said lot to the Digdequash [sic] River; thence down stream along the same to the lower line of the lot granted to John Campbell; thence along the same easterly to the rear thereof; thence northerly along the rear of the said last mentioned lot to meet the westerly prolongation of the line dividing the lots ten and eleven in the Clarence Hill grant plan, and thence easterly along the said line dividing the lots number ten and number eleven to the eastern boundary of the parish; and south by Passamaquoddy bay, including all the islands west of the east line of the said parish within two miles of the shore.Note the incorrect spelling of Digdeguash. The mistake first appeared in an 1896 revision of the act (59 Vict., c. 8) and has been repeated in every single edition of the Revised Statutes (1903, 1927, 1952, and 1973). The Saint Patrick entry in the 1952 Revised Statutes is identical to the 1973 edition except for the use of hyphens and the omission of the words "grant plan" after "Clarence Hill".
To fully describe the boundaries, one also needs the boundaries of Saint Andrews Parish and Saint Croix Parish:
(h) SAINT ANDREWS PARISH.- North by Saint Croix Parish and a direct line from the Southeast angle of Lot Number 11 granted to James Greenlaw to the most Western angle of Lot Number 20 granted to Francis Welsh; west by the St. Croix River south by Passamaquoddy Bay, and east by the west line of lot number twenty, granted to F. Welsh, including Ministers and Navy Islands.The relevant part of the boundary of Saint Croix Parish is unfortunately much more complex:
(i) SAINT CROIX PARISH.- East and South by a line beginning at the most Northern angle of a four hundred and eighty-eight acre lot, granted to Daniel Hill, on Waweig River; thence Southeasterly, along the Northeastern limit of said lot, to the Western angle of Lot No. 3, granted to James McFarlane; thence Northeasterly, along the Northwestern limit of Lot No. 3, to the Northern angle of same; [From this point on, the line is dividing St. Patrick from St. Croix] thence Southeasterly, along the Northeastern limit of Lots Numbered 3, 2, 1 and 12 and of Lot No. 13, granted to John H. Armstrong, to the Eastern angle of Lot No. 13; thence Southwesterly, along the Southeastern limit of Lot No. 13, to the Northeastern limit of the grant to William Reading; thence Southeasterly, along the Northeastern limit of the grant to William Reading to the Eastern angle of same; thence Southwesterly, along the Southeastern limit of the grant to William Reading, to the Northeastern limit of the grant to Rachael Mowat; thence Southeasterly, along said Northeastern limit to the Eastern angle of same; thence Southwesterly, along the Southeastern limit of lot granted to Rachael Mowat and of Lots Numbered 9, 8, 7, 6 and 5 to the Northeastern limit of Lot No. 4 granted to Maxwell Lawry; thence Southeasterly along said Northeastern limit of Lot No. 4, to the Eastern angle of same; thence Southwesterly along the Southeastern limit of Lots Numbered 4, 3 and 2 to the Southern angle of Lot 2, granted to Lauchlan Doon; thence Northwesterly along the Southwestern limit of Lot No. 2 to the Southeastern limit of Lot No. 28, granted to Moses J. Greenlaw; thence Southwesterly, along the Southeastern limit of Lot No. 28 to the Northeastern angle of Lot 29, granted to Jesse C. Bartlett; thence Southerly, along the Eastern limit of lot 29, to the Northwestern angle of Lot No. 45, granted to Jesse C. Bartlett; thence Easterly along the Northern limit of Lot 45 to the Northeastern angle of same; thence Southerly, along the Eastern limit of Lot 45, to the Northern limit of the hundred acre lot granted to Andrew Dougherty;The remainder of the Saint Croix boundaries do not concern Saint Patrick.
thence Easterly, along the said Northern limit to the Western bank or shore of Bonaparte Lake; thence Southerly, along said bank or shore, to meet the Northerly prolongation of the Eastern limit of Lot No. 4 granted to Leonard Bartlett; thence Southerly along said prolongation and said limit to the Northern limit of Lot No. 3 granted to Thomas Sime; thence Westerly along said Northern limit to the Northwestern angle of Lot No. 3; thence Southerly, along the Western limit of Lots Numbered 3, 2 and 1 to the Southeastern angle of Lot No. 11 granted to James Greenlaw; . . .
The above Acts show that Saint Patrick has always included "all islands west of the east line of the said parish within two miles of the shore." It follows that MacDougalls, Long, Hog, Bird, Dicks, Hardwood and Hospital Islands are part of Saint Patrick.
At first, one might wonder about Hardwood and Hospital Islands, since Hardwood is equidistant from the shores of Saint Patrick and Saint Andrews Parishes, and Hospital is somewhat closer to Saint Andrews than to Saint Patrick. However, both are definitely within two miles of the Saint Patrick shore, and Saint Andrews was never granted any islands except Navy and Chamcook. It is also impossible for Hardwood and Hospital Islands to be part of West Isles, since that parish only consists of "Deer Island and the lesser islands contiguous to it, not included in the parishes before-mentioned."
Several other sources include Hardwood and Hospital Islands within Saint Patrick
It is clear from the above entries that the legal spelling of the parish is Saint Patrick with no abbreviated "St." and no terminal "s". This is confirmed by the entry in the Canadian Geographical Names Database and the hardcopy Gazetteer of Canada: New Brunswick. In practice, it is often abbreviated to St. Patrick but I am gradually converting this website from the abbreviated to unabbreviated version.
There is no good reason for adding a terminal "s", so "St. Patricks Parish" and "Saint Patricks Parish" should never be used unless one is quoting another document.
In contrast, the official spelling of the lake of the same name is in fact "St. Patricks Lake", with both the abbreviation and the terminal "s".